Gene Summary

Gene:CDKN1B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1B
Aliases: KIP1, MEN4, CDKN4, MEN1B, P27KIP1
Summary:This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which shares a limited similarity with CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21. The encoded protein binds to and prevents the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin D-CDK4 complexes, and thus controls the cell cycle progression at G1. The degradation of this protein, which is triggered by its CDK dependent phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination by SCF complexes, is required for the cellular transition from quiescence to the proliferative state. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IV (MEN4). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CDKN1B (cancer-related)

Tak J, Sabarwal A, Shyanti RK, Singh RP
Berberine enhances posttranslational protein stability of p21/cip1 in breast cancer cells via down-regulation of Akt.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 458(1-2):49-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Berberine has shown anticancer properties and has potential for a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer. Berberine showed cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells, with an increase in the levels of p21/cip1 and p27/kip1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI), but mechanisms involved in up-regulating these molecules are largely unknown. Herein, we studied the key regulatory mechanisms involved in berberine-mediated up-regulation of p21/cip1 and p27/kip1. Berberine treatment for 24 and 48 h decreased the number of cells by 44-84% (P < 0.0001) and 38-78% (P < 0.0001), and increased cell death by 12-17% (P < 0.005) and 38-78% (P < 0.0001) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Cells were arrested in G1 phase by berberine which was accompanied with up-regulation of mRNA and protein level of both p21/cip1 and p27/kip1. Berberine decreased the expression of protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6 to cause G1 phase arrest. Berberine caused nuclear localization of p21/cip1 in both the cell lines. Our data for the first time showed that the post-translational stability of both the proteins was strongly increased by berberine as examined by cycloheximide chase assay. Inhibition of Akt was associated with berberine-mediated up-regulation of p21/cip1 and also led to a decrease in cell viability accompanied with significant G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Our study revealed that berberine not only up-regulates mRNA and protein levels of p21/cip1 and p27/kip1 but also increases their nuclear localization and post-translational protein stability. Further, Akt inhibition was found to mediate berberine-mediated up-regulation of p21/cip1 but not the p27/kip1.

Ding L, Shunkwiler LB, Harper NW, et al.
Deletion of Cdkn1b in ACI rats leads to increased proliferation and pregnancy-associated changes in the mammary gland due to perturbed systemic endocrine environment.
PLoS Genet. 2019; 15(3):e1008002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammary epithelial progenitors are the normal cell-of-origin of breast cancer. We previously defined a population of p27+ quiescent hormone-responsive progenitor cells in the normal human breast whose frequency associates with breast cancer risk. Here, we describe that deletion of the Cdkn1b gene encoding the p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in the estrogen-induced mammary tumor-susceptible ACI rat strain leads to a decrease in the relative frequencies of Cd49b+ mammary luminal epithelial progenitors and pregnancy-related differentiation. We show by comprehensive gene expression profiling of purified progenitor and differentiated mammary epithelial cell populations that p27 deletion has the most pronounced effects on luminal progenitors. Cdkn1b-/- females have decreased fertility, but rats that are able to get pregnant had normal litter size and were able to nurse their pups implying that loss of p27 in ACI rats does not completely abrogate ovarian function and lactation. Reciprocal mammary gland transplantation experiments indicate that the p27-loss-induced changes in mammary epithelial cells are not only caused by alterations in their intrinsic properties, but are likely due to altered hormonal signaling triggered by the perturbed systemic endocrine environment observed in Cdkn1b-/- females. We also observed a decrease in the frequency of mammary epithelial cells positive for progesterone receptor (Pr) and FoxA1, known direct transcriptional targets of the estrogen receptor (Erα), and an increase in phospho-Stat5 positive cells commonly induced by prolactin (Prl). Characterization of genome-wide Pr chromatin binding revealed distinct binding patterns in mammary epithelial cells of Cdkn1b+/+ and Cdkn1b-/- females and enrichment in genes with known roles in Notch, ErbB, leptin, and Erα signaling and regulation of G1-S transition. Our data support a role for p27 in regulating the pool size of hormone-responsive luminal progenitors that could impact breast cancer risk.

