Gene Summary

Gene:S100A4; S100 calcium binding protein A4
Aliases: 42A, 18A2, CAPL, FSP1, MTS1, P9KA, PEL98
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein S100-A4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: S100A4 (cancer-related)

Kotnova AP, Lyanova BM, Dukhanina EA, et al.
Thapsigargin, Inhibitor of Sarco-Endoplasmic Ca
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2019; 486(1):181-183 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thapsigargin (SERCA ATPase inhibitor) inhibited the S100A4 metastatic marker expression in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. We found that S100A4 gene transcription is regulated by Ca

Dukhanina EA, Portseva TN, Kotnova AP, et al.
The Expression Level of S100A4 Protein Affects the Migration Activity of Breast Cancer Cells.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2019; 485(1):104-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reduced expression of metastatic marker protein S100A4 in triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 leads to a decrease in the migration ability of cells and increases the sensitivity of the modified cells to docetaxel therapy. Cells capable of migration differ from the immotile cells in the content of the S100A4 protein in the cell, and this difference persists after the treatment of cells with the agents that reduce the intracellular level of S100A4. The presence of exogenous S100A4 protein in culture medium reduces the content of this protein in breast cancer cells. The results of the study show that the ability of breast cancer cells to migrate depends on the S100A4 protein concentration in the cell.

Sandberg TP, Stuart MPME, Oosting J, et al.
Increased expression of cancer-associated fibroblast markers at the invasive front and its association with tumor-stroma ratio in colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):284 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment has a critical role in regulating cancer cell behavior. Tumors with high stromal content are associated with poor patient outcome. The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) identifies colorectal cancers (CRC) with poor patient prognosis based on hematoxylin & eosin stained sections. The desmoplastic reaction consists to a great extent of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of which different subtypes are known. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify CAFs present in the tumor stroma of CRC stratified by the TSR to possibly add prognostic significance to the TSR.
METHODS: The expression of established CAF markers was compared between stroma-low and stroma-high tumors using transcriptomic data of 71 stage I - III CRC. Based on literature, fibroblast and stromal markers were selected to perform multiplex immunofluorescent staining on formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sections of patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer. Antibodies against the following markers were used: αSMA, PDGFR -β, FAP, FSP1 and the stromal markers CD45 and CD31 as reference. The markers were subsequently quantified in the stroma using the Vectra imaging microscope.
RESULTS: The transcriptomic data showed that all CAF markers except one were higher expressed in stroma-high compared to stroma-low tumors. Histologically, stroma-high tumors showed a decreased number of FSP1
CONCLUSIONS: The increased expression of FAP at the invasive part and in stroma-high tumors might contribute to the invasive behavior of cancer cells. Future functional experiments should investigate the contribution of FAP to cancer cell invasion. Combining the quantity of the stroma as defined by the TSR with the activity level of CAFs using the expression of FAP may result in an expanded stroma-based tool for patient stratification.

Probstmeier R, Kraus D, Wenghoefer M, Winter J
S100 Proteins as Biomarkers in Risk Estimations for Malignant Transformation in Oral Lesions.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1929:763-771 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncologic relevant members of S100 proteins are described as promising biomarkers in molecular pathology for risk estimation in oral neoplasia exhibiting different stages of malignancy: gingiva as healthy tissue, irritation fibroma as benign, leukoplakia as precancerous, and oral squamous cell carcinoma as malignant entity. Gene expression levels of S100A4 (metastasin), S100A7 (psoriasin), S100A8 (calgranulin A), and S100A9 (calgranulin B) were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry-based microscopy was used to examine cellular localization and distribution of these biomarkers in tissue sections. The results indicate that S100 proteins represent promising biomarkers for early-stage diagnosis in oral lesions. The inclusion of expression profiles and ratios for each entity even improves their diagnostic validity.

Ambartsumian N, Klingelhöfer J, Grigorian M
The Multifaceted S100A4 Protein in Cancer and Inflammation.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1929:339-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
The metastasis-promoting S100A4 protein, a member of the S100 family, has recently been discovered as a potent factor implicated in various inflammation-associated diseases. S100A4 is involved in a range of biological functions such as angiogenesis, cell differentiation, apoptosis, motility, and invasion. Moreover, S100A4 is also a potent trigger of inflammatory processes and induces the release of cytokines and growth factors under different pathological conditions.Indeed, the release of S100A4 upon stress and mainly its pro-inflammatory role emerges as the most decisive activity in disease development, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc) allergy, psoriasis, and cancer. In the scope of this review, we will focus on the role of S100A4 as a mediator of pro-inflammatory pathways and its associated biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of various human noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer.

