Gene Summary

Gene:MMP7; matrix metallopeptidase 7
Aliases: MMP-7, MPSL1, PUMP-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peptidase M10 family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Proteins in this family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. This secreted protease breaks down proteoglycans, fibronectin, elastin and casein and differs from most MMP family members in that it lacks a conserved C-terminal hemopexin domain. The enzyme is involved in wound healing, and studies in mice suggest that it regulates the activity of defensins in intestinal mucosa. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes on chromosome 11. This gene exhibits elevated expression levels in multiple human cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP7 (cancer-related)

Akashi M, Hisaka T, Sakai H, et al.
Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4485-4490 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) has a variety of histological and morphological appearances. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been considered to be associated with tumor progression or poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular basis of IPMN variation in different types of lesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MMP-1,2,7,9 in 51 cases of IPMN were investigated. The MMP score was calculated as the sum of the score of staining distribution and the score of the intensity staining.
RESULTS: MMP scores were correlated with histological grade, histological subtype, and type of invasion. MMP high expression groups (MMP score ≥5) had worse prognosis than low-expression groups.
CONCLUSION: MMP expression varied between different types of IPMN, a result supporting differences in molecular basis of malignancies. These considerations may be helpful for optimal management or treatment according to various types of IPMN.

Ghasemi A, Saeidi J, Mohtashami M, Hashemy SI
Estrogen-independent role of ERα in ovarian cancer progression induced by leptin/Ob-Rb axis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 458(1-2):207-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leptin induces ovarian cancer cell invasion via overexpression of MMP7, MMP9, and upA. In addition, the key role of ERα in leptin-increased cell growth was indicated. However, the influence of ER on leptin-mediated cell invasion remains still unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the E2-independent effect of ERα/β on leptin-mediated cell invasion and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer. We utilized SKOV3 cancer (expressing OB-Rb and ERα/β, insensitive to estrogen) and OVCAR3 (expressing OB-Rb) cell lines to show the involvement of ER in leptin-mediated effects in an E2-independent manner. MTT, BrdU, and BD matrigel invasion assays were applied to analyze cell growth, proliferation, and invasion. The siRNA approach was used to confirm the role of ERα/β in leptin effects. Moreover, western blotting and Real-time PCR were employed to detect the OB-Rb, ER, MMP9/7, and upA proteins and mRNAs. Leptin, in the absence of E2, increased ERα expression in SKOV3 cells, which was attenuated using knockdown of OB-Rb gene by siRNA. The effect of leptin on the cell growth was promoted in the presence of PPT, but not in the presence of DNP and E2, which was lost when OB-Rb siRNA was transfected. Furthermore, ERα gene silencing and/or pre-incubation with ER antagonist (ICI 182,780, 10 nM) significantly reduced cell invasion and MMP9 expression stimulated by leptin. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that ERα, but not ERβ, is involved in leptin-induced ovarian cancer in an E2-independent manner, providing new evidence for cancer progression in obesity-associated ovarian cancer.

Cao M, Lu S, Wang N, et al.
Enzyme-Triggered Morphological Transition of Peptide Nanostructures for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery and Enhanced Cancer Therapy.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019; 11(18):16357-16366 [PubMed] Related Publications
The use of smart drug carriers to realize cancer-targeted drug delivery is a promising method to improve the efficiency of chemotherapy and reduce its side effects. A surfactant-like peptide, Nap-FFGPLGLARKRK, was elaborately designed for cancer-targeted drug delivery based on an enzyme-triggered morphological transition of the self-assembled nanostructures. The peptide has three functional motifs: the aromatic motif of Nap-FF- to promote peptide self-assembly, the enzyme-cleavable segment of -GPLGLA- to introduce enzyme sensitivity, and the positively charged -RKRK- segment to balance the molecular amphiphilicity as well as to facilitate interaction with cell membranes. The peptide self-assembles into long fibrils with hydrophobic inner cores, which can encapsulate a high amount of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). By having enzyme responsibility, these fibrils can be degraded into thinner ones by the cancer-overexpressed matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) at tumor sites and precipitate out to give sustained release of DOX, resulting in cancer-targeted drug delivery and selective cancer killing. In vivo antitumor experiments with mice confirm the high efficiency of such enzyme-responsive peptidic drug carriers in successfully suppressing the tumor growth and metastasis while greatly reducing the side effects. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using enzyme-sensitive peptide nanostructures for efficient and targeted drug delivery, which have great potential in biomedical cancer treatment.