Yoon H, Kim M, Jang K, et al.
p27 transcriptionally coregulates cJun to drive programs of tumor progression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(14):7005-7014 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p27 shifts from CDK inhibitor to oncogene when phosphorylated by PI3K effector kinases. Here, we show that p27 is a cJun coregulator, whose assembly and chromatin association is governed by p27 phosphorylation. In breast and bladder cancer cells with high p27pT157pT198 or expressing a CDK-binding defective p27pT157pT198 phosphomimetic (p27CK-DD), cJun is activated and interacts with p27, and p27/cJun complexes localize to the nucleus. p27/cJun up-regulates

Jiang M, Chen Y, Deng L, et al.
Upregulation of
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(5):476-484 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, sperm-associated antigen 6 (

Xing Y, Ren S, Ai L, et al.
ZNF692 promotes colon adenocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1691-1703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite considerable recent advancements in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy, the prognosis of patients with advanced disease remains poor. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms and treatment strategies of this disease is required. Zinc finger protein 692 (ZNF692), also known as AREBP and Zfp692, was first reported to have an important role in gluconeogenesis. A recent study demonstrated that ZNF692 is overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tissues and that ZNF692 knockdown inhibited LUAD cell proliferation, migration, and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of ZNF692 in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) remains unclear. The present study revealed that ZNF692 was upregulated in COAD tissues and cells and that high ZNF692 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor stage in COAD patients. Gain‑ and loss‑of‑function experiments were employed to identify the function of ZNF692 in COAD progression. In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that ZNF692 promoted COAD cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that the effects of ZNF692 were mediated by upregulating cyclin D1, cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9) and by downregulating p27Kip1 through the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/AKT signaling pathway. Collectively, these data indicated that ZNF692 may serve as a novel oncogene and a potential treatment target in COAD patients.

Gao Y, Yin J, Tu Y, Chen YC
Theaflavin-3,3'-Digallate Suppresses Human Ovarian Carcinoma OVCAR-3 Cells by Regulating the Checkpoint Kinase 2 and p27 kip1 Pathways.
Molecules. 2019; 24(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3) is a unique polyphenol in black tea. Epidemiological studies have proved that black tea consumption decreases the incidence rate of ovarian cancer. Our former research demonstrated that TF3 inhibited human ovarian cancer cells. Nevertheless, the roles of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) and p27 kip1 (p27) in TF3-mediated inhibition of human ovarian cancer cells have not yet been investigated. In the current study, TF3 enhanced the phosphorylation of Chk2 to modulate the ratio of pro/anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins to initiate intrinsic apoptosis in a p53-independent manner and increased the expression of death receptors to activate extrinsic apoptosis in OVCAR-3 human ovarian carcinoma cells. In addition, TF3 up-regulated the expression of p27 to induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in OVCAR-3 cells. Our study indicated that Chk2 and p27 were vital anticancer targets of TF3 and provided more evidence that TF3 might be a potent agent to be applied as adjuvant treatment for ovarian cancer.

Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska A, Wojtczak B, Whitworth J, et al.
Acromegaly associated with GIST, non-small cell lung carcinoma, clear cell renal carcinoma, multiple myeloma, medulla oblongata tumour, adrenal adenoma, and follicular thyroid nodules.
Endokrynol Pol. 2019; 70(2):213-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acromegaly is associated with increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion which may support tumour development and growth. A 68-year-old woman was diagnosed with acromegaly due to typical clinical and hormonal characteristics. While contrast-enhanced MRI at diagnosis did not reveal a pituitary adenoma, a 5-mm lesion was identified on repeat scanning 13 months later. Abdominal and chest CT showed tumours of the stomach, right adrenal gland, and right lung. The CT also showed a hypodense lesion in the liver and heterogeneous echostructure of the thyroid gland with left lobe solid-cystic tumour. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy revealed increased tracer accumulation in the right thyroid lobe. No tracer accumulation was noted at the location of the other tumours. The resected stomach, adrenal, chest, and thyroid lesions did not show GH secretion. The patient refused pituitary surgery, and her acromegaly is currently well-controlled with somatostatin analogue therapy. A CT scan 19 months later revealed a contrast-enhancing left kidney tumour that was a G1-grade clear cell carcinoma. Four years after the acromegaly diagnosis multiple myeloma were diagnosed with secondary renal amyloidosis. Genetic screening for a paraganglioma gene panel, AIP, MEN1, and CDKN1B mutations were negative. A next-generation cancer panel containing 94 cancer genes did not identify any possible unifying gene abnormality in her germline DNA. Coexistence of acromegaly and numerous other tumours suggests a common aetiology of these disorders. However, no genetic abnormality could be identified with the tests that have been performed.

