Gene Summary

Gene:EWSR1; EWS RNA-binding protein 1
Aliases: EWS, EWS-FLI1, bK984G1.4
Summary:This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that is involved in various cellular processes, including gene expression, cell signaling, and RNA processing and transport. The protein includes an N-terminal transcriptional activation domain and a C-terminal RNA-binding domain. Chromosomal translocations between this gene and various genes encoding transcription factors result in the production of chimeric proteins that are involved in tumorigenesis. These chimeric proteins usually consist of the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain of this protein fused to the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor protein. Mutations in this gene, specifically a t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation, are known to cause Ewing sarcoma as well as neuroectodermal and various other tumors. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1 and 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:RNA-binding protein EWS
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Overview: The EWS (EWSR1) gene is involved in translocations in Ewing's sarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor and myxoid liposarcoma. The Ewing sarcoma family of tumours is characterised by recurrent translocations that fuse EWS to one of the following genes FLI1 (>90% of cases), ERG, ETV1, E1AF and FEV. In clear cell sarcoma, DSRCT and myxoid liposarcoma EWS is fused to ATF1, WT1 and CHOP respectively.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (19)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Soft Tissue SarcomaEWSR1 and Soft Tissue Sarcoma View Publications521
Ewing's Sarcomat(11;22)(q24;q12) EWSR1-FLI1 Translocation in Ewing's Sarcoma
The t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in over 90% of Ewing's sarcoma cases. The resulting EWS-FLI1 fusion gene has been demonstrated to have oncogenic potential. Many alternative forms of the translocation exist, corresponding to variations in the locations of the EWS and FLI1 breakpoints. The most common form, "Type 1", accounts for approximately 60% of cases and consists of the first seven exons of EWS joined to exons 6-9 of FLI1. "Type 2", accounts for approximately 25% of cases and also includes FLI1 exon 5. The type of translocation has been related to prognosis.
View Publications300
Bone Cancer (primary)EWSR1 and Bone Cancer View Publications175
Ewing's Sarcoma t(7;22)(p22;q12) EWS-ETV1 Translocation in Ewing's Sarcoma View Publications24
Ewing's SarcomaEWSR1-FLI1 Fusion Transcript Structure and Prognosis?Prognostic
There is wide variation in EWS-FLI1 transcripts. 'Type 1' are created as a result of fusion between exons 7 of EWS and 6 of FLI1, and have reported to be associated with an improved outcome compared to other types of EWS-FLI1 fusions (Zoubek, 1996 and de Alava, 1998). However, in a subsequent COG study of 132 patients (van Doorninck, 2010) concluded that current intensive treatment protocols for localized ESFT have erased the clinical disadvantage that was formerly observed in patients with non-type 1 fusions.
View Publications25
Salivary Gland CancerEWSR1 and Salivary Gland Cancer View Publications15
Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumourt(11;22)(p13;q12): EWSR1-WT1 in Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour
DSRCT is a rare and an aggressive malignancy characterised by a translocation of the EWSR1 and WT1 genes, resulting in a EWSR1-WT1 fusion protein.
View Publications11
Uterine SarcomaEWSR1 and Uterine Cancer View Publications7
Bladder CancerEWSR1 and Bladder Cancer View Publications4
Vulvar CancerEWSR1 and Vulvar Cancer View Publications5
Ewing's Sarcomat(20;22) EWSR1-NFATC2 in Ewing's Sarcoma
A rare variation of the EWSR1 translocation in Ewing's sarcoma involves the NFATC2 gene on chromosome 20.
View Publications4
-EWSR1 and Sweat Gland Neoplasms View Publications1
Bone Cancer (primary)t(18;22)(q23;q12) EWSR1-NFATC1 fusion in hemangioma of the bone
Arbajian et al, 2013 reported a novel t(18;22)(q23;q12) in a hemangioma of the bone.
View Publications1
Ewing's Sarcomat(21;22) EWSR1-ERG Translocations in Ewing's Sarcoma
Ewing's Sarcomat(17;22)(q12;q12) EWSR1-E1AF Translocation in Ewing's Sarcoma
Chondrosarcomat(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
Skin Cancert(12; 22)(q13; q12) Translocation in Clear Cell Sarcoma
The t(12;22)(q13;q12) is characteristic of malignant melanoma of soft parts (clear cell sarcoma). This fuses the ATF1 gene on chromosome 12 with the EWS gene on chromosome 22.
-EWSR Translocations in Cutaneous Syncytial Myoepithelioma
Jo et al (2013) reported EWSR1 gene rearrangements detected by FISH in 14/17 (82%) cases of Cutaneous Syncytial Myoepithelioma (usually a benign condition). Testing for potential fusion partners (PBX1, ZNF444, POU5F1, DUX4, ATF1, CREB1, NR4A3, DDIT3, and NFATc2) was negative so the authors suggest that this likely involves a novel fusion partner.
Ewing's Sarcomat(2;22) EWSR1-FEV Translocation in Ewing's Sarcoma

