Gene Summary

Gene:S100A9; S100 calcium binding protein A9
Aliases: MIF, NIF, P14, CAGB, CFAG, CGLB, L1AG, LIAG, MRP14, 60B8AG, MAC387
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. This antimicrobial protein exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein S100-A9
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: S100A9 (cancer-related)

Saeki N, Ono H, Sakamoto H, Yoshida T
Down-regulation of Immune-related Genes by PSCA in Gallbladder Cancer Cells Implanted into Mice.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2619-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: In previous work, we found that prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene, encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, is a presumable tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and gallbladder cancer (GBC). The introduction of PSCA cDNA into GBC cell lines significantly suppressed tumorigenecity of cells in mice. The PSCA protein is thought to be involved in some form of intracellular signaling that remains to be elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microarrays, we conducted gene-expression profiling on tumors generated by a GBC cell line TGBC-1TKB, with and without expression of PSCA, which was implanted into mice. Genes whose expression was down-regulated by PSCA were selected, and their down-regulation was confirmed by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: We identified several immune-related genes down-regulated by PSCA, including interleukin 8 (IL8), IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 (S100A8) and A9 (S100A9).
CONCLUSION: PSCA signaling may suppress tumor growth in vivo by modulating immunological characteristics of GBC cells.

Lourenco S, Teixeira VH, Kalber T, et al.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor-CXCR4 is the dominant chemotactic axis in human mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to tumors.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3463-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are inherently tumor homing and can be isolated, expanded, and transduced, making them viable candidates for cell therapy. This tumor tropism has been used to deliver anticancer therapies to various tumor models. In this study, we sought to discover which molecules are the key effectors of human MSC tumor homing in vitro and using an in vivo murine model. In this study, we discover a novel role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as the key director of MSC migration and infiltration toward tumor cells. We have shown this major role for MIF using in vitro migration and invasion assays, in presence of different receptor inhibitors and achieving a drastic decrease in both processes using MIF inhibitor. Additionally, we demonstrate physical interaction between MIF and three receptors: CXCR2, CXCR4, and CD74. CXCR4 is the dominant receptor used by MIF in the homing tumor context, although some signaling is observed through CXCR2. We demonstrate downstream activation of the MAPK pathway necessary for tumor homing. Importantly, we show that knockdown of either CXCR4 or MIF abrogates MSC homing to tumors in an in vivo pulmonary metastasis model, confirming the in vitro two-dimensional and three-dimensional assays. This improved understanding of MSC tumor tropism will further enable development of novel cellular therapies for cancers.

Walter RF, Mairinger FD, Ting S, et al.
MDM2 is an important prognostic and predictive factor for platin-pemetrexed therapy in malignant pleural mesotheliomas and deregulation of P14/ARF (encoded by CDKN2A) seems to contribute to an MDM2-driven inactivation of P53.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(5):883-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumour that is first-line treated with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed. Until now, predictive and prognostic biomarkers are lacking, making it a non-tailored therapy regimen with unknown outcome. P53 is frequently inactivated in MPM, but mutations are extremely rare. MDM2 and P14/ARF are upstream regulators of P53 that may contribute to P53 inactivation.
METHODS: A total of 72 MPM patients were investigated. MDM2 immunoexpression was assessed in 65 patients. MDM2 and P14/ARF mRNA expression was analysed in 48 patients of the overall collective. The expression results were correlated to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: OS and PFS correlated highly significantly with MDM2 mRNA and protein expression, showing a dismal prognosis for patients with elevated MDM2 expression (for OS: Score (logrank) test: P⩽0.002, and for PFS: Score (logrank) test; P<0.007). MDM2 was identified as robust prognostic and predictive biomarker for MPM on the mRNA and protein level. P14/ARF mRNA expression reached no statistical significance, but Kaplan-Meier curves distinguished patients with low P14/ARF expression and hence shorter survival from patients with higher expression and prolonged survival.
CONCLUSIONS: MDM2 is a prognostic and predictive marker for a platin-pemetrexed therapy of patients with MPMs. Downregulation of P14/ARF expression seems to contribute to MDM2-overexpression-mediated P53 inactivation in MPM patients.

Salotti J, Sakchaisri K, Tourtellotte WG, Johnson PF
An Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ pathway linked to ras-induced senescence and cancer.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(5):866-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) protects normal cells from transformation by Ras, whereas cells lacking p14/p19(Arf) or other tumor suppressors can be transformed. The transcription factor C/EBPβ is required for OIS in primary fibroblasts but is downregulated by H-Ras(V12) in immortalized NIH 3T3 cells through a mechanism involving p19(Arf) loss. Here, we report that members of the serum-induced early growth response (Egr) protein family are also downregulated in 3T3(Ras) cells and directly and redundantly control Cebpb gene transcription. Egr1, Egr2, and Egr3 recognize three sites in the Cebpb promoter and associate transiently with this region after serum stimulation, coincident with Cebpb induction. Codepletion of all three Egrs prevented Cebpb expression, and serum induction of Egrs was significantly blunted in 3T3(Ras) cells. Egr2 and Egr3 levels were also reduced in Ras(V12)-expressing p19(Arf) null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and overall Egr DNA-binding activity was suppressed in Arf-deficient but not wild-type (WT) MEFs, leading to Cebpb downregulation. Analysis of human cancers revealed a strong correlation between EGR levels and CEBPB expression, regardless of whether CEBPB was increased or decreased in tumors. Moreover, overexpression of Egrs in tumor cell lines induced CEBPB and inhibited proliferation. Thus, our findings identify the Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ axis as an important determinant of cellular responses (senescence or transformation) to oncogenic Ras signaling.

