Gene Summary

Gene:TNF; tumor necrosis factor
Aliases: DIF, TNFA, TNFSF2, TNF-alpha
Summary:This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNF (cancer-related)

Pratheeshkumar P, Son YO, Divya SP, et al.
Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 281(2):230-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis.

Koev IG, Feodorova YN, Kazakova MH, et al.
Glioblastoma multiforme classified as mesenchymal subtype.
Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2014 Jul-Sep; 56(3):215-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recently, researchers have been considering as adverse prognostic factors in primary glioblastomas not only clinical indicators but also various cellular, genetic and immunological markers. The aim of the present article was to report a case of primary glioblastoma multiforme with poor survival in a patient after surgical intervention, and to determine the unfavorable prognostic markers.
CASE REPORT: We present a 71-year-old man with histologically verified glioblastoma multiforme and a postoperative survival of 48 days. The patient did not receive any radiotherapy and adjuvant therapy with temozolomide because of the short survival. Serum and transcription levels of TNF-α, CD44, YKL-40 and IL-6 were determined by molecular-biological and immunological analyses. We found very high transcription levels of the genes CD44, YKL-40 and IL-6, increased gene expression of TNF-α, and elevated serum concentrations of TNF-α, YKL-40 and IL-6 and reduced serum concentration of CD44.
CONCLUSION: Molecular-biological and immunological analyses support the hypothesis that glioblastoma multiforme is presented by a heterogeneous group of glial tumors with different clinical course and prognosis. The high expression levels of TNF-α, CD44, YKL-40, and IL-6 indicate that the tumor can be categorized as mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma multiforme, which accounts for the rapid clinical course and lethal outcome of the condition.

Zhu Y, Liu Y, Qian Y, et al.
Research on the efficacy of Celastrus Orbiculatus in suppressing TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting HSP27 and TNF-α-induced NF-κ B/Snail signaling pathway in human gastric adenocarcinoma.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:433 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Celastrus orbiculatus has been used as a folk medicine in China for the treatment of many diseases. In the laboratory, the ethyl acetate extract of Celastrus orbiculatus (COE) displays a wide range of anticancer functions. However, the inhibition of the metastasis mechanism of COE in gastric cancer cells has not been investigated so far.
METHODS: The present study was undertaken to determine if the anti-metastasis effect of COE was involved in inhibiting of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. In vitro, a well-established experimental EMT model involving transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was applied. Viability, invasion and migration, protein and mRNA expression of tumor cells were analyzed by MTT assay, transwell assay, western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. The molecular targets of COE in SGC-7901 cells were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometer. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) was performed by transfected with the recombinant retroviral expression plasmid. In vivo, the anti-metastasis mechanisms of COE in the peritoneal gastric cancer xenograft model was explored and the effect was tested.
RESULTS: The non-cytostatic concentrations of COE effectively inhibited TGF-β1 induced EMT process in SGC-7901 cells, which is characterized by prevented morphological changes, increased E-cadherin expression and decreased Vimentin, N-cadherin expression. Moreover, COE inhibited invasion and migration induced by TGF-β1. Using a comparative proteomics approach, four proteins were identified as differently expressed, with HSP27 protein being one of the most significantly down-regulated proteins induced by COE. Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/Snail signaling pathway induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also attenuated under the pretreatment of COE. Interestingly, overexpression of HSP27 significantly decreases the inhibitory effect of COE on EMT and the NF-κB/Snail pathway. Furthermore, COE significantly reduced the number of peritoneal metastatic nodules in the peritoneal gastric cancer xenograft model.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that COE inhibits the EMT by suppressing the expression of HSP27, correlating with inhibition of NF-κB/Snail signal pathways in SGC-7901 cells. Based on these results, COE may be considered a novel anti-cancer agent for the treatment of metastasis in gastric cancer.

Anderson T, Zhang L, Hameed M, et al.
Thoracic epithelioid malignant vascular tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 52 cases with emphasis on pathologic grading and molecular studies of WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusions.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(1):132-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant thoracic epithelioid vascular tumors are an uncommon and heterogenous group of tumors that include low-grade to intermediate-grade epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) and high-grade epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS). We examine the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of 52 malignant epithelioid vascular tumors (10 low-grade EHE, 29 intermediate-grade EHE, and 13 EAS) involving the thorax (lung, pleura, mediastinum, heart, great vessels) including cases with exclusively thoracic disease (35) and with multiorgan disease including the thorax (17). Intermediate-grade EHE differs from low-grade EHE by the presence of necrosis, increased mitotic activity, and increased atypia. Morphologic features such as intranuclear inclusions, intracytoplasmic vacuoles, and stromal changes (chondroid, myxoid, or hyalinized stroma) are seen more frequently in EHE, whereas blood lakes, proliferation of slit-like vessels, and prominent nucleoli favor EAS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed CAMTA1-WWTR1 fusions in 4/7 low-grade and 23/23 intermediate-grade EHE (P<0.001). In EAS, CAMTA1 rearrangement was negative in all cases, whereas a WWTR1 complex abnormality was found in 1/5 cases (P<0.001). This offers an objective means of differentiating intermediate-grade EHE from EAS, especially on limited biopsies. All cases show expression of at least 1 vascular marker, which allows differentiation from primary thoracic epithelial malignancies, although keratin expression is a potential pitfall with 29% of EHE and 25% of EAS showing keratin expression. Survival analysis shows that higher tumor grade for all tumors (P=0.026) as well as lung and pleural tumors only (P=0.010) and the presence of pleural involvement in lung and/or pleural tumors (P=0.042) correlate with poor prognosis.

