Gene Summary

Gene:MMP9; matrix metallopeptidase 9
Aliases: GELB, CLG4B, MMP-9, MANDP2
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The enzyme encoded by this gene degrades type IV and V collagens. Studies in rhesus monkeys suggest that the enzyme is involved in IL-8-induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow, and murine studies suggest a role in tumor-associated tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:matrix metalloproteinase-9
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (42)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tumor Burden
  • Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator
  • p21-Activated Kinases
  • Chromosome 20
  • MMP9
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Vimentin
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • Viral Core Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Cell Movement
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • Risk Factors
  • Xanthones
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • RHOA
  • Wound Healing
  • rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Tongue Neoplasms
  • rho-Associated Kinases
  • TIMP1
  • TGFB1
  • Up-Regulation
  • Trans-Splicing
  • siRNA
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Survival Rate
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Twist Transcription Factor
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Uterine Cancer
  • TIMP2
  • Tumor Microenvironment
Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP9 (cancer-related)

Liu Q, Sheng W, Dong M, et al.
Gli1 promotes transforming growth factor-beta1- and epidermal growth factor-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
Surgery. 2015; 158(1):211-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog signaling pathway and its key target effector Gli1 are linked closely to the development of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many cancers. The definite function of Gli1 in regulating the EMT of pancreatic cancer (PC), however, is still unclear.
METHODS: At the cell and tissue levels, we investigated the role of Gli1 in the initiation of EMT in PC with and without external stimulus treatments.
RESULTS: The immunohistochemistry results showed that Gli1 was associated positively with MMP9 but not with E-cad or Vimentin. Gli1 expression was associated positively with tumor T (P = .025) and Union for International Cancer Control stage (P = .032), whereas MMP9 expression was associated positively with lymph node metastasis (P = .017) and Union for International Cancer Control stage (P = .006). Furthermore, patients with Gli1 and MMP9 coexpression had poor overall survival (P = .015). Silencing of Gli1 alone without external stimulus had no effect on EMT but inhibited transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFβ1)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in PANC-1, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3 PC cell lines, along with the inhibition of TGFβ1- and EGF-induced EMT-like cell morphology and invasion, down-regulation of E-cad, and up-regulation of MMP9 and Vimentin in those 3 cell lines, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Gli1 silencing alone has no effect on EMT initiation; however, it exerts a protumor role in the aggressive invasion of PC cells by promoting TGFβ1- and EGF-induced EMT.

Ito Y, Ishiguro H, Kobayashi N, et al.
Adipocyte-derived monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) promotes prostate cancer progression through the induction of MMP-2 activity.
Prostate. 2015; 75(10):1009-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity is known to be associated with prostate cancer development and progression, but the detailed mechanism is not clear. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted from cancer cells, stromal cells, and adipocytes, and it is involved in prostate cancer progression. Here we investigated the biological role of MCP-1 secreted from adipocytes for prostate cancer cells.
METHODS: Human pre-adipocytes (HPAds) were cultured and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Conditioned medium (CM) from HPAd cells was obtained using phenol red-free RPMI1640 medium. We performed a cytokine membrane array analysis to detect cytokines in the CM. To characterize the physiological function of MCP-1 in the CM, we performed an MTT-assay, a wound-healing and invasion assay with anti-MCP-1 antibody using three prostate cancer cell lines: DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities were evaluated by gelatin zymography. A qPCR and Western blotting were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-2.
RESULTS: The cytokine membrane array of the CM showed a strong signal of MCP-1compared to the control medium, and we thus focused our attention on MCP-1 in the CM. The CM up-regulated the cancer cell proliferation, and the neutralization by anti-MCP-1 antibody inhibited the proliferative effect of the prostate cancer cell lines. The CM greatly increased the invasive activity in the prostate cancer cell lines, and anti-MCP-1 antibody decreased the invasiveness. Gelatin zymography revealed that the CM markedly enhanced the enzymatic activity of MMP-2, and anti-MCP-1 antibody down-regulated its effect. MMP-2 mRNA expression was undetected and the MMP-2 protein level was unchanged between the control medium and CM in DU145 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1 from adipocytes enhances the growth and invasion activity of prostate cancer cells. The inhibition of MCP-1 derived from adipocytes might be an effective treatment for prostate cancer.

Yoon J, Ko YS, Cho SJ, et al.
Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3-induced metastatic potential in gastric cancer cells is enhanced by glycogen synthase kinase-3β.
APMIS. 2015; 123(5):373-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) can promote cancer metastasis, but its underlying regulatory mechanisms in gastric cancer cell invasiveness still remain obscure. We investigated the relationship between STAT3 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and its significance in metastatic potential in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical tissue array analysis of 267 human gastric carcinoma specimens showed that the expressions of active forms of STAT3 (pSTAT3) and GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) were found in 68 (25%) and 124 (46%) of 267 gastric cancer cases, respectively, showing a positive correlation (p < 0.001). Cell culture experiments using gastric cancer cell lines SNU-638 and SNU-668 revealed that STAT3 suppression did not affect pGSK-3β expression, whereas GSK-3β inhibition reduced pSTAT3 expression. With respect to metastatic potential in gastric cancer cells, both STAT3 suppression and GSK-3β inhibition decreased cell migration, invasion, and mesenchymal marker (Snail, Vimentin, and MMP9) expression. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of STAT3 and GSK-3β on cell migration were synergistic. These results demonstrated that STAT3 and GSK-3β are positively associated and synergistically contribute to metastatic potential in gastric cancer cells. Thus, dual use of STAT3 and GSK-3β inhibitors may enhance the efficacy of the anti-metastatic treatment of gastric cancer.