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EWSR1 (cancer-related)

Thway K, Fisher C
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: the current status of pathology and genetics.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015; 139(5):674-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm of intermediate biologic potential and uncertain differentiation, most often arising in the superficial extremities of children and young adults. While it has characteristic histologic features of nodular distributions of ovoid and spindle cells with blood-filled cystic cavities and a surrounding dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, there is a significant morphologic spectrum, which coupled with its rarity and lack of specific immunoprofile can make diagnosis challenging. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is associated with 3 characteristic gene fusions, EWSR1-CREB1 and EWSR1-ATF1, which are also described in other neoplasms, and rarely FUS-ATF1. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is now recognized at an increasing number of sites and is known to display a variety of unusual histologic features.
OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of AFH, discussing putative etiology, histopathology with variant morphology and differential diagnosis, and current genetics, including overlap with other tumors harboring EWSR1-CREB1 and EWSR1-ATF1 fusions.
DATA SOURCES: Review of published literature, including case series, case reports, and review articles, in online medical databases.
CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of AFH at several unusual anatomic sites and its spectrum of morphologic patterns can result in significant diagnostic difficulty, and correct diagnosis is particularly important because of its small risk of metastasis and death. This highlights the importance of diagnostic recognition, ancillary molecular genetic confirmation, and close clinical follow-up of patients with AFH. Further insight into the genetic and epigenetic changes arising secondary to the characteristic gene fusions of AFH will be integral to understanding its tumorigenic mechanisms.

Selvanathan SP, Graham GT, Erkizan HV, et al.
Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(11):E1307-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/09/2015 Related Publications
The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron-exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of γ-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4-279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4-279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code.

Wang J, Thway K
Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract: an evolving entity.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015; 139(3):407-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (CCSLGT) is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the wall of the small bowel, stomach, or large bowel, predominantly in young adults. It is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently presents with metastatic disease and has a high mortality rate. Histologically, it is usually composed of medium-sized primitive ovoid or epithelioid cells with pale or clear cytoplasm that are arranged in sheets or in papillary or alveolar architectures. Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract is positive for S100 protein, invariably negative for melanocyte-specific markers and is often also positive for neuroendocrine markers. The etiology of CCSLGT is unknown, but many studies have shown associations with EWSR1-CREB1 gene fusions and, less frequently, with EWSR1-ATF1 fusions. Here, we discuss the current status of CCSLGT, including histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular findings.

Righi A, Gambarotti M, Longo S, et al.
Small cell osteosarcoma: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 36 cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(5):691-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small round cell osteosarcoma is a very rare type of osteosarcoma, histologically mimicking other small round cell malignancies of bone, most notably Ewing sarcoma. To distinguish small cell osteosarcoma from other primary small cell malignancies of bone, we evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of CD99 and SATB2, a marker of osteoblastic differentiation. Second, we analyzed EWSR1 and FUS gene aberrations using fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to assess whether small cell osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma share the same genetic alteration analysis. Thirty-six cases of primitive small cell osteosarcoma of bone were included in this study. All the cases of small cell osteosarcoma showed strong nuclear expression of SATB2 associated with negativity for CD99 antibody or weak, cytoplasmic staining in few neoplastic cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was negative for EWS-FLI1 type 1-2, EWS-ERG type 1, and CIC-DUX4 in the 10 available cases of small cell osteosarcoma analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was feasible with a readable signal in 13 cases of small cell osteosarcoma, and none of these cases showed any EWSR1 and FUS gene rearrangements. In conclusion, it appears extremely useful to combine IHC analysis of SATB2 and CD99 with molecular analysis of Ewing sarcoma-associated genetic aberrations, to differentiate small cell osteosarcoma from other small round cell malignancies of bone. The strong IHC expression of SATB2 associated with CD99 immunonegativity and the absence of EWSR1 and FUS gene rearrangements in small cell osteosarcoma argues against the existence of a morphologic/genetic continuum with Ewing sarcoma.

