MMP7

Gene Summary

Gene:MMP7; matrix metallopeptidase 7
Aliases: MMP-7, MPSL1, PUMP-1
Location:11q22.2
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The enzyme encoded by this gene degrades proteoglycans, fibronectin, elastin and casein and differs from most MMP family members in that it lacks a conserved C-terminal protein domain. The enzyme is involved in wound healing, and studies in mice suggest that it regulates the activity of defensins in intestinal mucosa. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:matrilysin
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP7 (cancer-related)

Hagen RM, Adamo P, Karamat S, et al.
Quantitative analysis of ERG expression and its splice isoforms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples: association with seminal vesicle invasion and biochemical recurrence.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2014; 142(4):533-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The proto-oncogene ETS-related gene (ERG) is consistently overexpressed in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced isoforms of ERG have variable biological activities; inclusion of exon 11 (72 base pairs [bp]) is associated with aggressiveness and progression of disease. Exon 10 (81 bp) has also been shown to be alternatively spliced. Within this study, we assess whether ERG protein, messenger RNA (mRNA), and ERG splice isoform mRNA expression is altered as prostate cancer progresses.
METHODS: Detection of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was done using direct methods (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and fluorescence in situ hybridization) and indirect methods for ERG mRNA and protein expression using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. A linear equation method was used to quantitatively determine relative proportions of ERG variants (ERG72/Δ72, ERG81/Δ81) for each sample.
RESULTS: ERG mRNA and protein expression is increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer, with higher levels of ERG expression significantly associated with seminal vesicle invasion (stage pT3b) and biochemical recurrence. Genes involved in cell migration and invasiveness (matrix metalloproteinase 7, osteopontin, and septin 9) are increased in prostate cancers that overexpress ERG. In addition, there is a clear indication of increased retention of exons 10 and 11 in prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of ERG and its variants may be valuable in determining prognosis and development of prostate cancer.

Liu G, Jiang C, Li D, et al.
MiRNA-34a inhibits EGFR-signaling-dependent MMP7 activation in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):9801-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanism underlying cancer invasiveness and metastasis of gastric carcinoma remains elusive. Here, we reported significant decrease in microRNA (miRNA)-34a and significant increase in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) in the resected gastric carcinoma from the patients, compared with adjacent normal tissue. Moreover, strong correlation was detected among these three factors. To examine whether a causal link exists, we used two human gastric carcinoma lines, SNU-5 and HGC27, to study the molecular basis of miRNA-34a, EGFR signaling, and MMP7 activation. We found that EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation in SNU-5 or HGC27 cells activated MMP7 and consequently cancer invasiveness. Both an inhibitor for EGFR and an inhibitor for Akt significantly inhibited the EGF-induced activation of MMP7, suggesting a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade dependent pathway. Moreover, miRNA-34a levels were not affected by EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. However, overexpression of miRNA-34a antagonized EGF-induced MMP7 activation without affecting EGFR phosphorylation in SNU-5 or HGC27 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that miRNA-34 inhibits EGFR signaling via downstream PI3K signaling cascades to regulate MMP7 expression in gastric carcinoma. Thus, miRNA-34a, EGFR, and MMP7 appear to be promising therapeutic targets for preventing the metastasis of gastric carcinoma.

Chen R, Dong Y, Xie X, et al.
Screening candidate metastasis-associated genes in three-dimensional HCC spheroids with different metastasis potential.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(5):2527-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Previously, we have established a tissue-like HCC spheroid which better mirrors the biological features of tumorigenesis and metastasis. This study was to find out metastasis-associated genes between two 3D HCC spheroids with different metastasis potential using comparative PCR arrays.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two HCC spheroids derived from high-metastatic MHCC97H cells and low-metastatic Hep3B cells were formed respectively in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor after 3D culture for 15 days. The candidate metastasis-associated genes related to cell adhesion, matrix secretion and invasion in HCC spheroids were screened by RT² profiler PCR arrays. The expression patterns of several differentially-expressed genes were further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Total of 123 differential expression genes (fold-change>2) were found between two HCC spheroids, including 70 up-regulated genes (VCAM-1, IL-1β, CD44, tenascin C, SPP1, fibronectin, MMP-2, MMP-7, etc) and 53 down-regulated genes (E-cadherin, CTNND2, etc) in the high-metastatic spheroid. Function classification showed that the number of up-regulated genes related to adhesion molecules mediating cell-matrix interactions and matrix secretion was significantly higher in high-metastatic spheroid than that in low-metastatic spheroid. In contrast, the expressions of adhesion molecules maintaining homotypic tumor cell adhesion were decreased in metastatic spheroid as compared with that in low-metastatic spheroid. In addition, the expression pattern of seven selected genes associated with tumor metastasis measured by real-time RT-PCR were consistent with results of PCR arrays.
CONCLUSIONS: Obvious differences between two HCC spheroids in gene expression patterns of adhesion molecules, matrix secretion, invasion and other molecules may determine the different metastatic characteristics and malignant phenotype of HCC spheroid.