Hsu DS, Wang HJ, Tai SK, et al.
Acetylation of snail modulates the cytokinome of cancer cells to enhance the recruitment of macrophages.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(4):534-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Snail is primarily known as a transcriptional repressor that induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing adherent proteins. Emerging evidence suggests that Snail can act as an activator; however, the mechanism and biological significance are unclear. Here, we found that CREB-binding protein (CBP) is the critical factor in Snail-mediated target gene transactivation. CBP interacts with Snail and acetylates Snail at lysine 146 and lysine 187, which prevents the repressor complex formation. We further identified several Snail-activated targets, including TNF-α, which is also the upstream signal for Snail acetylation, and CCL2 and CCL5, which promote the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages. Here, we present our results on the mechanism by which Snail induces target gene transactivation to remodel the tumor microenvironment.

Zhou M, Chen J, Zhou L, et al.
Pancreatic cancer derived exosomes regulate the expression of TLR4 in dendritic cells via miR-203.
Cell Immunol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 292(1-2):65-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are aberrant in many human tumors which can be transferred to immune cells by tumor-derived exosomes. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in activation of immune response. However, the effect of tumor-derived exosomes on toll-like receptor (TLR) in DCs remains unclear. We investigated the influence of pancreatic cancer derived exosomes on TLR4, and downstream cytokines via miR-203. Our results showed that miR-203 expressed in panc-1 cells and exosomes, and upregulated in exosomes-treated DCs. TLR4 decreased after treatment of exosomes and miR-203 mimics, while increased in exosomes-treated DCs by miR-203 inhibitors. But the mRNA level of TLR4 was not significantly different between DCs and exosomes-treated DCs. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) also decreased under treatment of exosomes and miR-203 mimics, both of which increased in exosomes-treated DCs by miR-203 inhibitors. Collectively, pancreatic cancer derived exosomes downregulate TLR4 and downstream cytokines in DCs via miR-203.

Winkler B, Taschik J, Haubitz I, et al.
TGFβ and IL10 have an impact on risk group and prognosis in childhood ALL.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015; 62(1):72-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytokines and their genes have been described to have an influence on incidence and prognosis in malignant, infectious and autoimmune disease. We previously described the impact of cytokine production on prognosis in paediatric standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
PROCEDURE: In this study, we investigated the influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms (TNFα, TGFβ, IL10 and IFNγ) on frequency, risk group and prognosis in 95 paediatric ALL-patients. We further report on intracellular production of these cytokines in T-cells.
RESULTS: IL10 high-producer-haplotypes were reduced in ALL-patients compared with healthy controls and resulted in a reduced relapse rate compared with low-producer haplotypes. TGFβ high-producer-haplotypes were correlated with a high initial blast-count (codon 25: G/G) and were elevated in high-risk ALL-patients (codon 10: T/T). IL10 was positively and IFNγ-production was negatively correlated with initial blast-count. At diagnosis the expression of TNFα and IFNγ was reduced in patients compared with healthy controls. This was more pronounced in high-risk and in T-ALL-patients.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that gene-polymorphisms of the regulatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, TGFβ and IL10, but not of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ and TNFα, have an impact on prognosis and risk-group of ALL. However, the reduced capacity to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines at diagnosis may serve as another important, functional risk factor. These data may help in further risk stratification and adaptation of therapy-intensity in paediatric patients with ALL.

Coven İ, Ozer O, Ozen O, et al.
Presence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene polymorphisms and immunohistochemical expressions in intracranial meningiomas.
J Neurosurg. 2014; 121(6):1478-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECT: Meningiomas are benign extraaxial tumors with a slow progression. Some of them, in spite of being benign in nature, may show an aggressive progression pattern. To investigate the behavioral characteristics of meningiomas, researchers have studied matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), interstitial collagens, proteins, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factors.
METHODS: In this study, the authors investigated MMP2 and TIMP2 gene polymorphisms in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from meningioma patients who had previously undergone surgery at the authors' institution. In addition, brain invasion, Ki-67 index, and MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expressions were investigated using immunohistochemical methods. MMP2 (735C>T, 1575G>A, 1306C>T) and TIMP2 (418G>C, 303C>T) gene polymorphisms were investigated from paraffin-embedded tissue sections using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between genotype (p = 0.001) and allele frequencies (p = 0.001 and OR 7.4 [95% CI 1.5-36.2]) in patient and control groups for MMP2 1306C>T polymorphism. The authors did not find a statistically significant difference for other polymorphisms. GA genotype was found to be more frequent when brain invasion was suspected for MMP2 1575G>A polymorphism (p = 0.006). There was not a statistically significant difference for other MMP2 or TIMP2 gene polymorphisms.
CONCLUSIONS: The authors' results support the importance of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors in meningioma pathogenesis. In future studies, these gene polymorphisms, especially MMP2 1306C>T and 1575G>A, should be investigated for meningioma or brain invasion susceptibility in larger study groups.