Huang X, She L, Luo X, et al.
MiR-222 promotes the progression of polycystic ovary syndrome by targeting p27 Kip1.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(5):918-923 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most complex and common reproductive and endocrinologic disorders in the child-bearing age of women. Recently, miR-222 were reported to be associated with the etiology of PCOS. However, the function of miR-222 during the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-222 in PCOS. Firstly, miR-222 expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in PCOS. The effects of miR-222 on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in KGN cells were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. In addition, bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the target genes of miR-222, and dual-luciferase reporter assay was applied to verified the interaction between miR-222 and p27 Kip1 in KGN cells. Moreover, the expressions of p27 Kip1 in KGN cells treated with miR-222 mimics or miR-222 inhibitor were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot assays. The results showed that the expression of miR-222 was remarkably upregulated in PCOS tissues compared with corresponding normal tissues. In the gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays, we revealed that miR-222 mimics significantly promoted cell proliferation, while miR-222 inhibitor induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrested. Furthermore, p27 Kip1 was identified as a target gene of miR-222, and could be negatively regulated by miR-222 mimics in KGN cells. In conclusion, our findings suggested that miR-222 may promote the progression of PCOS by targeting p27 Kip1.

Tuo L, Xiang J, Pan X, et al.
PCK1 negatively regulates cell cycle progression and hepatoma cell proliferation via the AMPK/p27
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Altered glucose metabolism endows tumor cells with metabolic flexibility for biosynthesis requirements. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), a key enzyme in the gluconeogenesis pathway, is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and predicts poor prognosis. Overexpression of PCK1 has been shown to suppress liver tumor growth, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear.
METHODS: mRNA and protein expression patterns of PCK1, AMPK, pAMPK, and the CDK/Rb/E2F pathway were determined using qRT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation ability and cell cycle were assessed by MTS assay and flow cytometric analysis. The effect of PCK1 on tumor growth was examined in xenograft implantation models.
RESULTS: Both gain and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that PCK1 deficiency promotes hepatoma cell proliferation through inactivation of AMPK, suppression of p27
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that PCK1 negatively regulates cell cycle progression and hepatoma cell proliferation via the AMPK/p27

Natarajan U, Venkatesan T, Radhakrishnan V, et al.
Cell Cycle Arrest and Cytotoxic Effects of SAHA and RG7388 Mediated through p21
Medicina (Kaunas). 2019; 55(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alterations in gene expressions are often due to epigenetic modifications that can have a significant influence on cancer development, growth, and progression. Lately, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, or vorinostat, MK0683) have been emerging as a new class of drugs with promising therapeutic benefits in controlling cancer growth and metastasis. The small molecule RG7388 (idasanutlin, R05503781) is a newly developed inhibitor that is specific for an oncogene-derived protein called MDM2, which is also in clinical trials for the treatment of various types of cancers. These two drugs have shown the ability to induce p21 expression through distinct mechanisms in MCF-7 and LNCaP cells, which are reported to have wild-type TP53. Our understanding of the molecular mechanism whereby SAHA and RG7388 can induce cell cycle arrest and trigger cell death is still evolving. In this study, we performed experiments to measure the cell cycle arrest effects of SAHA and RG7388 using MCF-7 and LNCaP cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis/necroptosis effects of the SAHA and RG7388 treatments were assessed using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion (TBDE) method, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, fluorescence assay with DEVD-amc substrate, and immunoblotting methods.
RESULTS: The RG7388 treatment was able to induce cell death by elevating p21
CONCLUSION: Our results from MCF-7 and LNCaP cells confirmed that SAHA and RG7388 treatments were able to induce cell death via a combination of cell cycle arrest and cytotoxic mechanisms. We speculate that our findings could lead to the development of newer treatments for breast and prostate cancers with drug combinations including HDACi.

Cetani F, Saponaro F, Borsari S, Marcocci C
Familial and Hereditary Forms of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Front Horm Res. 2019; 51:40-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Individuals with a familial predisposition to the development of parathyroid tumors constitute a small minority of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). These familial syndromes exhibit Mendelian inheritance patterns and the main causative genes in most families have been identified. They include multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN; types 1, 2A, and 4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), and neonatal severe PHPT. Each MEN type is associated with the various combinations of specific tumors. MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, enteropancreatic, and pituitary tumors; MEN2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma, and MEN4 is characterized by a pathological spectrum similar to that of MEN1 in association with tumors of the adrenal, kidney, and reproductive organs. HPT-JT is characterized by PHPT, ossifying fibromas of maxillary bones, kidney disease, and uterine neoplasias. The prompt diagnosis of these diseases is of great importance for planning appropriate surveillance of the mutant carriers and correct surgical management. The search for mutation is also useful for the identification of the family members who do not carry the mutation and can avoid unnecessary biochemical and instrumental evaluations. Surgery remains the treatment of choice in all familial forms except FHH.