Dong X, Fang Z, Yu M, et al.
Knockdown of Long Noncoding RNA HOXA-AS2 Suppresses Chemoresistance of Acute Myeloid Leukemia via the miR-520c-3p/S100A4 Axis.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(2):886-896 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Among different molecular candidates, there is growing data to support that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a significant role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). HOXA-AS2 is significantly overexpressed in a variety of tumors and associated with anti-cancer drug resistance, however, little is known regarding the expression and function of HOXA-AS2 in the chemoresistance of AML. In this study, we aimed to determine the role and molecular mechanism of HOXA-AS2 in adriamycin-based chemotherapy resistance in AML cells.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect HOXA-AS2 expression in the BM samples and ADR cell lines, U/A and T/A cells. Furthermore, the effects of HOXA-AS2 silencing on cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in vitro by CCK8 and flow cytometry, and on tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, bioinformatics online programs predicted and luciferase reporter assay were used to validate the association of HOXA-AS2 and miR-520c-3p in AML.
RESULTS: In this study, we showed that HOXA-AS2 is significantly upregulated in BM samples from AML patients after treatment with adriamycin-based chemotherapy and in U/A and T/A cells. Knockdown of HOXA-AS2 inhibited ADR cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and promoted apoptosis. Bioinformatics online programs predicted that HOXA-AS2 sponge miR-520c-3p at 3'-UTR with complementary binding sites, which was validated using luciferase reporter assay and anti-Ago2 RIP assay. HOXA-AS2 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-520c-3p in ADR cells. S100A4 was predicted as a downstream target of miR-520c-3p, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HOXA-AS2 plays an important role in the resistance of AML cells to adriamycin. Thus, HOXA-AS2 may represent a therapeutic target for overcoming resistance to adriamycin-based chemotherapy in AML.

Xia F, Chen Y, Jiang B, et al.
Long Noncoding RNA HOXA-AS2 Promotes Papillary Thyroid Cancer Progression by Regulating miR-520c-3p/S100A4 Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(5):1659-1672 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Thyroid cancer is one of the most prevalent endocrine tumors. The present study examined the effects of lncRNA HOXA cluster antisense RNA2 (HOXA-AS2) on the progression of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect HOXA-AS2, miR-520c-3p and S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) expression. Furthermore, the effects of HOXA-AS2 silencing and overexpression on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed in PTC in vitro by CCK8 and transwell assay. Furthermore, bioinformatics online programs predicted and luciferase reporter assay were used to validate the association of HOXA-AS2 and miR-520c-3p in PTC.
RESULTS: We observed that HOXA-AS2 was up-regulated in PTC tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that HOXA-AS2 knockdown significantly inhibited cell growth in PTC in vitro and in vivo. Further functional assays indicated that HOXA-AS2 significantly promoted PTC cell migration and invasion by promoting EMT. Bioinformatics online programs predicted that HOXA-AS2 sponge miR-520c-3p at 3'-UTR with complementary binding sites, which was validated using luciferase reporter assay. HOXA-AS2 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-520c-3p in PTC cells. MiR-520c-3p was down-regulated in PTC tissues, and S100A4 was predicted as a downstream target of miR-520c-3p, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our results suggested that the HOXA-AS2/miR-520c-3p/S100A4 axis may play an important role in the regulation of PTC progression, which provides us with new insights into understanding the PTC.

Lee JH, Kim HM, Koo JS
Differential Expression of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast-Related Proteins in Ductal Carcinoma in situ According to Molecular Subtype and Stromal Histology.
Pathobiology. 2018; 85(5-6):311-321 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-related proteins and their implication in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
METHODS: We constructed a tissue microarray of 223 cases of DCIS and examined immunohistochemical staining for the 7 CAF-related proteins. We classified DCIS into luminal type, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) type, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) according to the immunohistochemical results for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2. We also classified DCIS into desmoplastic, normal-like, and inflammatory type according to stromal histology.
RESULTS: There were significant differences in the expression of S100A4, podoplanin, prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha 3, NG2, and PDGFRα in stromal cells of DCIS when classified according to molecular subtype. The expression rate of all CAF-related proteins in stromal cells was higher in the HER-2 type and TNBC than in the luminal type (p < 0.001). When classified according to stromal subtype, there were significant differences in the expression of all CAF-related proteins in stromal cells, with the inflammatory stromal type showing higher expression of CAF-related proteins than other stromal types.
CONCLUSION: The expression of CAF-related proteins in stromal cells of DCIS varies according to molecular subtype and stromal type.