Xu X, Qin J, Liu W
Curcumin inhibits the invasion of thyroid cancer cells via down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Gene. 2014; 546(2):226-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro anti-tumor (human thyroid cancer cell lines) potential of curcumin and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion of human thyroid cancer cell lines FTC133. We also investigated the effects of curcumin on PI3K, p-Akt, MMP1/7, and COX-2 protein expressions using Western blot. Results showed that curcumin inhibited growth, cell migration and invasion in FTC133, and promoted its apoptosis. Western blot assay data demonstrated that curcumin inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt signaling pathways and subsequently attenuated MMP1/7 and COX-2 protein expressions in FTC133. In conclusion, curcumin suppresses FTC133 cell invasion and migration by inhibiting PI3K and Akt signaling pathways. Therefore, curcumin produces anti-metastatic activity in FTC133 cells.

Xie C, Jiang G, Fan C, et al.
ARMC8α promotes proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8903-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
ARMC8 proteins are novel armadillo repeat containing proteins, which are well conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in a variety of processes such as cell migration, proliferation, tissue maintenance, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. Armadillo repeat proteins include well-known proteins such as β-catenin and p120ctn. Our current knowledge of ARMC8, especially its role in cancer, is limited. In this study, we quantified ARMC8 expression in 112 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and seven lung cancer cell lines using immunohistochemistry staining and Western blotting. ARMC8 level was significantly higher in NSCLC tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues (67.9 % versus 5.4 %, p < 0.05) and was significantly associated with TNM stage (p = 0.022), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001), and poor prognosis (p < 0.001) in NSCLC patients. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that ARMC8 was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC. Consistent with this, ARMC8α downregulation by siRNA knockdown inhibited growth, colony formation, and invasion in A549 lung cancer cells, while ARMC8α overexpression promoted growth, colony formation, and invasion in H1299 lung cancer cells. In addition, ARMC8α knockdown downregulated canonical Wnt-signaling pathway activity and cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 expression. Consistent with this, ARMC8α overexpression upregulated canonical Wnt-signaling pathway activity and cyclin D1 and MMP-7 expression. These results indicate that ARMC8α upregulates cyclin D1 and MMP7 expression by activating the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway and thereby promoting lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Therefore, ARMC8 might serve as a novel therapeutic target in NSCLC.

Martínez-Bosch N, Iglesias M, Munné-Collado J, et al.
Parp-1 genetic ablation in Ela-myc mice unveils novel roles for Parp-1 in pancreatic cancer.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(2):214-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis and is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. The inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp-1), the major protein responsible for poly(ADP-ribosy)lation in response to DNA damage, has emerged as a promising treatment for several tumour types. Here we aimed to elucidate the involvement of Parp-1 in pancreatic tumour progression. We assessed Parp-1 protein expression in normal, preneoplastic and pancreatic tumour samples from humans and from K-Ras- and c-myc-driven mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Parp-1 was highly expressed in acinar cells in normal and cancer tissues. In contrast, ductal cells expressed very low or undetectable levels of this protein, both in a normal and in a tumour context. The Parp-1 expression pattern was similar in human and mouse samples, thereby validating the use of animal models for further studies. To determine the in vivo effects of Parp-1 depletion on pancreatic cancer progression, Ela-myc-driven pancreatic tumour development was analysed in a Parp-1 knock-out background. Loss of Parp-1 resulted in increased tumour necrosis and decreased proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Interestingly, Ela-myc:Parp-1(-/-) mice displayed fewer ductal tumours than their Ela-myc:Parp-1(+/+) counterparts, suggesting that Parp-1 participates in promoting acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, a key event in pancreatic cancer initiation. Moreover, impaired macrophage recruitment can be responsible for the ADM blockade found in the Ela-myc:Parp-1(-/-) mice. Finally, molecular analysis revealed that Parp-1 modulates ADM downstream of the Stat3-MMP7 axis and is also involved in transcriptional up-regulation of the MDM2, VEGFR1 and MMP28 cancer-related genes. In conclusion, the expression pattern of Parp-1 in normal and cancer tissue and the in vivo functional effects of Parp-1 depletion point to a novel role for this protein in pancreatic carcinogenesis and shed light into the clinical use of Parp-1 inhibitors.

Zhang L, Dong Y, Zhu N, et al.
microRNA-139-5p exerts tumor suppressor function by targeting NOTCH1 in colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: miR-139-5p was identified to be significantly down-regulated in colon tumor tissues by miRNA array. We aimed to clarify its biological function, molecular mechanisms and direct target gene in colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: The biological function of miR-139-5p was examined by cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis in vitro and in vivo. miR-139-5p target gene and signaling pathway was identified by luciferase activity assay and western blot.
RESULTS: miR-139-5p was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues (P < 0.0001). Ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in colon cancer cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay (P < 0.001) and colony formation assay (P < 0.01) and in xenograft tumor growth in nude mice (P < 0.01). miR-139-5p induced apoptosis (P < 0.01), concomitantly with up-regulation of key apoptosis genes including cleaved caspase-8, caspase-3, caspase-7 and PARP. miR-139-5p also caused cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase (P < 0.01), with upregulation of key G0/G1 phase regulators p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, miR-139-5p inhibited cellular migration (P < 0.001) and invasiveness (P < 0.001) through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)7 and MMP9. Oncogene NOTCH1 was revealed to be a putative target of miR-139-5p, which was inversely correlated with miR-139-5p expression (r = -0.3862, P = 0.0002).
CONCLUSIONS: miR-139-5p plays a pivotal role in colon cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, metastasis, and promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by targeting oncogenic NOTCH1.