Liu H, Ren G, Wang T, et al.
Aberrantly expressed Fra-1 by IL-6/STAT3 transactivation promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(4):459-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in tumor microenvironment has been suggested to promote development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) plays a critical role in IL-6 induced CRC aggressiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In CRC cell lines, the expression of Fra-1 gene was found significantly upregulated during IL-6-driven EMT process. The Fra-1 induction occurred at transcriptional level in a manner dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), during which both phosphorylated and acetylated post-translational modifications were required for STAT3 activation to directly bind to the Fra-1 promoter. Importantly, RNA interference-based attenuation of either STAT3 or Fra-1 prevented IL-6-induced EMT, cell migration and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of Fra-1 markedly reversed the STAT3-knockdown effect and enhanced CRC cell aggressiveness by regulating the expression of EMT-promoting factors (ZEB1, Snail, Slug, MMP-2 and MMP-9). Furthermore, Fra-1 levels were positively correlated with the local invasion depth as well as lymph node and liver metastasis in a total of 229 CRC patients. Intense immunohistochemical staining of Fra-1 was observed at the tumor marginal area adjacent to inflammatory cells and in parallel with IL-6 secretion and STAT3 activation in CRC tissues. Together, this study proposes the existence of an aberrant IL-6/STAT3/Fra-1 signaling axis leading to CRC aggressiveness through EMT induction, which suggests novel therapeutic opportunities for the malignant disease.

Tsuru A, Setoguchi T, Matsunoshita Y, et al.
Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 1 promotes osteosarcoma metastasis via matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(7):1232-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 31/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activation of the Notch pathway has been reported in various types of cancers. However, the role of the hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 1 (HEY1) in osteosarcoma is unknown. We examined the function of HEY1 in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: Expression of HEY1 was studied in human osteosarcoma. The effects of HEY1 in osteosarcoma were evaluated in vitro and in a xenograft model. Moreover, we examined the function of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) as a downstream effector of HEY1.
RESULTS: HEY1 was upregulated in human osteosarcoma. Knockdown of HEY1 inhibited the invasion of osteosarcoma cell lines. In contrast, the forced expression of HEY1 increased the invasion of mesenchymal stem cell. In addition, lung metastases were significantly inhibited by the knockdown of HEY1. We found that MMP9 was a downstream effector of HEY1 that promotes the invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown of HEY1 decreased the expression of MMP9. Addition of MMP9 rescued the invasion of osteosarcoma cells that had been rendered less invasive by knockdown of HEY1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that HEY1 augmented the metastasis of osteosarcoma via upregulation of MMP9 expression. Therefore, inhibition of HEY1 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing osteosarcoma metastasis.

Li W, Kidiyoor A, Hu Y, et al.
Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):1155-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P < 0.05). While the bladder cancer cell after TGF-β1 treatment showed a significantly reduced wound-closing efficiency at 6, 12, and 24 h, mechanistic analyses demonstrated that different levels of TGF-β1 promotes tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). In summary, our findings suggest that TGF-β1 may inhibit the expression of Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

Xu XT, Tao ZZ, Song QB, et al.
SUZ12 RNA interference inhibits the invasion of gastric carcinoma cells.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014 Nov-Dec; 61(136):2416-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to observe the regulation effects of SUZ12 gene to the invasion of gastric carcinoma cells and the mechanisms, the expressions of SUZ12 protein in 86 patients with different infiltrating degree (Tis-T4), lymph node metastasis (N0-N3) and far metastasis (M0-M1) were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The siRNA to SUZ12 was designed and synthesized and transfected into MKN28 cells. The effects of SUZ12 siRNA to cell invasion were detected by soft agar colony forming test and Transwell cabin model. The related protein was detected by Western-Blot. We found the expression of SUZ12 in gastric carcinoma tissues (23.58±9.89%) was obviously higher than that in para-cancer tissue (1.12%±0.12%) (p<0.01). The expression of SUZ12 was related to the infiltrating degree, and demonstrated an increasing tendency from Tis-T4, or from N0-N3. The expression of SUZ12 in M0 was obviously lower than in M1, p<0.01. The level of SUZ12 was descent obviously after transfected SUZ12 siRNA (p<0.01). The number of cell clone was reduced in dose dependent of siRNA and the cells permeated through filter membrane were decreased after transfected siRNA. Inhibition of SUZ12 caused an obviously descent of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 (0.22±0.06, 0.12±0.03, 0.08±0.02) compared to non transfected group (0.87±0.08, 0.92±0.16, 1.05±0.18) respectively (p<0.01). We draw the conclusion that the expression of SUZ12 is increasing along with the degree of infiltrating and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. SUZ12 siRNA inhibits the invasion of gastric carcinoma cells and the expression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9.