Kim HS, Jung M, Choi SK, et al.
IL-6-mediated cross-talk between human preadipocytes and ductal carcinoma in situ in breast cancer progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The function of preadipocytes in the progression of early stage breast cancer has not been fully elucidated at the molecular level. To delineate the role of preadipocytes in breast cancer progression, we investigated the cross-talk between human breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cells and preadipocytes with both an in vitro culture and xenograft tumor model.
METHODS: GFP or RFP was transduced into human DCIS cell line MCF10DCIS.com cells or preadipocytes using lentivirus. Cell sorter was used to separate pure, viable populations of GFP- or RFP-transduced cells. Cell viability and proliferation was assessed by crystal violet assays and cell migration and invasion capability was assayed by the transwell strategy. Gene and protein levels were measured by western blot, RT-PCR and immunostaining. Adipokines and cytokines were quantified using ELISA. Human tumor xenografts in a nude mice model were used. Ultrasound imaging of tumors was performed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a IL-6 neutralizing antibody.
RESULTS: In the co-culture system with the MCF10DCIS.com and preadipocytes, MCF10DCIS.com proliferation, migration and invasion were enhanced by preadipocytes. Preadipocytes exhibited in an increased IL-6 secretion and cancer-associated fibroblast markers expression, FSP1 and α-SMC in co-culture with MCF10DCIS.com or in MCF10DCIS.com conditioned media, whereas the adipocyte differentiation capacity was suppressed by co-culture with MCF10DCIS.com. A neutralizing antibody of IL-6 or IL-6R suppressed the promotion of MCF10DCIS.com proliferation and migration by co-culture with preadipocytes. In the xenograft tumor model, the tumor growth of MCF10DCIS.com was enhanced by the co-injection of preadipocytes, and the administration of IL-6 neutralizing antibodies resulted in potent effects on tumor inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that IL-6-mediated cross-talk between preadipocytes and breast DCIS cells can promote the progression of early stage breast cancer. Therefore, blocking IL-6 signaling might be a potential therapeutic strategy for breast DCIS characterized by pathological IL-6 overproduction.

Eikesdal HP, Becker LM, Teng Y, et al.
BMP7 Signaling in
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(10):1568-1578 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Deregulated transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling is a common feature of many epithelial cancers. Deletion of

Hua T, Wang X, Chi S, et al.
Estrogen‑related receptor γ promotes the migration and metastasis of endometrial cancer cells by targeting S100A4.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):823-832 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) is a well‑established tumor metastasis mediator in various malignancies, including endometrial cancer (EC). However, the regulatory mechanism underlying S100A4 expression remains elusive. In the present study, by analyzing public datasets and clinical samples, we found that estrogen‑related receptor γ (ERRγ) was upregulated and positively correlated with S100A4 transcription in EC. ERRγ knockdown inhibited S100A4 expression and promoted the expression of its downstream target E‑cadherin, and vice versa. Mechanistic studies indicated that ERRγ enhanced the promoter activity of S100A4 to facilitate its transcription. In addition, knockdown of ERRγ suppressed migration and invasion of EC cells in vitro, while ectopic ERRγ expression promoted migration and invasion of EC cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Importantly, restoration of S100A4 expression prevented EC cells from undergoing ERRγ‑mediated changes in these biological features. In addition, synchronous changes in S100A4 and ERRγ expression were observed after incubation with estrogen. Overall, ERRγ may exert oncogenic activity mainly associated with aggressiveness of EC by activating S100A4 transcription and thus may be a novel therapeutic target in EC.

Liu Y, Geng YH, Yang H, et al.
Extracellular ATP drives breast cancer cell migration and metastasis via S100A4 production by cancer cells and fibroblasts.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 430:1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous work has demonstrated that extracellular ATP is an important pro-invasive factor, and in this study, we tapped into a possible mechanism involved. We discovered that ATP could upregulate both the intracellular expression and secretion of S100A4 in breast cancer cells and fibroblasts. Apart from stimulating breast cancer cell motility via intracellular S100A4, ATP enhanced the ability of breast cancer cells to transform fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-like cells, which in turn secreted S100A4 to further promote cancer cell motility. Both apyrase and niclosamide treatments could inhibit metastasis of inoculated tumors to lung, liver and kidney in mice model, and CAFs from these treated tumors exhibited weakened migration-stimulating capacity for breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data indicate that extracellular ATP promotes the interactions between breast cancer cells and fibroblasts, which work collaboratively via production of S100A4 to exacerbate breast cancer metastasis.

Nordlinger A, Dror S, Elkahloun A, et al.
Mutated MITF-E87R in Melanoma Enhances Tumor Progression via S100A4.
J Invest Dermatol. 2018; 138(10):2216-2223 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma, a melanocyte origin neoplasm, is the most lethal type of skin cancer, and incidence is increasing. Several familial and somatic mutations have been identified in the gene encoding the melanocyte lineage master regulator, MITF; however, the neoplastic mechanisms of these mutant MITF variants are mostly unknown. Here, by performing unbiased analysis of the transcriptomes in cells expressing mutant MITF, we identified calcium-binding protein S100A4 as a downstream target of MITF-E87R. By using wild-type and mutant MITF melanoma lines, we found that both endogenous wild-type and MITF-E87R variants occupy the S100A4 promoter. Remarkably, whereas wild-type MITF represses S100A4 expression, MITF-E87R activates its transcription. The opposite effects of wild-type and mutant MITF result in opposing cellular phenotypes, because MITF-E87R via S100A4 enhanced invasion and reduced adhesion in contrast to wild-type MITF activity. Finally, we found that melanoma patients with altered S100A4 expression have poor prognosis. These data show that a change in MITF transcriptional activity from repression to activation of S100A4 that results from a point mutation in MITF alters melanoma invasive ability. These data suggest new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of metastatic melanoma.