Fang C, Jiang B, Shi X, Fan C
Hes3 Enhances the Malignant Phenotype of Lung Cancer through Upregulating Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 and MMP7 Expression.
Int J Med Sci. 2019; 16(3):470-476 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Wang G, Yin L, Peng Y, et al.
Insulin promotes invasion and migration of KRAS
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(3):e12575 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but the function of insulin in carcinogenesis is unclear, so this study aimed to elucidate the carcinogenic effects of insulin and the synergistic effect with the KRAS mutation in the early stage of pancreatic cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pair of immortalized human pancreatic duct-derived cells, hTERT-HPNE E6/E7/st (HPNE) and its oncogenic KRAS
RESULTS: The migration and invasion ability of HPNE cells was increased after the introduction of the mutated KRAS gene, together with an increased expression of MMP-2. These effects were further enhanced by the simultaneous administration of insulin. The use of MMP-2 siRNA confirmed that MMP-2 was involved in the regulation of cell invasion. Furthermore, there was a concentration- and time-dependent increase in gelatinase activity after insulin treatment, which could be reversed by an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (HNMPA-(AM)
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that insulin induced migration and invasion in HPNE and HPNE-mut-KRAS through PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 activation, with MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity playing a vital role in this process. These findings may provide a new therapeutic target for preventing carcinogenesis and the evolution of pancreatic cancer with a background of hyperinsulinemia.

Liang X, Dong Z, Bin W, et al.
PAX3 Promotes Proliferation of Human Glioma Cells by WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways.
J Mol Neurosci. 2019; 68(1):66-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PAX3 (paired box 3) gene plays an important role in embryonic development, diseases, and cancer formation. Our preliminary studies have shown that PAX3 gene is upregulated in glioma cells, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Moreover, PAX3, by facilitating cell proliferation and invasion and inhibiting cell apoptosis, plays an oncogenic role in glioma. However, the specific molecular mechanism of PAX3 acting as an oncogene in glioma remains unclarified. In the present study, we have found that PAX3 overexpression was observed in high grade glioma and predicted a worse prognosis. PAX3 overexpression did not correlate significantly to IDH1 mutation and MGMT methylation. Moreover, the expression of PAX3 was positively correlated with that of β-catenin. In U87 glioma cells, PAX3 interacted with β-catenin, as was confirmed by CO-IP. Besides, PAX3 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, while it inhibited cell apoptosis by altering the expressions of important molecules associated with the Wnt signaling pathway, including β-catenin, Myc, VEGF, cyclinD1, MMP7, and Wnt1. In the meantime, it was also proved that PAX3 correlated to β-catenin through a negative regulatory mechanism with respect to the promotion of U87 glioma cell proliferation and cell cycle progression and inhibition of the cell apoptosis. Our experiment demonstrated the role of PAX3 in promoting glioma growth and development, possibly by interacting directly with β-catenin and regulating the Wnt signaling pathway.

Kushlinskii NE, Gershtein ES, Ivannikov AA, et al.
Clinical Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Gastric Cancer.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2019; 166(3):373-376 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitor TIMP-2 were measured in 89 patients with gastric cancer and the relationship between these parameters and the main clinical morphological characteristics of the disease was analyzed. Plasma levels of the proteins were measured using standard direct ELISA kits. The level of MMP-7 in patients with gastric cancer was significantly higher than in the control group (medians 2.7 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively; p<0.01), but only in 51% patients this parameter surpassed the upper threshold normal value (2.35 ng/ml; 95% percentile of control). The level of MMP-9 in gastric cancer patients was lower than in control group by 1.6 times (medians 167 and 267 ng/ml, respectively; p<0.01). Plasma levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in patients with gastric cancer and healthy subjects were similar. No appreciable associations of plasma matrixins and TIMP-2 with the main clinical morphological characteristics of the disease were detected. The patients were followed up for 8 to 85 months (median 70.8 months). Low level of MMP-2 and high level of MMP-7 in the plasma proved to be unfavorable prognostic factors for overall survival. At MMP-2<268 ng/ml, the 5-year overall survival was 32% vs. 60% for patients with the marker level higher than this threshold value (p=0.016). The differences in overall survival in relation to their MMP-7 levels for 5-year observation did not surpass 16% (39% at marker level >2.7 ng/ml and 55% at lower level; p=0.048). Plasma levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were not significantly associated with overall survival. Multivariate analysis showed that only T index (p=0.034) and plasma MMP-7 level (p=0.007) were essential for overall survival. The increase in plasma or serum MMP-7 levels is a universal phenomenon in tumors of different histogenesis, which precluded the use of this parameter as a specific diagnostic marker of gastric cancer. At the same time, it could be useful for monitoring the treatment efficiency and detection of relapses. In addition, high plasma level of MMP-7 remained an independent factor of unfavorable prognosis for overall survival of patients with gastric cancer.