Shen Q, Rao Q, Xia QY, et al.
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with TFE3 gene rearrangement: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(5):607-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) have been increasingly associated with gene rearrangement of the transcription factor E3 (TFE3). We present three cases of PEComa with a TFE3 gene abnormality detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Their clinical features, pathological morphology, and prognosis were investigated. Histologically, the tumors in these three cases showed predominantly epithelioid cells arranged in nests or sheets separated by a delicate vascular network, within two of the three cases nuclear atypia, mitotic figures, and necrosis. All three cases showed strong TFE3 and cathepsin K immunoreactivity and weak to strong reactivity for HMB45. One case of PEComa with TFE3 gene fusion exhibited a benign course. The other two cases of PEComa with both TFE3 translocation and X-chromosome polysomy were histologically malignant and showed aggressive growth. In summary, unusual cases of PEComa with TFE3 gene rearrangement might present malignant histological features and aggressive clinical behavior. Our results add cases to the literature and describe an association of polysomy with aggressive behavior.

Keerthy HK, Mohan CD, Sivaraman Siveen K, et al.
Novel synthetic biscoumarins target tumor necrosis factor-α in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(46):31879-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
TNF is a pleotropic cytokine known to be involved in the progression of several pro-inflammatory disorders. Many therapeutic agents have been designed to counteract the effect of TNF in rheumatoid arthritis as well as a number of cancers. In the present study we have synthesized and evaluated the anti-cancer activity of novel biscoumarins in vitro and in vivo. Among new compounds, BIHC was found to be the most cytotoxic agent against the HepG2 cell line while exhibiting less toxicity toward normal hepatocytes. Furthermore, BIHC inhibited the proliferation of various hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Subsequently, using in silico target prediction, BIHC was predicted as a TNF blocker. Experimental validation was able to confirm this hypothesis, where BIHC could significantly inhibit the recombinant mouse TNF-α binding to its antibody with an IC50 of 16.5 μM. Furthermore, in silico docking suggested a binding mode of BIHC similar to a ligand known to disrupt the native, trimeric structure of TNF, and also validated with molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we have demonstrated the down-regulation of p65 phosphorylation and other NF-κB-regulated gene products upon BIHC treatment, and on the phenotypic level the compound shows inhibition of CXCL12-induced invasion of HepG2 cells. Also, we demonstrate that BIHC inhibits infiltration of macrophages to the peritoneal cavity and suppresses the activity of TNF-α in vivo in mice primed with thioglycollate broth and lipopolysaccharide. We comprehensively validated the TNF-α inhibitory efficacy of BIHC in an inflammatory bowel disease mice model.

Ganapathi SK, Beggs AD, Hodgson SV, Kumar D
Expression and DNA methylation of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in colorectal cancer and their prognostic significance.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(8):1581-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) progression is associated with suppression of host cell-mediated immunity and local immune escape mechanisms. Our aim was to assess the immune function in terms of expression of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in CRC.
METHODS: Sixty patients with CRC and 15 matched controls were recruited. TaqMan quantitative PCR and methylation-specific PCR was performed for expression and DNA methylation analysis of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3. Survival analysis was performed over a median follow-up of 48 months.
RESULTS: TNF was suppressed in tumour and IFNG was suppressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with CRC. Tumours showed enhanced expression of FOXP3 and was significantly higher when tumour size was >38 mm (median tumour size; P=0.006, Mann-Whitney U-test). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell IFNG was suppressed in recurrent CRC (P=0.01). Methylated TNFpromoter (P=0.003) and TNFexon1 (P=0.001) were associated with significant suppression of TNF in tumours. Methylated FOXP3cpg was associated with significant suppression of FOXP3 in both PBMC (P=0.018) and tumours (P=0.010). Reduced PBMC FOXP3 expression was associated with significantly worse overall survival (HR=8.319, P=0.019).
CONCLUSIONS: We have detected changes in the expression of immunomodulatory genes that could act as biomarkers for prognosis and future immunotherapeutic strategies.

Snyder M, Huang J, Huang XY, Zhang JJ
A signal transducer and activator of transcription 3·Nuclear Factor κB (Stat3·NFκB) complex is necessary for the expression of fascin in metastatic breast cancer cells in response to interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(43):30082-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/10/2015 Related Publications
IL-6 mediated activation of Stat3 is a major signaling pathway in the process of breast cancer metastasis. One important mechanism by which the IL-6/Stat3 pathway promotes metastasis is through transcriptional regulation of the actin-bundling protein fascin. In this study, we further analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the fascin gene promoter. We show that in addition to IL-6, TNF-α increases Stat3 and NFκB binding to the fascin promoter to induce its expression. We also show that NFκB is required for Stat3 recruitment to the fascin promoter in response to IL-6. Furthermore, Stat3 and NFκB form a protein complex in response to cytokine stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that an overlapping STAT/NFκB site in a highly conserved 160-bp region of the fascin promoter is sufficient and necessary to induce transcription in response to IL-6 and TNF-α.