Alaee M, Nool K, Pasdar M
Plakoglobin restores tumor suppressor activity of p53
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(6):1876-1888 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Tumor suppressor/transcription factor p53 is mutated in over 50% of all cancers. Some mutant p53 proteins have not only lost tumor suppressor activities but they also gain oncogenic functions (GOF). One of the most frequently expressed GOF p53 mutants is Arg175His (p53

Zhou Y, Li Z, Ding Y, et al.
Overexpression of S100A4 protein may be associated with the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S159-S166 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim: Accumulated evidence has suggested a relationship between S100A4 protein expression and the development and progression of pancreatic cancer (PC) while its role in diagnosis and prognosis of PC still keeps inconsistent. To obtain definitive associations between S100A4 and PC, a meta-analysis was conducted.
Materials and Methods: The PubMed and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were electronically searched to identify studies reporting an association between S100A4 protein and PC. Statistical analyses were undergone with the utilization of STATA version 12.0 software.
Results: Nine clinical studies with a total of 545 tumor samples were included in the meta-analysis. Results revealed that increased S100A4 expression were associated with the tumor-node-metastasis stages of PC (III-IV vs. I-II: odds ratio [OR] =5.50, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =3.13-9.67, P < 0.001). Also, compared with 1-2 histologic grade of PC samples, S100A4 protein was expressed more frequently in samples with 3-4 histologic grade (grades 1-2 vs. grades 3-4: OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.05-6.24, P = 0.038).
Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that overexpression of S100A4 seems to be associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis of PC patients.

Burock S, Daum S, Keilholz U, et al.
Phase II trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of orally applied niclosamide in patients with metachronous or sychronous metastases of a colorectal cancer progressing after therapy: the NIKOLO trial.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):297 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of all cancer deaths in Europe and the Western world with a lifetime risk of approximately 5%. Despite several improvements in the treatment of patients with unresectable CRC prognosis is poor and there is the need of developing new treatment strategies for patients with metastatic chemorefractory disease. The S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) predicts metastasis formation and reduced CRC patient survival. S100A4 was previously identified as transcriptional target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anti-helminthic drug niclosamide is known to intervene in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling, leading to reduced expression of S100A4 linked to restricted in vivo metastasis formation. Thus, we aim at translation of our findings on restricting S100A4-driven metastasis into clinical practice for treating metastasized CRC patients progressing after standard therapy.
METHODS/DESIGN: NIKOLO is a phase II, single center, one-arm open-label clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of niclosamide tablets in patients with metastasized CRC progressing under standard therapy. Eligible patients will receive 2 g of orally applied niclosamide once a day and will continue with the treatment once daily till disease progression or toxicity. Toxicities will be graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE) v4.03. The primary objective of this trial is to assess the progression free survival after 4 months, secondary objectives are overall survival, time to progression, disease control rate (remission + partial remission + stable disease), and safety. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis will be conducted to evaluate niclosamide plasma concentration.
DISCUSSION: This study is expected to provide evidence of the feasibility, toxicity and efficacy of niclosamide in the treatment of patients with metastasized CRC and could help to establish a new treatment option.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02519582) and the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT 2014-005151-20).

Eiro N, González L, Martínez-Ordoñez A, et al.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts affect breast cancer cell gene expression, invasion and angiogenesis.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2018; 41(4):369-378 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: It has been reported that stromal cell features may affect the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent one of the most abundant cell types within the breast cancer stroma. Here, we aimed to explore the influence of CAFs on breast cancer gene expression, as well as on invasion and angiogenesis.
METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of several cancer progression related genes (S100A4, TGFβ, FGF2, FGF7, PDGFA, PDGFB, VEGFA, IL-6, IL-8, uPA, MMP2, MMP9, MMP11 and TIMP1) in the human breast cancer-derived cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, before and after co-culture with CAFs. Stromal mononuclear inflammatory cell (MIC) MMP11 expression was used to stratify primary tumors. In addition, we assessed the in vitro effects of CAFs on both MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion and endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation.
RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of most of the genes tested were significantly increased in both breast cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from either MMP11+ or MMP11- MIC tumors. IL-6 and IL-8 showed an increased expression in both cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from MMP11+ MIC tumors. We also found that the invasive and angiogenic capacities of, respectively, MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells were increased after co-culture with CAFs, especially those from MMP11+ MIC tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tumor-derived CAFs can induce up-regulation of genes involved in breast cancer progression. Our data additionally indicate that CAFs, especially those derived from MMP11+ MIC tumors, can promote breast cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis.