Saxena G, Koli K, de la Garza J, Ogbureke KU
Matrix metalloproteinase 20-dentin sialophosphoprotein interaction in oral cancer.
J Dent Res. 2015; 94(4):584-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP-20), widely regarded as tooth specific, participates with MMP-2 in processing dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) into dentin sialoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein, and dentin glycoprotein. In biochemical system, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 bind with high affinity to, and are activated by, specific small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs): bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and dentin matrix protein 1, respectively. Subsequent reports documented possible biological relevance of SIBLING-MMP interaction in vivo by showing that SIBLINGs are always coexpressed with their MMP partners. However, the cognate MMPs for 2 other SIBLINGs-DSPP and matrix extracellular phosphogylcoprotein-are yet to be identified. Our goal was to investigate MMP-20 expression and to explore preliminary evidence of its interaction with DSPP in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Immunohistochemistry analysis of sections from 21 cases of archived human OSCC tissues showed immunoreactivity for MMP-20 in 18 (86%) and coexpression with DSPP in all 15 cases (71%) positive for DSPP. Similarly, 28 (93%) of 30 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia were positive for MMP-20. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis on OSCC cell lines showed upregulation of MMP-20 protein and mRNA, respectively, while immunofluorescence showed coexpression of MMP-20 and DSPP. Colocalization and potential interaction of MMP-20 with dentin sialoprotein was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitation product from OSCC cell lysate, and in situ proximity ligation assays. Significantly, results of chromatin immunoprecipation revealed a 9-fold enrichment of DSPP at MMP-20 promoter-proximal elements. Our data provide evidence that MMP-20 has a wider tissue distribution than previously acknowledged. MMP-20-DSPP specific interaction, excluding other MMP-20-SIBLING pairings, identifies MMP-20 as DSPP cognate MMP. Furthermore, the strong DSPP enrichment at the MMP-20 promoter suggests a regulatory role in MMP-20 transcription. These novel findings provide the foundation to explore the mechanisms and significance of DSPP-MMP-20 interaction in oral carcinogenesis.

Yin C, Ye J, Zou J, et al.
Role of stromal cells-mediated Notch-1 in the invasion of T-ALL cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2015; 332(1):39-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extra-medullary infiltration is still one of the main causes of recurrence and treatment failure of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Intensive studies revealed that Notch pathway plays an important role in the invasion of tumor cells. Notch pathway can be triggered by binding of Notch receptors on T-ALL cells to their ligands on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), which contributes to the development of T-ALL. However, the effect and molecular mechanisms of BMSCs in invasion of T-ALL cells remain unclear. To explore the effect of Notch-1 on the invasiveness of T-ALL cells, we co-cultured T-ALL cells with BMSCs (from healthy donors)/BMSCs(⁎) (from newly diagnosed T-ALL patients). The results demonstrated that BMSCs/BMSCs(⁎) promoted invasion of T-ALL cells through activating Notch-1 signaling. In particular, T-ALL cells showed a higher invasive potential in the presence of BMSCs(⁎) than BMSCs. Knockdown of Notch-1 prevented the positive effect of stromal cells-mediated invasion. Our study also showed that BMSCs/BMSCs(⁎)-induced Notch-1 activation increased the expression of matrix metalloprote inase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloprote inase-9 (MMP-9), which increased invasiveness. These results provided theoretical and laboratory basis for the prevention and treatment of extra-medullary infiltration of T-ALL cells.

Ma C, Peng C, Lu X, et al.
Downregulation of FOXP3 inhibits invasion and immune escape in cholangiocarcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 458(2):234-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
FOXP3 is known as a master control of regulatory T cells with recently studies indicating its expression in several tumor cells. In order to study the precise role of FOXP3 in cholangiocarcinoma, FOXP3 was knocked down in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Down regulation of FOXP3 inhibits tumor cell invasion by reducing the quantity of MMP-9 and MMP-2. With FOXP3 knocking down, IL-10 and TGF-β1 secreted by cancer cells diminishes and the cell survival of T cells is significant up-regulation. These results suggest that FOXP3 plays an important role in tumor malignant phenotype, especially the invasion and immune escape.

