Gene Summary

Gene:S100A8; S100 calcium binding protein A8
Aliases: P8, MIF, NIF, CAGA, CFAG, CGLA, L1Ag, MRP8, CP-10, MA387, 60B8AG
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and as a cytokine. Altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein S100-A8
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: S100A8 (cancer-related)

Saeki N, Ono H, Sakamoto H, Yoshida T
Down-regulation of Immune-related Genes by PSCA in Gallbladder Cancer Cells Implanted into Mice.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2619-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: In previous work, we found that prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene, encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, is a presumable tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and gallbladder cancer (GBC). The introduction of PSCA cDNA into GBC cell lines significantly suppressed tumorigenecity of cells in mice. The PSCA protein is thought to be involved in some form of intracellular signaling that remains to be elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microarrays, we conducted gene-expression profiling on tumors generated by a GBC cell line TGBC-1TKB, with and without expression of PSCA, which was implanted into mice. Genes whose expression was down-regulated by PSCA were selected, and their down-regulation was confirmed by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: We identified several immune-related genes down-regulated by PSCA, including interleukin 8 (IL8), IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 (S100A8) and A9 (S100A9).
CONCLUSION: PSCA signaling may suppress tumor growth in vivo by modulating immunological characteristics of GBC cells.

Lourenco S, Teixeira VH, Kalber T, et al.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor-CXCR4 is the dominant chemotactic axis in human mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to tumors.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3463-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are inherently tumor homing and can be isolated, expanded, and transduced, making them viable candidates for cell therapy. This tumor tropism has been used to deliver anticancer therapies to various tumor models. In this study, we sought to discover which molecules are the key effectors of human MSC tumor homing in vitro and using an in vivo murine model. In this study, we discover a novel role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as the key director of MSC migration and infiltration toward tumor cells. We have shown this major role for MIF using in vitro migration and invasion assays, in presence of different receptor inhibitors and achieving a drastic decrease in both processes using MIF inhibitor. Additionally, we demonstrate physical interaction between MIF and three receptors: CXCR2, CXCR4, and CD74. CXCR4 is the dominant receptor used by MIF in the homing tumor context, although some signaling is observed through CXCR2. We demonstrate downstream activation of the MAPK pathway necessary for tumor homing. Importantly, we show that knockdown of either CXCR4 or MIF abrogates MSC homing to tumors in an in vivo pulmonary metastasis model, confirming the in vitro two-dimensional and three-dimensional assays. This improved understanding of MSC tumor tropism will further enable development of novel cellular therapies for cancers.

Singh A, Compe E, Le May N, Egly JM
TFIIH subunit alterations causing xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy specifically disturb several steps during transcription.
Am J Hum Genet. 2015; 96(2):194-207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Mutations in genes encoding the ERCC3 (XPB), ERCC2 (XPD), and GTF2H5 (p8 or TTD-A) subunits of the transcription and DNA-repair factor TFIIH lead to three autosomal-recessive disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), XP associated with Cockayne syndrome (XP/CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). Although these diseases were originally associated with defects in DNA repair, transcription deficiencies might be also implicated. By using retinoic acid receptor beta isoform 2 (RARB2) as a model in several cells bearing mutations in genes encoding TFIIH subunits, we observed that (1) the recruitment of the TFIIH complex was altered at the activated RARB2 promoter, (2) TFIIH participated in the recruitment of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors during transcription in a manner different from that observed during NER, and (3) the different TFIIH variants disturbed transcription by having distinct consequences on post-translational modifications of histones, DNA-break induction, DNA demethylation, and gene-loop formation. The transition from heterochromatin to euchromatin was disrupted depending on the variant, illustrating the fact that TFIIH, by contributing to NER factor recruitment, orchestrates chromatin remodeling. The subtle transcriptional differences found between various TFIIH variants thus participate in the phenotypic variability observed among XP, XP/CS, and TTD individuals.

Braga LL, Oliveira MA, Gonçalves MH, et al.
CagA phosphorylation EPIYA-C motifs and the vacA i genotype in Helicobacter pylori strains of asymptomatic children from a high-risk gastric cancer area in northeastern Brazil.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2014; 109(8):1045-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric diseases. Virulence factors such as VacA and CagA have been shown to increase the risk of these diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role of CagA EPIYA-C in gastric carcinogenesis and this factor has been shown to be geographically diverse. We investigated the number of CagA EPIYA motifs and the vacA i genotypes in H. pylori strains from asymptomatic children. We included samples from 40 infected children (18 females and 22 males), extracted DNA directly from the gastric mucus/juice (obtained using the string procedure) and analysed the DNA using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The vacA i1 genotype was present in 30 (75%) samples, the i2 allele was present in nine (22.5%) samples and both alleles were present in one (2.5%) sample. The cagA-positive samples showed distinct patterns in the 3’ variable region of cagA and 18 of the 30 (60%) strains contained 1 EPIYA-C motif, whereas 12 (40%) strains contained two EPIYA-C motifs. We confirmed that the studied population was colonised early by the most virulent H. pylori strains, as demonstrated by the high frequency of the vacA i1 allele and the high number of EPIYA-C motifs. Therefore, asymptomatic children from an urban community in Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil are frequently colonised with the most virulent H. pylori strains.