Wang JL, Chen ZF, Chen HM, et al.
Elf3 drives β-catenin transactivation and associates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1263 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, with over 90% of cases of sporadic colon cancer featuring β-catenin accumulation. While ubiquitination-mediated degradation is widely accepted as a major route for β-catenin protein turnover, little is known about the regulation of β-catenin in transcriptional level. Here we show that Elf3, a member of the E-twenty-six family of transcription factors, drives β-catenin transactivation and associates with poor survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We first found recurrent amplification and upregulation of Elf3 in CRC tissues, and further Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified significant association between Elf3 expression and activity of WNT/β-catenin pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay consistently revealed that Elf3 binds to and transactivates β-catenin promoter. Ectopic expression of Elf3 induces accumulation of β-catenin in both nucleus and cytoplasm, causing subsequent upregulation of several effector genes including c-Myc, VEGF, CCND1, MMP-7 and c-Jun. Suppressing Elf3 in CRC cells attenuates β-catenin signaling and decreases cell proliferation, migration and survival. Targeting Elf3 in xenograft tumors suppressed tumor progression in vivo. Taken together, our data identify Elf3 as a pivotal driver for β-catenin signaling in CRC, and highlight potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of Elf3 in CRC.

Sharma KL, Rai R, Srivastava A, et al.
A multigenic approach to evaluate genetic variants of PLCE1, LXRs, MMPs, TIMP, and CYP genes in gallbladder cancer predisposition.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8597-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a violent neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. The disease shows complex interplay between multiple genetic variants. We analyzed 15 polymorphisms in nine genes involved in various pathways to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to GBC risk. The genes included in the study were matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2), cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1, phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1), liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha, and LXR-beta. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP and TaqMan probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Multilocus analysis was performed by Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) to gene-gene interactions in modifying GBC risk. In silico analysis was done using various bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP). Single locus analysis showed association of MMP-2 (-735 C > T, -1306 C > T), MMP-7 - 181 A > G, MMP-9 (P574R, R668Q), TIMP-2 - 418 G > C, CYP1A1-MspI, CYP1A1-Ile462Val, PLCE1 (rs2274223 A > G, rs7922612 T > C) and LXR-beta T > C (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C) polymorphisms with GBC risk (p < 0.05) whereas CYP1B1 and LXR-α variants were not associated with GBC risk. Multidimensional reduction analysis revealed LXR-β (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C), MMP-2 (-1306 C > T), MMP-9 (R668Q), and PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G to be key players in GBC causation (p < 0.001, CVC = 7/10). The results were further supported by independent CART analysis (p < 0.001). In silico analysis of associated variants suggested change in splicing or transcriptional regulation. Interactome and STRING analysis showed network of associated genes. The study found PLCE1 and LXR-β network interactions as important contributory factors for genetic predisposition in gallbladder cancer.

Frömberg A, Rabe M, Aigner A
Multiple effects of the special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) in colon carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(11):2537-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
SATB1 (special AT-rich binding protein 1) is a global chromatin organizer regulating the expression of a large number of genes. Overexpression has been found in various solid tumors and positively correlated with prognostic and clinicopathological properties. In colorectal cancer (CRC), SATB1 overexpression and its correlation with poor differentiation, invasive depth, TNM (tumor, nodes, metastases) stage and prognosis have been demonstrated. However, more detailed studies on the SATB1 functions in CRC are warranted. In this article, we comprehensively analyze the cellular and molecular role of SATB1 in CRC cell lines with different SATB1 expression levels by using RNAi-mediated knockdown. Using siRNAs with different knockdown efficacies, we demonstrate antiproliferative, cell cycle-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of SATB1 knockdown in a SATB1 gene dose-dependent manner. Tumor growth inhibition is confirmed in vivo in a subcutaneous tumor xenograft mouse model using stable knockdown cells. The in-depth analysis of cellular effects reveals increased activities of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9 and other mediators of apoptotic pathways. Similarly, the analysis of E- and N-cadherin, slug, twist, β-catenin and MMP7 indicates SATB1 effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and matrix breakdown. Our results also establish SATB1 effects on receptor tyrosine kinases and (proto-)oncogenes such as HER receptors and Pim-1. Taken together, this suggests a more complex molecular interplay between tumor-promoting and possible inhibitory effects in CRC by affecting multiple pathways and molecules involved in proliferation, cell cycle, EMT, invasion and cell survival.

Wang JM, Huang FC, Kuo MH, et al.
Inhibition of cancer cell migration and invasion through suppressing the Wnt1-mediating signal pathway by G-quadruplex structure stabilizers.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(21):14612-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 23/05/2015 Related Publications
WNT1 encodes a multifunctional signaling glycoprotein that is highly expressed in several malignant tumors. Patients with Wnt1-positive cancer are usually related to advanced metastasis. Here, we found that a stretch of G-rich sequences located at the WNT1 promoter region is capable of forming G-quadruplex structures. The addition of G-quadruplex structure stabilizers, BMVC and BMVC4, raises the melting temperature of the oligonucleotide formed by the WNT1 promoter G-rich sequences. Significantly, the expression of WNT1 was repressed by BMVC or BMVC4 in a G-quadruplex-dependent manner, suggesting that they can be used to modulate WNT1 expression. The role of G-quadruplex stabilizers on Wnt1-mediated cancer migration and invasion was further analyzed. The protein levels of β-catenin, a mediator of the Wnt-mediated signaling pathway, and the downstream targets MMP7 and survivin were down-regulated upon BMVC or BMVC4 treatments. Moreover, the migration and invasion activities of cancer cells were inhibited by BMVC and BMVC4, and the inhibitory effects can be reversed by WNT1-overexpression. Thus the Wnt1 expression and its downstream signaling pathways can be regulated through the G-quadruplex sequences located at its promoter region. These findings provide a novel approach for future drug development to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells.

