Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (11)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

EXT2 11p12-p11 SOTV -EXT2 mutations in Secondary Chondrosarcoma
EXT1 8q24.11 EXT, LGS, TTV, LGCR, TRPS2 Germline
-EXT1 mutations in Secondaty Chondrosarcoma
FTCDNL1 2q33.1 FONG -FONG and Chondrosarcoma
TAF15 17q11.1-q11.2 Npl3, RBP56, TAF2N, TAFII68 Translocation
-t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
-TAF15 and Chondrosarcoma
TFG 3q12.2 TF6, HMSNP, SPG57, TRKT3 -TFG and Chondrosarcoma
TCF12 15q21 HEB, CRS3, HTF4, bHLHb20, HsT17266 -TCF12 and Chondrosarcoma
MMP1 11q22.3 CLG, CLGN Prognostic
-MMP1 and Chondrosarcoma
TIMP2 17q25 DDC8, CSC-21K -TIMP2 Expression in Chondrosarcoma
MMP2 16q12.2 CLG4, MONA, CLG4A, MMP-2, TBE-1, MMP-II -MMP2 and Chondrosarcoma
EWSR1 22q12.2 EWS, bK984G1.4 Translocation
-t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
NR4A3 9q22 CHN, TEC, CSMF, NOR1, MINOR Translocation
-t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
-t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Recurring Structural Abnormalities

Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities

Abnormality Type Gene(s)
t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid ChondrosarcomaTranslocationEWSR1 (22q12.2)NR4A3 (9q22)
t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid ChondrosarcomaTranslocationNR4A3 (9q22)TAF15 (17q11.1-q11.2)

This is a highly selective list aiming to capture structural abnormalies which are frequesnt and/or significant in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, and/or characterising specific cancers. For a much more extensive list see the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer.

Latest Publications

Musso N, Caronia FP, Castorina S, et al.
Somatic loss of an EXT2 gene mutation during malignant progression in a patient with hereditary multiple osteochondromas.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(3):62-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an autosomal-dominant skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the exostosin-1 (EXT1) or exostosin-2 (EXT2) genes. In this study, we report the analysis of the mutational status of the EXT2 gene in tumor samples derived from a patient affected by hereditary MO, documenting the somatic loss of the germline mutation in a giant chondrosarcoma and in a rapidly growing osteochondroma. The sequencing of all exons and exon-intron junctions of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes from blood DNA of the proband did not reveal any mutation in the EXT1 gene but did demonstrate the presence of the transition point mutation c.67C > T in the EXT2 gene, determining the introduction of a stop codon in the coding sequence (p.Arg23*). A mutational analysis of other members of the family and the presence of osteochondromas in the metaphysis of long bones confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary multiple osteochondromas. Direct sequencing from DNA extracted from different sites of two tumor samples (a small rapidly growing osteochondroma and a giant peripheral secondary chondrosarcoma, each located at different chondrocostal junctions) revealed the loss of the germline EXT2 mutation. Analysis of microsatellite polymorphic markers in the 11p region harboring the EXT2 gene did not reveal any loss of heterozygosity. This observation supports a recent model of sarcomagenesis in which osteochondroma cells bear EXT homozygous inactivation, whereas chondrosarcoma-initiating cells are EXT-expressing cells.

de Andrea CE, Zhu JF, Jin H, et al.
Cell cycle deregulation and mosaic loss of Ext1 drive peripheral chondrosarcomagenesis in the mouse and reveal an intrinsic cilia deficiency.
J Pathol. 2015; 236(2):210-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral chondrosarcoma (PCS) develops as malignant transformation of an osteochondroma, a benign cartilaginous outgrowth at the bone surface. Its invasive, lobular growth despite low-grade histology suggests a loss of chondrocyte polarity. The known genetics of osteochondromagenesis include mosaic loss of EXT1 or EXT2 in both hereditary and non-hereditary cases. The most frequent genetic aberrations in human PCS also include disruptions of CDKN2A or TP53. In order to test the sufficiency of either of these to drive progression of an osteochondroma to PCS, we added conditional loss of Trp53 or Ink4a/Arf in an Ext1-driven mouse model of osteochondromagenesis. Each additional tumour suppressor silencing efficiently drove the development of growths that mimic human PCS. As in humans, lobules developed from both Ext1-null and Ext1-functional clones within osteochondromas. Assessment of their orientation revealed an absence of primary cilia in the majority of mouse PCS chondrocytes, which was corroborated in human PCSs. Loss of primary cilia may be responsible for the lost polarity phenotype ascribed to PCS. Cilia deficiency blocks proliferation in physeal chondrocytes, but cell cycle deregulation is sufficient to rescue chondrocyte proliferation following deciliation. This provides a basis of selective pressure for the frequent cell-cycle regulator silencing observed in peripheral chondrosarcomagenesis. Mosaic loss of Ext1 combined with loss of cell cycle regulators promotes peripheral chondrosarcomagenesis in the mouse and reveals deficient ciliogenesis in both the model and the human disease, explaining biological behaviour including lobular and invasive growth.