Reeb AN, Li W, Sewell W, et al.
S100A8 is a novel therapeutic target for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(2):E232-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most deadly human malignancies. It is 99% lethal, and patients have a median survival of only 6 months after diagnosis. Despite these grim statistics, the mechanism underlying the tumorigenic capability of ATC cells is unclear.
OBJECTIVE: S100A8 and S100A9 proteins have emerged as critical mediators in cancer. The aim was to investigate the expression and function of S100A8 and S100A9 in ATC and the mechanisms involved.
DESIGN: We determined the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human ATC by gene array analysis and immunohistochemistry. Using RNAi-mediated stable gene knockdown in human ATC cell lines and bioluminescent imaging of orthotopic and lung metastasis mouse models of human ATC, we investigated the effects of S100A8 and S100A9 on tumorigenesis and metastasis.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that S100A8 and S100A9 were overexpressed in ATC but not in other types of thyroid carcinomas. In vivo analysis in mice using ATC cells that had S100A8 knocked down revealed reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis, as well as significantly prolonged animal survival. Mechanistic investigations showed that S100A8 promotes ATC cell proliferation through an interaction with RAGE, which activates the p38, ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways in the tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a novel role for S100A8 in the promoting and enhancing of ATC progression. They further suggest that the inhibition of S100A8 could represent a relevant therapeutic target, with the potential of enabling a more effective treatment path for this deadly disease.

Fidalgo F, Rodrigues TC, Pinilla M, et al.
Lymphovascular invasion and histologic grade are associated with specific genomic profiles in invasive carcinomas of the breast.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1835-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and histologic grade are clinical parameters of high prognostic value in breast cancer and indicate the level of tumor aggressiveness. Many studies have focused on the association of breast cancer subtypes with gene expression and chromosomal profiles, but considerably less genomic information is available regarding traditional prognostic factors such as histologic grade and LVI. We studied by array-CGH a group of 57 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast to outline the DNA copy number aberration (CNA) profile linked to high histologic grades and LVI. Selected CNAs were validated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Furthermore, gene expression analysis was performed in a subset of 32 of these tumors, and findings were integrated with array-CGH data. Our findings indicated an accumulation of genomic alterations in high-grade breast tumors compared to low-grade samples. Grade III tumors showed higher number of CNAs and larger aberrations than low-grade tumors and displayed a wide range of chromosomal aberrations, which were mainly 5p, 8q, 10p, 17q12, and 19 gains, and 3p, 4, 5q proximal, 9p, 11p, 18q, and 21 losses. The presence of LVI, a well-established prognostic marker, was not significantly associated with increased genomic instability in comparison to breast tumors negative for LVI, considering the total number of chromosomal alterations. However, a slightly increase in the frequency of specific alterations could be detected in LVI-positive group, such as gains at 5p, 16p, 17q12, and 19, and losses at 8p, 11q, 18q, and 21. Three newly reported small-scale rearrangements were detected in high-risk tumors (LVI-positive grade III) harboring putative breast cancer genes (amplicons at 4q13.3 and 11p11.2, and a deletion at 12p12.3). Furthermore, gene expression analysis uncovered networks highlighting S100A8, MMP1, and MED1 as promising candidate genes involved in high-grade and LVI-positive tumors. In summary, a group of genomic regions could be associated with high-risk tumors, and expression analysis pinpointed candidate genes deserving further investigation. The data has shed some light on the molecular players involved in two highly relevant prognostic factors and may further add to the understanding of the mechanisms of breast cancer aggressiveness.

Vannarath S, Vilaichone RK, Rasachak B, et al.
Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in Laos.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(20):9027-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an established cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to identify H. pylori genotypes and to examine their associations with geographical regions and gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in Laos.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010--March 2012 were enrolled. Two biopsy specimens (one each from the antrum and corpus) were obtained for CLO testing and only CLO test-positive gastric tissue were used to extract DNA. PCR and sequencing were identified for variants of the cagA and vacA genotypes.
RESULTS: Some 119 Laos patients (36.2%) were found to be infected with H. pylori including 83 with gastritis, 13 with gastric ulcers (GU), 20 with duodenal ulcers (DU) and 3 with gastric cancer. cagA was detected in 99.2%. East-Asian-type cagA (62%) and vacA s1c (64.7%) were predominant genotypes in Laos. vacA s1c-m1b was significantly higher in GU than gastritis (53.8% vs. 24.1%; P-value=0.04) whereas vacA s1a-m2 was significantly higher in DU than gastritis (40.0% vs. 16.9%; P-value=0.03). East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1c were significantly higher in highland than lowland Lao (100% vs. 55.8%; P-value=0.001 and 88.2% vs. 61.5%, P-value=0.03 respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori is a common infection in Laos, as in other countries in Southeast Asia. The cagA gene was demonstrated in nearly all Laos patients, cagA and vacA genotypes being possible important factors in explaining H. pylori infection and disease outcomes in Laos.