Schwentner R, Papamarkou T, Kauer MO, et al.
EWS-FLI1 employs an E2F switch to drive target gene expression.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(5):2780-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/09/2015 Related Publications
Cell cycle progression is orchestrated by E2F factors. We previously reported that in ETS-driven cancers of the bone and prostate, activating E2F3 cooperates with ETS on target promoters. The mechanism of target co-regulation remained unknown. Using RNAi and time-resolved chromatin-immunoprecipitation in Ewing sarcoma we report replacement of E2F3/pRB by constitutively expressed repressive E2F4/p130 complexes on target genes upon EWS-FLI1 modulation. Using mathematical modeling we interrogated four alternative explanatory models for the observed EWS-FLI1/E2F3 cooperation based on longitudinal E2F target and regulating transcription factor expression analysis. Bayesian model selection revealed the formation of a synergistic complex between EWS-FLI1 and E2F3 as the by far most likely mechanism explaining the observed kinetics of E2F target induction. Consequently we propose that aberrant cell cycle activation in Ewing sarcoma is due to the de-repression of E2F targets as a consequence of transcriptional induction and physical recruitment of E2F3 by EWS-FLI1 replacing E2F4 on their target promoters.

Svoboda LK, Harris A, Bailey NJ, et al.
Overexpression of HOX genes is prevalent in Ewing sarcoma and is associated with altered epigenetic regulation of developmental transcription programs.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(12):1613-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The polycomb proteins BMI-1 and EZH2 are highly overexpressed by Ewing sarcoma (ES), a tumor of stem cell origin that is driven by EWS-ETS fusion oncogenes, most commonly EWS-FLI1. In the current study we analyzed expression of transcription programs that are controlled by polycomb proteins during embryonic development to determine if they are abnormal in ES. Our results show that polycomb target gene expression in ES deviates from normal tissues and stem cells and that, as expected, most targets are relatively repressed. However, we also discovered a paradoxical up regulation of numerous polycomb targets and these were highly enriched for homeobox (HOX) genes. Comparison of HOX profiles between malignant and non-malignant tissues revealed a distinctive HOX profile in ES, which was characterized by overexpression of posterior HOXD genes. In addition, ectopic expression of EWS-FLI1 during stem cell differentiation led to aberrant up regulation of posterior HOXD genes. Mechanistically, this up regulation was associated with altered epigenetic regulation. Specifically, ES and EWS-FLI1+ stem cells displayed a relative loss of polycomb-dependent H3K27me3 and gain of trithorax-dependent H3K4me3 at the promoters of posterior HOXD genes and also at the HOXD11.12 polycomb response element. In addition, a striking correlation was evident between HOXD13 and other genes whose regulation is coordinately regulated during embryonic development by distal enhancer elements. Together, these studies demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of polycomb target genes, in particular HOXD genes, is altered in ES and that these changes are mediated downstream of EWS-FLI1.

Skálová A, Weinreb I, Hyrcza M, et al.
Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(3):338-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients within 5 months to 4 years after diagnosis (mean 22 mo), distant metastases were noted in 7 patients with invasion of orbit (2 cases), and in 1 case each metastasis to the neck soft tissues, liver, lungs, mediastinum, and thoracic vertebra was noted. We describe for the first time EWSR1 gene rearrangement in a subset of myoepithelial carcinomas arising in minor and major salivary glands. The EWSR1-rearranged CCMC represents a distinctive aggressive variant composed predominantly of clear cells with frequent necrosis. Most EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs of salivary glands are characterized by poor clinical outcomes.

García JJ, Jin L, Jackson SB, et al.
Primary pulmonary hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of bronchial submucosal gland origin.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(3):471-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) has only been described in salivary glands of the head and neck. We report a 38-year-old man with a 2.6-cm lung tumor that was growing in a peribronchial location and had morphologic features of HCCC. The tumor cells expressed cytokeratin 7 and keratin AE1/AE3, and the vast majority of tumor cells marked also with p63 and p40. They were negative for cytokeratin 20, S-100, smooth muscle actin, napsin A, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed Ewing Sarcoma Breakpoint Region 1 (EWSR1) rearrangement, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of the EWSR1-Activating Transcription Factor 1 (ATF1) fusion transcript, which was subsequently sequenced. The morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular findings together with the patient's history and location of the tumor support a diagnosis of primary pulmonary HCCC of bronchial submucosal gland origin. It is our understanding that this is the first report of HCCC arising as a primary tumor outside the head and neck region.

Li Z, Yu X, Shen J, et al.
MicroRNA expression and its clinical implications in Ewing's sarcoma.
Cell Prolif. 2015; 48(1):1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) is the second most common primary bone cancer, and is a predominant childhood malignant disease. Due to limited understanding of its pathogenesis and frequent occurrence of resistance to conventional types of treatment, its management remains difficult, and mortality is frequent. Development of EWS is a multistep process involving genetic and epigenetic alterations of protein-coding proto-oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been discovered as a new category of non-protein coding; small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Substantial numbers of deregulated miRNAs have been documented in EWS and their biological significance has been confirmed in multiple functional experiments. Several studies have confirmed involvement of miRNAs in various steps of EWS pathogenesis, from occurrence to metastasis. Functionally, miRNA dysregulation may promote cell-cycle progression, confer resistance to apoptosis, and enhance invasiveness and metastasis. These miRNAs have opened a novel field in cancer research with potential clinical utilization for screening, diagnosis, prognostics and prediction of response to treatment. Elucidating biological aspects of miRNA dysregulation may help better understand pathogenesis of EWS and promote development of miRNA directed-therapeutics against it.

