Gene Summary

Gene:MMP3; matrix metallopeptidase 3
Aliases: SL-1, STMY, STR1, CHDS6, MMP-3, STMY1
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. This gene encodes an enzyme which degrades fibronectin, laminin, collagens III, IV, IX, and X, and cartilage proteoglycans. The enzyme is thought to be involved in wound repair, progression of atherosclerosis, and tumor initiation. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP3 (cancer-related)

Zeng W, Chang H, Ma M, Li Y
CCL20/CCR6 promotes the invasion and migration of thyroid cancer cells via NF-kappa B signaling-induced MMP-3 production.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(1):184-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
CCL20, an important member of the CC-chemokine family, is the only ligand that activates CCR6. The levels of CCL20 and CCR6 are elevated in many human cancers, and CCL20/CCR6 interaction participates in the development and progression of cancer. In this present study, we found that CCR6 was overexpressed in thyroid cancer cells. Activation of CCR6 by CCL20 promoted the invasion and migration of human thyroid cancer SW1736 cells, while knockdown of CCR6 repressed the effect of CCL20. Furthermore, CCL20/CCR6 interaction induced the activation of NF-κB, and stimulated the expression and secretion of MMP-3. In addition, BAY117082, a special inhibitor of NF-κB, suppressed the expression and secretion of MMP-3 stimulated by CCL20/CCR6. Together, these results suggest that CCL20/CCR6 enhances thyroid cancer cell invasion and migration. The possible molecular mechanisms involved NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent MMP-3 upregulation. Thus, molecular therapies that aim at CCL20 and CCR6 may offer promising intervention strategies for thyroid cancer.

Zhou X, Qi Y
PLGF inhibition impairs metastasis of larynx carcinoma through MMP3 downregulation.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9381-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer neovascularization plays a key role in the metastasis of larynx carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanism for the neovascularization control in larynx carcinoma is poorly understood. Since placental growth factor (PLGF) has been reported to be involved in pathological angiogenesis, and since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are essential for extracellular matrix degradation during neovascularization, here we were prompted to examine whether PLGF and MMPs may play a coordinate role in the metastasis of larynx carcinoma. Our data showed that the expression of PLGF and MMP3 strongly correlated in the larynx carcinoma in the patients, and significant higher levels of PLGF and MMP3 were detected in the larynx carcinoma from the patients with metastasis of the primary cancer. Thus, we used a human larynx carcinoma cell line, Hep-2, to examine whether expression of PLGF and MMP3 may affect each other. We found that overexpression of PLGF in Hep-2 cells increased expression of MMP3, while inhibition of PLGF in Hep-2 cells decreased expression of MMP3. However, neither overexpression, nor inhibition of MMP3 in Hep-2 cells affected the expression level of PLGF. These data suggest that PLGF may function upstream of MMP3 in larynx carcinoma cells. We then analyzed how PLGF affected MMP3. Application of a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor to PLGF-overexpressing Hep-2 cells substantially abolished the effect of PLGF on MMP3 activation, suggesting that PLGF may increase expression of MMP3 via ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Since anti-PLGF was recently applied in clinical trials to inhibit cancer-related angiogenesis, here our data further demonstrate that inhibition of cancer neovascularization by anti-PLGF is mediated not only by direct effect on endothelial growth and capillary permeability, but also by indirect effect via MMP3 on the extracellular matrix degradation in larynx carcinoma.

Han J, Bae SY, Oh SJ, et al.
Zerumbone suppresses IL-1β-induced cell migration and invasion by inhibiting IL-8 and MMP-3 expression in human triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Phytother Res. 2014; 28(11):1654-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation is a key regulatory process in cancer development. Prolonged exposure of breast tumor cells to inflammatory cytokines leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is the principal mechanism involved in metastasis and tumor invasion. Interleukin (IL)-1β is a major inflammatory cytokine in a variety of tumors. To date, the regulatory mechanism of IL-1β-induced cell migration and invasion has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of zerumbone (ZER) on IL-1β-induced cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. The levels of IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 mRNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The levels of secreted IL-8 and MMP-3 protein were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Cell invasion and migration was detected by Boyden chamber assay. The levels of IL-8 and MMP-3 expression were significantly increased by IL-1β treatment in Hs578T and MDA-MB231 cells. On the other hand, IL-1β-induced IL-8 and MMP-3 expression was decreased by ZER. Finally, IL-1β-induced cell migration and invasion were decreased by ZER in Hs578T and MDA-MB231 cells. ZER suppresses IL-1β-induced cell migration and invasion by inhibiting IL-8 expression and MMP-3 expression in TNBC cells. ZER could be a promising therapeutic drug for treatment of triple-negative breast cancer patients.

Januchowski R, Zawierucha P, Ruciński M, et al.
Extracellular matrix proteins expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:365867 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly--over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis.