Seo YL, Heo S, Jang KL
Hepatitis C virus core protein overcomes H2O2-induced apoptosis by downregulating p14 expression via DNA methylation.
J Gen Virol. 2015; 96(Pt 4):822-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is characterized by systemic oxidative stress that is caused by either viral core protein or chronic inflammation. It is well recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 can induce apoptotic cell death and can therefore function as anti-tumorigenic species. However, the detailed mechanisms by which ROS induce apoptotic cell death and HCV copes with the oxidative conditions are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that H2O2 induced apoptotic cell death in p53-positive human hepatocytes, but not in p53-negative human hepatocytes. For this effect, H2O2 upregulated levels of p14, increased ubiquitin-dependent degradation of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), and reduced the interaction between MDM2 and p53 to prevent p53 degradation, resulting in accumulation of p53 and subsequent activation of p53-dependent apoptotic pathways. Interestingly, HCV core repressed p14 expression via promoter hypermethylation to abolish the potential of H2O2 to activate the p14-MDM2-p53 pathway. As a consequence, HCV core-expressing cells could overcome p53-mediated apoptosis provoked by H2O2. Taken together, HCV core could contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma formation by removing deleterious roles of ROS inducing cell death.

Venza M, Visalli M, Biondo C, et al.
Epigenetic marks responsible for cadmium-induced melanoma cell overgrowth.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2015; 29(1):242-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cadmium (Cd) is a human carcinogen that likely acts via epigenetic mechanisms. However, the precise role of Cd in melanoma remains to be defined. The goals of this study are to: (i) examine the effect of Cd on the proliferation rate of cutaneous and uveal melanoma cells; (ii) identify the genes affected by Cd exposure; (iii) understand whether epigenetic changes are involved in the response to Cd. The cell growth capacity increased at 48 h after Cd treatment at doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μM. The research on the key genes regulating proliferation has shown that aberrant methylation is responsible for silencing of p16(INK4A) and caspase 8 in uveal and cutaneous melanoma cells, respectively. The methylation and expression patterns of p14(ARF), death receptors 4/5, and E-cadherin remained unmodified after Cd treatment in all the cell lines analyzed. Ectopic expression of p16(INK4A) abolished the overgrowth of uveal melanoma cells in response to Cd and the overexpression of caspase 8 drastically increased the apoptotic rate of Cd-treated cutaneous melanoma cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that hypermethylation of p16(INK4A) and caspase 8 represents the most common event linked to Cd-induced stimulation of cell growth and inhibition of cell death pathway in melanoma.

Reeb AN, Li W, Sewell W, et al.
S100A8 is a novel therapeutic target for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(2):E232-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most deadly human malignancies. It is 99% lethal, and patients have a median survival of only 6 months after diagnosis. Despite these grim statistics, the mechanism underlying the tumorigenic capability of ATC cells is unclear.
OBJECTIVE: S100A8 and S100A9 proteins have emerged as critical mediators in cancer. The aim was to investigate the expression and function of S100A8 and S100A9 in ATC and the mechanisms involved.
DESIGN: We determined the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human ATC by gene array analysis and immunohistochemistry. Using RNAi-mediated stable gene knockdown in human ATC cell lines and bioluminescent imaging of orthotopic and lung metastasis mouse models of human ATC, we investigated the effects of S100A8 and S100A9 on tumorigenesis and metastasis.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that S100A8 and S100A9 were overexpressed in ATC but not in other types of thyroid carcinomas. In vivo analysis in mice using ATC cells that had S100A8 knocked down revealed reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis, as well as significantly prolonged animal survival. Mechanistic investigations showed that S100A8 promotes ATC cell proliferation through an interaction with RAGE, which activates the p38, ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways in the tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a novel role for S100A8 in the promoting and enhancing of ATC progression. They further suggest that the inhibition of S100A8 could represent a relevant therapeutic target, with the potential of enabling a more effective treatment path for this deadly disease.

De Ponti A, Wiechert L, Stojanovic A, et al.
Chronic liver inflammation and hepatocellular carcinogenesis are independent of S100A9.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(10):2458-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The S100A8/A9 heterodimer (calprotectin) acts as a danger signal when secreted into the extracellular space during inflammation and tissue damage. It promotes proinflammatory responses and drives tumor development in different models of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. S100A8/A9 is strongly expressed in several human tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apart from this evidence, the role of calprotectin in hepatocyte transformation and tumor microenvironment is still unknown. The aim of this study was to define the function of S100A8/A9 in inflammation-driven HCC. Mice lacking S100a9 were crossed with the Mdr2(-/-) model, a prototype of inflammation-induced HCC formation. S100a9(-/-) Mdr2(-/-) (dKO) mice displayed no significant differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity compared to Mdr2(-/-) animals. Chronic liver inflammation, fibrosis and oval cell activation were not affected upon S100a9 deletion. Our data demonstrate that, although highly upregulated, calprotectin is dispensable in the onset and development of HCC, and in the maintenance of liver inflammation.