Guo Q, Xiong Y, Song Y, et al.
ARHGAP17 suppresses tumor progression and up-regulates P21 and P27 expression via inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in cervical cancer.
Gene. 2019; 692:9-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
ARHGAP17 has long been thought to be involved in the maintenance of tight junction and epithelial barrier. Recently, a few Rho GTPase activating proteins (RhoGAPs) have been identified as tumor suppressors in some human cancers. The present study aimed to explore ARHGAP17 expression in cervical cancer and the possible function in tumor progression. ARHGAP17 expression in cervical cancer cell lines was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. ARHGAP17 expression in cervical cancer tissues and normal tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The cell proliferation was determined using CCK-8 in vitro and subcutaneous xenograft model in vivo. Here, we showed lower expression of ARHGAP17 in cell lines and human cervical cancer samples. Manipulation of ARHGAP17 affected cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of AKT was enhanced in ARHGAP17 silencing cervical cancer cells. ARHGAP17 can elevate P21 and P27 expression level through inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Stepwise investigations demonstrated that ARHGAP17 suppressed malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells via inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These results reveal that ARHGAP17 functions as a tumor suppressor in cervical cancer that suppresses tumor growth, at least partly, through inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling and up-regulation of P21 and P27 expression.

Zhao L, Okhovat JP, Hong EK, et al.
Preclinical Studies Support Combined Inhibition of BET Family Proteins and Histone Deacetylases as Epigenetic Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(1):82-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Advanced-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is usually a fatal malignancy despite optimal use of currently available treatments. In this preclinical study of novel CTCL therapy, we performed in vitro and ex vivo experiments to determine the efficacy of combination treatment with a panel of BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETi) (JQ1, OTX015, CPI-0610, I-BET762) and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) (SAHA/Vorinostat, Romidepsin). BETi/HDACi combinations were synergistic (combination index <1) against cell viability and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Apoptosis was uniformly enhanced. From a mechanistic standpoint, proliferative drivers c-Myc, Cyclin D1, NFkB, and IL-15Rα were reduced. Inhibitory CDKN1A was increased. CDKN1B, IL-7R, IL-17Rα, STAT3, and STAT5 alterations varied. There were significant increases in extrinsic apoptotic pathway death receptors and ligands (FasL, DR4, DR5, TRAIL, and TNFR1). At clinically tolerable levels of single agents, Romidepsin (1 nM) + OTX015 (125 nM) induced the greatest apoptosis (60%_80%) at 96 hours. Ex vivo studies of leukemic CTCL cells obtained from patients with Sezary syndrome also showed higher levels of apoptosis (about 60%-90%) in response to combination treatments relative to single agents. In contrast, combination treatment of normal CD4+ T cells induced only minimal apoptosis (<10%). Our findings show that the mechanism of action of BETi/HDACi therapy in CTCL involves induction of both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with reduced proliferative drivers and enhanced expression of apoptotic extrinsic pathway death receptors and ligands. Relative to single agents, the superior anti-CTCL effects of BETi/HDACi combinations in vitro and ex vivo provide a rationale for clinical trials exploring their efficacy as therapy for CTCL.

Zeng CX, Fu SB, Feng WS, et al.
TCF19 enhances cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma by activating the ATK/FOXO1 signaling pathway.
Neoplasma. 2019; 66(1):46-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies because of its complexity, high metastasis, recurrence and limited treatment options. Reports state that transcription factor 19 (TCF19) is related to the susceptibility to chronic HBV infection and that it strongly increases the risk of HCC occurrence, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. This study analyzed the datasets and confirmed that TCF19 is significantly increased in HCC cell lines and tissues. MTT and colony formation assay revealed that TCF19 over-expression enhances cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Flow cytometry assay then determined that TCF over-expression helps HCC cell G1/S phase transition, and further research showed that TCF19 up-regulation inhibits p57Kip2, p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 cell cycle suppressors, enhances the expression of cyclin D1 expression and simulates retinoblastoma (Rb), FOXO1 and AKT phosphorylation. In addition, AKT and FOXO1 inhibitors suppress the TCF19 effect on cell proliferation. This demonstrates that AKT/FOXO1 signaling is essential for TCF19 influence on HCC progression, and our combined results suggest that crucial links between TCF19 and HCC can provide a novel target for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

Wang Z, Yu C, Wang H
HOXA5 inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells via regulation of protein kinase B and p27.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):1122-1130 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeobox A5 (HOXA5) is a member of the homeobox gene (HOX) family, which plays an important role in the development of various malignant tumors. Here, we speculated that HOXA5 has an effect on cervical cancer development. In our study, we aimed to explore the role and molecular mechanism of HOXA5 in regards to the cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer. We found that expression levels of HOXA5 measured by RT‑qPCR and western blot assays in cervical cancer cell lines and tissues were both significantly downregulated. We performed a gain‑of‑function experiment by the transfection with pcDNA.3.1‑HOXA5 in ME‑180 and HT‑3 cells to overexpress HOXA5, and the caspase‑3 activity measured by caspase‑3 activity assay kit and cell apoptosis detected by flow cytometry were obviously promoted. Meanwhile, cell proliferation tested by BrdU assay, invasion determined by Transwell and cell viability tested by MTT were inhibited. Moreover, protein kinase B (AKT) was activated by incubation with SC79 (AKT activator; 1 µg/ml) after HOXA5 overexpression, and reversed the effect of HOXA5 overexpression on p27 expression. Additionally, significant elevation of AKT activation measured by western blot analysis abrogated the effect of HOXA5 on caspase‑3 activity, cell apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and cell viability. Taken together, this study revealed that HOXA5 inhibits cervical cancer progression by regulating AKT/p27, proposing the potential role of HOXA5 in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.