Lu N, Lin T, Wang L, et al.
Association of SOX4 regulated by tumor suppressor miR-30a with poor prognosis in low-grade chondrosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3843-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sex-determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4), a transcription factor, is involved in various developmental processes. It has been reported in multiple human cancers. However, the prognostic value and its exact role in chondrosarcoma remain poorly understood. In the current study, SOX4 was overexpressed in 28 of 92 (30.4 %) interpretable chondrosarcoma patients compared with 3 of 43 (6.9 %) interpretable chondroma cases (P = 0.003). Its overexpression in chondrosarcoma was significantly associated with histological grade (P < 0.001) and the presence of tumor recurrence (P = 0.041). In addition, SOX4 overexpression was notably correlated with c-MYC (P = 0.011) and P53 (P = 0.029) expression as well as high Ki67 labeling index (LI) (P < 0.001) in our cohort. More importantly, we found that SOX4 was an unfavorable independent prognostic factor for chondrosarcoma patients with low histological grade. Functionally, SOX4 silencing significantly suppressed the proliferation, migratory, and invasive capacity of SW1353 cells, suggesting an oncogenic role of SOX4 in chondrosarcoma in vitro. In an attempt of characterizing SOX4 overexpression mechanism, we identified miR-30a as a tumor suppressor that directly targets SOX4 in chondrosarcoma cells. Clinically, miR-30a expression was negatively correlated with SOX4 expression in chondrosarcoma cases. In all, we identified that SOX4 was oncogenic in chondrosarcoma and negatively regulated by miR-30a in vitro. Importantly, SOX4 overexpression may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with low-histological-grade chondrosarcoma.

Amary MF, Ye H, Forbes G, et al.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations (IDH1) and p16/CDKN2A copy number change in conventional chondrosarcomas.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(2):217-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To determine whether IDH1 mutations are present in primary and relapsed (local and distal) conventional central chondrosarcomas; and secondly, to assess if loss of p16/CDKN2A is associated with tumour grade progression, 102 tumour samples from 37 patients, including material from presenting and relapse events, were assessed. All wild-type cases for IDH1 R132 substitutions were also tested for IDH2 R172 and R140 alterations. The primary tumour and the most recent relapse sample were tested for p16/CDKN2A by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation. An additional 120 central cartilaginous tumours from different patients were also tested for p16/CDKN2A copy number. The study shows that if an IDH1 mutation were detected in a primary central chondrosarcoma, it is always detected at the time of presentation, and the same mutation is detected in local recurrences and metastatic events. We show that p16/CDKN2A copy number variation occurs subsequent to the IDH1 mutation, and confirm that p16/CDKN2A copy number variation occurs in 75% of high grade central chondrosarcomas, and not in low grade cartilaginous tumours. Finally, p16/CDKN2A copy number variation is seen in both the IDH1 wild-type and mutant cartilaginous central tumours.

Broehm CJ, Wu J, Gullapalli RR, Bocklage T
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2) resulting in a NR4A3-FUS fusion.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(6):276-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by rearrangement of NR4A3. A t(9;22)(q22;q12), creating a fusion protein of EWSR1 and NR4A3, has been reported as a unique, recurring translocation in most cases. Reported variant translocations have resulted in fusion of NR4A3 with three other genes: TAF15, TCF12, and TFG. We report a case of EMC in a 59-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of an enlarging mass in the proximal right thigh. The karyotype of fresh tissue from tumor taken at incisional biopsy revealed a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2). There was no evidence of an EWSR1 rearrangement by dual-color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Dual-color FISH probes revealed fusion of NR4A3 and FUS, a member of the TET family of genes, which includes EWSR1 and TAF15. Break-apart FISH probe results confirmed rearrangement of FUS. These findings show that a fusion product of FUS and NR4A3 may be an additional pathway to development of EMC.

Wei S, Siegal GP
Round cell tumors of bone: an update on recent molecular genetic advances.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2014; 21(5):359-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Round cell tumors of bone are a divergent group of neoplasms that largely constitute Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, small cell osteosarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, mensenchymal chondrosarcoma, and hematopoietic malignancies including lymphoma and plasmacytoma/myeloma, along with metastatic round cell tumors including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and small cell carcinoma. These lesions share many histomorphologic similarities and often demonstrate overlapping clinical and radiologic characteristics, but typically have a diverse clinical outcome, thus warranting differing therapeutic modalities/regimens. Recent advances in molecular and cytogenetic techniques have identified a number of additional novel entities, including round cell sarcomas harboring CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusions, respectively. These novel findings have not only enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of round cell tumors, but also allowed us to reclassify some entities with potential therapeutic and prognostic significance. This article provides an overview focusing on recent molecular genetic advances in primary, nonhematologic round cell tumors of bone.