Denny CT
ChIP-ping away at EWS/ETS transcription networks.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(5):595-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Riggi and colleagues use a genomic approach to define two distinct molecular mechanisms through which the chimeric EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein regulates target genes in Ewing sarcoma, expanding a framework upon which to model the target gene network and test strategies for antagonizing growth of this tumor.

Becerikli M, Wieczorek S, Stricker I, et al.
Numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(12):7119-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of late adult life. Further advances in genetic characterization are warranted. The aim of this study was to search for numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies in UPS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated five sarcoma-specific chromosomal translocations, five oncogene amplifications as well as the numerical karyotype of 19 UPS samples and one UPS/MFH cell line (U2197) using FISH probes on interphase nuclei.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that chromosomal translocations involving CHOP, SYT, EWS, FUS and FKHR genes are absent. Furthermore, amplification of ERBB2 (10.5%) and MDM2 (10.5%) was observed whereas the EGFR, C-MYC and N-MYC genes were not amplified. Interestingly, predominant aneuploidies were found in eight chromosomes.
CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate rarity of sarcoma-specific chromosomal breaks and oncogene amplifications in UPS, yet polysomic chromosomes appear more characteristically in this condition.

Park H, Turkalo TK, Nelson K, et al.
Ewing sarcoma EWS protein regulates midzone formation by recruiting Aurora B kinase to the midzone.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(15):2391-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/09/2015 Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma is a malignant bone cancer that primarily occurs in children and adolescents. Eighty-five percent of Ewing sarcoma is characterized by the presence of the aberrant chimeric EWS/FLI1 fusion gene. Previously, we demonstrated that an interaction between EWS/FLI1 and wild-type EWS led to the inhibition of EWS activity and mitotic dysfunction. Although defective mitosis is considered to be a critical step in cancer initiation, it is unknown how interference with EWS contributes to Ewing sarcoma formation. Here, we demonstrate that EWS/FLI1- and EWS-knockdown cells display a high incidence of defects in the midzone, a midline structure located between segregating chromatids during anaphase. Defects in the midzone can lead to the failure of cytokinesis and can result in the induction of aneuploidy. The similarity among the phenotypes of EWS/FLI1- and EWS siRNA-transfected HeLa cells points to the inhibition of EWS as the key mechanism for the induction of midzone defects. Supporting this observation, the ectopic expression of EWS rescues the high incidence of midzone defects observed in Ewing sarcoma A673 cells. We discovered that EWS interacts with Aurora B kinase, and that EWS is also required for recruiting Aurora B to the midzone. A domain analysis revealed that the R565 in the RGG3 domain of EWS is essential for both Aurora B interaction and the recruitment of Aurora B to the midzone. Here, we propose that the impairment of EWS-dependent midzone formation via the recruitment of Aurora B is a potential mechanism of Ewing sarcoma development.

Thondam SK, du Plessis D, Cuthbertson DJ, et al.
Intracranial desmoplastic small round cell tumor presenting as a suprasellar mass.
J Neurosurg. 2015; 122(4):773-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) are rare, aggressive neoplasms that typically arise from abdominal and pelvic peritoneum in young adults. Other primary sites are uncommon, and an intracranial origin is exceptionally rare. Here the authors report the first case of a DSRCT presenting as a primary suprasellar tumor causing panhypopituitarism and severe bitemporal hemianopia in a young man. Macroscopic debulking of the tumor was undertaken, and histology revealed features of DSRCT. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of Ewing's sarcoma-Wilms tumor 1 (EWS-WT1) gene rearrangement specific to DSRCT. Postoperative whole-body imaging showed no primary malignancy elsewhere. The tumor recurred 4 months after surgery, and this was followed by cervical and mediastinal lymph node metastases. The patient died 20 months after initial presentation of rapidly progressive disease. DSRCTs should be included in the differential diagnosis of an unusual suprasellar mass in young adults. Early diagnosis is essential, and once the tumor is identified histologically, gross-total resection and radical postoperative treatment involving radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and close surveillance are required because of the lesion's potential for rapidly progressive malignancy.

Gachechiladze M, Skarda J, Ibrahim M, et al.
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the lung in an adult woman.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:374 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/09/2015 Related Publications
Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are extremely rare in the lung and especially in adult women. We describe a case of PNET of the lung with aggressive behavior in 31-year-old woman. Diagnosis was based on histopathological and immunohistochemical studies, and confirmed by molecular genetic analysis of chromosome rearrangements in the EWSR1 gene region. Clinical follow-up, post-mortem findings, and differential diagnosis are also discussed.