Wu FL, Li RT, Yang M, et al.
Gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles encapsulating 5-fluorouridine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhance the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemical therapeutics.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 363(1):7-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of the transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (TFAP2E) has been attributed to 5-fluorouridine (5-FU) sensitivity. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), an epigenetic drug that inhibits DNA methylation, is able to cause reactive expression of TFAP2E by demethylating activity. This property might be useful in enhancing the sensitivity of cancer cells to 5-FU. However, the effect of DAC is transient because of its instability. Here, we report the use of intelligent gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles (NPs) to coencapsulate and deliver DAC and 5-FU to gastric cancer (GC) cells. The results showed that NPs encapsulating DAC, 5-FU, or both could be effectively internalized by GC cells. Furthermore, we found that the NPs enhanced the stability of DAC, resulting in improved re-expression of TFAP2E. Thus, the incorporation of DAC into NPs significantly enhanced the sensitivity of GC cells to 5-FU by inhibiting cell growth rate and inducing cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that the gelatinases-stimuli NPs are an efficient means to simultaneously deliver epigenetic and chemotherapeutic drugs that may effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

Wang L, Wang B, Fang M, et al.
Identification of microRNAs and target genes involved in serous ovarian carcinoma and their influence on survival.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014; 35(6):655-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To identify the expression of key microRNAs and their predicted target genes involved in serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) and correlation between miRNAs and prognosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect the expression of miR-145, miR-143, miR-146a, miR-93, miR-29a, miR-18a, and miR-200a in tissues of 56 primary SOC patients and 30 benign lesion patients. Four protein (MUC1, FAP, MMP2, MMP9) expressions were identified by western blotting and immunohistochemical stain. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the relationship of these miRNAs with overall survival rate.
RESULTS: In SOC tissue, expression of miR-200a, miR-93, miR-146a, and miR-18a were up-regulated, while miR-145, miR-143, miR-29a were down-regulated. MUC1, FAP, MMP2, and MMP9 were overexpressed in SOC. MiR-143 or miR-145 higher expressed patients had significantly higher overall survival (OS) rates, while miR-93 or miR-200a lower expressed patients also had higher OS rates.
DISCUSSION: These results suggested that several miRNAs and their regulated target transcripts may have important roles in the initiation and development of SOC. MiR-145/miR-143, miR-200a, and miR-93 could be used as prognostic biomarkers.

Fuksiewicz M, Kotowicz B, Rutkowski A, Kowalska M
The matrix metalloproteinase-7 and pro-enzyme of metalloproteinase-1 as a potential marker for patients with rectal cancer without distant metastasis.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3629-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was the evaluation of clinical usage of metalloproteinase (MMP): proMMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in serum of patients with rectal cancer, as well as the selection of parameters of the greatest diagnostic sensitivity and the determination of their relation with clinicopathological features, what is more, the demonstration whether their concentrations may have a prognostic value in the assessment of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The study comprised 100 patients with rectal cancer including 29 women and 71 men. The tested group was comprised of qualified patients without distant metastasis (M0). It was demonstrated that in patients with rectal cancer, the concentrations of MMP-9, MMP-7, and proMMP-1 as well as TIMP-1 were significantly higher in comparison to the reference group. On the basis of ROC curves, the greatest diagnostic sensitivity of MMP-9 was demonstrated. When evaluating the correlation of tested parameters with the size of the tumor (T1-T2 vs T3-T4), essential differences were shown for proMMP-1 concentrations. The highest percentage of patients with progression had an increased concentration of MMP-7 and TIMP-1. During a 5-year follow-up, univariate log-rank analysis had shown an essential dependence between the concentration of MMP-7 in men and DSF which was confirmed in Cox multivariate analysis. It was demonstrated that the pretreatment concentration of proMMP-1 may be clinically useful when evaluating the mass of the tumor, whereas MMP-7 may be a prognostic factor for DFS in men with rectal cancer without distant metastasis.

Lu S, Zhu Q, Zhang Y, et al.
Dual-Functions of miR-373 and miR-520c by Differently Regulating the Activities of MMP2 and MMP9.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(8):1862-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-520c (miR-520c) and microRNA-373 (miR-373) are originally characterized as both oncogenes and tumor suppressors in different types of human cancers. In this study, we found that translation of mRNA of MT1-MMP, an oncogene related to tumor metastasis, was well inhibited by miR-520c and miR-373 in several types of human cancer cells. Our experimental data demonstrated that these two microRNAs inhibited the translation of mRNA of MT1-MMP and down-regulated its proteolytic enzyme activities via targeting 3'UTR of mRNA of MT1-MMP, further decreased activating proMMP2 into active MMP2 in fibrosarcoma HT1080, benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell BPH-1 and glioblastoma U87GM. More interestingly, from the effects of microRNAs on cell functions, we found that cell growth were all blocked on fibronectin and type IV collagen coated plates and also in three-dimension type I collagen lattice but enhanced only in HT1080 cells on type IV collagen coated plates and in three-dimension type I collagen lattice; cell migration results showed the same effect as that of cell growth. The difference was due to up-regulating the expression of MMP9 gene by miR-520c and miR-373 in HT1080 cells but not in BPH-1 and U87GM cells. Our findings suggest that miR-520c and miR-373, which have different roles in different type of cancer via regulating the translation of mRNA of MT1-MMP and the expression of MMP9 gene, might have an important clue on clinic when selecting the therapeutic regimen and finding new drugs for intervention in different kinds of cancer.