Totoki Y, Yoshida A, Hosoda F, et al.
Unique mutation portraits and frequent COL2A1 gene alteration in chondrosarcoma.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(9):1411-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequent malignant bone tumor. However, the etiological background of chondrosarcomagenesis remains largely unknown, along with details on molecular alterations and potential therapeutic targets. Massively parallel paired-end sequencing of whole genomes of 10 primary chondrosarcomas revealed that the process of accumulation of somatic mutations is homogeneous irrespective of the pathological subtype or the presence of IDH1 mutations, is unique among a range of cancer types, and shares significant commonalities with that of prostate cancer. Clusters of structural alterations localized within a single chromosome were observed in four cases. Combined with targeted resequencing of additional cartilaginous tumor cohorts, we identified somatic alterations of the COL2A1 gene, which encodes an essential extracellular matrix protein in chondroskeletal development, in 19.3% of chondrosarcoma and 31.7% of enchondroma cases. Epigenetic regulators (IDH1 and YEATS2) and an activin/BMP signal component (ACVR2A) were recurrently altered. Furthermore, a novel FN1-ACVR2A fusion transcript was observed in both chondrosarcoma and osteochondromatosis cases. With the characteristic accumulative process of somatic changes as a background, molecular defects in chondrogenesis and aberrant epigenetic control are primarily causative of both benign and malignant cartilaginous tumors.

Azzi G, Velez M, Mathias-Machado MC
Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in chondrosarcoma: the crossroads between cellular metabolism and oncogenesis.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2014; 26(4):403-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the most recent developments and implications in regard to isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in chondrosarcoma, a disease in which currently available systemic therapies have proven inefficacious, with an emphasis on how disruption in normal cellular metabolism plays a role in oncogenesis.
RECENT FINDINGS: The development of acquired isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 mutations has been described in multiple tumors and more recently in chondrosarcomas. The impact of these mutations has been the focus of multiple research efforts during the last years, allowing us to better understand the impact of the mutation, including its interaction with other proteins, changes in expression of genes involved in tumor genesis, the oncogenic potential of 2-hydroxyglutarate, the impact on cellular proliferation and differentiation, and the influence on the epigenetic state of cells owing to changes in DNA and histone methylation patterns. New compounds targeting the mutation have been developed.
SUMMARY: This mutation is the first of its kind described in chondrosarcoma, serving as an identifying marker of chondroid differentiation, and becoming the first molecular target with potential anticancer effect, translating into the development of therapies targeting these mutations currently being tested further in preclinical models and clinical trials.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Bjerkehagen B, et al.
Chromosome aberrations and HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene in a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):40-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are fast-growing tumors that account for 2-10% of primary chondrosarcomas. Cytogenetic information is restricted to 12 cases that did not show a specific aberration pattern. Recently, two fusion genes were described in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas: a recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 found in tumors that had not been cytogenetically characterized and an IRF2BP2-CDX1 found in a tumor carrying a t(1;5)(q42;q32) translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality. Here, we present the cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in which the patient had two histologically indistinguishable tumor lesions, one in the neck and one in the thigh. An abnormal clone with the G-banding karyotype 46,XX,add(6)(q23),add(8)(p23),del(10)(p11),+12,-15[6] was found in the neck tumor whereas a normal karyotype, 46,XX, was found in the tumor of the thigh. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing showed that exon 4 of HEY1 was fused to exon 13 of NCOA2 in the sample from the thigh lesion; we did not have spare material to perform a similar analysis of the neck tumor. Examining the published karyotypes we observed numerical or structural aberrations of chromosome 8 in the majority of the karyotyped mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. Chromosome 8 was also structurally affected in the present study. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind this nonrandom involvement are unknown, but the presence on 8q of two genes, HEY1 and NCOA2, now known to be involved in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma tumorigenesis is, of course, suggestive.

Hua G, Liu Y, Li X, et al.
Targeting glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin through the inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-A.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2727-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage-forming cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have very limited efficacy in patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. In the present study, we reported a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of chondrosarcoma cells. We detected that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) is highly active in chondrosarcoma cells and chondrosarcoma patient samples compared with normal chondrocyte cell lines and primary human chondrocyte. Moreover, chondrosarcoma cells exhibited elevated levels of LDHA expression under doxorubicin treatment. To further explore the mechanisms, we generated doxorubicin-resistant cells from SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line. Notably, the activity and expression of LDHA are upregulated in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Moreover, our data showed a strong correlation between glucose metabolism and doxorubicin resistance in chondrosarcoma cells; doxorubicin-resistant cells displayed highly activated glucose metabolism and depended more on glucose supply. Finally, we reported a synergistic effect produced by incorporating doxorubicin with glycolysis inhibitors-oxamate in the combined treatment of chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, the present study may aid in the development of new approaches using the combination of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of chondrosarcoma patients.