Harris TM, Du P, Kawachi N, et al.
Proteomic analysis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma specimens identifies patient outcome-associated proteins.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015; 139(4):494-507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Global proteomic analysis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma was performed to identify changes that reflect patient outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: To identify differentially expressed proteins associated with patient outcomes and to explore the use of imaging mass spectrometry as a clinical tool to identify clinically relevant proteins.
DESIGN: Two-dimensional separation of digested peptides generated from 43 specimens with high-resolution mass spectrometry identified proteins associated with disease-specific death, distant metastasis, and loco-regional recurrence. RNA expressions had been correlated to protein levels to test transcriptional regulation of clinically relevant proteins. Imaging mass spectrometry explored an alternative platform for assessing clinically relevant proteins that would complement surgical pathologic diagnosis.
RESULTS: Seventy-two peptide features were found to be associated with 3 patient outcomes: disease-specific death (9), distant metastasis (16), and loco-regional recurrence (39); 8 of them were associated with multiple outcomes. Functional ontology revealed major changes in cell adhesion and calcium binding. Thirteen RNAs showed strong correlation with their encoded proteins, implying transcriptional control. Reduction of DSP, PKP1, and TRIM29 was associated with significantly shorter time to onset of distant metastasis. Reduction of PKP1 and TRIM29 correlated with poorer disease-specific survival. Additionally, S100A8 and S100A9 reductions were verified for their association with poor prognosis using imaging mass spectrometry, a platform more adaptable for use with surgical pathology.
CONCLUSIONS: Using global proteomic analysis, we have identified proteins associated with clinical outcomes. The list of clinically relevant proteins observed will provide a means to develop clinical assays for prognosis and optimizing treatment selection.

Drews-Elger K, Iorns E, Dias A, et al.
Infiltrating S100A8+ myeloid cells promote metastatic spread of human breast cancer and predict poor clinical outcome.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 148(1):41-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mechanisms by which breast cancer (BrC) can successfully metastasize are complex and not yet fully understood. Our goal was to identify tumor-induced stromal changes that influence metastatic cell behavior, and may serve as better targets for therapy. To identify stromal changes in cancer-bearing tissue, dual-species gene expression analysis was performed for three different metastatic BrC xenograft models. Results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and protein knockdown. These results were validated in human clinical samples at the mRNA and protein level by retrospective analysis of cohorts of human BrC specimens. In pre-clinical models of BrC, systemic recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells-including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)-was promoted by tumor-derived factors. Recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells was diminished by inhibition of tumor-derived factors or depletion of MDSCs, resulting in fewer metastases and smaller primary tumors. Importantly, these MDSCs retain their ability to suppress T cell proliferation upon co-culture. Secretion of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) activated the recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells systemically. Inhibition of MIF, or depletion of MDSCs resulted in delayed tumor growth and lower metastatic burden. In human BrC specimens, increased mRNA and protein levels of S100A8+ infiltrating cells are highly associated with poor overall survival and shorter metastasis free survival of BrC patients, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of nine different human gene expression datasets confirms the association of increased levels of S100A8 transcripts with an increased risk of death. Recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells to primary tumors and secondary sites in xenograft models of BrC enhances cancer progression independent of their suppressive activity on T cells. In clinical samples, infiltrating S100A8+ cells are associated with poor overall survival. Targeting these molecules or associated pathways in cells of the tumor microenvironment may translate into novel therapeutic interventions and benefit patient outcome.

Lapeire L, Hendrix A, Lambein K, et al.
Cancer-associated adipose tissue promotes breast cancer progression by paracrine oncostatin M and Jak/STAT3 signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):6806-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence supports the critical roles played by adipose tissue in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that breast cancer-associated adipose tissue from freshly isolated tumors promotes F-actin remodeling, cellular scattering, invasiveness, and spheroid reorganization of cultured breast cancer cells. A combination of techniques, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and kinomics enabled us to identify paracrine secretion of oncostatin M (OSM) by cancer-associated adipose tissue. Specifically, OSM, expressed by CD45(+) leucocytes in the stromal vascular fraction, induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3-) Y705 and S727 in breast cancer cells and transcription of several STAT3-dependent genes, including S100 family members S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9. Autocrine activation of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells ectopically expressing OSM-induced cellular scattering and peritumoral neovascularization of orthotopic xenografts. Conversely, selective inhibition of OSM by neutralizing antibody and Jak family kinases by tofacitinib inhibited STAT3 signaling, peritumoral angiogenesis, and cellular scattering. Importantly, nuclear staining of pSTAT3-Y705 identified at the tumor invasion front in ductal breast carcinomas correlates with increased lymphovascular invasion. Our work reveals the potential of novel therapeutic strategies targeting the OSM and STAT3 axis in patients with breast cancer harboring nuclear pSTAT3-Y705.