Bayo J, Fiore E, Aquino JB, et al.
Increased migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells by autocrine motility factor (AMF) resulted in enhanced recruitment towards hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95171 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several reports described the migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) towards tumor-released factors. Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is produced by several tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to analyze AMF involvement on MSC migration towards human HCC.
METHODS: Production of AMF by HCC tumors was evaluated by western analysis. The effects of AMF on MSCs from different sources (bone marrow, adipose tissue and perivascular cells from umbilical cord) were analyzed using in vitro migration assay; metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity and expression of critical genes were studied by zymography and qRT-PCR, respectively. To assess AMF involvement on the in vivo MSC migration, noninvasive fluorescence imaging was performed. To test the effect of AMF-primed MSCs on tumor development, in vitro proliferation and spheroids growth and in vivo tumor volume were evaluated.
RESULTS: AMF produced by HCC was found to induce migration of different MSCs in vitro and to enhance their MMP2 activity. Stimulation of MSCs with recombinant AMF (rAMF) also induced the in vitro adhesion to endothelial cells in coincidence with changes in the expression levels of MMP3, AMF receptor, caveolin-1, and -2 and GDI-2. Importantly, stimulation of MSCs with rAMF increased the in vivo migration of MSCs towards experimental HCC tumors. AMF-priming of MSCs did not induce a pro-tumorigenic effect on HCC cells neither in vivo nor in vitro.
CONCLUSION: AMF plays a role in MSC recruitment towards HCC. However, its ability to increase MSC migration to HCC for therapeutic purposes merits further evaluation.

Zhu YH, Liu H, Zhang LY, et al.
Downregulation of LGI1 promotes tumor metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1154-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, we report the characterization of a candidate tumor suppressor gene leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Downregulation of LGI1 has been detected in approximately 50% of primary ESCCs, which was significantly associated with advanced clinical stage (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), tumor invasion (P = 0.009) and poor disease-specific survival (P < 0.001). Functional studies found that LGI1 could inhibit cell growth, clonogenicity, cell motility and tumor formation in nude mice. Mechanistic investigations suggested that LGI1 acted through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling to downregulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 expression and subsequently suppressed tumor metastasis. Taken together, our study revealed that LGI1 plays an important tumor suppressive role in the development and progression of ESCC, with possible application in clinics as a biomarker and a potential new therapeutic target.

Cui XP, Qin CK, Zhang ZH, et al.
HOXA10 promotes cell invasion and MMP-3 expression via TGFβ2-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in pancreatic cancer cells.
Dig Dis Sci. 2014; 59(7):1442-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HOXA10 is closely related to tumor progression in many human cancers. However, the role of HOXA10 in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of HOXA10 in pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration.
METHODS: The effect of HOXA10 on the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells was assessed by invasion and migration assays. The protein of transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFβ2) was neutralized by TGFβ2 blocking antibody. The activation of p38 was inhibited by SB239063.
RESULTS: HOXA10 could promote the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of HOXA10 decreased the expressions of TGFβ2 and matrix metallopeptidase-3 (MMP-3) and suppressed the activation of p38. Conversely, overexpression of HOXA10 increased the levels of TGFβ2 and MMP-3. Further experiments identified that TGFβ2 contributed to the HOXA10-promoted invasion and migration and regulated MMP-3 expression and p38 activation. Additionally, inhibition of p38 suppressed cell invasion and MMP-3 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: HOXA10 promotes cell invasion and MMP-3 expression of pancreatic cancer cells via TGFβ2-p38 MAPK pathway. Thus, HOXA10 could be a useful target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Qiu J, Ye L, Ding J, et al.
Effects of oestrogen on long noncoding RNA expression in oestrogen receptor alpha-positive ovarian cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 141:60-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although oestrogen (E2) signalling has long been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a major role in cancer progression; therefore, our aim was to explore whether any lncRNA is regulated by E2 and plays some potential roles in the hormonal regulation of EOC progression. Here, we reported that E2 significantly dysregulated 115 lncRNAs (fold change ≥1.5, P<0.05) in E2 receptor (ER) alpha (ERα)-positive EOC SKOV3 cells compared with E2-untreated controls based on the microarray analysis. E2 regulation of the expression of 58 lncRNAs was bioinformatics predicted to be ERα-mediated; this was confirmed for two candidates. Both TC0101441 and TC0101686 were dysregulated by E2 in another ERα-positive PEO1 cells but not in ERα-negative A2780 cells. Additionally, the modulation of TC0101441 and TC0101686 expression by E2 was abrogated by the ER inhibitor ICI 182, 780 and short hairpin RNAs targeting ERα (ERα-shRNA). Further study of the two lncRNA expression indicated that ERα-positive EOC tissues had lower expression of TC0101686 and higher expression of TC0101441 compared to ERα-negative tissues. Particularly, elevated TC0101441 expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis, showing a metastatic potential. Results of in vitro assays further confirmed the pro-metastatic effect of TC0101441 and revealed that knockdown of TC0101441 also impaired E2-induced EOC cell migration/invasion by at least partly, regulating MMP2 and MMP3. Together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that E2 modulates lncRNA expression in ERα-positive EOC cells and that this regulation is sometimes ERα-mediated. Furthermore, our findings reveal that TC0101441contributes to E2-induced EOC cell migration/invasion. These results may shed a new insight into estrogenic effect on EOC progression by providing a perspective of lncRNA.

Slavin S, Yeh CR, Da J, et al.
Estrogen receptor α in cancer-associated fibroblasts suppresses prostate cancer invasion via modulation of thrombospondin 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 3.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(6):1301-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
The prostate cancer (PCa) microenvironment contains active stromal cells known as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) that may play important roles in influencing tumor progression. Here we studied the role of CAF estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and found that it could protect against PCa invasion. Immunohistochemistry on prostatectomy specimens showed that PCa patients with ERα-positive stroma had a significantly lower risk for biochemical recurrence. In vitro invasion assays further confirmed that the stromal ERα was able to reduce PCa cell invasion. Dissection of the molecular mechanism revealed that the CAF ERα could function through a CAF-epithelial interaction via selectively upregulating thrombospondin 2 (Thbs2) and downregulating matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) at the protein and messenger RNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that ERα could bind to an estrogen response element on the promoter of Thbs2. Importantly, knockdown of Thbs2 led to increased MMP3 expression and interruption of the ERα mediated invasion suppression, providing further evidence of an ERα-Thbs2-MMP3 axis in CAF. In vivo studies using athymic nude mice injected with CWR22Rv1 (22Rv1) PCa epithelial cells and CAF cells ± ERα also confirmed that mice coimplanted with PCa cells and CAF ERα+ cells had less tumor foci in the pelvic lymph nodes, less metastases, and tumors showed less angiogenesis, MMP3, and MMP9 (an MMP3 downstream target) positive staining. Together, these data suggest that CAF ERα could play protective roles in suppressing PCa metastasis. Our results may lead to developing new and alternative therapeutic approaches to battle PCa via controlling ERα signaling in CAF.

Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, et al.
Podoplanin expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts enhances tumor progression of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):168 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interactions between cancer cells and surrounding cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in cancer progression. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the pancreas is characterized by abundant fibrous connective tissue called desmoplasia. Podoplanin (PDPN) is a lymphatic vessel marker (D2-40), and expression of PDPN by stromal CAFs has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in various types of cancer.
METHODS: Expression of PDPN in pancreatic IDCs was assessed by immunohistochemical examination in 105 patients who underwent pancreatic resection. Primary CAFs were established from pancreatic cancer tissue obtained by surgery. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate PDPN expression in CAFs. We sorted CAFs according to PDPN expression, and analyzed the functional differences between PDPN+ CAFs and PDPN- CAFs using indirect co-culture with pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also investigated the culture conditions to regulate PDPN expression in CAFs.
RESULTS: PDPN expression in stromal fibroblasts was associated with lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.0461), vascular invasion (P = 0.0101), tumor size ≥ 3 cm (P = 0.0038), histological grade (P = 0.0344), Union for International Cancer Control classification T stage (P = 0.029), and shorter survival time (P < 0.0001). Primary CAFs showed heterogeneous PDPN expression in vitro. Moreover, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1 and SUIT-2) were associated with PDPN expression in CAFs (P < 0.01) and expression of CD10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP3. In cultured CAFs, PDPN positivity changed over time under several conditions including co-culture with cancer cells, different culture media, and addition of growth factor.
CONCLUSIONS: PDPN-expressing CAFs enhance the progression of pancreatic IDC, and a high ratio of PDPN-expressing CAFs is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Understanding the regulation of the tumor microenvironment is an important step towards developing new therapeutic strategies.

Bohonowych JE, Hance MW, Nolan KD, et al.
Extracellular Hsp90 mediates an NF-κB dependent inflammatory stromal program: implications for the prostate tumor microenvironment.
Prostate. 2014; 74(4):395-407 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an essential role in supporting and promoting tumor growth and progression. An inflammatory stroma is a widespread hallmark of the prostate TME, and prostate tumors are known to co-evolve with their reactive stroma. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within the reactive stroma play a salient role in secreting cytokines that contribute to this inflammatory TME. Although a number of inflammatory mediators have been identified, a clear understanding of key factors initiating the formation of reactive stroma is lacking.
METHODS: We explored whether tumor secreted extracellular Hsp90 alpha (eHsp90α) may initiate a reactive stroma. Prostate stromal fibroblasts (PrSFs) were exposed to exogenous Hsp90α protein, or to conditioned medium (CM) from eHsp90α-expressing prostate cancer cells, and evaluated for signaling, motility, and expression of prototypic reactive markers. In tandem, ELISA assays were utilized to characterize Hsp90α-mediated secreted factors.
RESULTS: We report that exposure of PrSFs to eHsp90 upregulates the transcription and protein secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, key inflammatory cytokines known to play a causative role in prostate cancer progression. Cytokine secretion was regulated in part via a MEK/ERK and NF-κB dependent pathway. Secreted eHsp90α also promoted the rapid and durable activation of the oncogenic inflammatory mediator signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3). Finally, eHsp90 induced the expression of MMP-3, a well-known mediator of fibrosis and the myofibroblast phenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide compelling support for eHsp90α as a transducer of signaling events culminating in an inflammatory and reactive stroma, thereby conferring properties associated with prostate cancer progression.

Kwon M, Lee SJ, Wang Y, et al.
Filamin A interacting protein 1-like inhibits WNT signaling and MMP expression to suppress cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(1):48-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Identifying key mediators of cancer invasion and metastasis is crucial to the development of new and more effective therapies. We previously identified FILamin A Interacting Protein 1-Like (FILIP1L) as an important inhibitor of cell migration and invasion. FILIP1L expression was inversely correlated with the invasive potential of ovarian tumors. In our study, we established an orthotopic ovarian cancer model, wherein FILIP1L expression can be regulated in vivo. Using this model, we observed that expression of FILIP1L in ovarian cancer cells inhibited spontaneous lung metastasis. Experimental lung metastases (established via tail vein injection of cancer cells) as well as the extravasation step of metastasis were not inhibited by FILIP1L, suggesting that FILIP1L inhibits the earlier steps of metastasis such as invasion and intravasation. FILIP1L inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent invasion in vivo. MMP3, -7 and -9 were transcriptionally downregulated, and MMP9 protein expression and activity were inhibited in FILIP1L-expressing tumors. Importantly, overexpression of MMP9 compensated for the anti-invasive activity of FILIP1L. Furthermore, our studies suggest that FILIP1L regulates invasion and metastasis by inhibiting components of the WNT signaling pathway. FILIP1L expression reduced the induction of WNT target genes such as MMP3, -7 and -9, and β-catenin-directed transcriptional activity, suggesting inhibition of the canonical WNT pathway. Nuclear β-catenin, an indicator of an active canonical WNT pathway, was reduced in FILIP1L-expressing tumors. Overall, these findings suggest that FILIP1L reduces β-catenin levels, which may lead to the transcriptional downregulation of WNT target genes such as MMPs, resulting in inhibition of metastasis. Modulation of FILIP1L expression has the potential to be a target for cancer therapy.