Song YD, Zhang KF, Liu D, et al.
Inhibition of EGFR-induced glucose metabolism sensitizes chondrosarcoma cells to cisplatin.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):7017-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-forming tumors which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. By searching in Oncomine which is a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform, we found Glut1 and LDHA were upregulated in human chondrosarcoma patient samples. In this study, we reported total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and phosphorylated EGFR were highly activated in human chondrosarcoma cell lines. In addition, overexpression of EGFR contributed to cisplatin resistance. EGFR promoted glucose metabolism of chondrosarcoma cells through the upregulation of glycolysis key enzymes. Interestingly, cisplatin-resistant chondrosarcoma cells showed upregulated glucose metabolism and EGFR signaling pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that the combination of either EGFR inhibitor or anaerobic glycolysis inhibitor with cisplatin showed synergistically inhibitory effects on cisplatin-resistant chondrosarcoma cells through the inducements of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our project proposed a novel function of EGFR in the regulation of glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells and contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of chondrosarcoma patient.

Agaram NP, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with non-EWSR1-NR4A3 variant fusions correlate with rhabdoid phenotype and high-grade morphology.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(5):1084-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC) are rare soft tissue sarcomas with distinctive histology and uncertain histogenesis, characterized by Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3 (EWSR1-NR4A3) fusion in 75% of the cases. A smaller proportion of cases show NR4A3 fused to other gene partners including TATA binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15), transcription factor 12 (TCF12), and TRK-fused gene (TFG). The impact of various gene fusions on morphology and outcome has not been previously evaluated. We investigated 26 consecutive EMCs and correlated the genetic findings with morphology and clinical outcome. There were 5 females and 21 males (median age, 49.5 years). Mean size of the tumors was 11 cm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion in 16 cases (62%), TAF15-NR4A3 gene fusion in 7 cases (27%), and TCF12-NR4A3 gene fusion in 1 case (4%). Two cases showed only NR4A3 gene rearrangements. Morphologically, most EWSR1-rearranged tumors (10/16) showed low cellularity, minimal cytologic atypia, and low mitotic counts. In contrast, 80% of EMCs with variant (non-EWSR1) NR4A3 gene fusions (TAF15, TCF12) had high-grade morphology with increased cellularity, proliferation, and cytologic atypia, showing a plasmacytoid/rhabdoid morphology in half the cases. Follow-up showed that only 1 of 16 patients with EWSR1-rearranged tumors died of disease, in contrast to 3 (43%) of 7 TAF15-rearranged tumors. In conclusion, EMCs with variant NR4A3 gene fusions show a higher incidence of rhabdoid phenotype, high-grade morphology, and a more aggressive outcome compared with the EWSR1-NR4A3 positive tumors. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for NR4A3, along with EWSR1, may be an additional ancillary test to confirm diagnosis of EMCs.

Samuel AM, Costa J, Lindskog DM
Genetic alterations in chondrosarcomas - keys to targeted therapies?
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(2):95-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chondrosarcomas are malignant tumors of chondrocytes and represent the second most common type of primary bone tumors. Within the context of normal chondrogenesis, this review summarizes results from recent research outlining the key molecular changes that occur during the development of this sarcoma type.
RESULTS: Current data support the notion that a two-hit scenario, common to many tumors, also underlies chondrosarcoma formation. First, early-stage mutations alter the normal proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, thereby predisposing them to malignant transformation. These early-stage mutations, found in both benign cartilaginous lesions and chondrosarcomas, include alterations affecting the IHH/PTHrP and IDH1/IDH2 pathways. As they are not observed in malignant cells, mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes are considered early-stage events providing an environment that alters IHH/PTHrP signaling, thereby inducing mutations in adjacent cells. Due to normal cell cycle control that remains active, a low rate of malignant transformation is seen in benign cartilaginous lesions with early-stage mutations. In contrast, late-stage mutations, seen in most malignant chondrosarcomas, appear to induce malignant transformation as they are not found in benign cartilaginous lesions. These late-stage mutations primarily involve cell cycle pathway regulators including p53 and pRB, two genes that are also known to be implicated in numerous other human tumor types.
CONCLUSIONS: Now the key genetic alterations involved in both early and late stages of chondrosarcoma development have been identified, focus should be shifted to the identification of druggable molecular targets for the design of novel chondrosarcoma-specific therapies.

Scheil-Bertram S, Kappler R, von Baer A, et al.
Molecular profiling of chordoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1041-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular basis of chordoma is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to differentially expressed genes involved in the primary origin of chordoma. In this study, therefore, we compared the transcriptional expression profile of one sacral chordoma recurrence, two chordoma cell lines (U-CH1 and U-CH2) and one chondrosarcoma cell line (U-CS2) with vertebral disc using a high-density oligonucleotide array. The expression of 65 genes whose mRNA levels differed significantly (p<0.001; ≥6-fold change) between chordoma and control (vertebral disc) was identified. Genes with increased expression in chordoma compared to control and chondrosarcoma were most frequently located on chromosomes 2 (11%), 5 (8%), 1 and 7 (each 6%), whereas interphase cytogenetics of 33 chordomas demonstrated gains of chromosomal material most prevalent on 7q (42%), 12q (21%), 17q (21%), 20q (27%) and 22q (21%). The microarray data were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. As in other studies, we showed the expression of brachyury. We demonstrate the expression of new potential candidates for chordoma tumorigenesis, such as CD24, ECRG4, RARRES2, IGFBP2, RAP1, HAI2, RAB38, osteopontin, GalNAc-T3, VAMP8 and others. Thus, we identified and validated a set of interesting candidate genes whose differential expression likely plays a role in chordoma.