Silva EJ, Argyris PP, Zou X, et al.
S100A8/A9 regulates MMP-2 expression and invasion and migration by carcinoma cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 55:279-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Intracellular calprotectin (S100A8/A9) functions in the control of the cell cycle checkpoint at G2/M. Dysregulation of S100A8/A9 appears to cause loss of the checkpoint, which frequently characterizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, we analyzed carcinoma cells for other S100A8/A9-directed changes in malignant phenotype. Using a S100A8/A9-negative human carcinoma cell line (KB), transfection to express S100A8 and S100A9 caused selective down-regulation of MMP-2 and inhibited in vitro invasion and migration. Conversely, silencing of endogenous S100A8 and S100A9 expression in TR146 cells, a well-differentiated HNSCC cell line, increased MMP-2 activity and in vitro invasion and migration. When MMP-2 expression was silenced, cells appeared to assume a less malignant phenotype. To more closely model the architecture of cell growth in vivo, cells were grown in a 3D collagen substrate, which was compared to 2D. Growth on 3D substrates caused greater MMP-2 expression. Whereas hypermethylation of CpG islands occurs frequently in HNSCC, S100A8/A9-dependent regulation of MMP-2 could not be explained by modification of the upstream promoters of MMP2 or TIMP2. Collectively, these results suggest that intracellular S100A8/A9 contributes to the cancer cell phenotype by modulating MMP-2 expression and activity to regulate cell migration and mobility.

Zhang Y, Huang Z, Zhu Z, et al.
Network analysis of ChIP-Seq data reveals key genes in prostate cancer.
Eur J Med Res. 2014; 19:47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer among men in the United States, and it imposes a considerable threat to human health. A deep understanding of its underlying molecular mechanisms is the premise for developing effective targeted therapies. Recently, deep transcriptional sequencing has been used as an effective genomic assay to obtain insights into diseases and may be helpful in the study of PC.
METHODS: In present study, ChIP-Seq data for PC and normal samples were compared, and differential peaks identified, based upon fold changes (with P-values calculated with t-tests). Annotations of these peaks were performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was performed with BioGRID and constructed with Cytoscape, following which the highly connected genes were screened.
RESULTS: We obtained a total of 5,570 differential peaks, including 3,726 differentially enriched peaks in tumor samples and 1,844 differentially enriched peaks in normal samples. There were eight significant regions of the peaks. The intergenic region possessed the highest score (51%), followed by intronic (31%) and exonic (11%) regions. The analysis revealed the top 35 highly connected genes, which comprised 33 differential genes (such as YWHAQ, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein and θ polypeptide) from ChIP-Seq data and 2 differential genes retrieved from the PPI network: UBA52 (ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product (1) and SUMO2 (SMT3 suppressor of mif two 3 homolog (2) .
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings regarding potential PC-related genes increase the understanding of PC and provides direction for future research.

Li CC, Yu Z, Cui LH, et al.
Role of P14 and MGMT gene methylation in hepatocellular carcinomas: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(16):6591-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between methylation of the P14 and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant studies that analysed HCC tissues for P14 and MGMT gene methylation status; we then performed a meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between gene methylation and the risk of HCC.
RESULTS: Ten studies that assessed P14 gene methylation in 630 HCC tumour tissues and nine studies analysing MGMT methylation in 497 HCC tumour tissues met our inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis revealed that the rate of P14 methylation was significantly higher in HCCs than in adjacent tissues (OR 3.69, 95%CI 1.63-8.35, p=0.002), but there was no significant difference in MGMT methylation between HCC and adjacent tissues (OR 1.76, 95%CI 0.55-5.64, p=0.34). A subgroup analysis according to ethnicity revealed that P14 methylation was closely related to the risk of HCC in Chinese and Western individuals (Chinese, OR 7.74, 95%CI 1.36-44.04, p=0.021; Western, OR 3.60, 95%CI 1.49-8.69, p=0.004). Furthermore, MGMT methylation was not correlated with the risk of HCC in Chinese individuals (OR 2.42, 95%CI 0.76-7.73, p=0.134). The combined rate of P14 methylation was 35% (95%CI 24-48%) in HCC tumour tissues and 11% (95%CI 4-27%) in adjacent tissues, whereas the combined rate of MGMT methylation was 15% (95%CI 6-32%) in HCC and 10% (95%CI 4-22%) in adjacent tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the risk of HCC is related to P14 methylation, but not MGMT methylation. Therefore, P14 gene methylation may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC.

Oliveira CS, de Bock CE, Molloy TJ, et al.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor engages PI3K/Akt signalling and is a prognostic factor in metastatic melanoma.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:630 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a widely expressed cytokine involved in a variety of cellular processes including cell cycle regulation and the control of proliferation. Overexpression of MIF has been reported in a number of cancer types and it has previously been shown that MIF is upregulated in melanocytic tumours with the highest expression levels occurring in malignant melanoma. However, the clinical significance of high MIF expression in melanoma has not been reported.
METHODS: MIF expression was depleted in human melanoma cell lines using siRNA-mediated gene knockdown and effects monitored using in vitro assays of proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, clonogenicity and Akt signalling. In silico analyses of expression microarray data were used to correlate MIF expression levels in melanoma tumours with overall patient survival using a univariate Cox regression model.
RESULTS: Knockdown of MIF significantly decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. Effects were associated with reduced numbers of cells entering S phase concomitant with decreased cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, increased p27 expression and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Analysis of clinical outcome data showed that MIF expression levels in primary melanoma were not associated with outcome (HR = 1.091, p = 0.892) whereas higher levels of MIF in metastatic lesions were significantly associated with faster disease progression (HR = 2.946, p = 0.003 and HR = 4.600, p = 0.004, respectively in two independent studies).
CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro analyses show that MIF functions upstream of the PI3K/Akt pathway in human melanoma cell lines. Moreover, depletion of MIF inhibited melanoma proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity. Clinically, high MIF levels in metastatic melanoma were found to be associated with faster disease recurrence. These findings support the clinical significance of MIF signalling in melanoma and provide a strong rationale for both targeting and monitoring MIF expression in clinical melanoma.