Gu X, Yao M, Wang S, et al.
[Inhibitory effects of intervention of the TNFa/NF-kappaB signaling pathway activation on hepatoma cell proliferation].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2014; 22(6):434-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effects of intervention of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway activation on hepatoma cell proliferation and to explore its mechanism.
METHODS: A rodent hepatoma model was established by feeding N-2-fluorenylacetamide (2-N-FAA) to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Human subjects with various liver diseases were enrolled in the study, and serum and peripheral blood nuclear cells were collected for analysis. HepG2 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with anti-TNFa (monoclonal antibody, mAb) to down-regulate its expression or transfected with siRNA targeting the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB to inhibit its activation. The liver cell line L02 was used as a control. Changes in protein and gene expression levels of NF-kappaB and TNFa were analyzed by Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR, respectively. Changes in the cell cycle or apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry or Annexin-V/PI double-labeling assay, respectively.
RESULTS: TNFa and NF-kappaB expression showed increasing trends during the malignant transformation of rat hepatocytes, and the differential expression patterns showed association with histopathological alterations in the hepatocytes. Following treatment with the TNFa mAb, the HepG2 cells showed a higher percentage of apoptotic cells than the untreated control cells (21.45% +/- 4.07% vs. 5.63% +/- 0.93%, q =10.07, P less than 0.01).There was a significant difference in the rate of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the p65-siRNA transfected cells (66.23% +/- 1.29% vs. untreated control cells: 59.00% +/- 1.02%, q =10.98, P less than 0.01). The decreased expression of TNFa and NF-kappaB in cell culture supernatants was positively correlated with the dose of treatment (r =0.89, P less than 0.01), with the most robust decreases being achieved with the highest concentrations ( P less than 0.01). NF-kappaB expression was significantly higher in the HepG2 cells than in the L02 cells, and transfection of p65-siRNA reduced the mRNA (93%) and protein (62%) levels and increased the cell apoptosis index (to 85%).
CONCLUSION: Proliferation of hepatoma cells may be significantly inhibited by intervening in the activation of the TNFa/NF-kappaB signaling pathway, which promotes cell apoptosis and blocks cell cycling.

Takata K, Hong ME, Sitthinamsuwan P, et al.
Primary cutaneous NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type and CD56-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma: a cellular lineage and clinicopathologic study of 60 patients from Asia.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary cutaneous, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (PC-ENKTL), is a rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated neoplasm with poorly defined clinicopathologic features. We performed a multinational retrospective study of PC-ENKTL and CD56-positive EBV-negative peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PC-CD56+PTCL) in Asia in an attempt to elucidate their clinicopathologic features. Using immunohistochemistry for T-cell receptors (TCRs), in situ hybridization for EBV, and TCR gene rearrangement, we classified 60 tumors into 51 with PC-ENKTL (20 of NK-cell, 17 T-cell, and 14 indeterminate lineages) and 9 with PC-CD56+PTCL. Tumors of T-cell origin accounted for 46% of PC-ENKTLs with half of these cases being TCR-silent. As compared with T-lineage tumors, PC-ENKTLs of NK-cell lineage had more frequent involvement of regional lymph nodes and more frequently CD8-negative and CD56-positive. Cases of PC-ENKTL showed more frequent tumor necrosis, younger age, and a higher frequency of CD16 and CD30 expression than cases of PC-CD56+PTCL. CD56-positive T-lineage PC-ENKTL tumors (n=8) had more localized disease in the TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) staging and were more often of γδ T-cell origin compared with cases of PC-CD56+PTCL (n=9). PC-ENKTLs and PC-CD56+PTCLs were equally aggressive, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 25%. Tumor necrosis and CD16 expression may serve as useful surrogates for differentiating PC-ENKTL from PC-CD56+PTCL. A single lesion, an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, and the presence of B symptoms were independent poor prognostic factors for PC-ENKTL in multivariate analysis. Further studies with more cases are warranted to delineate the clinicopathologic features and significance of EBV in these rare lymphomas.

Sakurai T, Kashida H, Watanabe T, et al.
Stress response protein cirp links inflammation and tumorigenesis in colitis-associated cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(21):6119-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is caused by chronic intestinal inflammation and is reported to be associated with refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Defective apoptosis of inflammatory cell populations seems to be a relevant pathogenetic mechanism in refractory IBD. We assessed the involvement of stress response protein cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (Cirp) in the development of intestinal inflammation and CAC. In the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis, expression of Cirp correlated significantly with the expression of TNFα, IL23/IL17, antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and stem cell markers such as Sox2, Bmi1, and Lgr5. The expression of Cirp and Sox2 was enhanced in the colonic mucosae of refractory ulcerative colitis, suggesting that Cirp expression might be related to increased cancer risk. In human CAC specimens, inflammatory cells expressed Cirp protein. Cirp(-/-) mice given dextran sodium sulfate exhibited decreased susceptibility to colonic inflammation through decreased expression of TNFα, IL23, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL in colonic lamina propria cells compared with similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In the murine CAC model, Cirp deficiency decreased the expression of TNFα, IL23/IL17, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Sox2 and the number of Dclk1(+) cells, leading to attenuated tumorigenic potential. Transplantation of Cirp(-/-) bone marrow into WT mice reduced tumorigenesis, indicating the importance of Cirp in hematopoietic cells. Cirp promotes the development of intestinal inflammation and colorectal tumors through regulating apoptosis and production of TNFα and IL23 in inflammatory cells.