Zhang J, Luo J, Ni J, et al.
MMP-7 is upregulated by COX-2 and promotes proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Eur J Histochem. 2014; 58(1):2262 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 23/05/2015 Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, of which MMP-7 is expressed by tumor cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin. However, the function of MMP-7 in human lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is unclear. In the present study the expression of MMP-7 in LAC was examined by immunohistochemical assay using a tissue microarray procedure. A loss-of-function experiment was performed to explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of lentiviral vector-mediated MMP-7 siRNA (siMMP-7) on cell proliferation and invasive potential in LAC A549 cells, measured by MTT and Transwell assays, respectively. It was found that, the expression of MMP-7 protein in LAC was significantly increased compared with that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT) (76.0% vs 44.0%, P<0.001), and positively correlated with lymph node metastases of the tumor (P=0.014). Furthermore, targeted inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by siRNA downregulated the expression of MMP-7 and inhibited invasion of LAC cells, and knockdown of MMP-7 suppressed tumor proliferation and invasion in LAC cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that increased expression of MMP-7 is associated with lymph node metastasis and upregulated by COX-2, and promotes the tumorigenesis of LAC, suggesting that MMP-7 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer.

Gupta C, Kaur J, Tikoo K
Regulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by GSK-3β involves epigenetic modifications under high glucose conditions.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 324(1):75-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperglycemia is a critical risk factor for development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently reported that high glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 as well as de-phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Here, we elucidate the mechanism underlying hyperglycemia-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that hyperglycemia led to increased DNA methylation and DNMT1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. High glucose condition led to significant increase in the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and decrease in the expression of PTPN 12, p21 and PTEN. It also induced hypermethylation of DNA at the promoter region of PTPN 12, whereas hypomethylation at Vimentin and Snail. Silencing of GSK-3β by siRNA prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 expression. We show that chromatin obtained after immunoprecipitation with phospho-histone H3 was hypermethylated under high glucose condition, which indicates a cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone H3 phosphorylation. ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed up-regulation of DNMT1 and metastatic genes viz. Vimentin, Snail and MMP-7 by phospho-histone H3, which were down-regulated upon GSK-3β silencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that interplay between GSK-3β activation, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation directs proliferation of breast cancer cells.

Zhang J, Wang P, Zhu J, et al.
SPARC expression is negatively correlated with clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer and inhibits malignancy of gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2312-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a glycoprotein which plays multiple roles in different types of cancer. Our previous study showed that SPARC overexpression inhibited the growth and angiogenesis of tumors, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the relationship between SPARC expression and clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer (GC) is controversial, and the role of SPARC in GC remains unclear. We evaluated expression of SPARC in 65 human GC tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results indicated that SPARC expression was negatively correlated with clinicopathological factors of GC. In vitro assay showed that SPARC overexpression decreased proliferation and clonogenicity by suppressing CD44 expression. In addition, SPARC overexpression inhibited VEGF induced proliferation and arrested cell cycle of GC cells by reducing the activation of VEGFR2, ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways. SPARC suppressed the invasion and migration of GC by reducing MMP-7, MMP-9, N-cadherin, Sp1 and p-ERK1/2 expression. In the in vivo assay, cancer metastasis mouse models were established by tail vein injection. The results revealed that the lung metastases of SPARC-overexpressing GC cells in the mice were much fewer than those of control cells.

Qin S, Zhang Z, Li J, Zang L
FRZB knockdown upregulates β-catenin activity and enhances cell aggressiveness in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2351-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies have shown that FRZB correlates with gastric tumorigenicity and may play role in regulating the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between FRZB and the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway using gastric cancer tissues and an FRZB‑knockdown gastric cancer cell line model. The protein levels of FRZB and β‑catenin were examined using immunohistochemical staining. FRZB-specific shRNAs were used to generate FRZB‑knockdown MKN45 gastric cancer cells. Cell proliferation assay, suspending culture and Annexin V/PI double staining analysis were used to investigate the role of FRZB knockdown in cell growth. In vitro migration/invasion assays were performed. The expression of Wnt/β‑catenin downstream targets was analyzed by RT-PCR. FRZB mRNA levels showed negative correlation with β‑catenin levels in paired non-tumor and tumor tissues. FRZB protein levels were negatively correlated with β‑catenin levels analyzed by IHC staining. Furthermore, high FRZB protein levels were correlated with membrane localization of β‑catenin. FRZB knockdown increased gastric cancer cell growth in monolayer and soft agar culture; it increased cell aggregates in suspending culture and rendered less apoptosis which indicated increased anti-anoikis growth. FRZB knockdown increased cell migration and invasion and increased the expression of Wnt/β‑catenin downstream targets such as MMP7 and cyclin D1. Our studies revealed that FRZB levels were correlated with β‑catenin subcellular localization. Knockdown of FRZB in gastric cancer cells increased cell growth and migration/invasion which was also accompanied by activation of Wnt/β‑catenin downstream targets. FRZB knockdown may upregulate the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway and promote aggressiveness in gastric cancer.