Wang W, Lin H, Zhou L, et al.
MicroRNA-30a-3p inhibits tumor proliferation, invasiveness and metastasis and is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2014; 40(11):1586-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate physiological and pathological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-3p has been demonstrated in several cancers. However, little about how miR-30a-3p functions in these cancers has been reported, and the role of miR-30a-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the role and underlying molecular mechanism of action of miR-30a-3p in HCC.
METHODS: A total of 110 HCC patients, primarily treated by surgical removal of tumors, were involved in the study. HCC cell line Bel-7402 was selected to characterize the function of miR-30a-3p in vitro.
RESULTS: Our results showed that in 83.6% of the 110 HCC patients, expression of miR-30a-3p was significantly downregulated (P < 0.0001) in tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. In a clinicopathological correlation analysis, downregulation of miR-30a-3p correlated with a significantly higher incidence of portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT, P = 0.009). Moreover, miR-30a-3p markedly inhibited the invasion and migration of Bel-7402 HCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, miR-30a-3p overexpression had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and increased arrest of cells in the S phase. We further demonstrated that miR-30a-3p regulates HCC cell function by a mechanism involving reduced vimentin and MMP3 expression and restoration of E-cadherin expression.
CONCLUSIONS: our data suggest that miR-30a-3p is downregulated in HCC and acts as a tumor suppressor in vitro. Regulation of vimentin, E-cadherin and MMP3 by miR-30a-3p suggests a useful therapeutic strategy for tumors with reduced miR-30a-3p expression.

Ma X, Pietsch J, Wehland M, et al.
Differential gene expression profile and altered cytokine secretion of thyroid cancer cells in space.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(2):813-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study focuses on the effects of short-term [22 s, parabolic flight campaign (PFC)] and long-term (10 d, Shenzhou 8 space mission) real microgravity on changes in cytokine secretion and gene expression patterns in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells. FTC-133 cells were cultured in space and on a random positioning machine (RPM) for 10 d, to evaluate differences between real and simulated microgravity. Multianalyte profiling was used to evaluate 128 secreted cytokines. Microarray analysis revealed 63 significantly regulated transcripts after 22 s of microgravity during a PFC and 2881 after 10 d on the RPM or in space. Genes in several biological processes, including apoptosis (n=182), cytoskeleton (n=80), adhesion/extracellular matrix (n=98), proliferation (n=184), stress response (n=268), migration (n=63), angiogenesis (n=39), and signal transduction (n=429), were differentially expressed. Genes and proteins involved in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, such as IL6, IL8, IL15, OPN, VEGFA, VEGFD, FGF17, MMP2, MMP3, TIMP1, PRKAA, and PRKACA, were similarly regulated under RPM and spaceflight conditions. The resulting effect was mostly antiproliferative. Gene expression during the PFC was often regulated in the opposite direction. In summary, microgravity is an invaluable tool for exploring new targets in anticancer therapy and can be simulated in some aspects in ground-based facilities.

Uraoka N, Oue N, Sakamoto N, et al.
NRD1, which encodes nardilysin protein, promotes esophageal cancer cell invasion through induction of MMP2 and MMP3 expression.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(1):134-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. In the present study, to identify novel prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for ESCC, we reviewed a list of genes with upregulated expression in ESCC compared with normal esophagus, as identified by our serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) analysis. We focused on the NRD1 gene, which encodes the nardilysin protein. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 34 ESCC tissue samples revealed that mRNA expression of NRD1 was upregulated in 56% of ESCC tissue samples. Immunohistochemical analysis of nardilysin in 109 ESCC tissue samples demonstrated that 43 (39%) ESCC cases were positive for nardilysin. Nardilysin-positive ESCC cases were more advanced in terms of T classification (P = 0.0007), N classification (P = 0.0164), and tumor stage (P < 0.0001) than nardilysin-negative ESCC cases. Furthermore, nardilysin expression was significantly associated with poorer prognosis (P = 0.0258). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that nardilysin expression is an independent prognostic classifier of patients with ESCC. The invasiveness of NRD1-knockdown TE1 and TE5 esophageal cancer cell lines was less than that of the negative control siRNA-transfected cell lines. Expression of MMP2 and MMP3 mRNA was significantly lower in NRD1-knockdown TE5 cells than in negative control siRNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that nardilysin is involved in tumor progression, and is an independent prognostic classifier in patients with ESCC.