Jones KB, Pacifici M, Hilton MJ
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE): elucidating the pathogenesis of a rare skeletal disorder through interdisciplinary research.
Connect Tissue Res. 2014; 55(2):80-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abstract An interdisciplinary and international group of clinicians and scientists gathered in Philadelphia, PA, to attend the fourth International Research Conference on Multiple Hereditary Exostoses (MHE), a rare and severe skeletal disorder. MHE is largely caused by autosomal dominant mutations in EXT1 or EXT2, genes encoding Golgi-associated glycosyltransferases responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. HS chains are key constituents of cell surface- and extracellular matrix-associated proteoglycans, which are known regulators of skeletal development. MHE affected individuals are HS-deficient, can display skeletal growth retardation and deformities, and consistently develop benign, cartilage-capped bony outgrowths (termed exostoses or osteochondromas) near the growth plates of many skeletal elements. Nearly 2% of patients will have their exostoses progress to malignancy, becoming peripheral chondrosarcomas. Current treatments are limited to the surgical removal of symptomatic exostoses. No definitive treatments have been established to inhibit further formation and growth of exostoses, prevent transition to malignancy, or address other medical problems experienced by MHE patients, including chronic pain. Thus, the goals of the Conference were to assess our current understanding of MHE pathogenesis, identify key gaps in information, envision future therapeutic strategies and discuss ways to test and implement them. This report provides an assessment of the exciting and promising findings in MHE and related fields presented at the Conference and a discussion of the future MHE research directions. The Conference underlined the critical usefulness of gathering experts in several research fields to forge new alliances and identify cross-fertilization areas to benefit both basic and translational biomedical research on the skeleton.

Dotlic S, Gatalica Z, Wen W, et al.
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the vulva with PLAG1 gene activation: molecular genetic characterization of 2 cases.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(7):537-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm, rarely reported in the genitourinary tract with only 5 cases reported in the vulva. We investigated 2 cases of vulvar sarcomas whose morphologic appearance and immunohistochemical profiles were consistent with EMC using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and a whole genome expression array. FISH and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays showed no EWSR1 and NR4A3 loci rearrangements. Microarray-based analysis also revealed no changes in NR4A3 and EWSR1 gene transcription levels. Microarray data showed a significant downregulation of the muscle-related genes (eg, myosin heavy chain family, actins, myoglobin, desmin, creatine kinase, troponins) and cytokeratins (KRT6A, 6B, 13, 14, and 78), upregulation of several neuron-specific genes [neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM-1/CD56), neurofilament (NEFH)], along with some well-characterized tumor biomarkers [carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-9), topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-7, MMP-9), CDKN2 gene (p16-INK4a), checkpoint homolog 2 (CHEK2)]. Notably, both tumors showed upregulation of the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), and in 1 case PLAG1 gene rearrangement was detected by break-apart FISH. Some vulvar tumors with morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of EMC may represent a molecular genetic entity separate from EMCs arising in other locations. PLAG1 gene activation appears to be involved in the development of these neoplasms.

Galoian KA, Guettouche T, Issac B, et al.
Regulation of onco and tumor suppressor MiRNAs by mTORC1 inhibitor PRP-1 in human chondrosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(3):2335-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic chondrosarcoma of mesenchymal origin is the second most common bone malignancy and does not respond either to chemotherapy or radiation; therefore, the search for new therapies is relevant and urgent. This study aimed to reveal the comparative analysis of miRNAs and their targets in human JJ012 chondrosarcoma cell line between control and experimental samples, treated with mTORC1 inhibitor, cytostatic antiproliferative proline-rich polypeptide (PRP-1). Examination of tumor-specific microRNA expression profiles has revealed widespread deregulation of these molecules in diverse cancers. It was reported that microRNAs can function as novel biomarkers for disease diagnostics and therapy, as well as a novel class of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. mTORC 1 inhibitor PRP-1 caused significant upregulation of tumor suppressors, such as miR20a, miR125b, and miR192; and downregulation of onco miRNAs, miR509-3p, miR589, miR490-3p, miR 550 in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line.