Fujinaga T, Kumamaru W, Sugiura T, et al.
Biological characterization and analysis of metastasis-related genes in cell lines derived from the primary lesion and lymph node metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma arising in the mandibular gingiva.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(5):1614-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Controlling metastatic lesions is an important part of improving cancer prognosis, in addition to controlling the primary lesion. There have been numerous histological studies on primary and metastatic lesions, but little basic research has been performed using cell lines from primary and metastatic lesions belonging to the same patient. In this study, we successfully established a cell line derived from lower gingival carcinoma (WK2) as well as a line derived from secondary cervical lymph node metastasis (WK3F) through primary cultures of tissue from a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma. We then investigated the biological characteristics of the cancer cell lines from these primary and metastatic lesions and analyzed metastasis-related genes. Comparison of the biological characteristics in vitro showed that WK3F had higher cell proliferation ability and shorter cell doubling time than WK2. WK3F also had increased cell migratory ability and higher invasive and self-replication abilities. Heterotransplantation into nude mice resulted in high tumor formation rates in the tongue and high metastasis rates in the cervical lymph nodes. Changes in WK2 and WK3F gene expression were then comprehensively analyzed using microarrays. Genes with increased expression in WK3F compared to WK2 were extracted when the Z-score was ≥2.0 and the ratio was ≥5.0, while genes with reduced expression in WK3F compared to WK2 were extracted when the Z-score was ≤-2.0 and the ratio was ≤0.2; differences were found in 604 genes. From these, MAGEC1 (88.0-fold), MMP-7 (18.6-fold), SNAI1 (6.6-fold), MACC1 (6.2-fold), and HTRA1 (0.012-fold) were selected as metastasis-related candidate genes. The results suggest that these molecules could be important for clarifying the mechanisms that regulate metastasis and provide new therapeutic targets for inhibiting tumor invasion.

Moreno-Ortiz JM, Gutiérrez-Angulo M, Partida-Pérez M, et al.
Association of MMP7-181A/G and MMP13-77A/G polymorphisms with colorectal cancer in a Mexican population.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(2):3537-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by enhanced expression and activity of several metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP13 and MMP7, which play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The objective of this study was to analyze the association of functional MMP7-181A/G and MMP13-77A/G promoter polymorphisms with susceptibility to CRC in a Mexican population. Genomic DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood of 102 CRC patients and 125 blood donors who were included as the control group. Identification of polymorphisms was based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. The association was estimated by the odds ratio (OR) test. The results showed that MMP7-181A/G and MMP13-77A/G variants were associated with CRC. For MMP7-181A/G, the AA (P=0.02, OR=3.38, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.16-9.84) and AG (P=0.01, OR=3.4, 95%CI=1.17-9.83) genotypes were associated with an increased risk of CRC. For MMP13-77A/G, the AA and AG genotypes were associated with CRC (AA genotype: P=0.04, OR=3.2, 95%CI=1.004-10.2; AG genotype: P=0.01, OR=4.08, 95%CI=1.3-13.07). In conclusion, AA and AG genotype carriers for both polymorphisms are at a higher risk of developing CRC in this Mexican population.

Yang TF, Guo L, Wang Q
Meta-analysis of associations between four polymorphisms in the matrix metalloproteinases gene and gastric cancer risk.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1263-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in pathogenesis and development of cancer. Recently, many studies have show associations between polymorphisms in the promoter regions of MMPs and risk of gastric cancer. The present meta-analysis was conducted in order to investigate the potential association between four polymorphisms in the MMP gene and gastric cancer risk.
METHODS: A computerized literature search was conducted in databases of Med-line, Embase, Science Citation Index and PubMed till June 2013 for any MMP genetic association study of gastric cancer. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each gene under dominant and recessive models, and heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Q test and I2 value. Overall and subgroup analyses according to ethnicity were carried out with Stata 12.0.
RESULTS: 14 reports covering 8,146 patients (2,980 in the case group and 5,166 in the control group) were included in the present meta-analysis. We found that the MMP-7 (-181A>G) polymorphism increased the gastric cancer risk in therecessive model (GG vs. AA/AG, OR=1.768, 95% CI =1.153-2.712). For MMP2 ?1306 C>T, MMP1-1607 1G/2G, and MMP9?1 562 C>T, there were no associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer under dominant or recessive models.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that the MMP7-181 A>G polymorphism may contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility. More studies are needed, especially in Europeans, in the future.