Qi M, Liu Z, Shen C, et al.
Overexpression of ETV4 is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer: involvement of uPA/uPAR and MMPs.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3565-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETS gene fusions involving ERG, ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and FLI1 define a distinct class of prostate cancer (PCa), and this might have a bearing on diagnosis, prognosis, and rational therapeutic targeting. In the current study, we focused on the clinicopathological significance of ETV4 in Chinese PCa patients and the mechanisms whereby ETV4 overexpression mediates tumor invasion in the prostate. Overall, ETV4 overexpression was identified in 30.4 % (45/148) of PCa cases by immunohistochemistry. Accordingly, ETV4 was rearranged in only 1.6 % (2/128) of PCa patients. Clinically, ETV4 overexpression was significantly correlated with Gleason score (P = 0.045) and pathological tumor stage (P = 0.041). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that ETV4 is an unfavorable independent prognostic factor (P = 0.040). Functional studies further showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of ETV4 significantly decreases proliferation and invasion of PC-3 cell and partially reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro. Notably, ETV4 knockdown significantly downregulated expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ETV4 regulates uPA expression through direct binding to its promoter region. Additionally, ETV4 knockdown was also observed to significantly inhibit expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, for the first time, our study suggested that ETV4 is an independent poor prognostic factor in Chinese PCa patients. Silencing of ETV4 suppresses invasion of PCa cells by inhibiting the expression of uPA/uPAR as well as MMPs. Further studies will be needed to determine whether ETV4 could be regarded as a potential target for the management and prevention of PCa.

Danilova NV, Davydova SY
Immunohistochemical characteristics of uveal melanoma assording to the age at diagnosis, histological type and extension of the tumor.
Arkh Patol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 76(5):55-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MMP9 expression and tumour invasion in different structures of the eye. We also examined whether there was any correlation between the growth factors (TGFb and EGF), onco-suppressor proteins (p16 and p53) and Ki-67, and the tumour histological subtypes, atypia level and age at diagnosis. Tumour specimens were obtained from 42 primary uveal melanomas immediately after enucleation at The Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases. The patients were not treated with radio- or thermotherapy. During our systematic study, we exclusively employed 10%-formalin fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue sections of UM for histological diagnosis and immunohistochemistry. According to our data the hyperexpression of MMP9 and EGFR correlates with a high proportion of spindle cells in a tumour (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0,1 for each). Moreover, we have demonstrated the association between the level of EGFR, TGFb and MMP9 expression and the initial invasion stage (Spearman's test p=0,1). In addition, we have revealed the significant correlation between TGFb hyperexpression and atypia level (Spearman's test p=0,059). Our data reflect that the diagnoses at an advanced age correlate with hyperexpression of p16 (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0,068). An interesting result is that p16 level reduced in inverse proportion to that of TGFb. On the basis of our data and previous studies, we reached the conclusion that after the lapse of time the level of p16 rises significantly in order to inhibit proliferating activity of melanocytes in the normally functioning pigmented layer. However, although the probability of UM diagnoses in elderly is increasing, we have no reliable data for the relationship with high atypia levels.

Ruiz-Morales JM, Dorantes-Heredia R, Arrieta O, et al.
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3601-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prognosis in patients with lung cancer is poor. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are proteins involved in the invasion and metastases of cancer. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between tumor expression of NGAL and MMP-9 in lung adenocarcinoma patients with prognosis and overall survival. Retrospective analysis was made of patients with lung adenocarcinoma treated at Medica Sur Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Tumor tissue was analyzed for NGAL and MMP-9 expression by immunohistochemistry. We identified 41 patients. Mean overexpression in tumoral tissue of NGAL was 70 % and 30 % for MMP-9. Univariate analysis revealed that prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) were NGAL expression and stage at diagnosis. Median OS for NGAL expression < 70 % was 45.7 months (95 % CI; 15.2-76.2) and for patients with ≥ 70 % 4.6 months (95 % CI; 0.5-18.8; P < 0.0001), and for stage at diagnosis (stages I and II mean not reached), stage III mean OS 15.57 months (95 % CI; 9.8-21.2) and stage IV 9.6 months (95 % CI; 0.8-18.4. P = 0.002). No differences in OS were found for expression of MMP-9. Multivariate analysis revealed significance for OS in NGAL expression (HR 5.01 [95 % CI; 1.68-14.93] P = 0.004) and stage at diagnosis (HR 2.05 [95 % CI 1.30-3.22] P = 0.002). Tumoral tissue expression of NGAL ≥ 70 % confers a worse prognosis compared to those who did not. NGAL is an independent prognostic factor of stage at diagnosis.