De Ponti A, Wiechert L, Stojanovic A, et al.
Chronic liver inflammation and hepatocellular carcinogenesis are independent of S100A9.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(10):2458-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The S100A8/A9 heterodimer (calprotectin) acts as a danger signal when secreted into the extracellular space during inflammation and tissue damage. It promotes proinflammatory responses and drives tumor development in different models of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. S100A8/A9 is strongly expressed in several human tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apart from this evidence, the role of calprotectin in hepatocyte transformation and tumor microenvironment is still unknown. The aim of this study was to define the function of S100A8/A9 in inflammation-driven HCC. Mice lacking S100a9 were crossed with the Mdr2(-/-) model, a prototype of inflammation-induced HCC formation. S100a9(-/-) Mdr2(-/-) (dKO) mice displayed no significant differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity compared to Mdr2(-/-) animals. Chronic liver inflammation, fibrosis and oval cell activation were not affected upon S100a9 deletion. Our data demonstrate that, although highly upregulated, calprotectin is dispensable in the onset and development of HCC, and in the maintenance of liver inflammation.

Harris TM, Du P, Kawachi N, et al.
Proteomic analysis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma specimens identifies patient outcome-associated proteins.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015; 139(4):494-507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Global proteomic analysis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma was performed to identify changes that reflect patient outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: To identify differentially expressed proteins associated with patient outcomes and to explore the use of imaging mass spectrometry as a clinical tool to identify clinically relevant proteins.
DESIGN: Two-dimensional separation of digested peptides generated from 43 specimens with high-resolution mass spectrometry identified proteins associated with disease-specific death, distant metastasis, and loco-regional recurrence. RNA expressions had been correlated to protein levels to test transcriptional regulation of clinically relevant proteins. Imaging mass spectrometry explored an alternative platform for assessing clinically relevant proteins that would complement surgical pathologic diagnosis.
RESULTS: Seventy-two peptide features were found to be associated with 3 patient outcomes: disease-specific death (9), distant metastasis (16), and loco-regional recurrence (39); 8 of them were associated with multiple outcomes. Functional ontology revealed major changes in cell adhesion and calcium binding. Thirteen RNAs showed strong correlation with their encoded proteins, implying transcriptional control. Reduction of DSP, PKP1, and TRIM29 was associated with significantly shorter time to onset of distant metastasis. Reduction of PKP1 and TRIM29 correlated with poorer disease-specific survival. Additionally, S100A8 and S100A9 reductions were verified for their association with poor prognosis using imaging mass spectrometry, a platform more adaptable for use with surgical pathology.
CONCLUSIONS: Using global proteomic analysis, we have identified proteins associated with clinical outcomes. The list of clinically relevant proteins observed will provide a means to develop clinical assays for prognosis and optimizing treatment selection.

Drews-Elger K, Iorns E, Dias A, et al.
Infiltrating S100A8+ myeloid cells promote metastatic spread of human breast cancer and predict poor clinical outcome.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 148(1):41-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mechanisms by which breast cancer (BrC) can successfully metastasize are complex and not yet fully understood. Our goal was to identify tumor-induced stromal changes that influence metastatic cell behavior, and may serve as better targets for therapy. To identify stromal changes in cancer-bearing tissue, dual-species gene expression analysis was performed for three different metastatic BrC xenograft models. Results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and protein knockdown. These results were validated in human clinical samples at the mRNA and protein level by retrospective analysis of cohorts of human BrC specimens. In pre-clinical models of BrC, systemic recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells-including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)-was promoted by tumor-derived factors. Recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells was diminished by inhibition of tumor-derived factors or depletion of MDSCs, resulting in fewer metastases and smaller primary tumors. Importantly, these MDSCs retain their ability to suppress T cell proliferation upon co-culture. Secretion of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) activated the recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells systemically. Inhibition of MIF, or depletion of MDSCs resulted in delayed tumor growth and lower metastatic burden. In human BrC specimens, increased mRNA and protein levels of S100A8+ infiltrating cells are highly associated with poor overall survival and shorter metastasis free survival of BrC patients, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of nine different human gene expression datasets confirms the association of increased levels of S100A8 transcripts with an increased risk of death. Recruitment of S100A8+ myeloid cells to primary tumors and secondary sites in xenograft models of BrC enhances cancer progression independent of their suppressive activity on T cells. In clinical samples, infiltrating S100A8+ cells are associated with poor overall survival. Targeting these molecules or associated pathways in cells of the tumor microenvironment may translate into novel therapeutic interventions and benefit patient outcome.