Chu CN, Wu KC, Chung WS, et al.
Etomidate Suppresses Invasion and Migration of Human A549 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):215-223 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Etomidate, an intravenous anesthetic, has been shown to have anticancer effects, including induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports about the anti-metastasis effects of etomidate on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell viability, cell adhesion, gelatin zymography assay, transwell migration and invasion assay, and western blotting analysis were used to investigate the effects of etomidate on A549 cells.
RESULTS: In our study, etomidate showed low cytotoxicity, inhibited cell adhesion, and suppressed the migration and invasion in A549 cells. The activity of matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) was reduced by 48 h treatment of etomidate. Results of western blotting analysis indicated that etomidate down-regulated the expression of protein kinase C, MMP7, MMP1, MMP9, and p-p-38, but up-regulated that of RAS, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and phosphor-extracellular-signal related kinase after 24 and 48 h treatment, in A549 cells.
CONCLUSION: Etomidate suppressed the migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells via inhibiting the expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9, and provides potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer treatment.

Li H, Xu X, Liu Y, et al.
MMP7 Induces T-DM1 Resistance and Leads to the Poor Prognosis of Gastric Adenocarcinoma
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018; 18(14):2010-2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the most common and lethal cancer types and is known as the second leading cause of cancer-related death of Asian adults, early diagnosis based on either pathology or molecular biology could be one of the most efficient ways to improve the outcomes of gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
METHODS: Quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western-blot were used in detection of mRNA and protein expression. Lentivirus infection was used to overexpression or knock down target gene. Alarma blue assay was used to monitor cells proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to test protein expression and apoptosis level. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify protein expression in tissue. Statistical differences between two groups are evaluated by two-tailed t-tests. The comparison among multiple groups is performed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's posttest. The statistical significance of the Kaplan-Meier survival plot is determined by log-rank analysis.
RESULTS: MMP7 as one of the most up-regulated genes in T-DM1 resistant NCI-N87 gastric adenocarcinoma cells compared to matched naïve cell lines. T-DM1 resistant NCI-N87 cell lines by exposed to T-DM1 in vitro. Exogenous overexpression of MMP7 promotes T-DM1 resistance and tumor growth in NCI-N87 cell lines while MMP7 knockdown enhanced sensitivity to T-DM1 in T-DM1 resistant NCI-N87 cell lines established previously. MMP7 was enriched in high WHO grade GC samples and implies poor outcomes for these patients. DKK1 as one of the most correlated genes to MMP7 in gastric adenocarcinoma and knock-down of DKK1 or inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway led to a decreased expression of MMP7 and resistance to T-DM1.
CONCLUSION: DKK1 and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent activation of MMP7 induces T-DM1 resistance and leads to the poor prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma, which might be a novel potential therapeutical target for T-DM1 resistant gastric adenocarcinoma.

Li C, Zeng X, Yu H, et al.
Identification of hub genes with diagnostic values in pancreatic cancer by bioinformatics analyses and supervised learning methods.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):223 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal tumors with poor prognosis, and lacks of effective biomarkers in diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this investigation was to identify hub genes in pancreatic cancer, which would serve as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapy in the future.
METHODS: Combination of two expression profiles of GSE16515 and GSE22780 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was served as training set. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with top 25% variance followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to find candidate genes. Then, hub genes were further screened by survival and cox analyses in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Finally, hub genes were validated in GSE15471 dataset from GEO by supervised learning methods k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and random forest algorithms.
RESULTS: After quality control and batch effect elimination of training set, 181 DEGs bearing top 25% variance were identified as candidate genes. Then, two hub genes, MMP7 and ITGA2, correlating with diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer were screened as hub genes according to above-mentioned bioinformatics methods. Finally, hub genes were demonstrated to successfully differ tumor samples from normal tissues with predictive accuracies reached to 93.59 and 81.31% by using kNN and random forest algorithms, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: All the hub genes were associated with the regulation of tumor microenvironment, which implicated in tumor proliferation, progression, migration, and metastasis. Our results provide a novel prospect for diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, which may have a further application in clinical.

Liao CH, Chang WS, Tsai CW, et al.
Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Genotypes with the Risk of Bladder Cancer.
In Vivo. 2018 Sep-Oct; 32(5):1045-1050 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The breakage of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been reported to be one of the mechanisms required for tumor invasion, and the expression of MMP-7 in serum is correlated with poor prognosis of urinary bladder cancer patients. However, the role of the MMP-7 genotypes has been seldom examined among bladder cancer patients. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the promoter polymorphic MMP-7 genotypes A-181G and C-153T among Taiwanese bladder cancer patients and evaluate the contribution of the genotypic variants of MMP-7 to bladder cancer risk in Taiwan.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-five bladder cancer patients and the same number of gender- and age-matched healthy controls were genotyped for A-181G and C-153T in the promoter of MMP-7 via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology.
RESULTS: The frequencies of AA, AG and GG at A-181G of the promoter of MMP-7 were 89.1, 8.8 and 2.1% in the bladder cancer patient group and 87.5, 10.9 and 1.6% in the matched healthy control group, respectively (p for trend=0.5475). There was no polymorphic genotype for MMP-7 C-153T among the Taiwanese population. The comparisons in allelic frequency distribution also support the findings that the G allele may not be the determinant allele for bladder cancer in Taiwan. In addition, the results showed that there is no significant association of the bladder risk with the MMP-7 A-181G genotype, even after adjustment for the possible confounding factors. Furthermore, there is no interaction of the genotypes of MMP-7 with age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption on bladder cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the two MMP-7 polymorphisms, - A-181G and C-153T, do not play a major role in determining personal susceptibility to bladder cancer in Taiwan.

