Research IndicatorsGraph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: MMP1 (cancer-related)
Yang YF, Jan YH, Liu YP, et al.Squalene synthase induces tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 enrichment in lipid rafts to promote lung cancer metastasis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014; 190(6):675-87 [PubMed
] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Metabolic alterations contribute to cancer development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms relating metabolism to cancer metastasis remain largely unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To identify a key metabolic enzyme that is aberrantly overexpressed in invasive lung cancer cells and to investigate its functional role and prognostic value in lung cancer.
METHODS: The differential expression of metabolic enzymes in noninvasive CL1-0 cells and invasive CL1-5 cells was analyzed by a gene expression microarray. The expression of target genes in clinical specimens from patients with lung cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry. Pharmacologic and gene knockdown/overexpression approaches were used to investigate the function of the target gene during invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The association between the target gene expression and clinicopathologic parameters was further analyzed. Bioinformatic analyses were used to discover the signaling pathways involved in target gene-regulated invasion and migration.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Squalene synthase (SQS) was up-regulated in CL1-5 cells and in the tumor regions of the lung cancer specimens. Loss of function or knockdown of SQS significantly inhibited invasion/migration and metastasis in cell and animal models and vice versa. High expression of SQS was significantly associated with poor prognosis among patients with lung cancer. Mechanistically, SQS contributed to a lipid-raft-localized enrichment of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in a cholesterol-dependent manner, which resulted in the enhancement of nuclear factor-κB activation leading to matrix metallopeptidase 1 up-regulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation of SQS promotes metastasis of lung cancer by enhancing tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 and nuclear factor-κB activation and matrix metallopeptidase 1 expression. Targeting SQS may have considerable potential as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat metastatic lung cancer.
Oktem G, Sercan O, Guven U, et al.Cancer stem cell differentiation: TGFβ1 and versican may trigger molecules for the organization of tumor spheroids.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):641-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew similar to normal stem cells. This process is linked with metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the present study, we constructed an in vitro differentiation model for CSCs. CSCs isolated and proliferated for one passage were maintained as monolayers or spheroid-forming cells with serum included media for differentiation process. Differentiation of adhesion molecules and cellular ultrastructural properties were investigated and compared in both monolayer and spheroid cultures. CD133+/CD44+ cancer-initiating cells were isolated from DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line monolayer cultures and propagated as tumor spheroids and compared with the remaining heterogeneous cancer cell bulk population. Microarray-based gene expression analysis was applied to determine genes with differential expression and protein expression levels of candidates were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy showed detailed analysis of morphology. TGFβ1 was found to be significantly upregulated in monolayer CSCs. High expression levels of VCAN, COL7A1, ITGβ3, MMP16, RPL13A, COL4A2 and TIMP1 and low expression levels of THBS1, MMP1 and MMP14 were detected when CSCs were maintained as serum-grown prostate CSC spheroids. Immunohistochemistry supported increased immunoreactivity of TGFβ1 in monolayer cultures and VCAN in spheroids. CSCs were found to possess multipotential differentiation capabilities through upregulation and/or downregulation of their markers. TGFβ1 is a triggering molecule, it stimulates versican, Col7A1, ITGβ3 and, most importantly, the upregulation of versican was only detected in CSCs. Our data support a model where CSCs must be engaged by one or more signaling cascades to differentiate and initiate tumor formation. This mechanism occurs with intracellular and extracellular signals and it is possible that CSCc themselves may be a source for extracellular signaling. These molecules functioning in tumor progression and differentiation may help develop targeted therapy.
Xu X, Qin J, Liu WCurcumin inhibits the invasion of thyroid cancer cells via down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Gene. 2014; 546(2):226-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro anti-tumor (human thyroid cancer cell lines) potential of curcumin and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion of human thyroid cancer cell lines FTC133. We also investigated the effects of curcumin on PI3K, p-Akt, MMP1/7, and COX-2 protein expressions using Western blot. Results showed that curcumin inhibited growth, cell migration and invasion in FTC133, and promoted its apoptosis. Western blot assay data demonstrated that curcumin inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt signaling pathways and subsequently attenuated MMP1/7 and COX-2 protein expressions in FTC133. In conclusion, curcumin suppresses FTC133 cell invasion and migration by inhibiting PI3K and Akt signaling pathways. Therefore, curcumin produces anti-metastatic activity in FTC133 cells.
Matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP1) has been implicated in many human disease processes, however the lack of a well characterized murine homologue has significantly limited the study of MMP1 and the development of MMP-targeted therapeutics. The discovery of murine Mmp1a in 2001, the functional mouse homologue of MMP1, offers a valuable tool for modeling MMP1-mediated processes in mice. Variation in physiologic expression levels of Mmp1a in mice as compared to MMP1 in humans highlights the importance of understanding the similarities and differences between the homologues. Recent studies have demonstrated tumor growth-, invasion-, and angiogenesis-promoting functions of Mmp1a in lung cancer models, consistent with the analogous functions observed for human MMP1. Biochemical investigations have shown that point mutations in the pro-domain of mouse Mmp1a weaken docking between the pro- and catalytic domains, generating an unstable zymogen primed for activation. The difficulty to effectively maintain Mmp1a in the zymogen form may account for the tight control of Mmp1a expression and reduced expression in normal tissue as compared to inflammatory states or cancer. This discovery raises important questions about the activation mechanisms and regulation of the MMP family in general.
de la Peña S, Sampieri CL, Ochoa-Lara M, et al.Expression of the matrix metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and tissue inhibitor 3 as potential molecular markers in advanced human gastric cancer.