Ud Din N, Pekmezci M, Javed G, et al.
Low-grade small round cell tumor of the cauda equina with EWSR1-WT1 fusion and indolent clinical course.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(1):153-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of a longstanding, large tumor involving spinal nerve roots of the cauda equina. The tumor showed small round cells arranged in nests and cords and immunophenotypic features of a glomus tumor, along with infrequent mitoses and a low Ki-67 labeling index, but exhibited some rosette-like structures, with focal CD99 and Neu-N expression. Subsequent molecular analysis showed the presence of an EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion by fluorescence in situ hybridization, which was confirmed by reverse- transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported with EWSR1-WT1 fusion in a small round blue cell tumor with smooth muscle differentiation and an indolent course.

Riggi N, Knoechel B, Gillespie SM, et al.
EWS-FLI1 utilizes divergent chromatin remodeling mechanisms to directly activate or repress enhancer elements in Ewing sarcoma.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(5):668-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/11/2015 Related Publications
The aberrant transcription factor EWS-FLI1 drives Ewing sarcoma, but its molecular function is not completely understood. We find that EWS-FLI1 reprograms gene regulatory circuits in Ewing sarcoma by directly inducing or repressing enhancers. At GGAA repeat elements, which lack evolutionary conservation and regulatory potential in other cell types, EWS-FLI1 multimers induce chromatin opening and create de novo enhancers that physically interact with target promoters. Conversely, EWS-FLI1 inactivates conserved enhancers containing canonical ETS motifs by displacing wild-type ETS transcription factors. These divergent chromatin-remodeling patterns repress tumor suppressors and mesenchymal lineage regulators while activating oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets, such as the kinase VRK1. Our findings demonstrate how EWS-FLI1 establishes an oncogenic regulatory program governing both tumor survival and differentiation.

Horn H, Allmanritter J, Doglioni C, et al.
Fluorescence in situ analysis of soft tissue tumor associated genetic alterations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.
Pathol Res Pract. 2014; 210(12):804-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
No prospective studies are available to date evaluating the combined analysis of chromosomal alterations via interphase FISH in different soft tissue sarcoma (STS) subtypes. We tested 64 consecutive sarcoma specimens with FISH probes to detect aberrations specific for a given STS subtype. We first determined the translocation frequency in the specific STS subtypes in 48 tumors, with the primary pathological diagnosis as the gold standard. Subsequently, to evaluate sensitivity and specificity, all FISH probes were hybridized to 16 STS of hitherto unknown diagnosis. DDIT3 translocations occurred in 8/10 (80%) of myxoid liposarcomas. FOXO1 translocations were noted in 4/4 (100%) of alveolar but in none of 7 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas. All 15 (100%) Ewing sarcomas/PNET and 4 clear cell sarcomas (4/4) harbored EWSR1 translocations. SS18 rearrangements were demonstrated in 8/9 (89%) synovial sarcomas. MDM2 amplification was noted in 7/8 (88%) atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated and 3/3 (100%) dedifferentiated liposarcomas, respectively, but not in four pleomorphic liposarcomas. Sensitivities and specificities ranged from 80% to 100% and from 93% to 100%, respectively, with the highest values observed for FOXO1 (100% each). We conclude, therefore, that is possible to accurately predict the STS subtype using a panel of different subtype-specific FISH probes, thereby greatly facilitating the differential diagnosis of these tumors.

Katabi N, Ghossein R, Ho A, et al.
Consistent PLAG1 and HMGA2 abnormalities distinguish carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma from its de novo counterparts.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(1):26-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CA ex-PA) is a malignant salivary gland tumor that arises in association with pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Both PA and CA ex-PA have a broad spectrum of histology, and distinction from their histologic mimics may be difficult based on morphology alone. PLAG1 and HMGA2 abnormalities are the most common genetic events in both PA and CA ex-PA; however, the use of PLAG1 and HMGA2 as adjunct molecular tests has not been well established. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for PLAG1 and HMGA2 was performed on 22 CA ex-PA (10 myoepithelial carcinomas [MECAs], 10 salivary duct carcinomas [SDCs], 1 carcinoma with squamoglandular features, and 1 mixed MECA-adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified), 20 de novo carcinomas (11 MECAs and 9 SDCs), 16 PAs, and 11 PA-histologic mimics. All except 3 CAs ex-PA (86%) were positive for PLAG1 or HMGA2 rearrangements/amplifications. In contrast, 18 (90%) of 20 de novo carcinomas lacked abnormalities in PLAG1 or HMGA2 (P < .01). PLAG1 or HMGA2 rearrangements were identified in 6 (67%) of 9 hypocellular myxoid PAs and in 2 (29%) of 7 cellular PAs. Furthermore, all morphologic mimics of PA were negative for PLAG1 or HMGA2. PLAG1 and HMGA2 rearrangements are the most common genetic events in CA ex-PA regardless of the histologic subtype. Unlike CA ex-PA, de novo carcinomas were negative for PLAG1 and HMGA2. Interestingly, rearrangements of PLAG1/HMGA2 were identified in most hypocellular PAs but only in a small subset of cellular PAs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for PLAG1 or HMGA2 can be used to distinguish between PA and CA ex-PA and their morphologic mimics.