Verma SP, Das P
Monensin induces cell death by autophagy and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) in UOK146 renal cell carcinoma cell line.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2018; 54(10):736-742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monensin is a metal ionophore used as anticancer agent in many types of cancer cells. In this study, therapeutic potential of monensin was evaluated in TFE3 translocated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line UOK146. UOK146 cells were treated with different concentrations of monensin, and cell death was induced as shown by MTT assay. Autophagy was studied by LC3 western, FACS and LC3 puncta formation after monensin treatment. Mitochondrial potential was studied by staining with TMRM and FACS. Antimetastatic potential of monensin was checked by inhibition of wound closure and MMP7 expression at RNA level. Dead and floating cells after the 10 μM monensin treatment were observed under phase contrast microscope. FACS analysis following TMRM staining showed that mitochondrial membrane gets depolarized after monensin treatment. FACS analysis after acridine orange staining showed increased double positive (green and red) cells, and LC3 upregulation and increased LC3 punta displayed autophagy activation in UOK146 cell line after monensin treatment. These findings showed that monensin acts as antiproliferative agent, activating autophagy and downregulates PRCC-TFE3 fusion transcript in Xp11.2 translocated tumor cell line.

Jin H, Kim HS, Seo GS, Lee SH
A new chalcone derivative, 3-phenyl-1-(2,4,6-tris(methoxymethoxy)phenyl)prop-2-yn-1-one), inhibits phorbol ester-induced metastatic activity of colorectal cancer cells through upregulation of heme oxygenase-1.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2018; 841:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chalcone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) derivatives exert anti-cancer activity by targeting key molecules that can lead to carcinogenesis. We synthesized the chalcone derivative 3-phenyl-1-(2,4,6-tris(methoxymethoxy)phenyl)prop-2-yn-1-one (KB-34) and previously reported its anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. In this study, we examined the anti-metastatic activity of KB-34 against human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. KB-34 treatment significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced migration, as well as the invasion and proliferation of CRC cells (HT-29 and SW620). TPA-induced activation of NF-κB was also markedly suppressed by KB-34 in HT-29 cells. KB-34 suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) at both the mRNA and protein levels in TPA-stimulated CRC cells (HT-29 and SW620). We also demonstrated that induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in CRC cells (HT-29 and SW620) and HO-1 is required for KB-34-mediated suppression of the expression of MMP-7 in TPA-stimulated HT-29 cells. Additionally, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly induced by treatment with KB-34 in CRC cells (HT-29 and SW620). Knockdown of HO-1 prevented the induction of p21 expression by KB-34 in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) together with KB-34 produced a significantly greater inhibition of growth and stimulation of apoptosis of HT-29 cells than did 5-FU alone. In conclusion, KB-34 inhibits the TPA-stimulated metastatic potential of HT-29 cells by induction of HO-1 and may be a promising anti-cancer agent in chemotherapeutic strategies for CRC.

Lin CZ, Ou RW, Hu YH
Lentiviral-mediated microRNA-26b up-regulation inhibits proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2018; 34(10):547-555 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequently occurred malignancy worldwide with a high mortality. The treatment for HCC is still controversial. Emerging evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) play a role in HCC. This study aims to investigate the effects of lentiviral-mediated miRNA-26b (miR-26b) on the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. The normal hepatic cell line HL-7702 and HCC cell lines HepG2 (without metastatic potential), SMMC-7721 (with low metastatic potential) and MHCC97H (with high metastatic potential) were purchased for our experiment. The lentiviral-mediated miR-26b overexpression (miR-26b-LV) and low expression (sh-miR-26b) were constructed to transfect the cells. The miR-26b expression and expressions of Karyopherin α-2 (KPNA2), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-7 and MMP-14 were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The proliferation and metastasis of transfected HCC cells were detected by MTT and Transwell assay respectively. The miR-26b expressions were decreased significantly in MHCC97H cells. With lentiviral-mediated miR-26b overexpression, the proliferation and migration of HepG2, MHCC97H and SMMC-7721 cells were decreased significantly. The RT-qPCR and western blot analysis results revealed that the mRNA and protein expressions of KPNA2, MMP-1, MMP-7 and MMP-14 were decreased by lentiviral-mediated miR-26b overexpression. All the above indexes in the HepG2, MHCC97H and SMMC-7721 cells treated by sh-miR-26b exhibited opposite trends. These results show that overexpressed miR-26b could inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells significantly, which provides a novel target and theoretical foundation for the treatment of HCC.