Liu Y, Men C, Xu Y, et al.
Clusterin promotes growth and invasion of clear cell renal carcinoma cell by upregulation of S100A4 expression.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 21(4):915-923 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clusterin promotes cell proliferation, motility and invasiveness in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells but the underlying molecular mechanisms of this action are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of clusterin on cancer cell growth, invasion and S100A4 expression and to determine the effects of clusterin on in vitro cell proliferation and migration and in vivo tumour growth in RCC cells.
METHODS: We have established stable transfectants of highly invasive Caki-1 human RCC cells with expression of clusterin shRNA targeting clusterin (Caki-1/clusterin shRNA). We also established stable transfectants of 786-O human RCC cells with expression of clusterin cDNA plaismid (786-O/clusterin cDNA). Clusterin and S100A4 expression was detected by reverse transcription (RT) PCR and western blot assay; Caki-1/clusterin shRNA and 786-O/clusterin cDNA clones were subjected to in vitro-invasion assays. Cell viability and cell growth was assessed in MTT and clonogenic assay. Specific small interfering RNA was employed to down-regulate S100A4. The expression plasmid for S100A4 (pCMV-S100A4) was used to upregulate S100A4. Caki-1/clusterin shRNA clones were injected subcutaneously in nude mice to determine tumour growth and cancer cell invasiveness in vivo. Xenograft tumour tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry and frozen tissues were used for the detection of S100A4 and clusterin.
RESULTS: Overexpression of clusterin increased cell invasiveness; and targeting clusterin reduced cell invasiveness in vitro. This increase in cell invasiveness was mediated by S100A4. Targeting clusterin decreased cell proliferation and down-regulated cellular S100A4 levels in Caki-1 cells; Overexpression of clusterin increased cell proliferation and up-regulated cellular S100A4 levels in 786-O cells; Stable Caki-1/clusterin shRNA transfectants produced smaller xenograft tumours containing reduced S100A4 protein levels in vivo. Stable 786-O/clusterin cDNA transfectants produced larger xenograft tumours containing increased S100A4 protein levels in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that clusterin promotes growth and invasion in RCC cells in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of S100A4; And targeting clusterin confers growth inhibitory and anti-invasive properties in RCC cells in vitro and in vivo through a down-regulation of S100A4. These findings provide the rationale for future oncostatic strategies aimed at suppressing clusterin-mediated signal transduction pathways as a novel therapeutic approach in human RCC.

Bian Y, Guo J, Qiao L, Sun X
miR-3189-3p Mimics Enhance the Effects of S100A4 siRNA on the Inhibition of Proliferation and Migration of Gastric Cancer Cells by Targeting CFL2.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications

Melzer C, von der Ohe J, Hass R
Enhanced metastatic capacity of breast cancer cells after interaction and hybrid formation with mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC).
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fusion of breast cancer cells with tumor-associated populations of the microenvironment including mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSC) represents a rare event in cell communication whereby the metastatic capacity of those hybrid cells remains unclear.
METHODS: Functional changes were investigated in vitro and in vivo following spontaneous fusion and hybrid cell formation between primary human MSC and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Thus, lentiviral eGFP-labeled MSC and breast cancer cells labeled with mcherry resulted in dual-fluorescing hybrid cells after co-culture.
RESULTS: Double FACS sorting and single cell cloning revealed two different aneuploid male hybrid populations (MDA-hyb1 and MDA-hyb2) with different STR profiles, pronounced telomerase activities, and enhanced proliferative capacities as compared to the parental cells. Microarray-based mRNA profiling demonstrated marked regulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and increased expression of metastasis-associated genes including S100A4. In vivo studies following subcutaneous injection of the breast cancer and the two hybrid populations substantiated the in vitro findings by a significantly elevated tumor growth of the hybrid cells. Moreover, both hybrid populations developed various distant organ metastases in a much shorter period of time than the parental breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Together, these data demonstrate spontaneous development of new tumor cell populations exhibiting different parental properties after close interaction and subsequent fusion of MSC with breast cancer cells. This formation of tumor hybrids contributes to continuously increasing tumor heterogeneity and elevated metastatic capacities.

Xiao Y, Zhao Q, Du B, et al.
MicroRNA-187 Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Osteosarcoma by Downregulating S100A4.
Cancer Invest. 2018; 36(1):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal expression and dysfunction of microRNAs are correlated with osteosarcoma (OS). This study demonstrated that the miR-187 level in OS tissues and cell lines was decreased. The proliferation and metastatic abilities of U-2OS cells were inhibited by miR-187 overexpression and promoted by miR-187 knockdown. Moreover, miR-187 also inhibited growth and metastasis of OS cells in vivo. Furthermore, we revealed that miR-187 could interact with S100A4 3'-UTR and inhibit S100A4 expression in OS cells. In summary, miR-187 inhibits growth and metastasis of OS cells by downregulating S100A4, which might be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target of OS.