Ampuja M, Jokimäki R, Juuti-Uusitalo K, et al.
BMP4 inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells and induces an MMP-dependent migratory phenotype in MDA-MB-231 cells in 3D environment.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:429 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) belongs to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of proteins. BMPs regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and motility, and have also been reported to be involved in cancer pathogenesis. We have previously shown that BMP4 reduces breast cancer cell proliferation through G1 cell cycle arrest and simultaneously induces migration in a subset of these cell lines. Here we examined the effects of BMP4 in a more physiological environment, in a 3D culture system.
METHODS: We used two different 3D culture systems; Matrigel, a basement membrane extract from mouse sarcoma cells, and a synthetic polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel. AlamarBlue reagent was used for cell proliferation measurements and immunofluorescence was used to determine cell polarity. Expression of cell cycle regulators was examined by Western blot and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: The MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells formed round acini with correct apicobasal localization of α6 integrin in Matrigel whereas irregular structures were seen in PEG gel. The two 3D matrices also supported dissimilar morphology for the breast cancer cells. In PEG gel, BMP4 inhibited the growth of MCF-10A and the three breast cancer cell lines examined, thus closely resembling the 2D culture conditions, but in Matrigel, no growth inhibition was observed in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-361 cells. Furthermore, BMP4 induced the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 both in 2D and 3D culture, thereby partly explaining the growth arrest. Interestingly, MDA-MB-231 cells formed large branching, stellate structures in response to BMP4 treatment in Matrigel, suggestive of increased cell migration or invasion. This effect was reversed by Batimastat, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, and subsequent analyses showed BMP4 to induce the expression of MMP3 and MMP14, that are thus likely to be responsible for the stellate phenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results show that Matrigel provides a more physiological environment for breast epithelial cells than PEG gel. Moreover, BMP4 partly recapitulates in 3D culture the growth suppressive abilities previously seen in 2D culture and induces an MMP-dependent migratory phenotype in MDA-MB-231 cells.

Yew KH, Crow J, Hirst J, et al.
Epimorphin-induced MET sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to platinum.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e72637 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Distinctive genotypic and phenotypic features of ovarian cancer via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been correlated with drug resistance and disease recurrence. We investigated whether therapeutic reversal of EMT could re-sensitize ovarian cancer cells (OCCs) to existing chemotherapy. We report that epimorphin, a morphogenic protein, has pivotal control over mesenchymal versus epithelial cell lineage decision of the putative OCCs. Exposure to epimorphin induced morphological changes reminiscent of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), but in a dose dependent manner, i.e., at 10 µg/mL of epimorphin cells obtain a more mesenchymal-like morphology while at 20 µg/mL of epimorphin cells display an epithelial morphology. The latter changes were accompanied by suppression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin (∼8-fold↓, p<0.02), Twist1 (∼7-fold↓, p<0.03), dystroglycan (∼4-fold↓, p<0.01) and palladin (∼3-fold↓, p<0.01). Conversely, significant elevations of KLF4 (∼28-fold↑, p<0.002), β-catenin (∼6-fold↑, p<0.004), EpCAM (∼6-fold↑, p<0.0002) and occludin (∼15-fold↑, p<0.004) mRNAs as part of the commitment to the epithelial cell lineage were detected in response to 20 µg/mL of exogenous epimorphin. Changes in occludin mRNA levels were accompanied by a parallel, albeit weaker expression at the protein level (∼5-fold↑, p<0.001). Likewise, acquisition of epithelial-like properties, including mucin1, CK19, and β-catenin gene expression, was also obtained following epimorphin treatment. Further, MMP3 production was found to be reduced whereas laminin secretion was strongly amplified upon epimorphin-induced MET. These results suggest there is a dosage window for actions of epimorphin on cellular differentiation, wherein it can either suppress or enhance epithelial differentiation of OCCs. Importantly, induction of epithelial-like phenotypes by epimorphin led to an enhanced sensitivity to carboplatin. Overall, we demonstrate that epimorphin can revert OCCs away from their mesenchymal phenotype and toward an epithelial phenotype, thereby enhancing their sensitivity to a front-line chemotherapeutic agent.

Wu YH, Chang TH, Huang YF, et al.
COL11A1 promotes tumor progression and predicts poor clinical outcome in ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(26):3432-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biomarkers that predict disease progression might assist the development of better therapeutic strategies for aggressive cancers, such as ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the role of collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1) in cell invasiveness and tumor formation and the prognostic impact of COL11A1 expression in ovarian cancer. Microarray analysis suggested that COL11A1 is a disease progression-associated gene that is linked to ovarian cancer recurrence and poor survival. Small interference RNA-mediated specific reduction in COL11A1 protein levels suppressed the invasive ability and oncogenic potential of ovarian cancer cells and decreased tumor formation and lung colonization in mouse xenografts. A combination of experimental approaches, including real-time RT-PCR, casein zymography and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, showed that COL11A1 knockdown attenuated MMP3 expression and suppressed binding of Ets-1 to its putative MMP3 promoter-binding site, suggesting that the Ets-1-MMP3 axis is upregulated by COL11A1. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta (TGF-β1) treatment triggers the activation of smad2 signaling cascades, leading to activation of COL11A1 and MMP3. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP3 abrogated the TGF-β1-triggered, COL11A1-dependent cell invasiveness. Furthermore, the NF-YA-binding site on the COL11A1 promoter was identified as the major determinant of TGF-β1-dependent COL11A1 activation. Analysis of 88 ovarian cancer patients indicated that high COL11A1 mRNA levels are associated with advanced disease stage. The 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates were significantly lower (P=0.006 and P=0.018, respectively) among patients with high expression levels of tissue COL11A1 mRNA compared with those with low expression. We conclude that COL11A1 may promote tumor aggressiveness via the TGF-β1-MMP3 axis and that COL11A1 expression can predict clinical outcome in ovarian cancer patients.