Farooqi AA, Qureshi MZ, Rehman A, et al.
Prostate cancer: leading and misleading routes to TRAIL of death.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014; 27(5):1371-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a multifaceted disease that arises because of misrepresentation of linear and integrated signaling cascades that regulate gene network in normal and cancer cells. Programmed cell death is modulated by intracellular regulators within each cell and various lines of evidence suggest that there is under- expression and over-expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene subsets respectively. Apoptosis is a response to the cellular microenvironment, and the cell microenvironment can be regulated by multiple signaling cascades at a higher organizational level by suppressing survival signals notably at genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Unquestionably, drug-discovery approaches over the last decade aiming at neutralizing anti-apoptotic proteins, over-expressing pro-apoptotic proteins and enhancing the cell surface appearance of TRAIL receptors have revolutionized our current information about inducing and maximizing TRAIL mediated signaling in resistant prostate cancer phenotype. In this mini-review we outline outstanding developments in the field of prostate cancer that have played a role in understanding the underlying mechanisms that control TRAIL mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which may be helpful in the development of cancer therapies based on the apoptotic pathway.

Golozar A, Beaty TH, Gravitt PE, et al.
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk Chinese populations: Possible role for vascular epithelial growth factor A.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(16):2855-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms involved in wound healing play some role in carcinogenesis in multiple organs, likely by creating a chronic inflammatory milieu. This study sought to assess the role of genetic markers in selected inflammation-related genes involved in wound healing (interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1b, IL-1 Receptor type I (IL-1Ra), IL-1 Receptor type II (IL-1Rb), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member (TNFRSF)1A, nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB)1, NF-kB2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A and P-53) in risk to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: We genotyped 125 tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s in 410 cases and 377 age and sex matched disease-free individuals from Nutritional Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort, and 546 cases and 556 controls individually matched for age, sex and neighbourhood from Shanxi case-control study, both conducted in high-risk areas of north-central China (1985-2007). Cox proportional-hazard models and conditional logistic regression models were used for SNPs analyses for NIT and Shanxi, respectively. Fisher's inverse test statistics were used to obtain gene-level significance.
RESULTS: Multiple SNPs were significantly associated with OSCC in both studies, however, none retained their significance after a conservative Bonferroni adjustment. Empiric p-values for tag SNPs in VEGFA in NIT were highly concentrated in the lower tail of the distribution, suggesting this gene may be influencing risk. Permutation tests confirmed the significance of this pattern. At the gene level, VEGFA yielded an empiric significance (P=0.027) in NIT. We also observed some evidence for interaction between environmental factors and some VEGFA tag SNPs.
CONCLUSION: Our finding adds further evidence for a potential role for markers in the VEGFA gene in the development and progression of early precancerous lesions of oesophagus.

Beury DW, Parker KH, Nyandjo M, et al.
Cross-talk among myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, and tumor cells impacts the inflammatory milieu of solid tumors.
J Leukoc Biol. 2014; 96(6):1109-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
MDSC and macrophages are present in most solid tumors and are important drivers of immune suppression and inflammation. It is established that cross-talk between MDSC and macrophages impacts anti-tumor immunity; however, interactions between tumor cells and MDSC or macrophages are less well studied. To examine potential interactions between these cells, we studied the impact of MDSC, macrophages, and four murine tumor cell lines on each other, both in vitro and in vivo. We focused on IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and NO, as these molecules are produced by macrophages, MDSC, and many tumor cells; are present in most solid tumors; and regulate inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that MDSC-produced IL-10 decreased macrophage IL-6 and TNF-α and increased NO. IL-6 indirectly regulated MDSC IL-10. Tumor cells increased MDSC IL-6 and vice versa. Tumor cells also increased macrophage IL-6 and NO and decreased macrophage TNF-α. Tumor cell-driven macrophage IL-6 was reduced by MDSC, and tumor cells and MDSC enhanced macrophage NO. In vivo analysis of solid tumors identified IL-6 and IL-10 as the dominant cytokines and demonstrated that these molecules were produced predominantly by stromal cells. These results suggest that inflammation within solid tumors is regulated by the ratio of tumor cells to MDSC and macrophages and that interactions of these cells have the potential to alter significantly the inflammatory milieu within the tumor microenvironment.