Liu M, Liu J, Yang B, et al.
Inversed Expression Patterns of S100A4 and E-Cadherin in Cervical Cancers: Implication in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017; 300(12):2184-2191 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer/CC is the third commonest female malignancy worldwide. The aggressive growth and distal metastases are the leading causes of CC mortality, which is largely due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition/EMT. Fibroblast specific protein S100A4 promotes cancer metastasis and epithelial type cadherin/E-cadherin play pivotal roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Therefore, the expression patterns of S100A4 and E-cadherin reflect statuses of EMT of carcinoma cells. However, S100A4 expression and its relevance with E-cadherin and HPV16 infection in cervical cancers remain unknown. This study aims to address the above issues using cervical cancer specimens. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the levels of mesenchymal marker S100A4 is upregulated (>++) in cervical adenocarcinomas/CACs (12/16; 75%) and squamous cell carcinomas/CSCCs (23/28; 82%) than that in noncancerous glandular epithelia/GE (0/12; 0%) and squamous epithelia/SE (0/12; 0%). Epithelial marker membranous E-cadherin is remarkably reduced on the surface of CAC and CSCC cells (P = 0.00; P = 0.00), especially those showing poorly differentiated phenotypes (P < 0.05) in comparison with their noncancerous counterparts. Correlative analyses revealed an inverse relationship between S100A4 and E-cadherin expression among the cervical cancer samples (P = 0.01, r = -0.38). S100A4 expression level in HPV16-infected group is higher than that in HPV16-free group (P = 0.02). These results suggest the close correlation of S100A4 upregulation with cervical cancer formation and HPV16 infection and E-cadherin reduction with the grades of CC dedifferentiation. The concurrent gain of S100A4 and loss of membrane E-cadherin suggest EMT tendency of CC cells and can be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic parameter of CC patients. Anat Rec, 300:2184-2191, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Xu Y, Wang J, Xu Y, et al.
Screening critical genes associated with malignant glioma using bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):6580-6589 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Malignant gliomas are high‑grade gliomas, which are derived from glial cells in the spine or brain. To examine the mechanisms underlying malignant gliomas in the present study, the expression profile of GSE54004, which included 12 grade II astrocytomas, 33 grade III astrocytomas and 98 grade IV astrocytomas, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Using the Limma package in R, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in grade III, vs. grade II astrocytoma, grade IV, vs. grade II astrocytoma, and grade IV, vs. grade III astrocytoma were analyzed. Venn diagram analysis and enrichment analyses were performed separately for the DEGs using VennPlex software and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks were visualized using Cytoscape software, and subsequent module analysis of the PPI networks was performed using the ClusterONE tool. Finally, glioma‑associated genes and glioma marker genes among the DEGs were identified using the CTD database. A total of 27, 1,446 and 776 DEGs were screened for the grade III, vs. grade II, grade IV, vs. grade II, and grade IV, vs. grade III astrocytoma comparison groups, respectively. Functional enrichment analyses showed that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and chitinase 3‑like 1 (CHI3L1) were enriched in the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix structural constituent, respectively. In the PPI networks, annexin A1 (ANXA1) had a higher degree and MMP9 had interactions with vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). There were 10 common glioma marker genes between the grade IV, vs. grade II and the grade IV, vs. grade III comparison groups, including MMP9, CHI3L1, VEGFA and S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4). This suggested that MMP9, CHI3L1, VEGFA, S100A4 and ANXA1 may be involved in the progression of malignant gliomas.

Hussein S, Mosaad H, Rashed HE, et al.
Molecular factors regulating E-cadherin expression in urothelial bladder cancer and their correlations with the clinicopathological features.
Mol Biol Rep. 2017; 44(4):365-377 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to assess the expression of S100A4, Twist and E-cadherin (mRNA and protein) in urothelial bladder cancer, investigate the correlation between them and evaluate their association with the clinicopathological features of the disease. The study included 54 patients diagnosed as urothelial bladder cancer of different stages and grades. The expression levels of S100A4, Twist and E-cadherin (mRNA and protein) in tissue samples were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expression of S100A4 and Twist was significantly upregulated while E- cadherin was significantly downregulated in urothelial bladder cancer tissues compared to the adjacent surrounding normal bladder tissues at both mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.001). Expression levels of S100A4 and Twist were significantly higher in recurrent tumor than in non-recurrent tumors (p < 0.001) while the expression level of E-cadherin was significantly lower in recurrent tumors than in non-recurrent tumors at both mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between S100A4 and Twist expressions (r = 0.875, p < 0.001) while significant negative correlations were found between E- cadherin and S100A4 expressions(r=- 0.803, p < 0.001) and between E-cadherin and Twist (r = -0.809, p < 0.001). Up-regulation of S100A4 and Twist and down-regulation of E-cadherin in urothelial bladder cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues were observed. There was a significant negative correlation between S100A4 and E- cadherin and between E- cadherin and Twist expression. However, there was a significant positive correlation between S100A4 and Twist expressions. Furthermore, the alterations in the gene expression were associated with disease stage and grade.