Takeda S, Liu H, Sasagawa S, et al.
HGF-MET signals via the MLL-ETS2 complex in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(7):3154-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
HGF signals through its cognate receptor, MET, to orchestrate diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell fate specification, organogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), an epigenetic regulator, plays critical roles in cell fate, stem cell, and cell cycle decisions. Here, we describe a role for MLL in the HGF-MET signaling pathway. We found a shared phenotype among Mll(-/-), Hgf(-/-), and Met(-/-) mice with common cranial nerve XII (CNXII) outgrowth and myoblast migration defects. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that MLL was required for HGF-induced invasion and metastatic growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. HGF-MET signaling resulted in the accumulation of ETS2, which interacted with MLL to transactivate MMP1 and MMP3. ChIP assays demonstrated that activation of the HGF-MET pathway resulted in increased occupancy of the MLL-ETS2 complex on MMP1 and MMP3 promoters, where MLL trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4), activating transcription. Our results present an epigenetic link between MLL and the HGF-MET signaling pathway, which may suggest new strategies for therapeutic intervention.

Xu L, Wang Z, Li XF, et al.
Screening and identification of significant genes related to tumor metastasis and PSMA in prostate cancer using microarray analysis.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1920-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor metastasis is one of the causes for the high mortality rate of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, yet the molecular mechanisms of PCa metastasis are not fully understood. In our previous studies, we found that PSMA suppresses the metastasis of PCa, yet the underlying mechanism remains unknown. To identify the genes related to tumor metastasis possibly regulated by PSMA, we performed tumor metastasis PCR array assay to analyze the differentially expressed tumor metastasis-related genes. Eighty-four tumor metastasis related genes were screened in si-PSMA LNCap cells (PSMA silenced by siRNA)/LNCap cells and in PC-3/LNcap cells, respectively. Expression levels of possible related genes were verified by real-time PCR in 4 prostate cancer cell lines (LNCap, 22RV1, PC-3 and DU145) and in 85 clinical samples (12 normal, 26 benign prostatic hypertrophy and 47 prostate cancer tissues). The results showed that 10 genes (including CDH6 and CXCL12) were upregulated and 4 genes (CCL7, ITGB3, MDM2 and MMP2) were downregulated in the si-PSMA LNCap cells. There were 41 genes significantly upregulated and 15 genes downregulated in PC-3 cells when compared with LNCap cells. Eight common genes were found in both the si-PSMA and PSMA(-) groups. CDH6, MMP3, MTSS1 were further identified as PSMA-related genes in the prostate cancer cell lines and clinical samples, and their expression showed a negative correlation with the stage of prostate cancer (P<0.0001) and PSMA level (P<0.05) in clinical samples, indicating their possible involvement in PSMA-related PCa metastasis regulation. These findings may provide insights into the mechanism involved in the suppression of PCa metastasis by PSMA and its possible interacting proteins, and may provide clues for further exploration of the molecular mechanism of PCa metastasis.

Lin YH, Liao CJ, Huang YH, et al.
Thyroid hormone receptor represses miR-17 expression to enhance tumor metastasis in human hepatoma cells.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(38):4509-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to control tumor metastasis through direct interactions with target genes. Thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptor (TR) are involved in cell growth and cancer progression. However, the issue of whether miRNAs participate in T3/TR-mediated tumor migration is yet to be established. In the current study, we demonstrated that T3/TR negatively regulates mature miR-17 transcript expression, both in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays localized the regions responding to TR-mediated repression to positions -2234/-2000 of the miR-17 promoter sequence. Overexpression of miR-17 markedly inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo, mediated via suppression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3. Moreover, p-AKT expression was increased in miR-17-knockdown cells that led to enhanced cell invasion, which was blocked by LY294002. Notably, low miR-17 expression was evident in highly metastatic cells. The cell migration ability was increased by T3, but partially reduced upon miR-17 overexpression. Notably, TRα1 was frequently upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and associated with low overall survival (P=0.023). miR-17 expression was significantly negatively associated with TRα1 (P=0.033) and MMP3 (P=0.043) in HCC specimens. Data from our study suggest that T3/TR, miR-17, p-AKT and MMP3 activities are interlinked in the regulation of cancer cell metastasis.

Hakelius M, Koskela A, Ivarsson M, et al.
Keratinocytes and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells regulate urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in fibroblasts.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(8):3113-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate possible differences in the effects of soluble factors from oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells (UT-SCC-87) and normal oral keratinocytes (NOK) on fibroblast expression of genes involved in tumor stroma turnover.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transwell co-cultures with fibroblasts in collagen gels, and SCC cells or NOK in inserts were carried out. Fibroblast gene expression was measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: The expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was up-regulated in co-cultures with SCC cells but not with NOK. In contrast, both SCC cells and NOK regulated matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) and -3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP2) and -3 to a similar extent, while MMP2 and TIMP1 were largely unaffected. Interleukin 1 alpha (IL1α) up-regulated both MMP1 and MMP3 and down-regulated PAI-1, TIMP2 and -3.
CONCLUSION: SCC and NOK regulate fibroblast expression of genes involved in tumor stroma turnover differentially in vitro. These observations may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind extracellular matrix turnover in tumors.