Dis Markers. 2014; 2014:285906 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: During progression of gastric cancer (GC), degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs): changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG) and GC.
METHODS: The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (C(T)) values, as very high (C(T) ≤ 25), high (C(T) = 26-30), moderate (C(T) = 31-35), low (C(T) = 36-39), or not detected (C(T) = 40). Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC.
RESULTS: We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC.
CONCLUSIONS: We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC.
Yang TF, Guo L, Wang QMeta-analysis of associations between four polymorphisms in the matrix metalloproteinases gene and gastric cancer risk.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1263-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in pathogenesis and development of cancer. Recently, many studies have show associations between polymorphisms in the promoter regions of MMPs and risk of gastric cancer. The present meta-analysis was conducted in order to investigate the potential association between four polymorphisms in the MMP gene and gastric cancer risk.
METHODS: A computerized literature search was conducted in databases of Med-line, Embase, Science Citation Index and PubMed till June 2013 for any MMP genetic association study of gastric cancer. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each gene under dominant and recessive models, and heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Q test and I2 value. Overall and subgroup analyses according to ethnicity were carried out with Stata 12.0.
RESULTS: 14 reports covering 8,146 patients (2,980 in the case group and 5,166 in the control group) were included in the present meta-analysis. We found that the MMP-7 (-181A>G) polymorphism increased the gastric cancer risk in therecessive model (GG vs. AA/AG, OR=1.768, 95% CI =1.153-2.712). For MMP2 ?1306 C>T, MMP1-1607 1G/2G, and MMP9?1 562 C>T, there were no associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer under dominant or recessive models.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that the MMP7-181 A>G polymorphism may contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility. More studies are needed, especially in Europeans, in the future.
Ma H, Cai H, Zhang Y, et al.Membrane palmitoylated protein 3 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion via up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase 1.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 344(1):74-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Membrane associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family, has been extensively studied in cellular adhesion and signal transduction at sites of cell–cell contact. Recently, growing attention has been paid to its role in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been rarely investigated. In this study, we found that membrane palmitoylated protein 3 (MPP3), a member of MAGUK family, was significantly up-regulated in both high metastatic potential cell lines and clinical tissue samples of HCC, and the most significant increase was observed in the tumors invading the portal veins. Higher level of MPP3 correlated with poorer survival of patients with HCC. Forced expression of MPP3 significantly enhanced HCC cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of this gene inhibited this oncogenic effect. Mechanismly, we found that MPP3 promoted HCC cell migration and invasion via up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). These findings indicate that MPP3 play an important role in HCC metastasis by promoting cell migration and invasion, suggesting that it may serve as a novel prognostic marker and molecular target for therapy of HCC.
Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), an interstitial collagenase, plays a major role in cellular invasion during development of gastric cancer, a leading cause of death worldwide. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -1607 1G/2G site of the MMP-1 gene promoter has been reported to alter transcription level. While the importance's of other SNPs in the MMP-1 promoter have not yet been studied in gastric cancer, our aim was to investigate MMP-1 gene promoter polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility in eastern Indian population. A total of 145 gastric cancer patients and 145 healthy controls were genotyped for MMP-1 -1607 1G/2G (rs1799750) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), while MMP-1 -519 A/G (rs1144393), MMP-1 -422 T/A (rs475007), MMP-1 -340 T/C (rs514921) and MMP-1 -320 T/C (rs494379) were genotyped by DNA sequencing. A positive association was found with MMP-1 -422 T/A SNP that showed significant risk for regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021, Odd's ratio (OR) = 3.044, Confidence intervals (CI) = 1.187-7.807). In addition, we found a significant association with lower stomach tumor formation among gastric cancer patients for three adjacent polymorphisms near the transcriptional start sites of [MMP-1 -422 T/A (P = 0.043, OR = 2.182, CI = 1.03-4.643), MMP-1 -340 T/C (P = 0.075, OR = 1.97, CI = 0.94-4.158) and MMP-1 -320 T/C (P = 0.034, OR = 2.224, CI = 1.064-40731)]. MMP-1 level in patients' serum was correlated with MMP-1 promoter haplotypes conferring these three SNPs to evaluate the functional importance of these polymorphisms in lower stomach tumor formation and significant correlation was observed. Furthermore, MMP-1 -519 A/G polymorphism displayed poor cellular differentiation (P = 0.024, OR = 3.8, CI = 1.69-8.56) attributing a higher risk of cancer progression. In conclusion, MMP-1 proximal promoter SNPs are associated with the risk of lower stomach tumor formation and node metastasis in eastern Indian population.