Stenvold H, Donnem T, Andersen S, et al.
Stage and tissue-specific prognostic impact of miR-182 in NSCLC.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:138 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 23/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miR)-182 is frequently upregulated in cancers, has generally been viewed as an oncogene and is possibly connected to angiogenesis. We aimed to explore what impact miR-182 has in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and more explicitly its correlation with angiogenic markers.
METHODS: From 335 unselected stage I to IIIA NSCLC carcinomas, duplicate tumor and tumor-associated stromal cores were collected in tissue microarray blocks (TMAs). In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to detect the expression of miR-182 in tumor cells, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of angiogenesis related protein markers.
RESULTS: In univariate analyses, high tumor cell expression of miR-182 was a positive prognostic factor for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, P = 0.042) and stage II patients (P = 0.003). Also in the multivariate analysis, high tumor cell miR-182 expression was associated with a good prognosis in the same groups (SCC: HR 0.57, CI 95% 0.33-0.99, P = 0.048; stage II: HR 0.50, CI 95% 0.28-0.90, P = 0.020). We found significant correlations between miR-182 and the angiogenesis related markers FGF2, HIF2α and MMP-7.
CONCLUSION: In patients with SCC and in stage II patients, high tumor cell miR-182 expression is an independent positive prognostic factor.

Shi Y, Chen C, Zhang X, et al.
Primate-specific miR-663 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting PIK3CD and predicts the prognosis of human glioblastoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(7):1803-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic significance of miR-663 in glioblastoma, its effect in tumor progression, and the underlying mechanism.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Specimens from 256 cases of patients with glioma, including 239 patients with follow-up information, were used to analyze the association between miR-663 and patients' prognosis by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses. The effects of miR-663 on glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics prediction and signal network analysis were applied to identify the putative targets of miR-663, which were further verified by luciferase reporter assay, rescue experiments as well as the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting examination of downstream effectors. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and IHC were applied to investigate the clinical association between miR-663 and its target in human glioblastoma specimens.
RESULTS: miR-663 was inversely correlated with glioma grades but positively correlated with patients' survival. Furthermore, two distinct subgroups of patients with glioblastoma with different prognoses were identified on the basis of miR-663 expression in our specimens and that from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Overexpression of miR-663 significantly suppressed the proliferation and invasion of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we discovered PIK3CD as a direct target of miR-663 and found that phosphorylated AKT and three key downstream effectors of PIK3CD, i.e., CCND1, MMP2, and MMP7, were downregulated by miR-663 overexpression. Moreover, PIK3CD was inversely correlated with miR-663 in glioblastoma specimens and predicted poor prognosis of patients with glioblastoma.
CONCLUSION: miR-663 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic candidate for glioblastoma.

Chen X, Meng J, Yue W, et al.
Fibulin-3 suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling and lung cancer invasion.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(8):1707-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
The 5 year survival rate of lung cancer is <20%, with most patients dying from distant metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer invasion and metastasis have not been fully characterized. In this study, we found that fibulin-3, a fibulin family extracellular matrix protein, functions as a suppressor of lung cancer invasion and metastasis. Fibulin-3 was downregulated in large fractions of lung tumors and cell lines, and inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), a promoter of lung cancer invasion. The expression levels of fibulin-3 and MMP-7 were inversely correlated in lung tumors. Fibulin-3 inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to activate glycogen synthase kinase 3β and suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which induces MMP-7 expression in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, fibulin-3 expression impeded the growth and metastasis of lung tumors in mice. Collectively, these results suggest that downregulation of fibulin-3 contributes to lung cancer invasion and metastasis by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling and MMP-7 expression.

Gao Y, Song C, Hui L, et al.
Overexpression of RNF146 in non-small cell lung cancer enhances proliferation and invasion of tumors through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85377 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Studies have suggested a possible correlation between the newly identified E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) and tumor development. However, until now, studies on RNF146 have been restricted to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitin ligation, whereas the role of RNF146 in tumor biology has rarely been reported. In the present study, the role of RNF146 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. The results showed that the expression of RNF146 was increased in clinical lung cancer samples and cell lines. RNF146 expression correlated with tumor size, differentiation level, lymphatic metastasis, pTNM staging, and prognosis of patients in stage I. RNF146 expression was negatively correlated with Axin expression but positively correlated with the nuclear expression of β-catenin in NSCLC tissues. RNF146 downregulated the expression of Axin in lung cancer cell lines and induced the expression and nuclear distribution of β-catenin. Overexpression of RNF146 in NSCLC cell lines increased the levels of cyclinD1, cyclinE, and CDK4, promoted cell cycle G0/G1-S transitions, and regulated cell proliferation. Overexpression of RNF146 led to upregulated levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 7 and enhanced lung cancer cell invasiveness, events that were mediated by the classical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In summary, the data in the present study indicate that RNF146 regulated the development and progression of NSCLC by enhancing cell growth, invasion, and survival, suggesting that RNF146 may be a potential treatment target in NSCLC.

Polistena A, Cucina A, Dinicola S, et al.
MMP7 expression in colorectal tumours of different stages.
In Vivo. 2014 Jan-Feb; 28(1):105-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in cancer biology. Expression of MMP7 (matrilysin) in colorectal cancer is associated with metastatic disease even though it is expressed in most tumour states. In the present study, our purpose was to analyze MMP7 in bowel and lymph nodes of different tumour stages and to evaluate its expression as a cancer biomarker.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 28 patients surgically-treated for benign and malignant colorectal tumours were recruited and analyzed for MMP7 in tumoural tissue, lymph nodes and serum by histology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and western blotting.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed prevalent expression of MMP7 in advanced cancer. A significant increase (p<0.001) was evident in serum of stage III/IV cancers compared to both adenomas and non-metastatic disease. MMP7 was increased in cancer tissues with prevalence in stage I/II. Lymph nodes presented a significant increase of MMP7 (p<0.05 adenoma vs. stage I/II and p<0.001 vs. stage III/IV).
CONCLUSION: MMP7 increases with dysplasia and cancer disease stage in tumour tissue as well as in the regional lymph nodes. It may be used as a complement in investigating suspected locally advanced cancer.