Wang TC, Luo SJ, Lin CL, et al.
Modulation of p75 neurotrophin receptor under hypoxic conditions induces migration and invasion of C6 glioma cells.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2015; 32(1):73-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has been reported to play important roles in various cancer types. However, the exact mechanism of tumorigenesis involving p75NTR is unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the expression of p75NTR in malignant glioma and the impact on tumor cell migration and invasion. p75NTR and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression was down-regulated by short-hairpin RNA and up-regulated with expression vectors. By immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis, we found that p75NTR was expressed in both human and rat malignant gliomas. Knockdown of p75NTR increased the expression of vimentin, vascular endothelial growth factor, Matrix metalloproteinase 9, and TWIST, and enhanced the invasion and migration abilities assessed by transwell assay in the C6 tumor cells. Inverse expressions of p75NTR and HIF-1α were detected in glioma cell lines under hypoxic conditions, while increased HIF-1α significantly downregulated the expression of p75NTR, suggesting a HIF-1α-p75NTR-EMT pathway that may regulate glioma cells invasion and migration. Downregulation of p75NTR increased phosphorylation of Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin. Knockdown of p75NTR also dysregulated β-catenin-mediated cell junctions, and up-regulated the expressions of fibronectin and L1CAM in the cell-cell junctions, thus suggesting that p75NTR knockdown contributed to a more aggressive migration phenotype via FAK signaling pathway. Our studies suggested that modulation of p75NTR under hypoxic condition could enhance C6 cells migration and invasion by induction of EMT, and activation of the FAK pathway. The HIF-1α-p75NTR-EMT axis may play a central role in glioma tumorigenesis.

Zhu L, Li X, Chen Y, et al.
High-mobility group box 1: a novel inducer of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(2):527-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proinflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediates critical processes of tumour metastasis. Because the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key player in metastasis, the aim of this study was to determine whether and through which mechanism HMGB1 induces EMT in colorectal carcinoma. The direct treatment of cells with recombinant human HMGB1 induced alterations in the epithelial morphology consistent with the EMT and enhanced cell migration through a process mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). The levels of Snail and phospho-NF-κB were upregulated during the HMGB1-induced EMT, and these effects were reversed by inhibiting Snail and NF-κB. In addition, HMGB1 increased the expression of MMP-7 but not that of MMP-9, and this effect was also regulated by Snail/NF-κB signalling. Collectively, these findings indicate that HMGB1 acts as a potent driver of cancer EMT through the RAGE/Snail/NF-κB signalling pathways accompanied by the activation of MMP-7, thereby suggest the feasibility of targeting HMGB1 for the treatment of tumour metastasis.

Kalfert D, Ludvikova M, Topolcan O, et al.
Analysis of preoperative serum levels of MMP1, -2, and -9 in patients with site-specific head and neck squamous cell cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(12):7431-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) includes tumors of various anatomical sites sharing common etiological factors. Serum levels of MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 were analyzed in patients with oropharyngeal, laryngeal, and hypopharyngeal carcinomas in an effort to elucidate the pathobiology and in order to find useful biomarkers of site-specific HNSCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group comprised of 46 patients with HNSCC (21 with oropharyngeal, 21 with laryngeal and 4 with hypopharyngeal cancer). Serum levels of MMP1, -2, and -9 were determined by the MAGPIX multiplex method. P16 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were correlated with clinicopathological features of carcinomas and were compared with respect to tumor site.
RESULTS: Significant correlations were confirmed between p16 positivity and oropharyngeal cancer, MMP1 and p16 positivity, and recurrence and smoking. Statistically significant differences in serum levels of MMPs between cancer of different locations were not found.
CONCLUSION: MMP1 expression is significantly affected by smoking habit and by p16 and might mediate etiopathogenetical process in cancerogenesis of HNSCC. Our pilot study did not establish any utility of MMP1, -2, or -9 in clinical practice as diagnostic/prognostic markers.

Paul-Samojedny M, Pudełko A, Suchanek-Raif R, et al.
Knockdown of the AKT3 (PKBγ), PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 genes by RNA interference suppresses glioblastoma multiforme T98G cells invasiveness in vitro.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3263-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy, having a very poor prognosis and is characterized by extensive brain invasion as well as resistance to the therapy. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/PTEN signaling pathway is deregulated in GBM. Besides, florid vascularization and aberrantly elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) occur very often. The present study was designed to examine the inhibitory effect of AKT3, PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) on GBM cell invasiveness. T98G cells were transfected with AKT3, PI3KCA, and/or VEGFR2 siRNAs. VEGFR2 protein-positive cells were identified by flow cytometry using specific monoclonal anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alterations in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, MMP-14), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) (TIMP-1, TIMP-3), c-Fos, c-Jun, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), ObRa, and cathepsin D genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Cells treated with specific siRNA were also analyzed for invasion using the Matrigel invasion assay. We have found significantly lower mRNA levels of MMPs, cathepsin D, VEGF, VEGFR2, HIF-1α, and c-Fos/c-Jun ratio, as well as significantly higher mRNA level of TIMPs in AKT3 and PI3KCA siRNA transfected cells compared to untransfected cells, while significantly lower mRNA levels of MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14) and TIMP-1, as well as significantly higher mRNA level of TIMP-3, were shown only in cells transfected with VEGFR2 siRNA. The positive correlation between MMP-13 and ObRa mRNA copy number has been found. Summarizing, transfection of T98G cells with AKT3, PI3KCA, or VEGFR2 siRNAs leads to a significant reduction in cell invasiveness. The siRNA-induced AKT3, PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 mRNA knockdown may offer a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce the invasiveness of GBM cells.