Hattori Y, Sentani K, Shinmei S, et al.
Clinicopathological significance of RCAN2 production in gastric carcinoma.
Histopathology. 2019; 74(3):430-442 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Genes expressed only in cancer tissue may be useful biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. The aims of the present study were to analyse regulator of calcineurin 2 (RCAN2) in a large number of GCs, and to investigate how these expression patterns correlate with clinicopathological parameters and various markers.
METHODS AND RESULTS: An immunohistochemical analysis of RCAN2 in 207 GC tissue samples showed that 110 (53%) GCs were positive for RCAN2. RCAN2-positive GCs were more advanced in terms of TNM classification and tumour stage than RCAN2-negative GCs. Furthermore, RCAN2 was an independent prognostic classifier for GC patients. The cell growth and invasiveness of RCAN2 small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfected GC cell lines were less than those of the negative control siRNA-transfected cell lines, whereas those of RCAN2-transfected cells were significantly increased as compared with those of empty vector-transfected cells. RCAN2 siRNA inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and p44/p42 (ERK1/2). RCAN2 was colocalised with EGFR, nuclear β-catenin, MMP7, laminin-γ2, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that RCAN2 is involved in tumour progression and is an independent prognostic classifier in patients with GC.

Chen GL, Shen TC, Chang WS, et al.
The Contribution of
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5671-5677 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) plays an important role in metastasis behavior of cancer cells, and overexpression of MMP-7 has been associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the contribution of various genotypes of MMP-7 has not yet been investigated in lung cancer in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of MMP-7 genotypes with lung cancer risk among the Taiwanese.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this hospital-based case-control study, genotypes and distributions at two promoter sites of MMP-7, A-181G and C-153T, were determined, and their association with lung cancer risk in Taiwan was evaluated among 358 lung cancer patients and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy control individuals. In addition, the interaction of MMP-7 genotypes and smoking status were also examined.
RESULTS: The percentages of variant AG and GG at MMP-7 A-181G in the lung cancer group were similar to the control group (12.8% and 2.3% vs. 11.3% and 1.5%, respectively; p
CONCLUSION: There was no evidence that the genotypes of MMP-7 A-181G may act as a biomarker in determining personal susceptibility to lung cancer in Taiwan.

Feng Y, Gao Y, Yu J, et al.
CCDC85B promotes non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(1):126-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
Coiled-coil domain containing 85 B (CCDC85B) is involved in diverse biological processes; however, its expression patterns and functions in human cancers are yet unknown. The present study demonstrated that the expression of CCDC85B in the cytoplasm of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor cells was significantly higher compared to adjacent normal lung tissues (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CCDC85B expression correlated with advanced TNM stage (P = 0.004) and positive regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.009) of NSCLC. In addition, in A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines, the overexpression of CCDC85B promoted cell proliferation and invasion, while siRNA-mediated CCDC85B knockdown exhibited opposite effects. CCDC85B promoted AKT and GSK3β phosphorylation and upregulated the levels of active β-catenin, Wnt targets c-myc, cyclin D1, and MMP7. Besides, the CCDC85B-induced upregulation of phosphorylated GSK3β and active β-catenin was rescued following the treatment with PI3 K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, CCDC85B was associated with NSCLC progression as it promoted the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells through activated AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin oncogenic signaling pathway. Therefore, CCDC85B might serve as a novel target for NSCLC treatment.

Ma B, Zhang J, Zhou W, et al.
LINC01510 suppresses cell proliferation and invasion by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling in renal cell carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(1):7-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of long non-coding RNA in Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumorigenesis and progression remains largely unknown. Here, we found that LINC01510 functions as a tumor suppressor in RCC tumorigenesis. We screened TCGA database and then found that LINC01510 is significantly down-regulated in malignant RCC tissues, and the lower expression of LINC01510 predicts poor prognosis. Moreover, the down-regulated LINC01510 was further confirmed in our fresh tissues and cell lines. Biological functions assays shown that Ectopic expression of LINC01510 not only inhibits RCC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, but also impairs cell invasion ability. Moreover, we found overexpression of LINC01510 inhibits the expression of CCND1 and CCNE1, as well as MMPs (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9), and thus affecting RCC cell cycle and invasion. Meanwhile, Western blot assays revealed that the expression of β-catenin is regulated by LINC01510; overexpression of β-catenin could partly rescue the cell viability and invasion ability caused by ectopic expression of LINC01510. Taken together, we found that LINC01510 regulates cell proliferation and invasion by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in RCC.