Gao F, Zhang Y, Yang F, et al.
Survivin promotes the invasion of human colon carcinoma cells by regulating the expression of MMP‑7.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(3):825-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased expression levels of survivin are crucial for invasion activity in several types of human cancer, including colon carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby survivin regulates cancer invasion have not been completely elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the role of matrix metalloprotease‑7 (MMP‑7) in cell invasion that is induced by survivin by using in vitro assays, including western blot, immunofluorescence and qPCR analyses. The results demonstrated that the ectopic expression of survivin significantly promoted the invasive activity of colon carcinoma cells (SW620 and HCT‑116) and resulted in increased levels of MMP‑7 activation. By contrast, the small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑based knockdown of survivin markedly reduced cell migration and led to a dose‑dependent decrease in MMP‑7 expression levels. Compared with the controls, knockdown of MMP‑7 by siRNA in colon carcinoma cells led to reduced invasion ability, whereas no obvious changes were observed when MMP‑7 expression was silenced in survivin‑overexpressing colon carcinoma cells. These findings demonstrate that MMP‑7 is crucial for survivin‑mediated invasiveness, suggesting that the survivin‑mediated MMP‑7 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of colon carcinoma.

Gu GL, Zhu XQ, Wei XM, et al.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer tissue of patients with Lynch syndrome.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(1):250-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To explore the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tissue from patients with Lynch syndrome, and to interpret biological behaviour of Lynch syndrome.
METHODS: Sixty-eight formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks were analyzed in this study, including tissues from Lynch syndrome (n = 30), sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (n = 30), and tumor-adjacent tissues (n = 8). Tissue sections were stained for human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2), human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1), transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (TGFβRII), E-cadherin, β-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) by immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, clinical data such as age, gender and tumor-node-metastasis stage were also collected retrospectively.
RESULTS: The positive expression rates of hMSH2, hMLH1, TGFβRII, E-cadherin, β-catenin, MMP-7 and TIMP-2 were significantly related to the depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis, but not to sex or tumour size or location. The differences in the positive expression rates of hMSH2, hMLH1, TGFβRII, E-cadherin, cytomembrane β-catenin, cytoplasmic β-catenin, MMP-7 and TIMP-2 were significant between sporadic CRC and Lynch syndrome. The expression of hMSH2 had a positive correlation with that of hMLH1 in Lynch syndrome and sporadic CRC. The expression of TGFβRII had a positive correlation with that of hMSH2, hMLH1 and MMP-7, and a negative correlation with that of TIMP-2. The expression of MMP-7 had a negative correlation with that of TIMP-2 in Lynch syndrome and sporadic CRC. The expression of E-cadherin was positively correlated with that of cytomembrane β-catenin. However, the expression of cytomembrane β-catenin was negatively correlated with that of cytoplasmic β-catenin, and the expression of cytoplasmic β-catenin was positively correlated with that of MMP-7.
CONCLUSION: EMT may play an important role in the development and progression of Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome was caused by the mutations of mismatch repair genes, mainly hMSH2 and hMLH1, which also beget the mutational inactivation of TGFβRII. Therefore, the colorectal cancer of Lynch syndrome can escape the inhibitory effect of TGFβ1. However, TGFβ1 can up-regulate the expression of MMP-7 and down-regulate the expression of TIMP-2 in tumors by disassembling the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex in the cytomembrane.

Jiang PC, Zhu L, Fan Y, Zhao HL
Clinicopathological and biological significance of cripto overexpression in human colon cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(46):8630-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To assess the clinicopathological and biological significance of cripto in human colorectal cancer.
METHODS: Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine cripto mRNA levels in primary colon cancer and normal colon tissues as well as normal and metastatic lymph nodes from colon cancers. Human colon cancer LS-174T cells were transfected with cripto small interfering RNA (siRNA), and mRNA and protein levels were evaluated using real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The growth of cancer cells was evaluated using the MTT assay and colony formation in soft agar. Invasion was examined using a Transwell assay, and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and MMP-9 were determined using western blot assay.
RESULTS: Cripto was significantly overexpressed in primary colon cancer and metastatic lymph nodes. Silencing cripto gene expression with cripto siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in colony formation in soft agar in the colon cancer cell line LS-174T. Cripto siRNA treatment decreased the migration and invasion capabilities of the colon cancer cell line LS-174T in vitro. Furthermore, cripto siRNA treatment inhibited the expression of matrix MMP-7 and MMP-9.
CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence that cripto siRNA could be an effective approach for the inhibition of cancer cell invasion and migration and thus has potential for use in devising novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for colon cancer metastasis.