Xu Q, Li M, Yang M, et al.
α-pinene regulates
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The naturally occurring compound α-pinene induces cell cycle arrest and antitumor activity. We examined effects of α-pinene on cell cycle regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) cells to establish a foundation for its development as a novel treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HepG2 cells treated with α-pinene exhibited dose-dependent growth inhibition as a result of G

Zhu B, Pan Y, Zheng X, et al.
A clinical, biologic and mechanistic analysis of the role of ZNF692 in cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(2):396-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer (CC) is the most common malignancy in women. The zinc finger protein 692 (ZNF692) has been identified as a transcription factor and its aberrant expression participates in tumorigenesis of various cancers. However, its biological function and molecular mechanisms in cervical cancer remain unclear.
METHODS: Microarrays were analysed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to investigate the expression of ZNF692 in cervical cancer and its relationship with clinicopathologic characteristics. siRNAs and expression plasmids were used to reveal the biological function of ZNF692 in CC and subcutaneous xenograft model to examine the role of ZNF692 in vivo. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay were performed to ascertain whether ZNF692 binds to the promoter region of p27
RESULTS: By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we confirmed ZNF692 as a potential oncogene in CC. ZNF692 expression was up-regulated in CC tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and its overexpression was correlated with poor clinicopathologic characteristics. Moreover, ZNF692 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of CC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Regarding molecular mechanisms, up-regulation of ZNF692 was found to enhance the G1/S transition via regulating the p27
CONCLUSION: ZNF692 promotes CC cells proliferation and invasion through suppressing p27

Mavrogiannis AV, Kokkinopoulou I, Kontos CK, Sideris DC
Effect of Vinca Alkaloids on the Expression Levels of microRNAs Targeting Apoptosis-related Genes in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018; 19(13):1076-1086 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment of cancer with natural chemotherapeutic agents induces apoptosis along with remarkable alterations in the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is implicated in several human malignancies. Vinca alkaloids compose a class of antimitotic drugs preventing cancer cells from dividing, leading to apoptosis. They are commonly used in clinical practice for breast cancer treatment.
OBJECTIVE: The present study focused on the effects of vinca alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine, and vinorelbine) on miRNA expression of treated breast cancer cells.
METHODS: We investigated the effect of vincristine, vinblastine, and vinorelbine on the expression of oncogenic and tumor-suppressive miRNAs (miR-15a-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-25-3p, miR- 29b-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-214-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-222-3p, and miR-421), as well as on the expression of the apoptosis-related genes BAX, BCL2, TP53, and CDKN1B in BT-20 and SKBR- 3 breast adenocarcinoma cells.
RESULTS: Treatment of BT-20 cells with vincristine, vinblastine, and/or vinorelbine resulted in upregulation of TP53 expression. However, no alterations in the mRNA levels of the pivotal BCL2 family members BAX and BCL2 were observed. On the other hand, treatment of SK-BR-3 cells with any of these vinca alkaloids led to an increase in the BAX/BCL2 mRNA ratio, implying the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. No concomitant alteration in TP53 expression was observed in treated SKBR- 3 cells. Regarding the miRNAs examined in this study, miR-222-3p expression exhibited the most remarkable modulations in both treated cell lines.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests the possible involvement of miR-222-3p expression in breast cancer cell apoptosis, triggered by vincristine, vinblastine, and vinorelbine.