Liang W, Li X, Li Y, et al.
Gallic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits cell migration by upregulating miR-518b in SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(1):91-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallic acid (GA), a natural agent, is widely distri-buted in plants with a range of biological effects and has been of potential interest as anticancer agent. However, its effects on chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis are still undefined. In the present study, the possible mechanisms of GA-induced apoptosis were explored in SW1353 cells, a human chondrosarcoma cell line. Our results showed that GA inhibited cell viability dose- and time-dependently. Morphological examination of GA-treated cells exhibited the typical features of cell death, such as rounding up of the cells and cell shrinkage. Wound-healing assay indicated that GA inhibited the migratory abilities of SW1353 cells. Hoechst 33258 staining assay and Annexin V/PI staining assay exhibited apoptosis induction by GA. To determine the molecular mechanism of GA-induced apoptosis, the expression levels Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were determined in SW1353 cells treated with GA. We found that GA downregulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. To identify the possible mechanisms, the changes of microRNA expression were tested using the miRCURY™ LNA expression array. It was observed that the miR-518b gene was upregulated in treated cells. Taken together, these data show that GA induces apoptosis and inhibits cell migration by upregulating miR-518b in SW1353 cells.

Lim B, Kim AY, Jun HJ, Kim J
A TFG-TEC nuclear localization mutant forms complexes with the wild-type TFG-TEC oncoprotein and suppresses its activity.
Biochem J. 2013; 456(3):361-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human EMCs (extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas) are soft tissue tumours characterized by specific chromosomal abnormalities. Recently, a proportion of EMCs were found to harbour a characteristic translocation, t(3;9)(q11-12;q22), involving the TFG (TRK-fused gene) at 3q11-12 and the TEC (translocated in extraskeletal chondrosarcoma) gene at 9q22. The present study used both in vitro and in vivo systems to show that the TFG-TEC protein self-associates, and that this is dependent upon the CC (coiled-coil) domain (amino acids 97-124), the AF1 (activation function 1) domain (amino acids 275-562) and the DBD (DNA-binding domain) (amino acids 563-655). The TFG-TEC protein also associated with a mutant NLS-TFG-TEC (AAAA) protein, which harbours mutations in the NLS (nuclear localization signal). Subcellular localization assays showed that the NLS mutant TFG-TEC (AAAA) protein interfered with the nuclear localization of wild-type TFG-TEC. Most importantly, the mutant protein inhibited TFG-TEC-mediated transcriptional activation in vivo. Thus mutations in the TFG-TEC NLS yield a dominant-negative protein. These results show that the biological functions of the TFG-TEC oncogene can be modulated by a dominant-negative mutant.

Lu C, Venneti S, Akalin A, et al.
Induction of sarcomas by mutant IDH2.
Genes Dev. 2013; 27(18):1986-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 50% of patients with chondrosarcomas exhibit gain-of-function mutations in either isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or IDH2. In this study, we performed genome-wide CpG methylation sequencing of chondrosarcoma biopsies and found that IDH mutations were associated with DNA hypermethylation at CpG islands but not other genomic regions. Regions of CpG island hypermethylation were enriched for genes implicated in stem cell maintenance/differentiation and lineage specification. In murine 10T1/2 mesenchymal progenitor cells, expression of mutant IDH2 led to DNA hypermethylation and an impairment in differentiation that could be reversed by treatment with DNA-hypomethylating agents. Introduction of mutant IDH2 also induced loss of contact inhibition and generated undifferentiated sarcomas in vivo. The oncogenic potential of mutant IDH2 correlated with the ability to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate. Together, these data demonstrate that neomorphic IDH2 mutations can be oncogenic in mesenchymal cells.

Yoshitaka T, Kawai A, Miyaki S, et al.
Analysis of microRNAs expressions in chondrosarcoma.
J Orthop Res. 2013; 31(12):1992-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs capable of inhibiting gene expression post-transcriptionally and expression profiling can provide therapeutic targets and tools for cancer diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor with unknown cause and differentiation status. Here, we profiled miRNA expression of chondrosarcoma, namely clinical samples from human conventional chondrosarcoma tissue, established chondrosarcoma cell lines, and primary non-tumorous adult articular chondrocytes, by miRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR. A wide variety of miRNAs were differently downregulated in chondrosarcoma compared to non-tumorous articular chondrocytes; 27 miRNAs: miR-10b, 23b, 24-1*, 27b, 100, 134, 136, 136*, 138, 181d, 186, 193b, 221*, 222, 335, 337-5p, 376a, 376a*, 376b, 376c, 377, 454, 495, 497, 505, 574-3p, and 660, were significantly downregulated in chondrosarcoma and only 2: miR-96 and 183, were upregulated. We further validated the expression levels of miRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR for miR-181a, let-7a, 100, 222, 136, 376a, and 335 in extended number of chondrosarcoma clinical samples. Among them, all except miR-181a were found to be significantly downregulated in chondrosarcoma derived samples. The findings provide potential diagnostic value and new molecular understanding of chondrosarcoma.