Kwon M, Lee SJ, Wang Y, et al.
Filamin A interacting protein 1-like inhibits WNT signaling and MMP expression to suppress cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(1):48-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Identifying key mediators of cancer invasion and metastasis is crucial to the development of new and more effective therapies. We previously identified FILamin A Interacting Protein 1-Like (FILIP1L) as an important inhibitor of cell migration and invasion. FILIP1L expression was inversely correlated with the invasive potential of ovarian tumors. In our study, we established an orthotopic ovarian cancer model, wherein FILIP1L expression can be regulated in vivo. Using this model, we observed that expression of FILIP1L in ovarian cancer cells inhibited spontaneous lung metastasis. Experimental lung metastases (established via tail vein injection of cancer cells) as well as the extravasation step of metastasis were not inhibited by FILIP1L, suggesting that FILIP1L inhibits the earlier steps of metastasis such as invasion and intravasation. FILIP1L inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent invasion in vivo. MMP3, -7 and -9 were transcriptionally downregulated, and MMP9 protein expression and activity were inhibited in FILIP1L-expressing tumors. Importantly, overexpression of MMP9 compensated for the anti-invasive activity of FILIP1L. Furthermore, our studies suggest that FILIP1L regulates invasion and metastasis by inhibiting components of the WNT signaling pathway. FILIP1L expression reduced the induction of WNT target genes such as MMP3, -7 and -9, and β-catenin-directed transcriptional activity, suggesting inhibition of the canonical WNT pathway. Nuclear β-catenin, an indicator of an active canonical WNT pathway, was reduced in FILIP1L-expressing tumors. Overall, these findings suggest that FILIP1L reduces β-catenin levels, which may lead to the transcriptional downregulation of WNT target genes such as MMPs, resulting in inhibition of metastasis. Modulation of FILIP1L expression has the potential to be a target for cancer therapy.

Chen L, Li M, Li Q, et al.
DKK1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion through β-catenin/MMP7 signaling pathway.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12:157 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently several reports have indicated that elevated expression of DKK1 is tightly associated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the biological function of DKK1 in HCC has not yet been well documented.
METHODS: In this study, the role of DKK1 in tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion was investigated using MTT, colony formation, wound scratch, transwell assays, and also human HCC samples.
RESULTS: Both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that DKK1 did not influence the tumor cell proliferation and colony formation, while dramatically promoted HCC cell migration and invasion. Subsequent investigations revealed that β-catenin was an important target of DKK1. The blocking of β-catenin by pharmacological inhibitor antagonized the function of DKK1, whereas introduction of β-catenin by transfection with plasmids or treatment with GSK3β inhibitor phenocopied the pro-migration and pro-invasion effects of DKK1. We further disclosed that DKK1 exerted its pro-invasion function, at least in part, by promoting β-catenin expression, in turn, upregulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), which was independent of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Moreover, introduction of MMP7 significantly enhanced the ability of HCC cells to invade extracellular matrix gel in vitro. Consistently, in human HCC tissues, DKK1 level was positively correlated with β-catenin expression, as well as tumor metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results demonstrated that DKK1 is overexpressed in HCC; moreover, ectopic expression DKK1 promotes HCC cell migration and invasion at least partly through β-catenin/MMP7 signaling axis, suggesting that DKK1 may be a promising target for HCC therapy.

Sakamoto N, Naito Y, Oue N, et al.
MicroRNA-148a is downregulated in gastric cancer, targets MMP7, and indicates tumor invasiveness and poor prognosis.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(2):236-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) develops through deregulation of gene expression and accumulation of epigenetic abnormalities, leading to tumor cell acquisition of malignant features. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in cancer development where they can act as oncogenes or oncosuppressors. To identify miRNAs that are associated with some clinicopathologic features of GC and/or participate in tumor progression, miRNA expression in 20 GC tissues and five corresponding non-neoplastic gastric mucosa was examined by miRNA microarray. Oligonucleotide array analysis was carried out for miRNA target prediction. The functions of candidate miRNAs and their target genes were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, reporter gene assay, and cell invasion assay. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles revealed that downregulation of miR-148a was identified in most of the GC tissues. Downregulation of miR-148a was significantly correlated with an advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor clinical outcome. Custom oligonucleotide array analysis revealed that MMP7 expression was markedly downregulated in miR-148a-overexpressing GC cells; MMP7 was found to be a direct and functional target of miR-148a, participating in cell invasion. These results suggest that miR-148a contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis in normal stomach tissue and plays an important role in GC invasion by regulating MMP7 expression.

Mitsui H, Suárez-Fariñas M, Gulati N, et al.
Gene expression profiling of the leading edge of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: IL-24-driven MMP-7.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(5):1418-27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The precise mechanisms governing invasion at the leading edge of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its subsequent metastasis are not fully understood. We aimed to define the cancer-related molecular changes that distinguish noninvasive tumor from invasive SCC. To this end, we combined laser capture microdissection with complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis. We defined invasion-associated genes as those differentially regulated only in invasive SCC nests, but not in actinic keratosis or in situ SCC, compared with normal epidermis. There were 383 upregulated and 354 downregulated genes in the "invasion set." SCC invasion was characterized by aberrant expression of various proteolytic molecules. We noted increased expression of MMP7 and IL-24 in invasive SCC. IL-24 induced the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) in SCC cells in culture. In addition, blocking of MMP7 by a specific antibody significantly delayed the migration of SCC cells in culture. These results suggest a possible contribution of IL-24 to SCC invasion via enhancing focal expression of MMP7, although IL-24 has been suggested to have antitumor growth effects in other cancer types. Identification of regional molecular changes that regulate cancer invasion may facilitate the development of new targeted treatments for aggressive cancer.

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