Liu Z, Li W, Pang Y, et al.
SF3B4 is regulated by microRNA-133b and promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 38:57-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Splicing factor 3b subunit 4 (SF3B4) is a splicing factor and potential oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, its regulatory mechanism is yet unclear. We aimed to determine the role of SF3B4 in HCC and the underlying mechanism.
METHODS: To investigate the association between alternative splicing events and miRNAs, putative miRNAs were screened using TargetScan. Expression levels of and prognostic information for SF3B4 and miRNAs were determined based on public genomic data and clinical samples. Then, we examined the possible roles of SF3B4 and miRNA-133b in HCC cells and a xenograft mouse model. Pearson correlation analysis and in vitro experiments verified SF3B4 as a miRNA-133b target. Protein levels of key targets from the SF3B4 signaling pathway were estimated using western blotting.
FINDINGS: The expression of SF3B4 was upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines whereas, the expression of miRNA-133b was downregulated. MiRNA-133b negatively regulated the expression of SF3B4. Effects of SF3B4 overexpression were partially abolished by miRNA-133b mimics, confirming that SF3B4 is a target of miRNA-133b. Moreover, molecules associated with SF3B4, including KLF4, KIP1, and SNAI2, were also modulated by miRNA-133b.
INTERPRETATION: SF3B4 plays a crucial role in HCC and is negatively regulated by miRNA-133b. The miRNA-133b/ SF3B4 axis may serve as a new therapeutic target for HCC treatment. FUND: China National Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists (No.81425019), the State Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81730076), Shanghai Science and Technology Committee Program (No.18XD1405300) and Specially-Appointed Professor Fund of Shanghai (GZ2015009). China National Funds for National Natural Science Fund (No.81672899).

Liu H, Liu Y, Bian Z, et al.
Circular RNA YAP1 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells by regulating the miR-367-5p/p27
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):151 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new type of non-coding RNAs and their functions in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed that circRNAs play an important role in cancer development and certain types of pathological responses, acting as microRNA (miRNA) sponges to regulate gene expression.
METHODS: CircNet was used to screen potential circRNAs and validated circYAP1 expression levels in 17 GC tissues by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and another 80 paired GC tissues by FISH. CircYAP1 overexpression and knockdown experiments were conducted to assess the effects of circYAP1 in vitro and in vivo, and its molecular mechanism was demonstrated by RNA in vivo precipitation assays, western blotting, luciferase assay and rescue experiments.
RESULTS: CircYAP1 expression level was significantly lower in GC tissues than the adjacent normal tissues, and GC patients with circYAP1 low expression had shorter survival times as compared with those with circYAP1 high expression. Functionally, circYAP1 overexpression inhibited cell growth and invasion in vitro and in vivo, but its knockdown reversed these effects. Further analysis showed that circYAP1 sponged miR-367-5p to inhibit p27
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that circYAP1 functions as a tumor suppressor in GC cells by targeting the miR-367-5p/p27

Song JH, Lee CJ, An HJ, et al.
Magnolin targeting of ERK1/2 inhibits cell proliferation and colony growth by induction of cellular senescence in ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(1):88-101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ras/Raf/MEKs/ERKs and PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways have key roles in cancer development and growth processes, as well as in cancer malignance and chemoresistance. In this study, we screened the therapeutic potential of magnolin using 15 human cancer cell lines and combined magnolin sensitivity with the CCLE mutaome analysis for relevant mutation information. The results showed that magnolin efficacy on cell proliferation inhibition were lower in TOV-112D ovarian cancer cells than that in SKOV3 cells by G1 and G2/M cell cycle phase accumulation. Notably, magnolin suppressed colony growth of TOV-112D cells in soft agar, whereas colony growth of SKOV3 cells in soft agar was not affected by magnolin treatment. Interestingly, phospho-protein profiles in the MAPK and PI3 K signaling pathways indicated that SKOV3 cells showed marked increase of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 and very weak ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels by EGF stimulation. The phospho-protein profiles in TOV-112D cells were the opposite of those of SKOV3 cells. Importantly, magnolin treatment suppressed phosphorylation of RSKs in TOV-112D, but not in SKOV3 cells. Moreover, magnolin increased SA-β-galactosidase-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner in TOV-112D cells, but not in SKOV3 cells. Notably, oral administration of Shin-Yi fraction 1, which contained magnolin approximately 53%, suppressed TOV-112D cell growth in athymic nude mice by induction of p16