Chow KH, Park HJ, George J, et al.
S100A4 Is a Biomarker and Regulator of Glioma Stem Cells That Is Critical for Mesenchymal Transition in Glioblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(19):5360-5373 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Glioma stem cells (GSC) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are strongly associated with therapy resistance and tumor recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we show that S100A4 is a novel biomarker of GSCs. S100A4

Guo J, Bian Y, Wang Y, et al.
FAM107B is regulated by S100A4 and mediates the effect of S100A4 on the proliferation and migration of MGC803 gastric cancer cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(10):1103-1109 [PubMed] Related Publications
FAM107B expression was decreased in stomach cancer and many other kinds of cancer. The forced expression of FAM107B in HeLa cells diminished proliferation in response to growth factors, suggesting that FAM107B might play important roles in many types of cancers. But the mechanisms underlying the decreased expression of FAM107B in cancers are not clear, the functional significance needs to be further clarified. Our previous findings from cDNA microarray showed that there are 179 differentially expressed genes after S100A4 inhibition in gastric cancer cells MGC803. FAM107B was an upregulated one among them. In the present study, we confirmed that FAM107B expression was upregulated in MGC803 cells after S100A4 inhibition by qRT-PCR. We demonstrated for the first time that FAM107B was downregulated by S100A4. The results from CCK-8 and transwell assay showed that FAM107B inhibition by siRNA led to significantly increased proliferation and migrating abilities of MGC803 cells, respectively, indicating that FAM107B plays important roles in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of MGC803 cells. The rescue experiment showed that FAM107B-siRNA transfection reversed the reduced proliferation and migration abilities induced by S100A4 inhibition in the cells. These findings suggest that, as a downstream effector, FAM107B at least partly mediates the effect of S100A4 on the proliferation and migration of MGC803 cells. In conclusion, we first provide experimental evidence suggesting that FAM107B was downregulated by S100A4 in gastric cancer MGC803 cells. And FAM107B at least partially mediates the biological effect of S100A4 in the cells.

Shibata N, Nagai K, Morita Y, et al.
Development of Protein Degradation Inducers of Androgen Receptor by Conjugation of Androgen Receptor Ligands and Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Ligands.
J Med Chem. 2018; 61(2):543-575 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted protein degradation using small molecules is a novel strategy for drug development. We have developed hybrid molecules named specific and nongenetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent protein erasers (SNIPERs) that recruit IAP ubiquitin ligases to degrade target proteins. Here, we show novel SNIPERs capable of inducing proteasomal degradation of the androgen receptor (AR). Through derivatization of the SNIPER(AR) molecule at the AR ligand and IAP ligand and linker, we developed 42a (SNIPER(AR)-51), which shows effective protein knockdown activity against AR. Consistent with the degradation of the AR protein, 42a inhibits AR-mediated gene expression and proliferation of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. In addition, 42a efficiently induces caspase activation and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which was not observed in the cells treated with AR antagonists. These results suggest that SNIPER(AR)s could be leads for an anticancer drug against prostate cancers that exhibit AR-dependent proliferation.

He X, Deng Y, Yue W
Investigating critical genes and gene interaction networks that mediate cyclophosphamide sensitivity in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(1):523-532 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Drug resistance is an obstacle in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and is a common reason for treatment failure or disease progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of cyclophosphamide resistance remain poorly defined. In the present study, microarray data concerning cyclophosphamide‑sensitive and ‑resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines were analyzed. A total of 258 differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between these two groups, from which 139 DEGs were upregulated and 119 were downregulated. Several candidate genes that were associated with cyclophosphamide resistance were also identified. These DEGs were subsequently classified using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment pathway analysis. A total of 487 biological processes and 17 KEGG pathways were revealed to be enriched. Furthermore, an interaction network was established to identify the core genes that regulated cyclophosphamide resistance. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A), FYN proto‑oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase and spleen associated tyrosine kinase were revealed to be the hub genes in multiple enriched biological processes and signaling pathways, indicating that these were involved in mediating cyclophosphamide sensitivity in CML cells. The expression levels of 5 DEGs were also confirmed in two human CML cell lines (K‑562 and KU812) by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, selective knockdown of STAT5A and S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) recovered cyclophosphamide sensitivity in K‑562 cells, suggesting their involvement in drug resistance. The present study identified several potential genes and pathways contributing to cyclophosphamide resistance, and confirmed the involvement of STAT5A and S100A4 in drug resistance. These results enable improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying drug resistance in CML cells.

Wang Y
The inhibition of microRNA-15a suppresses hepatitis B virus-associated liver cancer cell growth through the Smad/TGF-β pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3520-3526 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, the role of microRNA‑15a (miR‑15a) was investigated in hepatitis B virus (HBV)‑associated liver cancer. The results revealed that the expression levels of miR-15a were increased in HBV-associated liver cancer tissues compared with the levels in normal tumor‑adjacent tissues. Moreover, Smad-7 protein expression in patients with HBV-associated liver cancer was higher than that in normal tumor-adjacent tissues. In addition, miR-15a expression and Smad-7 protein expression were increased in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells compared with that noted in L-02 normal hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, miR-15a inhibition suppressed cell proliferation and increased Smad-7 protein expression. The inhibition of miR-15a was also demonstrated to decrease transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 protein expression and Smad-2, p-Smad-2 and Smad-4 expression levels in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, FSP1 protein expression and caspase-3/-7 activities were enhanced by miR-15a inhibition in HepG2 cells compared with the control group. Treatment with recombinant TGF-β1 was demonstrated to activate Smad‑2/-4 and FSP1 protein expression and increase caspase-3/-7 activity in HepG2 cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the miR-15a/Smad-7/TGF-β pathway is important in HBV-associated liver cancer.