Atsaves V, Lekakis L, Drakos E, et al.
The oncogenic JUNB/CD30 axis contributes to cell cycle deregulation in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(4):514-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) frequently carries the t(2;5)(p23;q35) resulting in expression of NPM1(NPM)-ALK oncogenic kinase. The latter is capable of activating ERK kinase, which upregulates JUNB expression through ETS1. JUNB, in turn, interacts with the TNFRSF8 (CD30) gene promoter and induces CD30 (TNFRSF8) overexpression. However, the role of CD30 overexpression in ALK+ ALCL oncogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that the JUNB gene is frequently amplified in ALK+ ALCL, suggesting gene amplification as an additional underlying mechanism for JUNB overexpression. Silencing of JUNB resulted in reduced cell growth and colony formation associated with decreased activator protein-1 activity and G1/S and G2/M cell cycle arrest. These effects were linked to decreased CD30 levels, downregulation of CCNA2 (Cyclin A), CCND2 (Cyclin D2) and CCND3 (Cyclin D3) and upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A (p14) and CDKN1A (p21), but not CDKN1B (p27). Similar cell cycle changes were observed following the knock-down of TNFRSF8 gene or blockade of its function using anti-CD30 antibodies, which were associated with upregulation of CDKN2A and CDKN1A, but not CDKN1B. These findings indicate that JUNB may partly operate through CD30 signalling. Silencing of JUNB also sensitized NPM1-ALCL+ cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Our findings uncover the oncogenic role of the JUNB/CD30 axis and its potential as therapeutic target in ALK+ ALCL.

Xue L, Ouyang Q, Li J, et al.
Different roles for p16(INK) (4a) -Rb pathway and INK4a/ARF methylation between adenocarcinomas of gastric cardia and distal stomach.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 29(7):1418-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of distal gastric adenocarcinoma has significantly decreased, but gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has been on the rise. Cardia adenocarcinoma might be a specific entity distinct from the carcinoma of the rest stomach. The aim was to explore putative differences in p16(INK) (4a) -retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway and INK4a/ARF methylation between gastric cardia and distal adenocarcinomas.
METHODS: Ninety-six cardia adenocarcinomas and 79 distal samples were analyzed for comparing p16(INK) (4a) -Rb expressions, INK4a/ARF deletion, and methylation using immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The expression of p16(INK) (4a) in cardia adenocarcinoma (43.2%) was significantly lower than in distal cases (75.0%, P < 0.05). As well, cardia adenocarcinoma showed lower expression of p14(ARF) compared with distal cases (34.1% vs 57.5%, P < 0.05). The incidence of p16(INK) (4a) deletion was 20.5% and 15.0%, while p14(ARF) deletion was 18.2% and 10.0% in cardia and distal adenocarcinomas, respectively, showing no significant differences between two entities. However, the incidences of p14(ARF) and p16(INK) (4a) methylation in cardia adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than in distal samples (p14(ARF) : 61.5% vs 43.6%; p16(INK) (4a) : 73.1% vs 51.3%, P < 0.05). INK4a/ARF methylations were more prevalent in poorly differentiated cardia carcinoma compared with poorly differentiated distal cases.
CONCLUSIONS: There were differences in p16(INK) (4a) -Rb immunotypes and INK4a/ARF methylation between two entities, indicating that cardia adenocarcinoma may be different in cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene biomarkers compared with distal gastric adenocarcinoma.

Pergoli L, Favero C, Pfeiffer RM, et al.
Blood DNA methylation, nevi number, and the risk of melanoma.
Melanoma Res. 2014; 24(5):480-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations determining increased cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) risk have been identified in familial and sporadic CMM cases, but they account only for a small proportion of CMM cases. Recent evidence suggests that germline epimutations (e.g. DNA methylation alterations), which can be inherited similarly to genomic mutations and can be detected in normal body cells (including blood), might increase susceptibility to cancer. The aim of the study was to identify germline epimutations of genes that were found to be mutated in familial CMM (p16, p14, CDK4, MC1R, hTERT), immune and inflammatory genes (ICAM-1, TNFα), DNA mismatch repair gene (MLH1), and repetitive elements (ALU, LINE-1, HERV-w). We measured DNA methylation using bisulfite pyrosequencing in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 167 CMM cases and 164 sex-matched and age-matched controls. We used multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the association between methylation levels and CMM status or presence of dysplastic nevi. We found an association between the risk of CMM and peripheral blood mononuclear cell methylation levels of TNFα [odds ratio (OR)=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-1.18], CDK4 (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.64-0.91), and MLH1 (OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.02-1.22). In control participants, the risk of developing dysplastic nevi was associated with methylation levels of TNFα (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.69-0.95), hTERT (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.82-0.99), and ALU (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.02-2.39). Epimutations in CMM susceptibility genes and in genes involved in response to oxidative damage are associated with the risk of developing CMM or dysplastic nevi. Further studies measuring methylation levels of these genes in prospectively collected samples are warranted to further elucidate their role in the development and progression of CMM.