Xiao H, Jiang N, Zhou B, et al.
TAZ regulates cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(2):151-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) has been reported to be one of the nuclear effectors of Hippo-related pathways. TAZ is expressed in many primary tumors and could regulate many biological processes. However, little is known about the role of TAZ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the current study, we show that TAZ regulates cellular proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC. TAZ is overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines and upregulation of TAZ correlates with a lower overall survival rate of HCC patients after hepatic resection. TAZ knockdown results in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation through decreases in expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, and SOX2). Reduction in HCC cell migration and invasion is also evident through reversal of EMT by increases E-cadherin expression, decreases in N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, and Slug expression, and suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. In a xenograft tumorigenicity model, TAZ knockdown could effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis through reversal of the EMT pathway. In conclusion, TAZ is associated with the proliferation and invasiveness of HCC cells, and the TAZ gene may contribute to a novel therapeutic approach against HCC.

Sima J, Zhang B, Yu Y, et al.
Overexpression of Numb suppresses growth, migration, and invasion of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2885-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of Numb on cell growth, cell migration, and invasion in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Endogenous expression of Numb was evaluated in the ccRCC cell lines (786-O, Caki-1, and Caki-2) and control reference human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Numb expression was decreased in the ccRCC cells compared with the control cells (P < 0.01). Then, 786-O and Caki-1 cells described as suitable transfection hosts were used in transfection to carry out biological function studies. The three experimental groups were as follows: Numb-ORF (transfected with Numb-ORF plasmid), blank-vector (transfected with pCMV6-entry), and cell-alone group (no DNA). Numb expression in the Numb-ORF groups was significantly higher than that in the controls (P < 0.01). Cell growth was remarkably reduced (P < 0.01), and the number of migrating or invading cells was reduced (P < 0.01) in the Numb-ORF groups compared with controls. Furthermore, the ratio of G0/G1 phase in the Numb-ORF group of 786-O cells was increased, and the S phase fraction and proliferation index was decreased (P < 0.01). Cyclin D1 and MMP-9 expression was reduced in the Numb-ORF groups compared with controls. Here, we have provided data for attenuated Numb expression in the ccRCC cells. Overexpression of Numb could induce G0/G1 phase arrest and inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The suppressive effects might be due to downregulation of cyclin D1 or MMP-9 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that Numb may possibly function as a tumor suppressor involved in the carcinogenesis of ccRCC.

Pyo JS, Ko YS, Kang G, et al.
Bile acid induces MUC2 expression and inhibits tumor invasion in gastric carcinomas.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(7):1181-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Bile acids might induce mucin expression and regulate tumor behavior in esophageal and colon cancers. However, little is known about the effect of bile acids on tumor invasiveness of gastric carcinoma (GC). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which bile acids regulate tumor invasion in GC.
METHODS: We investigated bile acid-induced MUC2 expression and cell invasion and migration in the cultured GC cell lines, SNU-216, and MKN45. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of MUC2 and Snail was performed on 389 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of GC to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis.
RESULTS: Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid, had no effect on the viability of SNU-216 and MKN45 GC cells at low concentrations (0-100 μM), but decreased viability at a higher concentration (200 μM). MKN45 cells showed higher MUC2 expression than SNU-216 cells under basal conditions. DCA treatment upregulated MUC2 mRNA expression in both SNU-216 and MKN45 cells. Expression of Snail and MMP9 was markedly decreased by DCA treatment, and E-cadherin expression was subsequently increased. DCA significantly inhibited invasion and migration of SNU-216 and MKN45 cells. In human GC, MUC2 expression showed a negative correlation with Snail expression (P = 0.021) and a significantly positive correlation with better prognosis (P = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest that DCA induced MUC2 expression in GC cells and inhibited tumor invasion and migration. Additionally, MUC2-expressing GCs showed low rates of Snail expression and were associated with a favorable prognosis.

Cai H, Liu W, Xue Y, et al.
Roundabout 4 regulates blood-tumor barrier permeability through the modulation of ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-5 expression.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(1):25-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) restricts the delivery of chemotherapeutic drug molecules to tumor tissues. We found that the endothelial cell (EC) receptor molecule Roundabout 4 (Robo4) is endogenously expressed in human brain microvascular ECs and that it is upregulated in a BTB model of glioma cocultured ECs. Knockdown of Robo4 in this BTB model increased permeability; short hairpin RNA targeting Robo4 (shRobo4) led to decreased transendothelial electric resistance values, increased BTB permeability, and downregulated expression of the EC tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Roundabout 4 influenced BTB permeability via binding with its ligand, Slit2. Short hairpin RNA targeting Robo4 also increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and expression in glioma cocultured ECs; pretreatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 partially blocked the effects of shRobo4 on the transendothelial electric resistance values and ZO-1 and occludin expression. Short hairpin RNA targeting Robo4 also upregulated the phosphorylation of Src and Erk1/2; the Src inhibitor PP2 and the Erk1/2 inhibitor PD98059 blocked shRobo4-mediated alteration in ZO-1 and occludin expression. Together, our results indicate that knockdown of Robo4 increased BTB permeability by reducing EC tight junction protein expression, and that the Src-Erk1/2-MMP-9 signal pathways are involved in this process. Thus, Robo4 may represent a useful future therapeutic target for enhancing BTB permeability.