Ryzhakova OS, Solov'eva NI[Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)--MMP-1,-2,-9 and its endogenous activity regulators in transformed by E7 oncogene HPV16 and HPV18 cervical carcinoma cell lines].
Biomed Khim. 2013 Sep-Oct; 59(5):530-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a key role in development of tumor invasion and metestasis. The purpose of the work is the elucidation of peculiarities of expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and their activity regulators: plasminogen activator uPA and tissue inhibitors of MMPs - TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in human cell lines of squoamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Comparative study of MMPs' expression was carried out on cell lines SCC which differed in HPV types (HPV-16 and HPV-18): SiHa, Caski - HPV16, Hela, C4-1 - HPV18). As a control, the C33A line was used where HPV copies were absent. The human papilloma viruses (HPV) of high risk--HPV-16, HPV-18, as etiological factors of initiation of cervical cancer, are most widespread and most aggressive among oncogenic HPVs. Study of MMP expression involved estimation of expression of mRNA using the RT-PCR method and determination of collagenolytic activity by hydrolysis of fluorogenic type 1 collagen and also by the zymography method. It was shown that: 1. In both types of cell lines, the MMP-1 expression was essentially increased (2 to 8 times), and in HPV18 lines it was most expressed. The exception was made by the SiHa line in which the decrease of expression of this enzyme was observed. MMP-2 expression was at the control level in both types of cell lines. 2. Expression of inhibitors generally was at the control level. The only exception was the C4-1 line where the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was increased in 1,7 and 2,6 times accordingly. Expression of uPA was increased 2 to 4, 5 times in all cell lines except Siha where was lowered to 20%. 3. Collagenolytic activity in the Caski and Hela cell line was 2-3 times higher that it was in control, while the activity in the SiHa cell line was compatible with that in the control. Research of gelatinolytic activity also as well as the data on an expression MPHK has revealed only presence MMFP-2, but not MMP-9 in all cervical carcinoma cell lines. The data obtained provide evidence for a significant disturbance in transformed cells of enzyme/inhibitor/activator ratio--which occurs, for the most part, at the cost of elevated expression of MMP-1 and its activator whereas the expression of MMP-2 and inhibitors remains virtually unchanged, which leads to the increase of the destructive potential of transformed cells.
Protein Tyrosin Kinase 7 (PTK7) is upregulated in several human cancers; however, its clinical implication in breast cancer (BC) and lymph node (LN) is still unclear. In order to investigate the function of PTK7 in mediating BC cell motility and invasivity, PTK7 expression in BC cell lines was determined. PTK7 signaling in highly invasive breast cancer cells was inhibited by a dominant-negative PTK7 mutant, an antibody against the extracellular domain of PTK7, and siRNA knockdown of PTK7. This resulted in decreased motility and invasivity of BC cells. We further examined PTK7 expression in BC and LN tissue of 128 BC patients by RT-PCR and its correlation with BC related genes like HER2, HER3, PAI1, MMP1, K19, and CD44. Expression profiling in BC cell lines and primary tumors showed association of PTK7 with ER/PR/HER2-negative (TNBC-triple negative BC) cancer. Oncomine data analysis confirmed this observation and classified PTK7 in a cluster with genes associated with agressive behavior of primary BC. Furthermore PTK7 expression was significantly different with respect to tumor size (ANOVA, p = 0.033) in BC and nodal involvement (ANOVA, p = 0.007) in LN. PTK7 expression in metastatic LN was related to shorter DFS (Cox Regression, p = 0.041). Our observations confirmed the transforming potential of PTK7, as well as its involvement in motility and invasivity of BC cells. PTK7 is highly expressed in TNBC cell lines. It represents a novel prognostic marker for BC patients and has potential therapeutic significance.
The relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk has become a hot topic and was studied extensively in recent years, but the results are still controversial. In order to estimate the relationship of MMP polymorphisms and the risk of bladder cancer, we performed this meta-analysis. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases; PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese) and Wanfang Database (Chinese) were searched for all case-control studies which mainly study the relationship between MMP-1-1607 1G/2G, MMP-2-1306 C/T, and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphisms and the susceptibility of bladder cancer. The association between the MMP polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk was conducted by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). At last, totally five literatures with 1,141 cases and 1,069 controls were contained in the meta-analysis. Among these articles, four articles with 1,103 cases and 1,053 controls were about MMP-1-1607 1G/2G polymorphism and three studies with 839 cases and 775 controls for MMP-2-1306 C/T polymorphism and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphism. With regard to MMP-1-1607 1G/2G polymorphism, significant association was found with bladder cancer susceptibility only under recessive model (2G2G vs. 1G2G/1G1G: OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.05-1.97, P = 0.022), and as to the MMP-2-1306 C/T polymorphism, significant association was found with bladder cancer susceptibility only under homozygote model (TT vs. CC: OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.38-3.10, P = 0), but no associations was found between MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility. The results suggest that the MMP-2-1306 C/T and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphisms are significantly associated with bladder cancer susceptibility, and no associations were found between MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility.