Lapeire L, Hendrix A, Lambein K, et al.
Cancer-associated adipose tissue promotes breast cancer progression by paracrine oncostatin M and Jak/STAT3 signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):6806-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence supports the critical roles played by adipose tissue in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that breast cancer-associated adipose tissue from freshly isolated tumors promotes F-actin remodeling, cellular scattering, invasiveness, and spheroid reorganization of cultured breast cancer cells. A combination of techniques, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and kinomics enabled us to identify paracrine secretion of oncostatin M (OSM) by cancer-associated adipose tissue. Specifically, OSM, expressed by CD45(+) leucocytes in the stromal vascular fraction, induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3-) Y705 and S727 in breast cancer cells and transcription of several STAT3-dependent genes, including S100 family members S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9. Autocrine activation of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells ectopically expressing OSM-induced cellular scattering and peritumoral neovascularization of orthotopic xenografts. Conversely, selective inhibition of OSM by neutralizing antibody and Jak family kinases by tofacitinib inhibited STAT3 signaling, peritumoral angiogenesis, and cellular scattering. Importantly, nuclear staining of pSTAT3-Y705 identified at the tumor invasion front in ductal breast carcinomas correlates with increased lymphovascular invasion. Our work reveals the potential of novel therapeutic strategies targeting the OSM and STAT3 axis in patients with breast cancer harboring nuclear pSTAT3-Y705.

Yoon JH, Seo HS, Choi SS, et al.
Gastrokine 1 inhibits the carcinogenic potentials of Helicobacter pylori CagA.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(11):2619-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori CagA directly injected by the bacterium into epithelial cells via a type IV secretion system, leads to cellular changes such as morphology, apoptosis, proliferation and cell motility, and stimulates gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the effects of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and gastrokine 1 (GKN1) on cell proliferation, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration in CagA- or GKN1-transfected gastric epithelial cells and mucosal tissues from humans and mice infected with H.pylori. On the molecular level, H.pylori CagA induced increased cell proliferation, ROS production, antiapoptotic activity, cell migration and invasion. Moreover, CagA induced activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and EMT-related proteins. In addition, H.pylori CagA reduced GKN1 gene copy number and expression in gastric cells and mucosal tissues of humans and mice. However, GKN1 overexpression successfully suppressed the carcinogenic effects of CagA through binding to CagA. These results suggest that GKN1 might be a target to inhibit the effects from H.pylori CagA.

Silva EJ, Argyris PP, Zou X, et al.
S100A8/A9 regulates MMP-2 expression and invasion and migration by carcinoma cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 55:279-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Intracellular calprotectin (S100A8/A9) functions in the control of the cell cycle checkpoint at G2/M. Dysregulation of S100A8/A9 appears to cause loss of the checkpoint, which frequently characterizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, we analyzed carcinoma cells for other S100A8/A9-directed changes in malignant phenotype. Using a S100A8/A9-negative human carcinoma cell line (KB), transfection to express S100A8 and S100A9 caused selective down-regulation of MMP-2 and inhibited in vitro invasion and migration. Conversely, silencing of endogenous S100A8 and S100A9 expression in TR146 cells, a well-differentiated HNSCC cell line, increased MMP-2 activity and in vitro invasion and migration. When MMP-2 expression was silenced, cells appeared to assume a less malignant phenotype. To more closely model the architecture of cell growth in vivo, cells were grown in a 3D collagen substrate, which was compared to 2D. Growth on 3D substrates caused greater MMP-2 expression. Whereas hypermethylation of CpG islands occurs frequently in HNSCC, S100A8/A9-dependent regulation of MMP-2 could not be explained by modification of the upstream promoters of MMP2 or TIMP2. Collectively, these results suggest that intracellular S100A8/A9 contributes to the cancer cell phenotype by modulating MMP-2 expression and activity to regulate cell migration and mobility.

Wang YC, Chen CL, Sheu BS, et al.
Helicobacter pylori infection activates Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 to suppress IFN-γ signaling.
J Immunol. 2014; 193(8):4149-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection not only induces gastric inflammation but also increases the risk of gastric tumorigenesis. IFN-γ has antimicrobial effects; however, H. pylori infection elevates IFN-γ-mediated gastric inflammation and may suppress IFN-γ signaling as a strategy to avoid immune destruction through an as-yet-unknown mechanism. This study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of H. pylori-induced IFN-γ resistance. Postinfection of viable H. pylori decreased IFN-γ-activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and IFN regulatory factor 1 not only in human gastric epithelial MKN45 and AZ-521 but also in human monocytic U937 cells. H. pylori caused an increase in the C-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP) 2. Pharmacologically and genetically inhibiting SHP2 reversed H. pylori-induced IFN-γ resistance. In contrast to a clinically isolated H. pylori strain HP238, the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) isogenic mutant strain HP238(CagAm) failed to induce IFN-γ resistance, indicating that CagA regulates this effect. Notably, HP238 and HP238(CagAm) differently caused SHP2 phosphorylation; however, imaging and biochemical analyses demonstrated CagA-mediated membrane-associated binding with phosphorylated SHP2. CagA-independent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributed to H. pylori-induced SHP2 phosphorylation; however, ROS/SHP2 mediated IFN-γ resistance in a CagA-regulated manner. This finding not only provides an alternative mechanism for how CagA and ROS coregulate SHP2 activation but may also explain their roles in H. pylori-induced IFN-γ resistance.