Wang L, Zhao H, Xu Y, et al.
Systematic identification of lincRNA-based prognostic biomarkers by integrating lincRNA expression and copy number variation in lung adenocarcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1723-1734 [PubMed] Related Publications
Copy number alterations (CNAs) of lincRNAs act as one of important mechanisms in disrupting lincRNA expression which may play critical roles during tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The copy number alterations of lincRNAs can mark the spectrum of cancer progression and may serve as biomarkers for prognosis in LUAD, however it is rarely studied. We analyzed RNASeq data for 488 LUAD patients from TCGA portal and 58 healthy subjects to identify prognostic lincRNAs predictive of patient survival. Computational analysis entailing integration of expression and copy number alteration data revealed five prognostic lincRNAs: RBPMS-AS1, TDRKH-AS1, LINC00578, RP11-470 M17.2 and LINC00941. The copy number alterations in the LINC00578 and RP11-470 M17.2 genes were positively associated with the longer overall survival of LUAD patients. The CNA in LINC00941 was negatively associated with the longer overall survival. Copy number amplification significantly correlated with increased expression of TDRKH-AS1, which regulates telomere organization and EZH2-mediated epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A, CDKN1B and IL24. Decreased survival of LUAD patients was associated with high LINC00941 expression. The LINC00941 regulates the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, focal adhesion by influencing potential targets, such as KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase and VEGFC. These lincRNA-based prognostic biomarkers may destroy important cancer-related biological processes contributing to LUAD prognosis. In summary, we demonstrate the prognostic potential of four differentially expressed lincRNAs with copy number alterations (RBPMS-AS1, TDRKH-AS1, LINC00578 and RP11-470 M17.2) that are positively associated with longer overall survival of LUAD patients. One differentially expressed lincRNA LINC00941 with copy number alterations was negatively associated with longer overall survival of LUAD patients.

Simbolo M, Vicentini C, Mafficini A, et al.
Mutational and copy number asset of primary sporadic neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(6):709-717 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) represent the most common histotype among small intestine neoplasms, and metastatic disease is usually present at diagnosis. A retrospective series of 52 sporadic primary surgically resected SI-NETs, which were metastatic at diagnosis, was analyzed by high-coverage target sequencing (HCTS) for the mutational status of 57 genes and copy number status of 40 genes selected from recently published genome sequencing data. Seven genes were found to be recurrently mutated: CDKN1B (9.6%), APC and CDKN2C (each 7.7%), BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53 (each 3.8%). Copy number analysis showed frequent allelic loss of 4 genes located on chromosome 18 (BCL2, CDH19, DCC, and SMAD4) in 23/52 (44.2%) and losses on chromosomes 11 (38%) and 16 (15%). Other recurrent copy number variations were gains for genes located on chromosomes 4 (31%), 5 (27%), 14 (36%), and 20 (20%). Univariate survival analysis showed that SRC gene copy number gains were associated with a poorer prognosis (p = 0.047). Recurrent copy number variations are important events in SI-NET and SRC may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for this tumor type.

Ribeiro D, Melão A, van Boxtel R, et al.
STAT5 is essential for IL-7-mediated viability, growth, and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(17):2199-2213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) constitutes an aggressive subset of ALL, the most frequent childhood malignancy. Whereas interleukin-7 (IL-7) is essential for normal T-cell development, it can also accelerate T-ALL development in vivo and leukemia cell survival and proliferation by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling. Here, we investigated whether STAT5 could also mediate IL-7 T-ALL-promoting effects. We show that IL-7 induces STAT pathway activation in T-ALL cells and that STAT5 inactivation prevents IL-7-mediated T-ALL cell viability, growth, and proliferation. At the molecular level, STAT5 is required for IL-7-induced downregulation of p27

Zhang Z, Xing T, Chen Y, Xiao J
Exosome-mediated miR-200b promotes colorectal cancer proliferation upon TGF-β1 exposure.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 106:1135-1143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exosome are emerging mediators of intercellular communication. Cancer-secreted exosome has an effect on the exosome donor cells and support cancer growth and metastasis. Here, we examine the TGF-β1, a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of cellular signaling pathways in human cancers, significantly contributes to upregulate miR-200b in exosome from colorectal cancer cell lines. The miR-200b enriched in exosome can be transferred into a new target cell to facilitating the colorectal cancer cells proliferation. Further studies showing that the exosomal miR-200b could directly target 3'-UTRs of p27 and RND3 resulted in knockdown of respective target proteins in recipient cells. Remarkably, the overexpression of p27/kip1 in HCT-116 cell, not RND3, resulted in effectively inhibited cell proliferation which induced by exosomal miR-200b. Moreover, animal experiment studies also confirmed a stimulating effect of exosomal miR-200b on colorectal cancer cell-derived xenografts. The expression p27/kip1 have decreased in tumors xenografts after injected with exosomal miR-200b. Our observations offer an evidence that whereby exosomal specific miRNA could amplify the proliferative element into the neighboring or distant cells to effective tumor growth.