Kim SJ, Lee HW, Gu Kang H, et al.
Ablation of galectin-3 induces p27(KIP1)-dependent premature senescence without oncogenic stress.
Cell Death Differ. 2014; 21(11):1769-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Premature senescence induced by oncogenic stimuli or tumor suppressor activation plays opposing roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we propose that galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, regulates premature senescence without oncogenic stress. We detected premature senescence, decreased Skp2, and increased p27(KIP1) expression in galectin-3 knockout MEFs and galectin-3-depleted gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, galectin-3 depletion did not affect other senescence inducers such as p14(ARF), p16(INK4A), and p21(WAF1/CIP1), suggesting that galectin-3-regulated senescence is p27(KIP1) dependent. We demonstrate that galectin-3 depletion decreases retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation (Ser780, Ser807/811), cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, and E2F1 transcriptional activation. Galectin-3 directly interacts with the cyclin D1/CDK4 complex and promotes hyperphosphorylation of Rb. It also blocks the inhibition of E2F1 transcription, thereby increasing the expression of Skp2 and reducing the stability of p27(KIP1) to promote the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Xenograft mice with galectin-3-depleted gastric cancer cells display tumor growth retardation that is reversed by Skp2 overexpression. Increased expression of galectin-3 is also associated with the advanced TNM (tumor, lymph node, metastasis) system, clinicopathological stage, and lymph node metastases. The probability of survival was significantly decreased in gastric cancer patients with galectin-3(high) p27(KIP1-low)cells. Taken together, our results show that galectin-3 may accelerate gastric tumorigenesis by inhibiting premature senescence.

Gumireddy K, Li A, Kossenkov AV, et al.
ID1 promotes breast cancer metastasis by S100A9 regulation.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(9):1334-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Metastasis is a major factor responsible for mortality in patients with breast cancer. Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) has been shown to play an important role in cell differentiation, tumor angiogenesis, cell invasion, and metastasis. Despite the data establishing Id1 as a critical factor for lung metastasis in breast cancer, the pathways and molecular mechanisms of Id1 functions in metastasis remain to be defined. Here, we show that Id1 interacts with TFAP2A to suppress S100A9 expression. We show that expression of Id1 and S100A9 is inversely correlated in both breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. We also show that the migratory and invasive phenotypes in vitro and metastasis in vivo induced by Id1 expression are rescued by reestablishment of S100A9 expression. S100A9 also suppresses the expression of known metastasis-promoting factor RhoC activated by Id1 expression. Our results suggest that Id1 promotes breast cancer metastasis by the suppression of S100A9 expression.
IMPLICATIONS: Novel pathways by Id1 regulation in metastasis.

Richard V, Kindt N, Decaestecker C, et al.
Involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) in human breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):523-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its receptor CD74 appear to be involved in tumorigenesis. We evaluated, by immunohistochemical staining, the tissue expression and distribution of MIF and CD74 in serial sections of human invasive breast cancer tumor specimens. The serum MIF level was also determined in breast cancer patients. We showed a significant increase in serum MIF average levels in breast cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. MIF tissue expression, quantified by a modified Allred score, was strongly increased in carcinoma compared to tumor-free specimens, in the cancer cells and in the peritumoral stroma, with fibroblasts the most intensely stained. We did not find any significant correlation with histoprognostic factors, except for a significant inverse correlation between tumor size and MIF stromal positivity. CD74 staining was heterogeneous and significantly decreased in cancer cells but increased in the surrounding stroma, namely in lymphocytes, macrophages and vessel endothelium. There was no significant variation according to classical histoprognostic factors, except that CD74 stromal expression was significantly correlated with triple-negative receptor (TRN) status and the absence of estrogen receptors. In conclusion, our data support the concept of a functional role of MIF in human breast cancer. In addition to auto- and paracrine effects on cancer cells, MIF could contribute to shape the tumor microenvironment leading to immunomodulation and angiogenesis. Interfering with MIF effects in breast tumors in a therapeutic perspective remains an attractive but complex challenge. Level of co-expression of MIF and CD74 could be a surrogate marker for efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs, particularly in TRN breast cancer tumor.

Xu XH, Liu XY, Su J, et al.
ShRNA targeting Bmi-1 sensitizes CD44⁺ nasopharyngeal cancer stem-like cells to radiotherapy.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):764-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in resistance to radiation therapy (RT). Bmi-1, a member of the Polycomb family of transcriptional repressors, is essential for maintaining the self-renewal abilities of stem cells and overexpression of Bmi-1 correlates with cancer therapy failure. Our previous study identified that the CD44+ nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cells may be assumed as one of markers of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC-LCs) and Bmi-1 is overexpressed in CD44+ NPC. In the present study, we used RNA interference technology to knock down the expression of Bmi-1 in CD44+ NPC cells, and then measured the radiation response by clonogenic cell survival assay. DNA repair was monitored by γH2AX foci formation. Bmi-1 downstream relative gene and protein expression of p16, p14, p53 were assessed by western blotting and real-time PCR. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry assays. We found that Bmi-1 knockdown prolonged G1 and enhanced the radiation-induced G2/M arrest, inhibited DNA damage repair, elevated protein p16, p14 and p53 expression, leading to increased apoptosis in the radiated CD44+ cells. These data suggest that Bmi-1 downregulation increases the radiosensitivity to CD44+ NPC CSC-LCs. Bmi-1 is a potential target for increasing the sensitivity of NPC CSCs to radiotherapy.