Ponti G, Bertazzoni G, Pastorino L, et al.Proteomic analysis of PTCH1+/- fibroblast lysate and conditioned culture media isolated from the skin of healthy subjects and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:794028 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis underlying the increased predisposition to the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the context of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is linked to molecular mechanisms that differ from sporadic BCCs. Patients with Gorlin syndrome tend to develop multiple BCCs at an early age and present with tumors of non-sun-exposed skin. The aim of this study was to compare the proteomic profile of cultured fibroblast and fibroblast conditioned culture media of PTCH1+ and nonmutated fibroblasts.
RESULTS: Proteomic analysis was performed using Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry in PTCH1+ fibroblast conditioned media isolated from not affected sun-protected skin areas of Gorlin patients and from healthy subjects. 12 protein cluster peaks, >5 kDa, had significant differences in their peak intensities between PTCH1+ and PTCH1- subject groups. We detected a strongly MMP1 overexpression in PTCH1+ fibroblasts obtained from NBCCS patients with respect to healthy donors.
CONCLUSION: Protein profiles in the fibroblast conditioned media revealed statistically significant differences between two different types (missense versus nonsense) of PTCH1 mutations. These differences could be useful as signatures to identify PTCH1 gene carriers at high risk for the development of NBCCS-associated malignancies and to develop novel experimental molecular tailored therapies based on these druggable targets.
Nakamura M, Zhang X, Mizumoto Y, et al.Molecular characterization of CD133+ cancer stem-like cells in endometrial cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(3):669-77 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A small subset of cells with CD133 expression is thought to have increased chemoresistance and tumorigenicity, features of cancer stem cells (CSCs); the molecular mechanisms by which these properties arise remain unclear. We characterized CD133+ endometrial cancer cells based on microarray analyses of Ishikawa cells. Of the genes upregulated in CD133+ cells compared with CD133- cells, we noted several key factors involved in the aggressive behavior of cells, including ABCG2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). Flow cytometric analyses identified a side-cell population (SP) with CSC features in Ishikawa cells, and they were found to be more enriched in CD133+ cells than CD133- cells. In particular, CD133+/SP cells exhibited higher proliferative and colony‑forming activity than CD133+/non-SP cells. Matrigel invasion assay revealed that CD133+ cells have enhanced invasive capacity with elevated MT1-MMP expression. siRNA‑based knockdown of MT1-MMP largely abolished the invasive capacity of CD133+ cells, but not CD133- cells due to low levels of constitutive MT1-MMP1 expression. These findings demonstrate that increased chemoresistance and tumorigenic potential of CD133+ cells are at least partly attributed to an enriched SP fraction as well as increased MMP-1 expression. These results will be of assistance in the establishment of molecular target therapy to CSCs in endometrial cancer.
Although the cure rate for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is high, the diverse spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma has made it difficult for early diagnosis, particularly the aggressive tumors that are highly associated with mortality. Therefore, molecular markers are needed as an adjunct to current staging methods for diagnosing high-risk lesions, and stratifying those patients with aggressive tumors. To identify such biomarkers, we have examined a comprehensive set of 200 histologically defined squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin samples by using a combination of microarray, QRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. A characteristic and distinguishable profile including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) as well as other degradome components was differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin samples. The expression levels of some of these genes including matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10), parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS), interleukin 6 (IL6) and reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) were significantly differentially expressed (P≤0.02) in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin. Furthermore, based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 are significantly higher in aggressive tumors compared with non-aggressive tumors. Given that MMPs represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis, we believe that they may have an important role in modulating the tumor microenvironment of squamous cell carcinoma.
Kim KY, Zhang X, Cha IHCombined genomic expressions as a diagnostic factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Genomics. 2014 May-Jun; 103(5-6):317-22 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Trends in genetics are transforming in order to identify differential coexpressions of correlated gene expression rather than the significant individual gene. Moreover, it is known that a combined biomarker pattern improves the discrimination of a specific cancer. The identification of the combined biomarker is also necessary for the early detection of invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To identify the combined biomarker that could improve the discrimination of OSCC, we explored an appropriate number of genes in a combined gene set in order to attain the highest level of accuracy. After detecting a significant gene set, including the pre-defined number of genes, a combined expression was identified using the weights of genes in a gene set. We used the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the weight calculation. In this process, we used three public microarray datasets. One dataset was used for identifying the combined biomarker, and the other two datasets were used for validation. The discrimination accuracy was measured by the out-of-bag (OOB) error. There was no relation between the significance and the discrimination accuracy in each individual gene. The identified gene set included both significant and insignificant genes. One of the most significant gene sets in the classification of normal and OSCC included MMP1, SOCS3 and ACOX1. Furthermore, in the case of oral dysplasia and OSCC discrimination, two combined biomarkers were identified. The combined expression revealed good performance in the validation datasets. The combined genomic expression achieved better performance in the discrimination of different conditions than a single significant gene. Therefore, it could be expected that accurate diagnosis for cancer could be possible with a combined biomarker.