Shi H, Li H, Yuan R, et al.
PCBP1 depletion promotes tumorigenesis through attenuation of p27
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):187 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Poly C Binding Protein 1 (PCBP1) is an RNA-binding protein that binds and regulates translational activity of subsets of cellular mRNAs. Depletion of PCBP1 is implicated in various carcinomas, but the underlying mechanism in tumorigenesis remains elusive.
METHODS: We performed a transcriptome-wide screen to identify novel bounding mRNA of PCBP1. The bind regions between PCBP1 with target mRNA were investigated by using point mutation and luciferase assay. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis were also evaluated in ovary and colon cancer cell lines. The mechanism that PCBP1 affects p27 was analyzed by mRNA stability and ribosome profiling assays. We analyzed PCBP1 and p27 expression in ovary, colon and renal tumor samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues using RT-PCR, Western Blotting and immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of PCBP1 and p27 also analyzed using online databases.
RESULTS: We identified cell cycle inhibitor p27
CONCLUSION: Our results thereby indicate that loss of PCBP1 expression firstly attenuates p27 expression at post-transcriptional level, and subsequently promotes carcinogenesis. PCBP1 could be used as a diagnostic marker to cancer patients.

Meyer SE, Muench DE, Rogers AM, et al.
miR-196b target screen reveals mechanisms maintaining leukemia stemness with therapeutic potential.
J Exp Med. 2018; 215(8):2115-2136 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have shown that antagomiR inhibition of miRNA miR-21 and miR-196b activity is sufficient to ablate MLL-AF9 leukemia stem cells (LSC) in vivo. Here, we used an shRNA screening approach to mimic miRNA activity on experimentally verified miR-196b targets to identify functionally important and therapeutically relevant pathways downstream of oncogenic miRNA in MLL-r AML. We found

Tao Y, Liu Z, Hou Y, et al.
Alternative NF-κB signaling promotes colorectal tumorigenesis through transcriptionally upregulating Bcl-3.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(44):5887-5900 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple studies have shown that chronic inflammation is closely related to the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Classical NF-κB signaling, the key factor in controlling inflammation, has been found to be of great importance to CRC development. However, the role of alternative NF-κB signaling in CRC is still elusive. Here, we found aberrant constitutive activation of alternative NF-κB signaling both in CRC tissue and CRC cells. Knockdown of RelB downregulates c-Myc and upregulates p27

Lu X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, et al.
Molecular classification and subtype-specific characterization of skin cutaneous melanoma by aggregating multiple genomic platform data.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(9):1635-1647 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Traditional classification of melanoma is widely utilized with little apparent results making the development of robust classifiers that can guide therapies an urgency. Successful seminal research on classification has provided a wider understanding of cancer from multiple molecular profiles, respectively. However, it may ignore the complementary nature of the information provided by different types of data, which motivated us to subtype melanoma by aggregating multiple genomic platform data.
METHODS: Aggregating three omics data of 328 melanoma samples, melanoma subtyping was performed by three clustering methods. Differences across subtypes were extracted by functional enrichment, epigenetically silencing, gene mutations and clinical features. Subtypes were further distinguished by putative biomarkers.
RESULTS: Functional enrichment of the subtype-specific differential expression genes endowed subtypes new designation: immune, melanin and ion, in which the first subtype was enriched for immune system, the second was characterized by melanin and pigmentation, and the third was enriched for ion-involved transmission process. Subtypes also differed in age, Breslow thickness, tumor site, mutation frequency of BRAF, PTGS2, CDKN2A, CDKN2B and incidence of epigenetically silencing for IL15RA, EPSTI1, LXN, CDKN1B genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Skin cutaneous melanoma can be robustly divided into three subtypes by SNFCC

Peng M, Wang J, Zhang D, et al.
PHLPP2 stabilization by p27 mediates its inhibition of bladder cancer invasion by promoting autophagic degradation of MMP2 protein.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(43):5735-5748 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) is a tumor suppressor that catalyzes the de-phosphorylation of the AGC kinases, while p27 acts as a tumor suppressor that regulates cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell motility. Our previous studies have identified that PHLPP2 participates in inhibition of transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells following lung carcinogen B[a]P/B[a]PDE exposure. However, nothing was known about the association of p27 with regulation of PHLPP2 expression and the role of PHLPP2 in bladder cancer (BC) invasion. In our current studies, we demonstrated that PHLPP2 inhibited BC invasion through promoting MMP2 degradation via p62-mediated autophagy; and p27 expression was able to stabilize PHLPP2 protein by inhibiting protein degradation of Hsp90, which could directly bind to PHLPP2 and protect it from degradation. More in-depth studies discovered that stabilization of Hsp90 by p27 was mediated by calpain1 proteolysis system, whereas p27 inhibited calpain1 gene transcription by attenuating Jak1/Stat1 cascade in human invasive BC cells. Collectively, we for the first time revealed PHLPP2 downregulation in BCs and its participating in promotion of BC invasion, as well as novel role of p27 and mechanisms underlying its regulation of PHLPP2 protein degradation through Hsp90-dependent manner. Our findings improve our understanding of p27 and PHLPP2 roles and their crosstalk in regulation of BC invasion, which further contributes to improve the current strategy for invasive bladder cancer therapy.

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