Du Q, Jiang L, Wang X, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor-α promotes the lymphangiogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma through nuclear factor-κB-mediated upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(10):1261-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C is an important lymphangiogenic factor involved in the lymphangiogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) and the lymph node metastasis of the tumor. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a key inflammatory cytokine responding to chronic inflammation of GBC, has been reported to stimulate the expression of VEGF-C in some nonneoplastic cells. But whether TNF-α promotes the expression of VEGF-C in GBC has yet to be determined. Therefore, in the present study, the concentration of TNF-α and VEGF-C and the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in the clinical GBC specimens were analyzed, and a linear correlation was found between the concentration of TNF-α and that of VEGF-C, the lymphatic vessel density (LVD); The transcription and protein level of VEGF-C in NOZ cell line were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and TNF-α enhanced the expression of VEGF-C in NOZ cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. Lymphatic tube formation in vitro was observed in a three-dimensional coculture system consisting of HDLECs and NOZ cell lines, and lymphatic vessels of GBC in nude mice model was detected by immunohistochemistry. TNF-α promoted the tube formation of lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro and the lymphangiogenesis of GBC in nude mice; The nuclear factor (NF)-κB binding site on the VEGF-C promoter was identified using Site-directed mutagenesis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Taken together, TNF-α can upregulate the expression of VEGF-C and promote the lymphangiogenesis of GBC via NF-κB combining with the promoter of VEGF-C.

Nakagawa H, Umemura A, Taniguchi K, et al.
ER stress cooperates with hypernutrition to trigger TNF-dependent spontaneous HCC development.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(3):331-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/09/2015 Related Publications
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), disorders that increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To determine whether and how ER stress contributes to obesity-driven hepatic tumorigenesis we fed wild-type (WT) and MUP-uPA mice, in which hepatocyte ER stress is induced by plasminogen activator expression, with high-fat diet. Although both strains were equally insulin resistant, the MUP-uPA mice exhibited more liver damage, more immune infiltration, and increased lipogenesis and, as a result, displayed classical NASH signs and developed typical steatohepatitic HCC. Both NASH and HCC development were dependent on TNF produced by inflammatory macrophages that accumulate in the MUP-uPA liver in response to hepatocyte ER stress.

Borge M, Remes Lenicov F, Nannini PR, et al.
The expression of sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is impaired by tumor microenvironmental signals and enhanced by piceatannol and R406.
J Immunol. 2014; 193(6):3165-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the progressive accumulation of clonal B lymphocytes. Proliferation occurs in lymphoid tissues upon interaction of leukemic cells with a supportive microenvironment. Therefore, the mobilization of tissue-resident CLL cells into the circulation is a useful therapeutic strategy to minimize the reservoir of tumor cells within survival niches. Because the exit of normal lymphocytes from lymphoid tissues depends on the presence of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) and the regulated expression of S1P receptor-1 (S1PR1), we investigated whether the expression and function of S1PR1 can be modulated by key microenvironment signals. We found that activation of CLL cells with CXCL12, fibroblast CD40L(+), BCR cross-linking, or autologous nurse-like cells reduces their S1PR1 expression and the migratory response toward S1P. Moreover, we found that S1PR1 expression was reduced in the proliferative/activated subset of leukemic cells compared with the quiescent subset from the same patient. Similarly, bone marrow-resident CLL cells expressing high levels of the activation marker CD38 showed a lower expression of S1PR1 compared with CD38(low) counterparts. Finally, given that treatment with BCR-associated kinase inhibitors induces a transient redistribution of leukemic cells from lymphoid tissues to circulation, we studied the effect of the Syk inhibitors piceatannol and R406 on S1PR1 expression and function. We found that they enhance S1PR1 expression in CLL cells and their migratory response toward S1P. Based on our results, we suggest that the regulated expression of S1PR1 might modulate the egress of the leukemic clone from lymphoid tissues.

Piras-Straub K, Khairzada K, Trippler M, et al.
TRAIL expression levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma have implications for tumor growth, recurrence and survival.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(4):E154-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proapoptotic molecule TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has earned attention because of its ability to induce apoptosis in liver cancer cells without damaging normal liver cells. It may play an important role in preventing the development and outgrowth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TRAIL expression was investigated in a large series of human HCCs. We analyzed liver tissue from 108 patients undergoing partial liver resection (PLR) or liver transplantation (LT) because of either HCC or other indications. TRAIL expression was correlated with the cause of liver disease, demographic and clinical variables and pathologic properties. Our analysis found that in 66% of HCCs TRAIL expression was significantly lower than in the surrounding non-cancerous liver tissue (p≤0.012). Separation by cause of disease showed that HCC TRAIL mRNA expression was lower in almost all groups than in non-cancerous tissue but most significantly lower in NASH-associated liver tumors. Interestingly, low HCC TRAIL expression was found to correlate with tumor size (p≤0.007) and stage, as well as with tumor recurrence after resection and poor survival rates. The results of this study suggest that low TRAIL mRNA levels may be both a dominant feature in HCC development and growth and a predictor of tumor recurrence and poorer survival rates.

Liu HN, Shi HR, Zhao XL, et al.
The TLR3, PI3K, survivin, FasL, and Fas genes as major risk factors of occurrence and development of cervical cancer disease.
Gene. 2014; 550(1):27-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the role of TLR3/PI3K signals in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer disease, TLR3-siRNA was used to block key signaling pathways involved in cervical cancer metastasis that are pivotal to metastatic tumor cells but not to normal cells under ordinary physiologic conditions. Results show that tumor U14 cell growth, migration and invasion in TLR3-siRNA treatment group were significantly decreased. Through LY294002 suppressing targeted gene, the LY294002 treatment specifically and significantly knocked down the expressions of tumor TLR3 and PI3K proteins in cervical cancer mice. Furthermore, expressions of tumor Survivin and FasL proteins were markedly suppressed, whereas expressions of Fas protein were upregulated in LY294002 treatment group mice. LY294002 treatment suppressed tumor growth and increased the thymus and spleen indeces and survival days of cervical cancer mice. This study demonstrates that TLR3-siRNA and LY294002 treatments can markedly suppress cervical cancer cell invasion and tumor growth and increase survival life by silencing targeted genes.