Zhang Y, Huang Z, Zhu Z, et al.
Network analysis of ChIP-Seq data reveals key genes in prostate cancer.
Eur J Med Res. 2014; 19:47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer among men in the United States, and it imposes a considerable threat to human health. A deep understanding of its underlying molecular mechanisms is the premise for developing effective targeted therapies. Recently, deep transcriptional sequencing has been used as an effective genomic assay to obtain insights into diseases and may be helpful in the study of PC.
METHODS: In present study, ChIP-Seq data for PC and normal samples were compared, and differential peaks identified, based upon fold changes (with P-values calculated with t-tests). Annotations of these peaks were performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was performed with BioGRID and constructed with Cytoscape, following which the highly connected genes were screened.
RESULTS: We obtained a total of 5,570 differential peaks, including 3,726 differentially enriched peaks in tumor samples and 1,844 differentially enriched peaks in normal samples. There were eight significant regions of the peaks. The intergenic region possessed the highest score (51%), followed by intronic (31%) and exonic (11%) regions. The analysis revealed the top 35 highly connected genes, which comprised 33 differential genes (such as YWHAQ, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein and θ polypeptide) from ChIP-Seq data and 2 differential genes retrieved from the PPI network: UBA52 (ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product (1) and SUMO2 (SMT3 suppressor of mif two 3 homolog (2) .
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings regarding potential PC-related genes increase the understanding of PC and provides direction for future research.

Oliveira CS, de Bock CE, Molloy TJ, et al.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor engages PI3K/Akt signalling and is a prognostic factor in metastatic melanoma.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:630 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a widely expressed cytokine involved in a variety of cellular processes including cell cycle regulation and the control of proliferation. Overexpression of MIF has been reported in a number of cancer types and it has previously been shown that MIF is upregulated in melanocytic tumours with the highest expression levels occurring in malignant melanoma. However, the clinical significance of high MIF expression in melanoma has not been reported.
METHODS: MIF expression was depleted in human melanoma cell lines using siRNA-mediated gene knockdown and effects monitored using in vitro assays of proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, clonogenicity and Akt signalling. In silico analyses of expression microarray data were used to correlate MIF expression levels in melanoma tumours with overall patient survival using a univariate Cox regression model.
RESULTS: Knockdown of MIF significantly decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. Effects were associated with reduced numbers of cells entering S phase concomitant with decreased cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, increased p27 expression and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Analysis of clinical outcome data showed that MIF expression levels in primary melanoma were not associated with outcome (HR = 1.091, p = 0.892) whereas higher levels of MIF in metastatic lesions were significantly associated with faster disease progression (HR = 2.946, p = 0.003 and HR = 4.600, p = 0.004, respectively in two independent studies).
CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro analyses show that MIF functions upstream of the PI3K/Akt pathway in human melanoma cell lines. Moreover, depletion of MIF inhibited melanoma proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity. Clinically, high MIF levels in metastatic melanoma were found to be associated with faster disease recurrence. These findings support the clinical significance of MIF signalling in melanoma and provide a strong rationale for both targeting and monitoring MIF expression in clinical melanoma.

Yu H, Zeng J, Liang X, et al.
Helicobacter pylori promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer by downregulating programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4).
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105306 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found in the stomach, is assumed to be associated with carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis in digestive diseases. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is an oncogenic protein of H. pylori that is encoded by a Cag pathogenicity island related to the development of gastric cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the main biological event in invasion or metastasis of epithelial cells. H. pylori may promote EMT in human gastric cancer cell lines, but the specific mechanisms are still obscure. We explored the underlying molecular mechanism of EMT induced by H. pylori CagA in gastric cancer. In our article, we detected gastric cancer specimens and adjacent non-cancerous specimens by immunohistochemistry and found increased expression of the EMT-related regulatory protein TWIST1 and the mesenchymal marker vimentin in cancer tissues, while programmed cell death factor 4 (PDCD4) and the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression decreased in cancer specimens. These changes were associated with degree of tissue malignancy. In addition, PDCD4 and TWIST1 levels were related. In gastric cancer cells cocultured with CagA expression plasmid, CagA activated TWIST1 and vimentin expression, and inhibited E-cadherin expression by downregulating PDCD4. CagA also promoted mobility of gastric cancer cells by regulating PDCD4. Thus, H. pylori CagA induced EMT in gastric cancer cells, which reveals a new signaling pathway of EMT in gastric cancer cell lines.

Binse I, Ueberberg B, Sandalcioglu IE, et al.
Expression analysis of GADD45γ, MEG3, and p8 in pituitary adenomas.
Horm Metab Res. 2014; 46(9):644-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Preceding studies have indicated that aberrant expression levels rather than genetic changes of GADD45γ, MEG3, and p8 gene might play a role in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. We analysed their expression in various normal human tissues and in different pituitary tumour types, and investigated GADD45γ mutations in a subset of adenomas. Absolute quantification by real-time RT-PCR was performed in 24 normal tissues as well as in 34 nonfunctioning, 24 somatotroph, 12 corticotroph adenomas, 4 prolactinomas, 1 FSHoma, and in 6 normal pituitaries. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between clinical data and gene expression. A subset was screened for GADD45γ mutations by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and sequencing. All normal human tissues expressed GADD45γ, MEG3, and p8 mRNA. For GADD45γ, significantly lower expression levels were found in nonfunctioning adenomas compared with normal pituitary and somatotroph adenomas. P8 and MEG3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in nonfunctioning and corticotroph adenomas compared with normal pituitary. Expression of GADD45γ was significantly higher in pituitary adenomas of female patients. No mutation was found in the GADD45γ gene. GADD45γ, MEG3, and p8 appear to have physiological functions in a variety of human tissues. GADD45γ, MEG3, and P8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of nonfunctioning and corticotroph pituitary tumours. Female gender seems to predispose to slightly higher GADD45γ expression in pituitary adenomas. Mutations of the GADD45γ are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas.