Chiang YY, Chow KC, Lin TY, et al.Hepatocyte growth factor and HER2/neu downregulate expression of apoptosis-inducing factor in non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(2):597-604 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Our previous study showed that patients with advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were frequently detected with upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In vitro, HGF reduced expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cisplatin sensitivity in NSCLC cells. The effect of HGF was via HGF receptor (c-MET) and the downstream effector, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In this study, we determined the prognostic value of AIF in NSCLC patients. AIF expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Our data show that AIF expression was associated with better prognosis. Expression of AIF inversely correlated with that of positive NSCLC markers, e.g., dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH), c-MET, short oncostatin M receptor (OSMRs), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and HER2/neu, which were closely associated with drug resistance, tumor recurrence, metastasis and poor prognosis. Noteworthy, silence of HER2/neu gene expression increases AIF level and drug sensitivity. Addition of HGF inhibits AIF expression in HER2/neu-silenced cells. These results suggested that both HGF and HER2/neu affect drug resistance by regulating AIF expression in NSCLC.
Rosenberg EE, Prudnikova TY, Zabarovsky ER, et al.D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase cell type specifically affects angiogenesis pathway in different prostate cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3237-45 [PubMed
] Related Publications
D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) is involved in breast and lung carcinogenesis as a potential tumor suppressor gene, acting through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and invasion/metastasis pathways. However, in prostate tumors, increased GLCE expression is associated with advanced disease, suggesting versatile effects of GLCE in different cancers. To investigate further the potential cancer-promoting effect of GLCE in prostate cancer, GLCE was ectopically re-expressed in morphologically different LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Transcriptional profiles of normal PNT2 prostate cells, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, and GLCE-expressing LNCaP and PC3 cells were determined. Comparative analysis revealed the genes whose expression was changed in prostate cancer cells compared with normal PNT2 cells, and those differently expressed between the cancer cell lines (ACTA2, IL6, SERPINE1, TAGLN, SEMA3A, and CDH2). GLCE re-expression influenced mainly angiogenesis-involved genes (ANGPT1, SERPINE1, IGF1, PDGFB, TNF, IL8, TEK, IFNA1, and IFNB1) but in a cell type-specific manner (from basic deregulation of angiogenesis in LNCaP cells to significant activation in PC3 cells). Invasion/metastasis pathway was also affected (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, S100A4, ITGA1, ITGB3, ERBB2, and FAS). The obtained results suggest activation of angiogenesis as a main molecular mechanism of pro-oncogenic effect of GLCE in prostate cancer. GLCE up-regulation plus expression pattern of a panel of six genes, discriminating morphologically different prostate cancer cell sub-types, is suggested as a potential marker of aggressive prostate cancer.
Kim B, Sohn EJ, Jung JH, et al.Inhibition of ZNF746 suppresses invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(1):73-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although ZNF746, also known as Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), has been reported to suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its target gene NRF-1 leading to the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease, its function in tumorigenesis has yet to be investigated. Thus, in the present study, the role of ZNF746 in the invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells was investigated. Invasion assay showed that inhibition of ZNF746 using siRNA transfection inhibited the invasion of H460 NSCLC cells using Boyden chamber. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that the silencing of ZNF746 attenuated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1, MMP2 and MMP9, but not MMP7, in H460 NSCLC cells. Immunoblotting assay revealed that the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin of epithelial phenotype was upregulated, while Slug was downregulated in ZNF746 siRNA-transfected H460 NSCLC cells. Accordingly, the mRNA expression of E-cadherin was upregulated while vimentin or Slug, Twist, ZEB as EMT key transcriptional factors were suppressed in ZNF746 siRNA-transfected H460 NSCLC cells. Also, mRNA expression of transcriptional marker Nanog and Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), known to enhance malignancy and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma, was suppressed in ZNF746 siRNA-transfected H460 NSCLC cells. Notably, the endogenous expression of ZNF746 was induced in parallel with Twist at the protein level during hypoxia. Overall, our findings suggest that inhibition of ZNF746 suppresses the invasion and EMT molecules in H460 NSCLC cells and ZNF746 may be an important target molecule in lung tumorigenesis.
Loss of the cell polarity gene could cooperate with oncogenic Ras to drive tumor growth and invasion, which critically depends on the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in Drosophila. By performing a genetic screen, we have identified Src42A, the ortholog of mammalian Src, as a key modulator of both Ras(V12)/lgl(-/-) triggered tumor invasion and loss of cell polarity gene-induced cell migration. Our genetic study further demonstrated that the Bendless (Ben)/dUev1a ubiquitin E2 complex is an essential regulator of Src42A-induced, JNK-mediated cell migration. Furthermore, we showed that ectopic Ben/dUev1a expression induced invasive cell migration along with increased MMP1 production in wing disc epithelia. Moreover, Ben/dUev1a could cooperate with Ras(V12) to promote tumor overgrowth and invasion. In addition, we found that the Ben/dUev1a complex is required for ectopic Src42A-triggered cell death and endogenous Src42A-dependent thorax closure. Our data not only provide a mechanistic insight into the role of Src in development and disease but also propose a potential oncogenic function for Ubc13 and Uev1a, the mammalian homologs of Ben and dUev1a.