Kapitanović S, Čačev T, Catela Ivković T, et al.
TNFα gene/protein in tumorigenesis of sporadic colon adenocarcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(2):285-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Inherited polymorphisms in immunomodulatory genes such as cytokines may contribute to variation in immunological response and genetic susceptibility for complex diseases, including cancer. TNFα can mediate tumor progression by inducing proliferation, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. The aim of our study was to examine the allelic frequencies of TNFα promoter SNPs, -1031 T/C, -857 C/T, -308 G/A and -238 G/A, in patients with sporadic colon adenocarcinoma in order to investigate the possible role of these SNPs in susceptibility to sporadic colon cancer. Another aim of this study was to examine the influence of TNFα SNPs on TNFα mRNA and protein expression in colon tumors and their possible role in the development and progression of this type of tumor.
RESULTS: The distribution of all four TNFα SNP genotypes in patients showed no significant difference compared to controls. No statistically significant difference in TNFα mRNA expression in tumors and corresponding normal mucous tissue was found (p=0.14). A statistically significant (p=0.028) difference was found in TNFα mRNA expression between histological grade 1 and histological grade 2 and 3 tumors. Additionally, a statistically significant correlation (p=0.03) was found between TNFα-857 C/T genotypes and TNFα mRNA expression in tumor tissue. TNFα mRNA expression was significantly higher in the tumor tissue of patients with -857 CT and -857 TT genotypes. Most of the tumors (78.26%) were positive for TNFα protein. No correlation was found between the TNFα protein expression and clinicopathological characteristics as well as TNFα genotypes. However, patients with TNFα protein negative tumors had longer survival but the result was not statistically significant (p=0.365).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the role of TNFα as one of the immunomodulatory genes in the progression of sporadic colon cancer.

Mak PY, Mak DH, Ruvolo V, et al.
Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain modulates second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases mimetic-induced cell death through BIRC2/MAP3K14 signalling in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(3):376-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of the apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC, also termed NOL3) protein predicts adverse outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and confers drug resistance to AML cells. The second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC, also termed DIABLO) mimetic, birinapant, promotes extrinsic apoptosis in AML cells. SMAC mimetics induce cleavage of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins, leading to stabilization of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (MAP3K14, also termed NIK) and activation of non-canonical NF-κB signalling. To enhance the therapeutic potential of SMAC mimetics in AML, we investigated the regulation and role of ARC in birinapant-induced apoptosis. We showed that birinapant increases ARC in AML and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Downregulation of MAP3K14 by siRNA decreased ARC levels and suppressed birinapant-induced ARC increase. Reverse-phase protein array analysis of 511 samples from newly diagnosed AML patients showed that BIRC2 (also termed cIAP1) and ARC were inversely correlated. Knockdown of ARC sensitized, while overexpression attenuated, birinapant-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ARC knockdown in MSCs sensitized co-cultured AML cells to birinapant-induced apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that ARC is regulated via BIRC2/MAP3K14 signalling and its overexpression in AML or MSCs can function as a resistant factor to birinapant-induced leukaemia cell death, suggesting that strategies to inhibit ARC will improve the therapeutic potential of SMAC mimetics.

Futakuchi M, Sato S
[Mechanism for bone metastasis].
Clin Calcium. 2014; 24(8):1137-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells in the bone metastasis would acquire their characteristic malignant potentials by breaking through the struggle for existence in the various metastasis steps, all of which are required for the cancer cells in the bone microenvironment to emerge as clinical bone metastasis. We have demonstrated that receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) was involved in the tumor-stromal interaction in the bone microenvironment and TGFβ stored in the bone matrix was released with the bone destruction, which promoted the proliferation of cancer cells in the bone. We also demonstrated that epigenetics, which is the transcriptional regulatory mechanism without gene mutation, was involved in the acquisition of drug resistance in the cancer cells. We believe that the mechanisms for bone metastasis formation would be fully elucidated in the near future, and the molecular-targeted therapies, which was developed based on these findings, would relief the patients from the fear of death.