Lee DG, Kim HS, Lee YS, et al.
Helicobacter pylori CagA promotes Snail-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition by reducing GSK-3 activity.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:4423 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is an oncoprotein and a major virulence factor of H. pylori. CagA is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via a type IV secretion system and causes cellular transformation. The loss of epithelial adhesion that accompanies the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a hallmark of gastric cancer. Although CagA is a causal factor in gastric cancer, the link between CagA and the associated EMT has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CagA induces the EMT by stabilizing Snail, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression. Mechanistically we show that CagA binds GSK-3 in a manner similar to Axin and causes it to shift to an insoluble fraction, resulting in reduced GSK-3 activity. We also find that the level of Snail protein is increased in H. pylori infected epithelium in clinical samples. These results suggest that H. pylori CagA acts as a pathogenic scaffold protein that induces a Snail-mediated EMT via the depletion of GSK-3.

Wang XQ, Terry PD, Cheng L, et al.
Interactions between pork consumption, CagA status and IL-1B-31 genotypes in gastric cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(25):8151-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To explore potential interactions among Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), CagA status, interleukin (IL)-1B-31 genotypes, and non-cardiac gastric cancer (GC) risk.
METHODS: A case-control study of non-cardia GC was performed at 3 hospitals located in Xi'an, China, between September 2008 and July 2010. We included 171 patients with histologically diagnosed primary non-cardia GC and 367 population based controls (matched by sex, age and city of residence). A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding potential risk factors, including pork consumption. H. pylori CagA status was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IL-1B-31 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to explore potential interactions among the factors.
RESULTS: The CagA appeared to confer an increased risk of GC (OR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.25-2.61). The main associations with IL-1B-31C allele here were 0.98 (95%CI: 0.59-1.63) for CC vs TT and 0.99 (95%CI: 0.64-1.51) for C Carriers vs TT. However, no associations were observed for CagA or IL-1B-31 genotype status among subjects who reported low pork consumption (P for interaction = 0.11). In contrast, high pork consumption and IL-1B-31C genotypes appeared to synergistically increase GC risk (P for interaction = 0.048) after adjusting for confounding factors, particularly among subjects with CagA (OR = 3.07, 95%CI: 1.17-10.79). We did not observe effect modification of pork consumption by H. pylori CagA status, or between H. pylori CagA status and IL-1B-31 genotypes after adjustment for pork consumption and other factors.
CONCLUSION: These interaction relationships among CagA, IL-1B-31 and pork consumption may have implications for development of the preventive strategies for the early detection of non-cardiac GC.

Shiota S, Cruz M, Abreu JA, et al.
Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic.
J Med Microbiol. 2014; 63(Pt 9):1189-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Although the incidence of gastric cancer in the Dominican Republic is not high, the disease remains a significant health problem. We first conducted a detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori status in the Dominican Republic. In total, 158 patients (103 females and 55 males; mean age 47.1±16.2 years) were recruited. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on four tests: rapid urease test, culture test, histological test and immunohistochemistry. The status of cagA and vacA genotypes in H. pylori was examined using PCR and gene sequencing. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.9 %. No relationship was found between the H. pylori infection rate and the age range of 17-91 years. Even in the youngest group (patients aged <29 years), the H. pylori infection rate was 62.5 %. Peptic ulcer was found in 23 patients and gastric cancer was found in one patient. The H. pylori infection rate in patients with peptic ulcer was significantly higher than that in patients with gastritis (82.6 versus 54.5 %, P<0.01). The cagA-positive/vacA s1m1 genotype was the most prevalent (43/64, 67.2 %). Compared with H. pylori-negative patients, H. pylori-positive patients showed more severe gastritis. Furthermore, the presence of cagA was related to the presence of more severe gastritis. All CagA-positive strains had Western-type CagA. In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy.

Keck JW, Miernyk KM, Bulkow LR, et al.
Helicobacter pylori infection and markers of gastric cancer risk in Alaska Native persons: a retrospective case-control study.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 28(6):305-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alaska Native persons experience gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates that are three to four times higher than in the general United States population.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pepsinogen I, pepsinogen I/II ratio, anti-Helicobacter pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antibody levels, and blood group for their associations with gastric cancer development in Alaska Native people.
METHODS: The present analysis was a retrospective case-control study that matched gastric cancers reported to the Alaska Native Tumor Registry from 1969 to 2008 to three controls on known demographic risk factors for H pylori infection, using sera from the Alaska Area Specimen Bank. Conditional logistic regression evaluated associations between serum markers and gastric cancer.
RESULTS: A total of 122 gastric cancer cases were included, with sera predating cancer diagnosis (mean = 13 years) and 346 matched controls. One hundred twelve cases (91.8%) and 285 controls (82.4%) had evidence of previous or ongoing H pylori infection as measured by anti-H pylori antibody levels. Gastric cancer cases had a 2.63-fold increased odds of having positive anti-H pylori antibodies compared with their matched controls (P=0.01). In a multivariate model, noncardia gastric cancer (n=94) was associated with anti-H pylori antibodies (adjusted OR 3.92; P=0.004) and low pepsinogen I level (adjusted OR 6.04; P=0.04). No association between gastric cancer and blood group, anti-CagA antibodies or pepsinogen I/II ratio was found.
CONCLUSION: Alaska Native people with gastric cancer had increased odds of previous H pylori infection. Low pepsinogen I level may function as a precancer marker for noncardia cancer.