Lin CY, Chen HJ, Li TM, et al.
β5 integrin up-regulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes cell motility in human chondrosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67990 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis; it has a poor prognosis and shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small-molecule protein from the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma tissues showed significant expression of BDNF, which was higher than that in normal cartilage and primary chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased the migration and expression of β5 integrin in human chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, knockdown of BDNF expression markedly inhibited migratory activity. BDNF-mediated migration and β5 integrin up-regulation were attenuated by antibody, inhibitor, or siRNA against the TrkB receptor. Pretreatment of chondrosarcoma cells with PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors or mutants also abolished BDNF-promoted migration and integrin expression. The PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway was activated after BDNF treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma by increasing β5 integrin expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis.

Tarpey PS, Behjati S, Cooke SL, et al.
Frequent mutation of the major cartilage collagen gene COL2A1 in chondrosarcoma.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(8):923-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is a heterogeneous collection of malignant bone tumors and is the second most common primary malignancy of bone after osteosarcoma. Recent work has identified frequent, recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 in nearly half of central chondrosarcomas. However, there has been little systematic genomic analysis of this tumor type, and, thus, the contribution of other genes is unclear. Here we report comprehensive genomic analyses of 49 individuals with chondrosarcoma (cases). We identified hypermutability of the major cartilage collagen gene COL2A1, with insertions, deletions and rearrangements identified in 37% of cases. The patterns of mutation were consistent with selection for variants likely to impair normal collagen biosynthesis. In addition, we identified mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 (59%), TP53 (20%), the RB1 pathway (33%) and Hedgehog signaling (18%).

Jin Z, Han YX, Han XR
Loss of RUNX3 expression may contribute to poor prognosis in patients with chondrosarcoma.
J Mol Histol. 2013; 44(6):645-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common type of bone cancer. Loss of RUNX3 expression has been demonstrated in many other cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between RUNX3 expression and chondrosarcoma. In this study, we detected RUNX3 expression in the progression of chondrosarcoma. In patient samples, the levels of RUNX3 mRNA and protein were lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Down-regulation of RUNX3 mRNA in tumor tissues was associated with an increase in RUNX3 promoter methylation. Loss of RUNX3 expression was significantly associated with more aggressive chondrosarcoma types and decreased survival time of patients. To examine the effects of exogenous expression of RUNX3 in vitro, chondrosarcoma cells were transfected with the pcDNA3.1-RUNX3 expression vector. Relative to control cells, RUNX3-expressing cells exhibited lower proliferation and higher apoptosis rates as assessed by colony formation and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that RUNX3 acts a tumor suppressor in chondrosarcoma and that RUNX3 promoter methylation may be the molecular mechanism for its decreased expression.

Kerr DA, Lopez HU, Deshpande V, et al.
Molecular distinction of chondrosarcoma from chondroblastic osteosarcoma through IDH1/2 mutations.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(6):787-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Distinguishing chondrosarcoma from chondroblastic osteosarcoma can be difficult and highly subjective, especially on a small biopsy specimen. This distinction is critical in determining the most accurate prognosis and appropriate treatment modality, as adjuvant chemotherapy with surgery is standard treatment for osteosarcoma, whereas chondrosarcoma is generally treated by surgical excision alone. Cartilaginous neoplasms have recently been shown to frequently (56%) harbor gene mutations in the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 (IDH1>IDH2), whereas other mesenchymal tumors lack these genetic aberrations. We investigated whether the presence of IDH1/2 mutations can be used to distinguish chondrosarcoma from chondroblastic osteosarcoma. Tumors including 25 predominantly high-grade chondrosarcomas and 65 osteosarcomas (44 chondroblastic osteosarcomas and 21 mixed osteosarcomas with a chondroblastic component) were evaluated, and a total of 59 cases (66%) were suitable for genotyping. Mutational analysis was performed using a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction genotyping platform to query for hotspot mutations in the genes IDH1 at codon R132. IDH1-negative cases underwent Sanger sequencing of IDH2 exon 4. No osteosarcomas (0/36) and 61% of chondrosarcomas (14/23) harbored a somatic mutation in IDH1/2, with the majority (86%) of mutations found in the IDH1 gene. IDH1/2 mutation analysis appears to be a promising biomarker for the distinction of chondrosarcoma from chondroblastic osteosarcoma. A positive result strongly favors the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma over chondroblastic osteosarcoma. The presence of IDH1/2 mutations can also help confirm the diagnosis of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma when the tumor displays osteosarcomatous differentiation.

Kyriazoglou AI, Rizou H, Dimitriadis E, et al.
Cytogenetic analysis of a low-grade secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma arising in synovial chondromatosis.
In Vivo. 2013 Jan-Feb; 27(1):57-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secondary chondrosarcoma is a malignant chondroid tumor arising in a benign precursor. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign chondroid lesion that rarely transforms to chondrosarcoma. We present the case of a 54-year-old male with the diagnosis of low-grade secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma developed in the context of synovial chondromatosis. Cytogenetics revealed a novel aberration t(1;14)(q23.1~24;q24.1~3). Multicolor banding (mBAND) analysis described the chromosomal regions involved in this translocation with a higher detail. Diagnosis of such borderline lesions is very difficult and cytogenetics is helpful in characterizing these tumors.