Chen SS, Chiorazzi N
Murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Semin Hematol. 2014; 51(3):188-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a genetically complex disease, with multiple factors having an impact on onset, progression, and response to therapy. Genetic differences/abnormalities have been found in hematopoietic stem cells from patients, as well as in B lymphocytes of individuals with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who may develop the disease. Furthermore, after the onset of CLL, additional genetic alterations occur over time, often causing disease worsening and altering patient outcomes. Therefore, being able to genetically engineer mouse models that mimic CLL or at least certain aspects of the disease will help us understand disease mechanisms and improve treatments. This notwithstanding, because neither the genetic aberrations responsible for leukemogenesis and progression nor the promoting factors that support these are likely identical in character or influences for all patients, genetically engineered mouse models will only completely mimic CLL when all of these factors are precisely defined. In addition, multiple genetically engineered models may be required because of the heterogeneity in susceptibility genes among patients that can have an effect on genetic and environmental characteristics influencing disease development and outcome. For these reasons, we review the major murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models in use at the present time, aiming to report the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Kanagavelu S, Gupta S, Wu X, et al.
In vivo effects of lattice radiation therapy on local and distant lung cancer: potential role of immunomodulation.
Radiat Res. 2014; 182(2):149-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation is a potent immune-modulator that elicits cell death upon tumor, stromal and angiogenic compartments of tumor microenvironment. Here, we test a novel approach of high-dose radiation delivery using three dimensional volume based lattice radiation therapy (LRT) to understand the impact of different volume irradiation in eliciting both local and metastatic/distant tumor control through modulation of tumor immune micro-environment. To study such effects of LRT, tumors were implanted in both hind legs of C57BL/6 mice using Lewis lung carcinoma 1 (LLC1) cells. Mice were divided into five groups: untreated; partial tumor volume groups included two 10% vertices, one 20% vertex and one 50% vertex of the total tumor volume; and 100% open-field irradiation. Tumors implanted in the left flank were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy while the tumors in the right flank were unirradiated. Tumor growth and regression as well as immune responses (such as Th1 and Th2; T-cell infiltration) were determined after radiation treatment. Results demonstrated that both 100% open-field irradiation and 20% volume irradiation (in two 10% volumes) resulted in significant growth delay in the irradiated tumor. Further, all types of radiation exposures, partial or 100% volume, demonstrated distal effectiveness, however, 20% volume irradiation (in two 10% volumes) and 50% tumor volume irradiation led to maximum growth delay. Mice treated with partial tumor volume radiation induced a robust IFN-γ and Th1 response when compared to whole-tumor irradiation and down-modulated Th2 functions. The presence of increased CD3+ cells and TRAIL in partially irradiated tumor volumes correlated well with tumor growth delay. Further, serum obtained from any of the LRT treated mice caused growth inhibition of endothelial cells when compared to serum obtained from either untreated or open-field irradiated groups. These results indicate that high-dose partial volume irradiation can cause an improved distant effect than the total tumor volume irradiation through activating the host immune system.

Shen Y, Liu Q, Luo Y, et al.
Enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of cytokine-induced killer cells transfected with IL3PE38KDEL gene against acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(12):2019-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, one of the feasible and effective methods of adoptive immunotherapy, have shown anti-leukemia activity in vivo and in vitro. But the strategy exhibits limited cytotoxic activity in clinical studies. In this study, CIK cells were transfected with an interleukin-3/Pseudomonas exotoxin gene (IL3PE38KDEL). RT-PCR and ELISA were used to verify the expression of IL3PE38KDEL in the transfected CIK cells. These cells released 1,186.7 ± 149.6 pg IL3PE38KDEL/10(4) cells over 48 h into the medium and the culture supernatant selectively killed IL3 receptor(IL3R)-positive HL60 cells, but not IL3R-negative K562 cells. Moreover, IL3PE38KDEL transfection did not influence phenotypes and cytokine production of CIK cells. Co-cultured with leukemia cells, IL3PE38KDEL transfected CIK cells showed enhanced cytotoxicity against IL3R-positive HL60 cells at all effector-to-target (E:T) ratios, but exerted a basal anti-leukemia activity against IL3R-negative K562 cells. Our findings demonstrate that IL3PE38KDEL gene transfection may be a novel strategy for improving anti-leukemia activity of CIK cells.

Giordano M, Roncagalli R, Bourdely P, et al.
The tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, A20) imposes a brake on antitumor activity of CD8 T cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(30):11115-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/09/2015 Related Publications
The transcription factor NF-κB is central to inflammatory signaling and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of the NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled by several negative feedback mechanisms, including A20, an ubiquitin-modifying enzyme encoded by the tnfaip3 gene. Mice with selective deletion of A20 in myeloid, dendritic, or B cells recapitulate some human inflammatory pathology. As we observed high expression of A20 transcripts in dysfunctional CD8 T cells in an autochthonous melanoma, we analyzed the role of A20 in regulation of CD8 T-cell functions, using mice in which A20 was selectively deleted in mature conventional T cells. These mice developed lymphadenopathy and some organ infiltration by T cells but no splenomegaly and no detectable pathology. A20-deleted CD8 T cells had increased sensitivity to antigen stimulation with production of large amounts of IL-2 and IFNγ, correlated with sustained nuclear expression of NF-κB components reticuloendotheliosis oncogene c-Rel and p65. Overexpression of A20 by retroviral transduction of CD8 T cells dampened their intratumor accumulation and antitumor activity. In contrast, relief from the A20 brake in NF-κB activation in adoptively transferred antitumor CD8 T cells led to improved control of melanoma growth. Tumor-infiltrating A20-deleted CD8 T cells had enhanced production of IFNγ and TNFα and reduced expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1. As manipulation of A20 expression in CD8 T cells did not result in pathologic manifestations in the mice, we propose it as a candidate to be targeted to increase antitumor efficiency of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.

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