He XX, Shi LL, Qiu MJ, et al.
Molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs inhibit the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating the expression of MMP and TIMP gene families.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 504(4):878-884 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the effect of multi-kinase kinase inhibitors (sorafenib; regorafenib; lenvatinib) on the invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and the outcome of this effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), yet unclarified. Cells were subjected to four different treatments: blank control group, sorafenib (10 μmol/L) treatment group, regorafenib (20 mmol/L) treatment group, and lenvatinib (4 μmol/L) treatment group. Anti-invasion and anti-metastasis effects were tested using the wound-healing assay and transwell invasion assay. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to determine the impact of sorafenib, regorafenib, and lenvatinib on the gene expression of MMPs and TIMPs in the two HCC lines (Hep3B and SMMC-7721). Results from the wound-healing and transwell invasion assays showed the three tested anti-cancer drugs to have a significant inhibitory effect on the metastasis and invasion of HCC cells. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses revealed that sorafenib down-regulated the expressions of MMP-7,10,16 and up-regulated those of TIMP-1,3,4, regorafenib down-regulated the expression of MMP-1 and up-regulated TIMP-3 gene expression, and lenvatinib down-regulated the expressions of MMP-1,2,7,9,10,16 and up-regulated those of TIMP-1,3,4. However, these three targeted anti-cancer drugs seem to have no significant regulatory effect on the expressions of other MMPs and TIMPs family genes. In conclusion, sorafenib, regorafenib, and lenvatinib inhibit the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells by regulating MMPs/TIMPs expression levels.

Yamaoka R, Ishii T, Kawai T, et al.
CD90 expression in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis.
J Surg Oncol. 2018; 118(4):664-674 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer. However, its prognosis remains poor. Expression of cluster of differentiation 90 (CD90) has been identified as an indicator of poor prognosis in many cancers. Here, we examined the importance of CD90 expression in ICC.
METHODS: We performed immunohistological assays for CD90 in human ICC surgical specimens and assessed its relationship with clinicopathological findings and prognosis. Moreover, we analyzed the characteristics of CD90
RESULTS: CD90 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor. The CD90

Mendiola M, Redondo A, Heredia-Soto V, et al.
Predicting Response to Standard First-line Treatment in High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma by Angiogenesis-related Genes.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(9):5393-5400 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Predicting response to treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) still remains a clinical challenge. The standard-of-care for first-line chemotherapy, based on a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel, achieves a high response rate. However, the development of drug resistance is one of the major limitations to efficacy. Therefore, identification of biomarkers able to predict response to chemotherapy in patients with HGSOC is a critical step for prognosis and treatment of the disease. Several studies suggest that angiogenesis is an important process in the development of ovarian carcinoma and chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify a profile of angiogenesis-related genes as a biomarker for response to first-line chemotherapy in HGSOC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from 39 patients with HGSOC who underwent surgical cytoreduction and received a first-line chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel were included in this study. Expression levels of 82 angiogenesis-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan low-density arrays.
RESULTS: Univariate analysis identified five genes [angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), CD34, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3)] as being statistically associated with response to treatment. Multivariable analysis by Lasso-penalized Cox regression generated a model with the combined expression of seven genes [angiotensinogen (AGT), CD34, EGF, erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), interleukin 8 (IL8), MMP3 and MMP7)]. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.679) and cross-validated Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate the accuracy of these predictors.
CONCLUSION: An angiogenesis-related gene expression profile useful for response prediction in HGSOC was identified, supporting the important role of angiogenesis in HGSOC.

Yu X, Wang M, Han Q, et al.
ZNF326 promotes a malignant phenotype of breast cancer by interacting with DBC1.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(12):1803-1815 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological role and underlying mechanism of action of zinc-finger protein 326 (ZNF326) in malignant tumors, including breast cancer, are still not clear. In this study, we detected high expression of ZNF326 in breast cancer specimens (60/111, 54.1%) and breast cancer cell lines (7/7); the expression level of ZNF326 was inversely associated with advanced pTNM stage (P = 0.002), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004), poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer (P = 0.0097), and ER/PR/Her2 status (P = 0.013). Meanwhile, the ectopic expression of ZNF326 significantly upregulated MMP7, EMT-related proteins (Snail and Slug), and cell cycle-related proteins (cyclinA2 and cyclinB1); downregulated E-cadherin expression; and promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays both demonstrated that ZNF326 interacted with deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) in breast cancer cells. Additionally, DBC1 knockdown eliminated the up-regulation of MMP7, EMT-related proteins, and cell cycle-related proteins as well as the enhanced proliferation and invasiveness induced by ZNF326. Therefore, we concluded that ZNF326 is highly expressed in breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, and plays a vital role in promoting the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells by interacting with DBC1.