Wu SQ, Xu ZZ, Niu WY, et al.
ShRNA-mediated Bmi-1 silencing sensitizes multiple myeloma cells to bortezomib.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 34(2):616-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The introduction of bortezomib has resulted in a paradigm shift in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and has contributed to the improved survival of patients with MM. Inevitably, resistance to therapy develops, and thus the clinical efficacy of bortezomib is hampered by drug resistance. The oncogene B-cell‑specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site‑1 (Bmi-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human malignancies. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi)‑mediated Bmi-1 silencing has been shown to sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy and radiation. The role of Bmi-1 in influencing the response to bortezomib therapy has not been investigated to date. In the present study, Bmi-1 was silenced in two MM cell lines (U266 and RPMI8226) using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Bmi-1 (shBmi-1). A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to analyze cell proliferation and evaluate the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of bortezomib. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM), and the mRNA and protein expression of associated genes (Bmi-1, p14, p21, Bcl-2 and Bax) was quantified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The IC50 values significantly decreased in the cells transfected with shBmi-1 (p<0.05). The depletion of Bmi-1 sensitized the MM cells to bortezomib, which increased the G1 phase duration and enhanced bortezomib‑induced apoptosis (p<0.05). The expression of p21 and Bax (apoptosis inducer) was upregulated, whereas that of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, was downregulated in the Bmi-1‑silenced cells (p<0.05). The depletion of Bmi-1 enhanced the sensitivity of MM cells to bortezomib by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data suggest that Bmi-1 may serve as an important novel therapeutic target in MM.

Xie Y, Liu S, Lu W, et al.
Slug regulates E-cadherin repression via p19Arf in prostate tumorigenesis.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(7):1355-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
SLUG represses E-cadherin to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various cancers. Mechanisms that regulate SLUG/E-cadherin pathway remain poorly understood, especially during tumorigenesis in vivo. Here we report that p19(Arf) (p14(ARF) in human) stabilizes Slug to inhibit E-cadherin in prostate cancer mouse models. Inactivation of p19(Arf) reduces Slug levels, resulting in increased E-cadherin expression and delaying the onset and progression of prostate cancer in Pten/Trp53 double null mice. Mechanistically, p14(ARF) stabilizes SLUG through increased sumoylation at lysine residue 192. Importantly, levels of SLUG and p14(ARF) are positively correlated in human prostate cancer specimens. These data demonstrated that ARF modulates the SLUG/E-cadherin signaling axis for augmenting prostate tumorigenesis in vivo, revealing a novel paradigm where the oncogenic functions of SLUG require ARF to target E-cadherin in prostate cancer. Collectively, our findings further support that ARF has dual tumor suppressive/oncogenic roles in cancers in a context-dependent manner.

Ramireddy L, Lin CY, Liu SC, et al.
Association study between macrophage migration inhibitory factor-173 polymorphism and acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(2):1159-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in pathogenesis and autoimmune diseases. The major function of MIF is to promote the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The aim of the present study is to identify the association between MIF-173 (rs755662) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and AML in Taiwanese population. DNA samples extracted from 256 AML patients and 256 healthy controls were investigated using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The association between MIF-173 SNP genotype and AML patients were assessed with SPSS software. The results show that the GC genotype of MIF-173 SNP is significantly higher in AML patients than in the healthy controls (OR 1.58, 95 % CI 1.06, P = 0.034). Carrier genotypes GC and CC may be a causative factor for AML cancer (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 0.95, P = 0.085). White blood cell count (10(3)/µl) were significantly associated with AML MIF-173 polymorphism patients (P = 0.002). Our results in this study provide the first evidence that the MIF-173 polymorphism is associated with AML. MIF is a potential biomarker for development of AML cancer in male adult in Taiwanese population. Further validations in other populations are warranted.

Lu M, Miller P, Lu X
Restoring the tumour suppressive function of p53 as a parallel strategy in melanoma therapy.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(16):2616-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumour suppressor p53 is a master sensor of stress and it controls the expression of hundreds to thousands of genes with diverse biological functions including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. Consequently p53 is the most mutated gene found in human cancer and p53 mutation rate varies from 5% to 95%. Importantly p53 activity is often inactivated in tumours expressing structurally wild type p53. Thus one of the major challenges in cancer research is to restore the tumour suppressive function of p53. Intensive studies in the past decade have demonstrated that in addition to mutation, p53 activities are largely regulated by cellular factors that control the expression level and/or transcriptional activities of p53. MDM2, MDM4, p14(ARF) and the ASPP family of proteins are among the most studied regulators of p53. With increased understanding of the complexity of p53 regulation, various p53 reactivating approaches are being developed. This review will focus on the recent understanding of p53 inactivation in melanoma and the approaches to reactivate p53 in preclinical studies. Recent success in the therapeutic targeting of the BRAFV600E oncogenic protein was accompanied with subsequent relapse caused by acquired drug resistance. Restoration of the tumour suppressive function of p53 presents a parallel cancer therapeutic opportunity alongside BRAFV600E inhibition. Thus targeted therapy and concurrent reactivation of p53 may be a fertile ground to achieve synergistic killing of the 50% of cancer cells that express structurally wild type p53.