Masuzawa M, Mikami T, Numata Y, et al.Association of D2-40 and MMP-1 expression with cyst formation in lung metastatic lesions of cutaneous angiosarcoma on the scalp: immunohistochemical analysis of 23 autopsy cases.
Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(12):2751-9 [PubMed
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Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp can rapidly develop into pulmonary metastasis. The pulmonary metastatic lesions display a unique appearance, so-called thin-walled cysts, which cause a fatal relapsed pneumothorax by rupturing. We analyzed 23 autopsy cases of angiosarcoma with pulmonary metastasis to elucidate the mechanism of the thin-walled cyst development. Of the 23 cases of cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp with pulmonary metastasis, radiological examination revealed pulmonary metastatic lesions as thin-walled cysts (39%), nodules (39%), mixed cysts and nodules (13%), and ground-glass opacity (9%). All the cases but one with cystic metastases were complicated by pneumothorax. The cystic lesions were accompanied by podoplanin (D2-40)-positive tumor cells in the luminal surface of the cysts. In both primary cutaneous lesions and pulmonary metastatic lesions, the D2-40 expression was positive for angiosarcoma cells in 100% and 92% of the cases, respectively. While the estrogen-regulated gene (ERG) expression was also positive for most of the primary and metastatic pulmonary angiosarcomas, D2-40 was a more useful marker to differentiate tumor cells from the background than was the ERG expression of the vascular endothelium. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression was also predominant in primary lesions (95%) and pulmonary metastatic lesions (82.6%). Proteinases, like MMP-1, might be associated with a developing thin-walled cyst, although there were no differences in the MMP-1 expression in either the cystic or nodular metastasis. Two extremely aggressive cases showed cystic metastasis with central necrosis that was not observed in other cases. These results suggest a pathogenesis of thin-walled cysts in some progressive cases.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that interactions between tumour cells and the surrounding stroma play an important role in facilitating tumour growth and invasion. Stromal fibroblasts produce most of the extracellular matrix components found in the stroma. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms involved in tumour cell-mediated regulation of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in co-cultured fibroblasts. To this end, microarray analysis was performed on CCD-1068SK human fibroblast cells after direct co-culture with MDA-MB-231 human breast tumour cells.
RESULTS: We found that the expression of both connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and type I collagen was negatively regulated in CCD-1068SK fibroblast cells under direct co-culture conditions. Further analysis revealed that Smad7, a known negative regulator of the Smad signalling pathway involved in CCN2 promoter regulation, was increased in directly co-cultured fibroblasts. Inhibition of Smad7 expression in CCD-1068SK fibroblasts resulted in increased CCN2 expression, while Smad7 overexpression had the opposite effect. Silencing CCN2 gene expression in fibroblasts led, in turn, to a decrease in type I collagen mRNA and protein levels. ERK signalling was also shown to be impaired in CCD-1068SK fibroblasts after direct co-culture with MDA-MB-231 tumour cells, with Smad7 overexpression in fibroblasts leading to a similar decrease in ERK activity. These effects were not, however, seen in fibroblasts that were indirectly co-cultured with tumour cells.
CONCLUSION: We therefore conclude that breast cancer cells require close contact with fibroblasts in order to upregulate Smad7 which, in turn, leads to decreased ERK signalling resulting in diminished expression of the stromal proteins CCN2 and type I collagen.
Sandner A, Illert J, Koitzsch S, et al.Reflux induces DNA strand breaks and expression changes of MMP1+9+14 in a human miniorgan culture model.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(19):2905-15 [PubMed
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. The same applies to laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, but so far, this link has not been proven. The impact of low pH and bile acids has not been studied extensively in cells other than oesophageal cancer cell lines and tissue. The aims of this study were to investigate the pathogenic potential of reflux and its single components on the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. We measured DNA stability in human miniorgan cultures (MOCs) and primary epithelial cell cultures (EpCs) in response to reflux by the alkaline comet assay. As matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling processes and may contribute to cancer progression, we studied the expression of MMP1, -9, and -14 in MOCs, EpC, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD. DNA strand breaks (DNA-SBs) increased significantly at low pH and after incubation with human or artificial gastric juice. Single incubation with glycochenodeoxycholic acid also showed a significant increase in DNA-SBs. In epithelial cell cultures, human gastric juice increased the number of DNA-SBs at pH 4.5 and 5.5. Artificial gastric juice significantly up regulated the gene expression of MMP9. Western blot analysis confirmed the results of gene expression analysis, but the up regulation of MMP1, -9, and -14 was donor-specific. Reflux has the ability to promote genomic instability and may contribute to micro environmental changes suitable for the initiation of malignancy. Further functional gene analysis may elucidate the role of laryngopharyngeal reflux in the development of head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Gene expression measurements detailing mRNA quantities are widely employed in molecular biology and are increasingly important in diagnostic fields. Reverse transcription (RT), necessary for generating complementary DNA, can be both inefficient and imprecise, but remains a quintessential RNA analysis tool using qPCR. This study developed a Transcriptomic Calibration Material and assessed the RT reaction using digital (d)PCR for RNA measurement. While many studies characterise dPCR capabilities for DNA quantification, less work has been performed investigating similar parameters using RT-dPCR for RNA analysis. RT-dPCR measurement using three, one-step RT-qPCR kits was evaluated using single and multiplex formats when measuring endogenous and synthetic RNAs. The best performing kit was compared to UV quantification and sensitivity and technical reproducibility investigated. Our results demonstrate assay and kit dependent RT-dPCR measurements differed significantly compared to UV quantification. Different values were reported by different kits for each target, despite evaluation of identical samples using the same instrument. RT-dPCR did not display the strong inter-assay agreement previously described when analysing DNA. This study demonstrates that, as with DNA measurement, RT-dPCR is capable of accurate quantification of low copy RNA targets, but the results are both kit and target dependent supporting the need for calibration controls.