Srivastava P, Kapoor R, Mittal RD
Impact of MMP-3 and TIMP-3 gene polymorphisms on prostate cancer susceptibility in North Indian cohort.
Gene. 2013; 530(2):273-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in progression and metastases of different tumors. The balance between the MMPs and their natural inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases; TIMP) seem to be an important factor related to its role. The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymorphisms in the MMP-3 and TIMP-3 genes for their associations with prostate cancer (PCa) risk in North Indians.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method in 150 PCa patients and 200 age matched controls of similar ethnicity.
RESULTS: We found significant association in the MMP-3(1171)5A/6A and TIMP-3 (1298) C/T polymorphism with PCa risk. Variant genotype (5A/5A) of MMP-3(1171)5A/6A polymorphism had a high PCa risk (p=0.037, OR=3.52, 95%CI=1.08-11.5). Individuals with TIMP-3 (1298) CT genotype as well as T allele showed reduced risk of PCa (p<0.001; OR=0.31; 95%CI=0.18-0.52, and p=0.001; OR=0.49; 95%CI=0.32-0.75). This effect was even more evident in case of T allele carrier (CT+TT) (p<0.001; OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.22-0.59). Overall no significant association was observed statistically in MMP-3 and TIMP-3 with any of the grading stages and smoking habits in PCa. Haplotype analysis of MMP-3 showed that A-5A-A was associated with three folds (OR=3.06; 95%CI=1.71-5.47; p<0.001) increased risk in PCa patients.
CONCLUSION: This is the first reported association between polymorphisms in the MMP-3 and TIMP-3 gene and PCa risk and supports the hypothesis that the protease/antiprotease balance has an important role. Due to the small sample size further investigations need to be done to prove a statistical significant correlation between the MMP/TIMP expression and clinicopathological parameters.

Dorjgochoo T, Zheng Y, Gao YT, et al.
No association between genetic variants in angiogenesis and inflammation pathway genes and breast cancer survival among Chinese women.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(5):619-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis and inflammation are implicated in breast cancer prognosis; however, the role of individual germline variation in related genes is unknown.
METHODS: A two-stage candidate pathway association study was conducted among 6983 Chinese women. Stage 1 included 2884 women followed for a median of 5.7 years; Stage 2 included 4099 women followed for a median of 4.0 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effects of genetic variants on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Stage 1 included genotyping of 506 variants in 22 genes; analysis was conducted for 370 common variants. Nominally significant associations with DFS and/or OS were found for 20 loci in ten genes in Stage 1; variants in 19 loci were successfully genotyped and evaluated in Stage 2. In analyses of both study stages combined, nominally significant associations were found for nine variants in seven genes; none of these associations surpassed a significance threshold level corrected for the total number of variants evaluated in this study.
CONCLUSIONS: No association with survival was found for 370 common variants in 22 angiogenesis and inflammation pathway genes among Chinese women with breast cancer.
IMPACT: Our data do not support a large role for common genetic variation in 22 genes in breast cancer prognosis; research on angiogenesis and inflammation genes should focus on common variation in other genes, rare host variants, or tumor alterations.

Xu ZY, Yu QM, Du YA, et al.
Knockdown of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR suppresses tumor invasion and reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer.
Int J Biol Sci. 2013; 9(6):587-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Over-expression of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR has been reported in several types of cancer. Yet its involvement in gastric cancer (GC) has not been well understood. The aim of present study was to examine the expression pattern of HOTAIR in GC patients, then, explore its role in promoting cancer invasion and underlying molecular mechanism.
METHODS: The expression level of HOTAIR in the tumor specimens of GC patients was quantified by Realtime RT-PCR. The correlation between HOTAIR level and clinicopathological factors as well as prognosis was then examined. Down-regulation of HOTAIR by RNA interference was applied to investigate its roles in tumor invasiveness via the view of Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
RESULTS: The expression level of HOTAIR in cancer tissues was higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Expression level of HOTAIR was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Furthermore, high expression level of HOTAIR was a predictor of poor over-all survival in GC patients. In vitro, inhibition of HOTAIR in GC cells could reduce invasiveness, as well as the expression of MMP1 and MMP3. In addition, suppression of HOTAIR could reverse EMT process.
CONCLUSIONS: HOTAIR could act as a potential predictor for over-all survival in patients with GC. Inhibition of HOTAIR could reduce invasiveness and reverse EMT process in GC cells, indicating the potential role of HOTAIR in GC diagnostics and therapeutics.

Grudny J, Kołakowski J, Kruszewski M, et al.
Association of genetic dependences between lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2013; 81(4):308-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in patients with bronchial obstructive changes, including patients with COPD. It seems that there are common factors of pathogenesis of both diseases associated with oxidative stress. In the present paper the genes linked to the repair of oxidative damage of DNA, associated with cancer, of iron metabolism and coding proteolytic enzymes were assessed.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in two groups of patients: 53 patients with non-small cell lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 54 patients only with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The polymorphisms of the single nucleotide were determined in the case of the majority of genes using the PCR-RFLP method. The statistical analysis of quantitative variables was executed using the Mann-Withney U-test and the test of medians; the analysis of genetic variables was executed using the chi² test.
RESULTS: Regarding the polymorphisms of genes involved in iron metabolism, statistically significant differences between the two groups have been demonstrated only in the case of haptoglobin gene HP1/2. A higher incidence of form 1/1 was found in patients with COPD and a higher incidence of form 1/2 in patients with lung cancer and COPD. Analysis of gene polymorphisms of proteolytic enzymes and inhibitors of the enzyme gene showed statistically significant differences between the two groups only for the MMP3 gene 6A/5A. In the case of the MMP12 gene polymorphism (A-82G) a tendency toward differences in the occurrence of specific alleles was identified.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that patients with coincidence of COPD and lung cancer have disorders of the genes involved in iron metabolism, and they have different genetic polymorphisms of proteolytic enzymes comparing to COPD patients.