Kato T, Franconi CP, Sheridan MB, et al.
Analysis of the t(3;8) of hereditary renal cell carcinoma: a palindrome-mediated translocation.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(4):133-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene, whereas the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, we detect de novo translocations similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence-based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.

Ng HY, Wan TS, So CC, Chim CS
Epigenetic inactivation of DAPK1, p14ARF, mir-34a and -34b/c in acute promyelocytic leukaemia.
J Clin Pathol. 2014; 67(7):626-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: TP53 mutation frequently occurs in solid cancers but not haematological cancers including acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) characterised by t(15;17). Both DAPK1 and p14(ARF) positively regulate p53 whereas miR-34a and -34b/c are direct transcriptional targets of p53. We studied if DNA methylation might contribute to inactivation of gene/microRNA (miRNA) in the TP53 tumour suppressor network.
METHODS: Promoter methylation of DAPK1, p14(ARF), miR-34a and -34b/c were studied in 10 normal bone marrow samples, NB4 cell line and 60 APL primary samples at diagnosis by methylation-specific PCR (MSP).
RESULTS: DAPK1, p14(ARF), miR-34a and -34b/c were completely unmethylated in normal bone marrow samples. DAPK1, miR-34a and -34b/c were completely methylated in NB4. Treatment of NB4 by 5'-Aza-2'-deoxyctidine resulted in promoter demethylation together with re-expression of DAPK1 and both miRNAs. In primary APL samples, methylation of miR-34b/c was detected in 43% in contrast to absence of methylation of DAPK1, p14(ARF) or miR-34a. Overexpression of miR-34b in NB4 resulted in inhibition of proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation of DAPK1, miR-34a and -34b/c is tumour-specific, and associated with gene/miRNAs silencing. miR-34b/c is a tumour suppressor miRNA in APL. Methylation of miR-34b/c may contribute to APL leukaemogenesis.

Min EY, Kim IH, Lee J, et al.
The effects of fucodian on senescence are controlled by the p16INK4a-pRb and p14Arf-p53 pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cell lines.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(1):47-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Fucoidan is known to have various pharmacological effects, including antitumor activity. Although it has potential as a therapeutic agent for cancer cells, the anti-senescence effects and detailed mechanism of action remain poorly understood in normal hepatic cells. We investigated the anticancer functions of fucoidan using HepG2 cells as well as the mechanisms mediating the anti-senescent actions in Chang liver cells. Fucoidan effectively inhibited HepG2 cell viability and induced apoptosis. Also, fucoidan-induced G₁ phase arrest was caused by the activity of the p16(INK4a)-Rb and p14(Arf)-p53 pathways. Furthermore, upregulation of p16(INK4a) was critical to the antitumor activity of HepG2 cells treated with fucoidan and was correlated with inhibition of Cdk4 and pRb and upregulation of p21 expression. Our results suggest that fucoidan upregulates INK4a locus genes to induce apoptosis through p38 MAPK in HepG2 cells. Moreover, it prevents cellular senescence of Chang-L cells, by decreasing p14(Arf) expression as cells enter quiescence, with the reduction of p16(INK4a). Fucoidan treatment also downregulated the expression of α₂M. In conclusion, fucoidan can be considered a potential therapeutic agent against liver cancer that does not cause senescence in normal hepatic cells. Thus, it may be possible to use fucoidan therapeutically in both tumor suppression and aging.

Harvey AE, Lashinger LM, Hays D, et al.
Calorie restriction decreases murine and human pancreatic tumor cell growth, nuclear factor-κB activation, and inflammation-related gene expression in an insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent manner.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e94151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity and has potent anticancer effects that may be mediated through its ability to reduce serum growth and inflammatory factors, particularly insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and protumorigenic cytokines. IGF-1 is a nutrient-responsive growth factor that activates the inflammatory regulator nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which is linked to many types of cancers, including pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that CR would inhibit pancreatic tumor growth through modulation of IGF-1-stimulated NF-κB activation and protumorigenic gene expression. To test this, 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to either a control diet consumed ad libitum or a 30% CR diet administered in daily aliquots for 21 weeks, then were subcutaneously injected with syngeneic mouse pancreatic cancer cells (Panc02) and tumor growth was monitored for 5 weeks. Relative to controls, CR mice weighed less and had decreased serum IGF-1 levels and smaller tumors. Also, CR tumors demonstrated a 70% decrease in the expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory factors S100a9 and F4/80, and a 56% decrease in the macrophage chemoattractant, Ccl2. Similar CR effects on tumor growth and NF-κB-related gene expression were observed in a separate study of transplanted MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic tumor cell growth in nude mice. In vitro analyses in Panc02 cells showed that IGF-1 treatment promoted NF-κB nuclear localization, increased DNA-binding of p65 and transcriptional activation, and increased expression of NF-κB downstream genes. Finally, the IGF-1-induced increase in expression of genes downstream of NF-κB (Ccdn1, Vegf, Birc5, and Ptgs2) was decreased significantly in the context of silenced p65. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effects of CR on Panc02 pancreatic tumor growth are associated with reduced IGF-1-dependent NF-κB activation.

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