Lu Y, Li C, Chen H, Zhong W
Identification of hub genes and analysis of prognostic values in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by integrated bioinformatics methods.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(6):1799-1807 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers in the world, and more molecular mechanisms should be illuminated to meet the urgent need of developing novel detection and therapeutic strategies. We analyzed the related microarray data to find the possible hub genes and analyzed their prognostic values using bioinformatics methods. The mRNA microarray datasets GSE62452, GSE15471, GSE102238, GSE16515, and GSE62165 were finally chosen and analyzed using GEO2R. The overlapping genes were found by Venn Diagrams, functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape. OncoLnc, which was linked to TCGA survival data, was used to investigate the prognostic values. In total, 179 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in PDAC, among which, 130 were up-regulated genes and 49 were down-regulated. DAVID showed that the up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix and structure organization, collagen catabolic and metabolic process, while the down-regulated genes were mainly involved in proteolysis, reactive oxygen species metabolic process, homeostatic process and cellular response to starvation. From the PPI network, the 21 nodes with the highest degree were screened as hub genes. Based on Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug-in, the top module was formed by ALB, TGM, PLAT, PLAU, EGF, MMP7, MMP1, LAMC2, LAMA3, LAMB3, COLA1, FAP, CDH11, COL3A1, ITGA2, and VCAN. OncoLnc survival analysis showed that, high expression of ITGA2, MMP7, ITGB4, ITGA3, VCAN and PLAU may predict poor survival results in PDAC. The present study identified hub genes and pathways in PDAC, which may be potential targets for its diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic prediction.

Mao XM, Li H, Zhang XY, et al.
Retinoic Acid Receptor α Knockdown Suppresses the Tumorigenicity of Esophageal Carcinoma via Wnt/β-catenin Pathway.
Dig Dis Sci. 2018; 63(12):3348-3358 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) was correlated with diverse carcinomas such as acute promyelocytic leukemia and colorectal carcinoma. Nevertheless, the function and mechanism of RARα in esophageal carcinoma (EC) remain unclear.
AIM: To investigate the expression of RARα in EC and its effect in the tumorigenesis of EC.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In immunohistochemistry study, RARα was overexpressed in human EC tissues, and its overexpression was closely related to the pathological differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stages in EC patients. Functionally, RARα knockdown suppressed the proliferation and metastasis of EC cells through downregulating the expression of PCNA, Ki67, MMP7, and MMP9, as well as enhanced drug susceptibility of EC cells to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Mechanistically, RARα knockdown inhibited the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway through reducing the phosphorylation level of GSK3β at Ser-9 and inducing phosphorylation level at Tyr-216, which resulted in downregulation of its downstream targets such as MMP7, MMP9, and P-gP.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that RARα knockdown suppressed the tumorigenicity of EC via Wnt/β-catenin pathway. RARα might be a potential molecular target for EC clinical therapy.

Fan H, Zhang M, Liu W
Hypermethylated KCNQ1 acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):3100-3107 [PubMed] Related Publications
Potassium (K

Hsu YL, Chen YJ, Chang WA, et al.
Interaction between Tumor-Associated Dendritic Cells and Colon Cancer Cells Contributes to Tumor Progression via CXCL1.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Crosstalk of a tumor with its microenvironment is a critical factor contributing to cancer development. This study investigates the soluble factors released by tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADCs) responsible for increasing cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, cell mobility, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Dendritic cells (DCs) of colon cancer patients were collected for phenotype and CXCL1 expression by flow cytometry and Luminex assays. The transcriptome of CXCL1-treated cancer cells was established by next generation sequencing. Inflammatory chemokine CXCL1, present in large amounts in DCs isolated from colon cancer patients, and SW620-conditioned TADCs, enhance CSC characteristics in cancer, supported by enhanced anchorage-independent growth, CD133 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Additionally, CXCL1 increases the metastatic ability of a cancer by enhancing cell migration, matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression and EMT. The enhanced CXCL1 expression in DCs is also noted in mice transplanted with colon cancer cells. Transcriptome analysis of CXCL1-treated SW620 cells indicates that CXCL1 increases potential oncogene expression in colon cancer, including