Richard V, Kindt N, Decaestecker C, et al.
Involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) in human breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):523-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its receptor CD74 appear to be involved in tumorigenesis. We evaluated, by immunohistochemical staining, the tissue expression and distribution of MIF and CD74 in serial sections of human invasive breast cancer tumor specimens. The serum MIF level was also determined in breast cancer patients. We showed a significant increase in serum MIF average levels in breast cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. MIF tissue expression, quantified by a modified Allred score, was strongly increased in carcinoma compared to tumor-free specimens, in the cancer cells and in the peritumoral stroma, with fibroblasts the most intensely stained. We did not find any significant correlation with histoprognostic factors, except for a significant inverse correlation between tumor size and MIF stromal positivity. CD74 staining was heterogeneous and significantly decreased in cancer cells but increased in the surrounding stroma, namely in lymphocytes, macrophages and vessel endothelium. There was no significant variation according to classical histoprognostic factors, except that CD74 stromal expression was significantly correlated with triple-negative receptor (TRN) status and the absence of estrogen receptors. In conclusion, our data support the concept of a functional role of MIF in human breast cancer. In addition to auto- and paracrine effects on cancer cells, MIF could contribute to shape the tumor microenvironment leading to immunomodulation and angiogenesis. Interfering with MIF effects in breast tumors in a therapeutic perspective remains an attractive but complex challenge. Level of co-expression of MIF and CD74 could be a surrogate marker for efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs, particularly in TRN breast cancer tumor.

Memon AA, Hussein NR, Miendje Deyi VY, et al.
Vacuolating cytotoxin genotypes are strong markers of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer-associated Helicobacter pylori strains: a matched case-control study.
J Clin Microbiol. 2014; 52(8):2984-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a "clean" Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P < 0.05; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 0.76 to infinity). For DU, associations were found with vacA s1 (P = 0.002; OR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.52 to 27.87) and i1 (P = 0.004; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.78) status but not with cagA status. Neither condition showed independent associations with the vacA m1 allele or with more biologically active forms of cagA with longer 3' variable regions. In this Belgian population, the best markers of gastric cancer- and duodenal ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity.

Parris TZ, Aziz L, Kovács A, et al.
Clinical relevance of breast cancer-related genes as potential biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:324 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) is a common cancer form with relatively low 5-year survival rates, due partially to late detection and lack of complementary molecular markers as targets for treatment. Molecular profiling of head and neck cancer has revealed biological similarities with basal-like breast and lung carcinoma. Recently, we showed that 16 genes were consistently altered in invasive breast tumors displaying varying degrees of aggressiveness.
METHODS: To extend our findings from breast cancer to another cancer type with similar characteristics, we performed an integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data to evaluate the prognostic significance of the 16 putative breast cancer-related biomarkers in OSCC using independent microarray datasets and immunohistochemistry. Predictive models for disease-specific (DSS) and/or overall survival (OS) were calculated for each marker using Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: We found that CBX2, SCUBE2, and STK32B protein expression were associated with important clinicopathological features for OSCC (peritumoral inflammatory infiltration, metastatic spread to the cervical lymph nodes, and tumor size). Consequently, SCUBE2 and STK32B are involved in the hedgehog signaling pathway which plays a pivotal role in metastasis and angiogenesis in cancer. In addition, CNTNAP2 and S100A8 protein expression were correlated with DSS and OS, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these candidates and the hedgehog signaling pathway may be putative targets for drug development and clinical management of OSCC patients.

Shim JH, Yoon JH, Choi SS, et al.
The effect of Helicobacter pylori CagA on the HER-2 copy number and expression in gastric cancer.
Gene. 2014; 546(2):288-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
We investigated whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) CagA contributes to the DNA copy change and mRNA transcript expression of the HER-2 gene and, consequently, affects HER-2 protein expression to evaluate the significance of CagA and HER-2 amplification in gastric cancer. We used the AGS and MKN1 gastric cancer and HFE-145 immortalized non-neoplastic gastric mucosa cell lines. We also confirmed the effects of CagA on HER-2 expression in human gastric cancer tissues and gastric mucosal tissues of H. pylori infected C57BL/6 mice. Ectopic CagA expression in AGS, MKN1 and HFE-145 cells showed a significant increase in HER-2 gene copy number and expression. The gastric mucosae of H. pylori infected C57BL/6 mice also showed increased HER-2 DNA copy number and protein expression. In addition, CagA expression was detected in 17 (56.7%) of 30 gastric cancer tissues, and eight (47%) of them showed HER-2 DNA amplification of more than two-fold. In immunohistochemistry, HER-2 overexpression was detected in 12 (40%) of 30 gastric cancers and a positive correlation was observed among DNA copy number, the mRNA transcript, and protein expression of the HER-2 gene in gastric cancer (P<0.05). These results suggest that H. pylori CagA may induce overexpression of the HER-2 protein by increasing HER-2 DNA and mRNA copy number.