Nyquist KB, Panagopoulos I, Thorsen J, et al.
Whole-transcriptome sequencing identifies novel IRF2BP2-CDX1 fusion gene brought about by translocation t(1;5)(q42;q32) in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49705 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (MCs) account for 3-10% of primary chondrosarcomas. The cytogenetic literature includes only ten such tumours with karyotypic information and no specific aberrations have been identified. Using a purely molecular genetic approach a HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene was recently detected in 10 of 15 investigated MCs. The fusion probably arises through intrachromosomal rearrangement of chromosome arm 8 q. We report a new case of MC showing a t(1;5)(q42;q32) as the sole karyotypic aberration. Through FISH and whole transcriptome sequencing analysis we found a novel fusion between the IRF2BP2 gene and the transcription factor CDX1 gene arising from the translocation. The IRF2BP2-CDX1 has not formerly been described in human neoplasia. In our hospital's archives three more cases of MC were found, and we examined them looking for the supposedly more common HEY1-NCOA2 fusion, finding it in all three tumours but not in the case showing t(1;5) and IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusion. This demonstrates that genetic heterogeneity exists in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.

Forest F, David A, Arrufat S, et al.
Conventional chondrosarcoma in a survivor of rhabdoid tumor: enlarging the spectrum of tumors associated with SMARCB1 germline mutations.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2012; 36(12):1892-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
SMARCB1 germline mutations mainly predispose to rhabdoid tumors. However, less aggressive tumors with a later onset have also been reported in a context of SMARCB1 constitutional mutation-that is, schwannomatosis and meningiomatosis. No other tumor type has formally been observed in such a context thus far. We report on a patient treated for a thoracic malignant rhabdoid tumor at 8 years of age who subsequently developed a mandibular conventional chondrosarcoma at 13 years of age. Both tumors showed a loss of BAF47 expression. The malignant rhabdoid tumor exhibited a large 22q11.2 deletion and an intragenic deletion of SMARCB1 (exons 1 to 3), thus leading to a biallelic inactivation. A 2.8 Mbp deletion encompassing SMARCB1 was found in the germline. This context was a strong incentive to investigate SMARCB1 alterations in the second tumor. As expected, the chondrosarcoma showed the large 22q11.2 deletion but also an additional c.243C>G(p.Tyr18X) premature stop codon in the remaining allele. This report relates for the first time a pediatric conventional chondrosarcoma to the wide family of SMARCB1-deficient tumors. Moreover, we report here the first case of conventional chondrosarcoma arising in a context of constitutional SMARCB1 deletion and, thus, enlarge the spectrum of this tumor predisposition syndrome.

Niini T, Scheinin I, Lahti L, et al.
Homozygous deletions of cadherin genes in chondrosarcoma-an array comparative genomic hybridization study.
Cancer Genet. 2012; 205(11):588-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor that is often resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We applied high resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization to 46 tumor specimens from 44 patients with chondrosarcoma and identified several genes with potential importance for the development of chondrosarcoma. Several homozygous deletions were detected. The tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and MTAP were each homozygously deleted in four of the cases, and the RB1 gene was homozygously deleted in one. Two homozygous deletions of MTAP did not affect CDKN2A. Deletions were also found to affect genes of the cadherin family, including CDH4 and CDH7, each of which had a targeted homozygous loss in one case, and CDH19, which had a targeted homozygous loss in two cases. Loss of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes was uncommon; EXT1 was homozygously deleted in none and EXT2 in two of the cases, and large heterozygous losses including EXT1 and/or EXT2 were seen in three cases. Targeted gains and amplifications affected the MYC, E2F3, CDK6, PDGFRA, KIT, and PDGFD genes in one case each. The data indicate that chondrosarcomas develop through a combination of genomic imbalances that often affect the RB1 signaling pathway. The inactivation of cadherin genes may also be critical in the pathogenesis of the tumor.

Naumov VA, Generozov EV, Solovyov YN, et al.
Association of FGFR3 and MDM2 gene nucleotide polymorphisms with bone tumors.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012; 153(6):869-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Association study of 6 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7921, rs7956547, rs3761243, rs11737764, rs6599400, rs1690916) was carried out in a group of patients with bone tumors of different histological structure (n=68) and control group of normal subjects (n=96). Significant associations of rs6599400 and rs1690916 polymorphisms with disease risk were detected (odds ratio 2.15 [1.06-4.24] and 0.39 [0.19-0.78], respectively). These polymorphisms were located in untranslated genome regions: polymorphism rs6599400 in the 5' region of fibroblast growth factor-3 receptor gene (FGFR3), rs1690916 in the 3' region of mouse MDM2 p53-binding protein homolog (MDM2). These data indicated a possible role of hereditary genetic factors in the formation of predisposition to bone sarcomas and confirmed previous findings according to which these genes should be regarded among the most probable factors involved in tumor development, including tumors of the bone and cartilage tissues.

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