Geng W, Guo X, Zhang L, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of multiple myeloma cells via NEAT1-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:484-494 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To study the influence of resveratrol on proliferation, migration and invasion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells through the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 (nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1)-modulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to screen aberrantly expressed lncRNAs from MM cells and normal plasmocytes. The effects of NEAT1 overexpression/silencing or resveratrol treatment on MM cell (U266 and LP1) proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated using CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit-8), wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. Expression of Wnt/β-catenin related proteins and unfolded protein response (UPR)-related proteins was detected by western blot.
RESULTS: lncRNA NEAT1 was highly expressed in MM cells, which could be significantly inhibited by resveratrol. NEAT1 overexpression induced proliferation, migration and invasion of MM cells, while resveratrol counteracted its effect. NEAT1 upregulated protein expression in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while resveratrol reversed the negative effect of NEAT1 overexpression on MM cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and hence suppressed MM cell reproduction, migration and invasion. Resveratrol could also restrain unfolded protein response in MM cells.
CONCLUSION: Resveratrol downregulated the expression of lncRNA NEAT1 in MM cells and inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of MM cells by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and unfolded protein response.

Białkowska K, Marciniak W, Muszyńska M, et al.
Association of zinc level and polymorphism in MMP-7 gene with prostate cancer in Polish population.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies among men in Western populations. Evidence reported in the literature suggests that zinc may be related to prostate cancer. In this study we evaluated the association of serum zinc levels and polymorphisms in genes encoding zinc-dependent proteins with prostate cancer in Poland.
METHODS: The study group consisted of 197 men affected with prostate cancer and 197 healthy men. Serum zinc levels were measured and 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms in MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-13, MT2A genes were genotyped.
RESULTS: The mean serum zinc level was higher in prostate cancer patients than in healthy controls (898.9±12.01 μg/l vs. 856.6±13.05 μg/l, p<0.01). When compared in quartiles a significant association of higher zinc concentration with the incidence of prostate cancer was observed. The highest OR (OR = 4.41, 95%CI 2.07-9.37, p<0.01) was observed in 3rd quartile (>853.0-973.9 μg/l). Among five analyzed genetic variants, rs11568818 in MMP-7 appeared to be correlated with 2-fold increased prostate cancer risk (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.19-4.82, p = 0.015).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a significant correlation of higher serum zinc levels with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The polymorphism rs11568818 in MMP-7 gene was also associated with an increased prostate cancer risk in Poland.

Cao N, Mu L, Yang W, et al.
MicroRNA-298 represses hepatocellular carcinoma progression by inhibiting CTNND1-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 106:483-490 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are solid factors involved in the initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, miR-298 is recognized as a cancer-associated miRNA in breast, gastric and ovarian cancer. However, the functional role of miR-298 and its underlying mechanism are rarely reported in HCC. Herein, we found that the expression of miR-298 was down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. The in vitro experiments showed that miR-298 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced G1 arrest and apoptosis of HCC cells. miR-298 knockdown exerted an opposite effect on these cellular behaviors of HCC cells. Moreover, miR-298 restoration suppressed HCC tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Additionally, catenin delta 1 (CTNND1) was demonstrated to be a direct target of miR-298 in HCC cells. CTNND1 knockdown led to similar effects with miR-298 overexpression on HCC cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and mobility. CTNND1 restoration reversed miR-298-induced inhibitory effects on HCC cells. Mechanistically, both miR-298 overexpression and CTNND1 knockdown repressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling and resulted in reduced expression of β-catenin, WNT11, Cyclin D1 and MMP7 in HCCLM3 cells. While, CTNND1 restoration abolished miR-298-induced inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that miR-298 suppresses HCC progression at least partially by targeting CTNND1-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. MiR-298 may be a target for new therapies in HCC patients.

Ma S, Rong X, Gao F, et al.
TPX2 promotes cell proliferation and migration via PLK1 in OC.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(3):443-451 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a microtubule-associated proteinrequired for mitosis and spindle assembly. It has been revealed that TPX2 is overexpressedin various human cancers and promotes cancer progression.
METHODS: The expression of TPX2 was examined in ovarian cancer (OC) tissues and by Western blotting, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. The effects of TPX2 on proliferation and migration of two OC cell lines SKOV3and RMG1 were analyzed using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and transwell assay. The mechanisms underlying the effects of TPX2 on OC cells were explored by qRT-PCR and Western blot.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that TPX2 was upregulated in OC tissues. We observed knockdown of TPX2 inhibited the expression of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), which has an important role in the regulation of M phase of the cell cycle, and the activity of Cdc2, induced cell arrested at the G2/M phase and decreased proliferation. Moreover, our data revealed that the levels of PLK1, β-catenin, MMP7 and MMP9 were inhibited following TPX2 knockdown, leading to decrease of cell migration. Finally, we showed that the restoration of PLK1 expression attenuated the anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects of TPX2 knockdown in OC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: TPX2 promotes the proliferation and migration of human OC cells by regulating PLK1 expression.

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