Tosso PN, Kong Y, Scher L, et al.
Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of small molecule disruptors of EWS-FLI1 interactions in Ewing's sarcoma.
J Med Chem. 2014; 57(24):10290-303 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/11/2015 Related Publications
EWS-FLI1 is an oncogenic fusion protein implicated in the development of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT). Using our previously reported lead compound 2 (YK-4-279), we designed and synthesized a focused library of analogues. The functional inhibition of the analogues was measured by an EWS-FLI1/NR0B1 reporter luciferase assay and a paired cell screening approach measuring effects on growth inhibition for human cells containing EWS-FLI1 (TC32 and TC71) and control PANC1 cell lines devoid of the oncoprotein. Our data revealed that substitution of electron donating groups at the para-position on the phenyl ring was the most favorable for inhibition of EWS-FLI1 by analogs of 2. Compound 9u (with a dimethylamino substitution) was the most active inhibitor with GI50 = 0.26 ± 0.1 μM. Further, a correlation of growth inhibition (EWS-FLI1 expressing TC32 cells) and the luciferase reporter activity was established (R(2) = 0.84). Finally, we designed and synthesized a biotinylated analogue and determined the binding affinity for recombinant EWS-FLI1 (Kd = 4.8 ± 2.6 μM).

Marques Howarth M, Simpson D, Ngok SP, et al.
Long noncoding RNA EWSAT1-mediated gene repression facilitates Ewing sarcoma oncogenesis.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(12):5275-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/11/2015 Related Publications
Chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the genes encoding RNA-binding protein EWS and transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1) is pathognomonic for Ewing sarcoma. EWS-FLI1 alters gene expression through mechanisms that are not completely understood. We performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis on primary pediatric human mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) expressing EWS-FLI1 in order to identify gene targets of this oncoprotein. We determined that long noncoding RNA-277 (Ewing sarcoma-associated transcript 1 [EWSAT1]) is upregulated by EWS-FLI1 in pMPCs. Inhibition of EWSAT1 expression diminished the ability of Ewing sarcoma cell lines to proliferate and form colonies in soft agar, whereas EWSAT1 inhibition had no effect on other cell types tested. Expression of EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1 repressed gene expression, and a substantial fraction of targets that were repressed by EWS-FLI1 were also repressed by EWSAT1. Analysis of RNAseq data from primary human Ewing sarcoma further supported a role for EWSAT1 in mediating gene repression. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNPK) as an RNA-binding protein that interacts with EWSAT1 and found a marked overlap in HNRNPK-repressed genes and those repressed by EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1, suggesting that HNRNPK participates in EWSAT1-mediated gene repression. Together, our data reveal that EWSAT1 is a downstream target of EWS-FLI1 that facilitates the development of Ewing sarcoma via the repression of target genes.

Renouf B, Piganeau M, Ghezraoui H, et al.
Creating cancer translocations in human cells using Cas9 DSBs and nCas9 paired nicks.
Methods Enzymol. 2014; 546:251-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/11/2015 Related Publications
Recurrent chromosomal translocations are found in numerous tumor types, often leading to the formation and expression of fusion genes with oncogenic potential. Creating chromosomal translocations at the relevant endogenous loci, rather than ectopically expressing the fusion genes, opens new possibilities for better characterizing molecular mechanisms driving tumor formation. In this chapter, we describe methods to create cancer translocations in human cells. DSBs or paired nicks generated by either wild-type Cas9 or the Cas9 nickase, respectively, are used to induce translocations at the relevant loci. Using different PCR-based methods, we also explain how to quantify translocation frequency and to analyze breakpoint junctions in the cells of interest. In addition, PCR detection of translocations is used as a very sensitive method to detect off-target effects, which has general utility.