Ramireddy L, Lin CY, Liu SC, et al.
Association study between macrophage migration inhibitory factor-173 polymorphism and acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(2):1159-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in pathogenesis and autoimmune diseases. The major function of MIF is to promote the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The aim of the present study is to identify the association between MIF-173 (rs755662) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and AML in Taiwanese population. DNA samples extracted from 256 AML patients and 256 healthy controls were investigated using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The association between MIF-173 SNP genotype and AML patients were assessed with SPSS software. The results show that the GC genotype of MIF-173 SNP is significantly higher in AML patients than in the healthy controls (OR 1.58, 95 % CI 1.06, P = 0.034). Carrier genotypes GC and CC may be a causative factor for AML cancer (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 0.95, P = 0.085). White blood cell count (10(3)/µl) were significantly associated with AML MIF-173 polymorphism patients (P = 0.002). Our results in this study provide the first evidence that the MIF-173 polymorphism is associated with AML. MIF is a potential biomarker for development of AML cancer in male adult in Taiwanese population. Further validations in other populations are warranted.

Wang F, Bu G, Feng Q, et al.
The expression level of TRAF1 in human gastric mucosa is related to virulence genotypes of Helicobacter pylori.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2014; 49(8):925-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression level of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) in gastric mucosa tissue in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and to analyze the relationship between TRAF1 expression and H. pylori virulence.
METHODS: Gastric tissue samples were collected from patients with gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia, and gastric cancer. The expression level of TRAF1 in each group was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. Virulence genotypes of H. pylori were determined by PCR.
RESULTS: Significant differences in TRAF1 mRNA levels were observed between the gastritis and gastric cancer groups, and the atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant differences in TRAF1 protein levels were observed between the gastritis and intestinal metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia groups, between the gastritis and gastric cancer groups, and between the atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer groups (all p < 0.05). The virulence genotypes of cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA), vacAs1, and vacAm1 were more frequent in the TRAF1 high-level group than in the TRAF1 low-level group (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Higher TARF1 expression level is associated with infection by CagA(+)/vacAs1(+)/m1(+) virulent H. pylori strains and may promote the proliferation of gastric mucosal cells and induce gastric cancer.

Chen S, Duan G, Zhang R, Fan Q
Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A protein upregulates α-enolase expression via Src/MEK/ERK pathway: implication for progression of gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(2):764-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori confers an increased risk for the development of gastric cancer. In our previous investigations, we found that ENO1 was overexpression in cagA-positive H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells by proteomic method, in contrast to the isogenic cagA knock out mutant H. pylori-infected cells. ENO1 is a newly identified oncoprotein overexpressed in some cancer. However, the relationship between H. pylori infection and ENO1 expression still remains undefined. The AGS gastric cancer cells were transfected with WT-cagA plasmid and PR-cagA plasmids. Expression of ENO1 mRNA and protein were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Signal protein inhibitor treatment was used to investigate the signal pathways. It was found that the ENO1 mRNA and protein overexpression levels were dependent on cagA gene expression and CagA protein phosphorylation. Further analysis revealed that the Src, MEK and ERK pathway was involved in this upregulation effect. Our data suggest that ENO1 was upregulated by CagA protein through activating the Src and MEK/ERK signal pathways, thereby providing a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-mediated gastric diseases.

Yang M, Zeng P, Kang R, et al.
S100A8 contributes to drug resistance by promoting autophagy in leukemia cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e97242 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Autophagy is a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis and plays an important role in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. S100A8 is a member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family and plays an important role in the drug resistance of leukemia cells, with the mechanisms largely unknown. Here we report that S100A8 contributes to drug resistance in leukemia by promoting autophagy. S100A8 level was elevated in drug resistance leukemia cell lines relative to the nondrug resistant cell lines. Adriamycin and vincristine increased S100A8 in human leukemia cells, accompanied with upregulation of autophagy. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of S100A8 restored the chemosensitivity of leukemia cells, while overexpression of S100A8 enhanced drug resistance and increased autophagy. S100A8 physically interacted with the autophagy regulator BECN1 and was required for the formation of the BECN1-PI3KC3 complex. In addition, interaction between S100A8 and BECN1 relied upon the autophagic complex ULK1-mAtg13. Furthermore, we discovered that exogenous S100A8 induced autophagy, and RAGE was involved in exogenous S100A8-regulated autophagy. Our data demonstrated that S100A8 is involved in the development of chemoresistance in leukemia cells by regulating autophagy, and suggest that S100A8 may be a novel target for improving leukemia therapy.

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