Wang YP, Liu IJ, Chiang CP, Wu HCAstrocyte elevated gene-1 is associated with metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through p65 phosphorylation and upregulation of MMP1.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):109 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The survival rate of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at advanced stage is poor, despite contemporary advances in treatment modalities. Recent studies have indicated that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), a single transmembrane protein without any known functional domains, is overexpressed in various malignancies and is implicated in both distant metastasis and poor survival.
RESULTS: High expression of AEG-1 in HNSCC was positively correlated with regional lymph node metastasis and a poor 5-year survival rate. Knockdown of AEG-1 in HNSCC cell lines reduced their capacity for colony formation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, decreased tumor volume and metastatic foci were observed after knockdown of AEG-1 in subcutaneous xenografts and pulmonary metastasis assays in vivo, respectively. We also demonstrated that AEG-1 increased phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, and regulated the expression of MMP1 in HNSCC cells. Moreover, compromised phosphorylation of the p65 (RelA) subunit of NF-κB at serine 536 was observed upon silencing of AEG-1 in both HNSCC cell lines and clinical specimens.
CONCLUSION: High expression of AEG-1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and its potentially associated mechanism is investigated.
Poplineau M, Schnekenburger M, Dufer J, et al.The DNA hypomethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, enhances tumor cell invasion through a transcription-dependent modulation of MMP-1 expression in human fibrosarcoma cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(1):24-34 [PubMed
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In diseases such as cancer, cells need to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and therefore require high protease levels. Thus, aberrant tissue degradation is associated to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) overexpression resulting from different mechanisms including epigenetic events. One of the most characterized epigenetic mechanisms is DNA methylation causing changes in chromatin conformation, thereby decreasing the accessibility to the transcriptional machinery and resulting in a robust gene silencing. Modulation of DNA methylation by DNA hypomethylating agents such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) is widely used in epigenetic anticancer treatments. Here, we focus on the effects of this drug on the expression level of MMP-1, -2, and -9 in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We demonstrate that 5-azadC increases MMP expression at both mRNA and protein levels, and promotes invasion potential of HT1080 cells. Using broad-spectrum and specific MMP inhibitors, we establish that MMP-1, but not MMP-2 and -9, plays a key role in 5-azadC-enhanced cell invasion. We show that 5-azadC induces MMP-1 expression through a transcriptional mechanism without affecting MMP-1 promoter methylation status. Finally, we demonstrate that 5-azadC treatment increases the nuclear levels of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, and modulates their recruitment to the MMP-1 promoter, resulting in chromatin remodeling associated to 5-azadC-induced MMP-1 expression. All together, our data indicate that the hypomethylating agent 5-azadC modulates, mainly via Sp1 recruitment, MMP-1 expression resulting in an increased invasive potential of HT1080 cells.
Yang Q, Feng F, Zhang F, et al.LINE-1 ORF-1p functions as a novel HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway co-activator and promotes the growth of MDA-MB-231 cell.
Cell Signal. 2013; 25(12):2652-60 [PubMed
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Long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE)-1 ORF-1p is encoded by the human pro-oncogene LINE-1. It is involved in the development and progression of several human carcinomas, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung and breast cancers. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/ETS-1 signaling pathway is involved in regulation of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion. The biological function of the interaction between LINE-1 ORF-1p and the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway in regulation of human breast cancer proliferation remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p enhanced ETS-1 transcriptional activity and increased expression of downstream genes of ETS-1. Interaction between ETS-1 and LINE-1 ORF-1p was identified by immunoprecipitation assays. LINE-1 ORF-1p modulated ETS-1 activity through cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and recruitment to the ETS-1 binding element in the MMP1 gene promoter. We also showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p promoted proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. By investigating a novel role of the LINE-1 ORF-1p in the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway and MDA-MB-231 cells, we demonstrated that LINE-1 ORF-1p may be a novel ETS-1 coactivator and molecular target for therapy of human triple negative breast cancer.
Rong G, Kang H, Wang Y, et al.Candidate markers that associate with chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer through the study on Taxotere-induced damage to tumor microenvironment and gene expression profiling of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs).