Tilan JU, Krailo M, Barkauskas DA, et al.
Systemic levels of neuropeptide Y and dipeptidyl peptidase activity in patients with Ewing sarcoma--associations with tumor phenotype and survival.
Cancer. 2015; 121(5):697-707 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is driven by fusion of the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 gene (EWSR1) with an E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor (EWS-ETS), most often the Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor (FLI1). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an EWS-FLI1 transcriptional target; it is highly expressed in ES and exerts opposing effects, ranging from ES cell death to angiogenesis and cancer stem cell propagation. The functions of NPY are regulated by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), a hypoxia-inducible enzyme that cleaves the peptide and activates its growth-promoting actions. The objective of this study was to determine the clinically relevant functions of NPY by identifying the associations between patients' ES phenotype and their NPY concentrations and DPP activity.
METHODS: NPY concentrations and DPP activity were measured in serum samples from 223 patients with localized ES and 9 patients with metastatic ES provided by the Children's Oncology Group.
RESULTS: Serum NPY levels were elevated in ES patients compared with the levels in a healthy control group and an osteosarcoma patient population, and the elevated levels were independent of EWS-ETS translocation type. Significantly higher NPY concentrations were detected in patients with ES who had tumors of pelvic and bone origin. A similar trend was observed in patients with metastatic ES. There was no effect of NPY on survival in patients with localized ES. DPP activity in sera from patients with ES did not differ significantly from that in healthy controls and patients with osteosarcoma. However, high DPP levels were associated with improved survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Systemic NPY levels are elevated in patients with ES, and these high levels are associated with unfavorable disease features. DPPIV in serum samples from patients with ES is derived from nontumor sources, and its high activity is correlated with improved survival.

Nakano T, Yamamoto H, Nishijima T, et al.
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma with EWSR1-ATF1 fusion gene: report of three cases with molecular analyses.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(1):37-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a low-grade salivary gland carcinoma characterized by clear cells and hyalinized stroma. Recently, the EWSR1-ATF1 fusion gene was found in HCCCs. We herein describe three cases of HCCC identified in one male and two females, ranging in age from 27 to 67 years. The tumors were located in the root of tongue, nasopharynx, and soft palate. They were composed of nested or cord-like proliferations of epithelial cells with clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, embedded in hyalinized and focally fibroedematous stroma. Tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia were also observed in each one case. MAML2 fusions specific to mucoepidermoid carcinoma were not detected in any of the three cases. We found EWSR1-ATF1 in two of three HCCCs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with our original primer sets designed to detect the fusion gene transcripts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. EWSR1 rearrangement was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on FFPE sections in two cases. There was a good concordance between the two methods (two positive cases and one negative case by both RT-PCR and FISH). Therefore, RT-PCR and FISH using FFPE tissue may be ancillary tools to confirm the diagnosis of HCCC.

Argani P, Lewin JR, Edmonds P, et al.
Primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: report of 2 cases with EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(3):365-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
We report the first 2 genetically confirmed cases of primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), occurring in a 17-year-old boy and a 61-year-old woman. In both cases, the tumors demonstrated the typical epithelioid clear cell morphology associated with extensive hyalinizing fibrosis, raising the differential diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor, metanephric stromal tumor, and the sclerosing variant of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Both neoplasms demonstrated diffuse immunoreactivity for MUC4, a highly specific marker for SEF, and both demonstrated evidence of rearrangement of both the EWSR1 and CREB3L1 genes, which have recently been shown to be fused in this entity. Both neoplasms presented with metastatic disease. Primary renal SEF represents yet another translocation-associated sarcoma now shown to arise primarily in the kidney.

Yoon JH, Baek YS, Jeon J, et al.
Dual-color, break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization probe for distinguishing clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue from malignant melanoma.
Int J Dermatol. 2014; 53(12):1464-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of soft tissue is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with melanocytic differentiation and shares morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features with malignant melanoma (MM). Because the prognosis of CCS is much different from MM, it is important to distinguish each other by selective method. CCS is well-recognized as having the t(12;22)(q13;q12) translocation, on the other hand MM is not. Therefore, detecting Ewing sarcoma region 1 (ESWR1) gene rearrangement can serve as a crucial diagnostic determinant.
METHODS: Biopsy was taken from a 52-year-old man who reported a 3-year history of a gradually enlarging nodule on the sole of his left foot. Routine and special stains for melanocytic markers and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) evaluation using dual color break-apart rearrangement probes specific for ESWR1 was performed for formalin-fixed tissue.
RESULTS: Neoplastic cells expressed diffuse but strong positivity for HMB45 and S100 but not for Melan-A. Dual color, break-apart interphase FISH revealed EWS(22q12) gene rearrangements in CCS tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Fluorescence in situ hybridization evaluation using ESWR1 gene probe for CCS sharing clinical and histopathological characteristics with MM is a valuable tool to distinguish each other.