Xu H, Chen X, Huang J, et al.
Identification of GPR65, a novel regulator of matrix metalloproteinases using high through-put screening.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 436(1):96-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in nearly all cancers. To study novel regulatory factors of MMP expression in head and neck cancer (HNC), we screened a total of 636 candidate genes encoding putative human transmembrane proteins using MMP promoter reporter in a dual luciferase assay system. Three genes GPR65, AXL and TNFRSF10B dramatically activated the induction of MMP3 expression. The induction of MMP expression by GPR65 was further confirmed in A549 and/or FaDu cells. GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. The AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. Moreover, the A549 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus of GPR65 showed accelerated cell invasion. In conclusion, we validate that GPR65 is vital regulatory genes upstream of MMP3, and define a novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors.

Holmberg C, Ghesquière B, Impens F, et al.
Mapping proteolytic processing in the secretome of gastric cancer-associated myofibroblasts reveals activation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3.
J Proteome Res. 2013; 12(7):3413-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Cancer progression involves changes in extracellular proteolysis, but the contribution of stromal cell secretomes to the cancer degradome remains uncertain. We have now defined the secretome of a specific stromal cell type, the myofibroblast, in gastric cancer and its modification by proteolysis. SILAC labeling and COFRADIC isolation of methionine containing peptides allowed us to quantify differences in gastric cancer-derived myofibroblasts compared with myofibroblasts from adjacent tissue, revealing increased abundance of several proteases in cancer myofibroblasts including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and -3. Moreover, N-terminal COFRADIC analysis identified cancer-restricted proteolytic cleavages, including liberation of the active forms of MMP-1, -2, and -3 from their inactive precursors. In vivo imaging confirmed increased MMP activity when gastric cancer cells were xenografted in mice together with gastric cancer myofibroblasts. Western blot and enzyme activity assays confirmed increased MMP-1, -2, and -3 activity in cancer myofibroblasts, and cancer cell migration assays indicated stimulation by MMP-1, -2, and -3 in cancer-associated myofibroblast media. Thus, cancer-derived myofibroblasts differ from their normal counterparts by increased production and activation of MMP-1, -2, and -3, and this may contribute to the remodelling of the cancer cell microenvironment.

Slattery ML, John E, Torres-Mejia G, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase genes are associated with breast cancer risk and survival: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to cancer through their involvement in cancer invasion and metastasis. We evaluated genetic variation in MMP1 (9 SNPs), MMP2 (8 SNPs), MMP3 (4 SNPs), and MMP9 (3 SNPs) and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1586 controls) women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Ancestral informative markers (n = 104) were assessed to determine Native American (NA) ancestry. MMP1 [4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] and MMP2 (2 SNPs) were associated with breast cancer overall. MMP1 rs996999 had strongest associations among women with the most NA ancestry (OR 1.61,95% CI 1.09,2.40) as did MMP3 rs650108 (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05,1.75) and MMP9 rs3787268 (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09,2.13). The adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) showed a significant pathway p(artp)  value of 0.04, with a stronger association among women with the most NA ancestry (p(artp) = 0.02). Significant pathway genes using the ARTP were MMP1 for all women (p(artp) = 0.02) and MMP9 for women with the most NA ancestry (p(artp) = 0.024); MMP2 was borderline significant overall (p(artp) =0.06) and MMP1 and MMP3 were borderline significant for women with the most NA ancestry (p(artp) = 0.07 and 0.06 respectively). MMP1 and MMP2 were associated with ER+/PR+ and ER+/PR-tumors; MMP3 and MMP9 were associated with ER-/PR- tumors. The pathway was highly significant with survival (p(artp) = 0.0041) with MMP2 having the strongest gene association (p(artp) = 0.0007). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in MMP genes influence breast cancer development and survival in this genetically admixed population.

Li X, Qu L, Zhong Y, et al.
Association between promoters polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases and risk of digestive cancers: a meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(9):1433-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A variety of studies have been performed to elucidate the polymorphisms in promoter regions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) associated with the risk of digestive cancers, and yet, results remain conflicting and heterogeneous. Thus, we undertook a systematic meta-analysis to determine the genetic susceptibility of MMPs to digestive cancers.
METHODS: A computerized literature search was conducted in databases of PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge till October 2012 for any MMP genetic association study in oral squamous, gastric, esophageal, and colorectal carcinomas. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were estimated for each gene under dominant and recessive models, and the heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Q test and I (2) value. Overall and subgroup analysis according to anatomical sites and ethnicity was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.0.
RESULTS: A total of 40 eligible publications with 68 comparisons were included in this study. For MMP1 nt-1607, individuals with 2G state could increase risk of digestive cancers in total analysis (dominant: OR = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.48, P < 0.00001; recessive: OR = 1.29, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.50, P = 0.0009). In the subgroup of tumor sites, significant associations were also observed in esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer under both genetic models. For MMP2 nt-1306, CT or TT carriers performed significant protection against digestive cancer in the dominant model (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.55-0.85, P = 0.0007) of the overall. In the subgroup analysis, significant association was found in esophageal cancer, with borderline effects in gastric cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma. For MMP7 -181 A/G, significant association was observed under two genetic models in the overall (dominant: OR = 1.26, 95 % CI = 1.10-1.43, P = 0.0009; recessive: OR = 1.33, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.60, P = 0.002) and in the individual cancer subgroup of esophageal cancer and gastric cancer. For MMP9 -1,562 C/T, a borderline effect was found with digestive cancers in the total and stratified analysis of the colorectal cancer under dominant model. No association was observed in either the overall or subgroup analysis for MMP3 -1,171 5A/6A.
CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated the fact that polymorphisms in promoter regions of MMP genes might be related to the susceptibility of digestive cancers, with cancer development for MMP1 and MMP7, and a protection against cancer for MMP2 and MMP9. Further evidences with adequate sample sizes need to be conducted.

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