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70960 [PubMed
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Recently, emerging evidence has suggested that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) could contribute to chemotherapy resistances in breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the gene expression profiling of CAFs before and after chemotherapy and pick up candidate genes that might associate with chemotherapy resistance and could be used as predictors of treatment response. CAFs were cultured from surgically resected primary breast cancers and identified with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Flow cytometry (FCM). MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured as the breast cancer cell line. Cell adhesion assay, invasion assay, and proliferation assay (MTT) were performed to compare the function of MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with CAFs and MDA-MB-231 cells without co-culture, after chemotherapy. Totally 6 pairs of CAFs were prepared for microarray analysis. Each pair of CAFs were obtained from the same patient and classified into two groups. One group was treated with Taxotere (regarded as after chemotherapy) while the other group was not processed with Taxotere (regarded as before chemotherapy). According to our study, the primary-cultured CAFs exhibited characteristic phenotype. After chemotherapy, MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with CAFs displayed increasing adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation abilities, compared with MDA-MB-231 cells without CAFs. Moreover, 35 differentially expressed genes (absolute fold change >2) were identified between CAFs after chemotherapy and before chemotherapy, including 17 up-regulated genes and 18 down-regulated genes. CXCL2, MMP1, IL8, RARRES1, FGF1, and CXCR7 were picked up as the candidate markers, of which the differential expression in CAFs before and after chemotherapy was confirmed. The results indicate the changes of gene expression in CAFs induced by Taxotere treatment and propose the candidate markers that possibly associate with chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer.
Our pilot study using miRNA arrays found that miRNA-29c (miR-29c) is differentially expressed in the paired low-metastatic lung cancer cell line 95C compared to the high-metastatic lung cancer cell line 95D. Bioinformatics analysis shows that integrin β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) could be important target genes of miR-29c. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-29c suppresses lung cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) and metastasis by targeting integrin β1 and MMP2. The gain-of-function studies that raised miR-29c expression in 95D cells by using its mimics showed reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion to ECM, invasion and migration. In contrasts, loss-of-function studies that reduced miR-29c by using its inhibitor in 95C cells promoted proliferation, adhesion to ECM, invasion and migration. Furthermore, the dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-29c inhibited the expression of the luciferase gene containing the 3'-UTRs of integrin β1 and MMP2 mRNA. Western blotting indicated that miR-29c downregulated the expression of integrin β1 and MMP2 at the protein level. Gelatin zymography analysis further confirmed that miR-29c decreased MMP2 enzyme activity. Nude mice with xenograft models of lung cancer cells confirmed that miR-29c inhibited lung cancer metastasis in vivo, including bone and liver metastasis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-29c serves as a tumor metastasis suppressor, which suppresses lung cancer cell adhesion to ECM and metastasis by directly inhibiting integrin β1 and MMP2 expression and by further reducing MMP2 enzyme activity. The results show that miR-29c may be a novel therapeutic candidate target to slow lung cancer metastasis.
HGF signals through its cognate receptor, MET, to orchestrate diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell fate specification, organogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), an epigenetic regulator, plays critical roles in cell fate, stem cell, and cell cycle decisions. Here, we describe a role for MLL in the HGF-MET signaling pathway. We found a shared phenotype among Mll(-/-), Hgf(-/-), and Met(-/-) mice with common cranial nerve XII (CNXII) outgrowth and myoblast migration defects. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that MLL was required for HGF-induced invasion and metastatic growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. HGF-MET signaling resulted in the accumulation of ETS2, which interacted with MLL to transactivate MMP1 and MMP3. ChIP assays demonstrated that activation of the HGF-MET pathway resulted in increased occupancy of the MLL-ETS2 complex on MMP1 and MMP3 promoters, where MLL trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4), activating transcription. Our results present an epigenetic link between MLL and the HGF-MET signaling pathway, which may suggest new strategies for therapeutic intervention.
Sawada G, Ueo H, Matsumura T, et al.Loss of COP1 expression determines poor prognosisin patients with gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1971-5 [PubMed
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Previous studies have suggested conflicting roles for the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 in tumorigenesis, providing evidence that both the oncoprotein c-Jun and the tumor suppressor p53 may be COP1 targets. In the present study, we focused on the clinical significance of COP1 expression in gastric cancer cases and analyzed the malignant behavior of COP1‑knockdown gastric cancer cells in vitro. We analyzed COP1 expression in cancer lesions and the corresponding normal mucosa to demonstrate the clinical significance of COP1 expression in 133 cases of gastric cancer. We also investigated the relationship between COP1 expression and cell proliferation and the association of COP1 with c‑Jun transcriptional target genes, such as MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10. The expression of COP1 mRNA was significantly lower in gastric cancer tissues compared to the corresponding normal mucosa (P=0.049). In multivariate analysis for overall survival, we found that COP1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Knockdown of COP1 expression in the gastric cancer cell lines MKN‑45 and NUGC4 promoted proliferation, and significant associations between COP1 expression and MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10 were also observed in knockdown assays. In conclusion, the present study suggests that loss of COP1 expression may be a novel indicator for the biological aggressiveness in gastric cancer.