Thway K, Fisher C
Myoepithelial tumor of soft tissue: histology and genetics of an evolving entity.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2014; 21(6):411-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myoepithelial neoplasms represent a heterogeneous group of tumors of which classification is incomplete and evolving. Those of the soft tissues often form genetically distinct subgroups that differ from those arising within salivary glands. Soft-tissue myoepithelial tumors (including mixed tumors that show true glandular or ductal differentiation) exhibit a spectrum of different morphologic patterns, making them difficult to distinguish from a variety of other neoplasms. They have been increasingly shown to harbor genetic fusions involving EWSR1 and partner genes that are not seen in the well-characterized tumor classes involving EWSR1 translocations. We review the spectrum of soft-tissue myoepithelial tumors, discussing recent immunohistochemical and genetic findings and the differential diagnosis.

Pletneva MA, Andea A, Palanisamy N, et al.
Clear cell melanoma: a cutaneous clear cell malignancy.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(10):1328-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell melanoma is a rare clear cell malignancy. Accurate diagnosis of clear cell melanoma requires integration of immunohistochemical and morphologic findings, with molecular studies to rule out clear cell sarcoma. The differential diagnosis includes melanoma, carcinoma, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and epidermotropic clear cell sarcoma. We use a case of a lesion on the helix of an 86-year-old man as an example. Histologic examination revealed an ulcerated clear cell malignant tumor. Tumor cell cytoplasm contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-sensitive glycogen. Tumor cells showed positive labeling for S100, HMB-45, and Melan-A, and negative labeling for cytokeratins, p63, and smooth muscle actin. Molecular studies demonstrated BRAF V600E mutation, copy gains at the 6p25 (RREB1) and 11q13 (CCND1) loci, and absence of EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. These findings supported a diagnosis of clear cell melanoma. The rare pure clear cell morphology occurs due to accumulation of intracytoplasmic glycogen. We review the differential diagnosis of clear cell melanoma and describe the utility of immunohistochemical and molecular studies in confirming this diagnosis.

Campos-Melo D, Droppelmann CA, Volkening K, Strong MJ
RNA-binding proteins as molecular links between cancer and neurodegeneration.
Biogerontology. 2014; 15(6):587-610 [PubMed] Related Publications
For many years, epidemiological studies have suggested an association between cancer and neurodegenerative disorders-two disease processes that seemingly have little in common. Although these two disease processes share disruptions in a wide range of cellular pathways, including cell survival, cell death and the cell cycle, the end result is very divergent: uncontrolled cell survival and proliferation in cancer and progressive neuronal cell death in neurodegeneration. Despite the clinical data connecting these two disease processes, little is known about the molecular links between them. Among the mechanisms affected in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, alterations in RNA metabolism are obtaining significant attention given the critical role for RNA transcription, maturation, transport, stability, degradation and translation in normal cellular function. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are integral to each stage of RNA metabolism through their participation in the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). RBPs have a broad range of functions including posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA stability, splicing, editing and translation, mRNA export and localization, mRNA polyadenylation and miRNA biogenesis, ultimately impacting the expression of every single gene in the cell. In this review, we examine the evidence for RBPs as being key a molecular linkages between cancer and neurodegeneration.

Agaram NP, Chen HW, Zhang L, et al.
EWSR1-PBX3: a novel gene fusion in myoepithelial tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(2):63-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
The genetics of myoepithelial tumors (ME) of soft tissue and bone have recently been investigated, with EWSR1-related gene fusions being seen in approximately half of the tumors. The fusion partners of EWSR1 so far described include POU5F1, PBX1, ZNF444 and, in a rare case, ATF1. We investigated by RNA sequencing an index case of EWSR1-rearranged ME of the tibia, lacking a known fusion partner, and identified a novel EWSR1-PBX3 fusion. The fusion was further validated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To evaluate if this is a recurrent event, an additional cohort of 22 EWSR1-rearranged ME cases lacking a fusion partner were screened by FISH for abnormalities in PBX3 gene. Thus, two additional cases were identified showing an EWSR1-PBX3 gene fusion. One of them was also intraosseous involving the ankle, while the other occurred in the soft tissue of the index finger. The morphology of the EWSR1-PBX3 fusion positive cases showed similar findings, with nests or sheets of epithelioid to spindle cells in a partially myxoid to collagenous matrix. All three cases showed expression of S100 and EMA by immunohistochemistry. In summary, we report a novel EWSR1-PBX3 gene fusion in a small subset of ME, thereby expanding the spectrum of EWSR1-related gene fusions seen in these tumors. This gene fusion seems to occur preferentially in skeletal ME, with two of the three study cases occurring in intraosseous locations.

Prieto-Granada C, Zhang L, Chen HW, et al.
A genetic dichotomy between pure sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and hybrid SEF/low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a pathologic and molecular study of 18 cases.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(1):28-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS-tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the nine EWSR1 positive cases, six cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS.

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