Pratheeshkumar P, Son YO, Divya SP, et al.
Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 281(2):230-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis.

Yang M, Gu YY, Peng H, et al.
NAIF1 inhibits gastric cancer cells migration and invasion via the MAPK pathways.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(6):1037-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (NAIF1) could induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Previously, we have reported that the expression of NAIF1 protein is down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. However, the role of NAIF1 in gastric cancer cells is not fully understood.
METHODS: The effects of NAIF1 on cell viability were evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays. The ability of cellular migration and invasion were analyzed by transwell assays. The expression levels of targeted proteins were determined by western blot. The relative RNA expression levels were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Xenograft experiment was employed to determine the anti-tumor ability of NAIF1 in vivo.
RESULTS: The study demonstrates that transient transfection of NAIF1 in gastric cancer cells BGC823 and MKN45 could inhibit the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of the two gastric cancer cell lines. The tumor size is smaller in NAIF1-overexpressed MKN45 cell xenograft mice than in unexpressed group. Further in-depth analysis reveals that NAIF1 reduces the expression of MMP2 as well as MMP9, and inhibits the activation of FAK, all of which are key molecules involved in regulating cell migration and invasion. In addition, NAIF1 inhibits the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by accelerating its degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Meanwhile, NAIF1 reduces the mRNA and protein expression of ERK1/2.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that NAIF1 plays a role in regulating cellular migration and invasion through the MAPK pathways. It could be a therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Bu J, Bu X, Liu B, et al.
Inhibition of metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma by anti-PLGF treatment.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2695-701 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neovascularization plays a critical role in cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism regulating the neovascularization in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is poorly understood. Placental growth factor (PLGF) has been known to regulate pathological angiogenesis and has been recently shown to regulate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for extracellular matrix degradation during neovascularization. Here we aimed to examine whether PLGF may regulate MMPs in the metastasis of OSCC. We found that PLGF and MMP9 levels strongly correlated in OSCC in the patients, both increased in the OSCC from the patients with metastasis of the primary OSCC. Thus, we used several human OSCC cell lines to examine the relationship between PLGF and MMP9. We found that overexpression of PLGF in OSCC cells increased expression of MMP9, while inhibition of PLGF in OSCC cells decreased expression of MMP9. However, adaptation of MMP9 levels in OSCC cells did not affect the levels of PLGF. These data suggest that PLGF may regulate MMP9 in OSCC cells, but not vice versa. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2, but not inhibition of PI3k or JNK pathways, substantially abolished the effect of PLGF on MMP9, suggesting that PLGF may increase expression of MMP9 via ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Thus, our data demonstrate that PLGF-induced cancer neovascularization may be partially mediated through its effect on MMP9 activation in OSCC.

Kolude B, Adisa AO, Lawal AO, et al.
Stoichiometric expression of MMP-2/TIMP-2 in benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2351-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) and the MMP-2/TIMP-2 expression ratio in salivary gland tumours (SGTs). Forty-three FFPE SGTs were prepared for antibody processing to MMP-2 and TIMP-2. Two investigators utilizing Sinicrope's method scored the uptake of immuno-stains. Cytoplasmic staining was considered as positive. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. In benign SGTs, the mean score for MMP-2 was not significantly lower than that of TIMP-2 (p = 0.37). However, the mean scores for MMP-2 stain intensity and proportion were significantly higher in malignant than benign SGTs (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02 respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean MMP-2/TIMP-2 expression ratio of the malignant SGTs according to histological grade and histogenesis (p = 0.4 and p = 0.19 respectively). The MMP-2/TIMP-2 expression ratio has a higher prognostic value than the separate expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2.

Wang SH, Zhou JD, He QY, et al.
MiR-199a inhibits the ability of proliferation and migration by regulating CD44-Ezrin signaling in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(10):7131-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), the second most common form of human cancer, is an epithelial skin tumor, which can result in metastasis with lethal consequences accounting for about 20% of all skin cancer-related deaths. The metastasis is the main reason for cSCC-related deaths with an overall 5-year survival rate < 30% in cases that spread systemically. The role of miRNAs has been involved in SCC of different origins. Recent data have revealed that the expression of miRNA-199a was changed in many human cancers. In this study, we found that miR-199a was significantly decreased in cSCC tissues, which had an inverse relationship with CD44. MiR-199a specifically regulated the expression of CD44 at mRNA and protein levels, and the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin in cSCC cells. Moreover, the suppressive role of miR-199a in cell migration in cSCC cells was also associated with the activity of MMP2 and MMP9. Taken together, our data indicated that increased expression of endogenous mature miR-199a might prevent the growth and migration of human cSCC via decreasing the expression of CD44 and regulating the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin, which may provide a potentially important therapeutic target for human cSCC.

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