Romanova EA, Dukhanina EA, Sharapova TN, et al.
Lymphocytes incubated in the presence of IL-2 lose the capacity for chemotaxis but acquire antitumor activity.
Dokl Biol Sci. 2017; 472(1):31-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Naïve non-activated lymphocytes are capable of releasing the chemoattractant complex Tag7-Mts1 and can migrate along the gradient of its concentration. After activation of these cells by IL-2, they acquire the abilities to kill tumor cells and to release the cytotoxic Tag7-Hsp70 complex, which is accompanied by a loss of both the Tag7-Mts1-mediated lymphocyte chemotaxis and the ability to release this chemoattractant into the conditioned medium.

Further References

Bjørnland K, Winberg JO, Odegaard OT, et al.
S100A4 involvement in metastasis: deregulation of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases in osteosarcoma cells transfected with an anti-S100A4 ribozyme.
Cancer Res. 1999; 59(18):4702-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological function of the metastasis-associated gene S100A4 is not fully understood, although there is evidence indicating interactions between the gene product and the cytoskeleton. We have examined whether an association could exist between S100A4 and the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs). For these studies, three clones of a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line (OHS) transfected with a hammerhead ribozyme directed against the S100A4 gene transcript were used. The clones demonstrated different expression levels of S100A4 and also different metastatic capacity. In the clone with the most prominent down-regulation of S100A4, the mRNA levels of MMP2, membrane type (MT) 1-MMP, and TIMP-1 were significantly reduced in exponentially growing cultures. Western blots, gelatin zymography, and ELISA showed similar expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs at the protein level. In the clones with an intermediate expression of S100A4, reduced expression of MT1-MMP and TIMP-1 was detected, whereas the expression of MMP-2 was at the same level as in the control cells. In contrast to the other factors, TIMP-2 was up-regulated in all of the clones independent of the extent of ribozyme-induced down-regulation of S100A4. The transwell chamber assay demonstrated that the capacity of the ribozyme-transfected cells to cross uncoated filters was reduced, relative to control cells, according to the reduction in the S100A4 expression level. The clone with the lowest reduction in S100A4 did not demonstrate different motility compared with control cells, whereas transfectants with only 5% S100A4 mRNA showed a 50% reduction in motility. Interestingly, this trend was even more striking when the capacity to cross Matrigel-coated filters was analyzed, as all the clones demonstrated between 40 and 75% reduced invasion. It is concluded that S100A4 may exert its effect on metastasis formation not only by stimulating the motility of tumor cells but also by affecting their invasive properties through influencing the expression of MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors.

Takenaga K, Nakanishi H, Wada K, et al.
Increased expression of S100A4, a metastasis-associated gene, in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 1997; 3(12 Pt 1):2309-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The S100A4 gene (also known as pEL98/mts1/p9Ka/18A2/42A/calvasculin /FSP1/CAPL) encoding an S100-related calcium-binding protein is implied to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of murine tumor cells. In the present study, the expression of S100A4 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (SW837, LoVo, DLD-1, HT-29, SW480, SW620, WiDr, and Colo201) and surgically resected neoplastic tissues was examined to investigate whether S100A4 plays a role in the invasion and metastasis of human tumor cells. Northern blot analysis using total RNA isolated from the adenocarcinoma cell lines revealed that five of the eight cell lines expressed substantial amounts of S100A4 mRNA. Normal colon fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) expressed little of the RNA. Using surgically resected specimens, it seemed that the amount of S100A4 mRNA in adenomas was nearly equal to that in normal colonic mucosa, whereas adenocarcinomas expressed a significantly higher amount of the RNA than did the adjacent normal colonic mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens and monoclonal anti-S100A4 antibody demonstrated that none of 12 adenoma specimens were immunopositive, whereas 8 of 18 (44%) focal carcinomas in carcinoma in adenoma specimens and 50 of 53 (94%) adenocarcinoma specimens were immunopositive. Interestingly, the incidence of immunopositive cells increased according to the depth of invasion, and nearly all of the carcinoma cells in 14 metastases in the liver were positive. These results suggest that S100A4 may be involved in the progression and the metastatic process of human colorectal neoplastic cells.

Nakamura N, Takenaga K
Hypomethylation of the metastasis-associated S100A4 gene correlates with gene activation in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 1998; 16(5):471-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DNA methylation status of the metastasis-associated S100A4 gene in S100A4-positive and -negative human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines was examined. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed that HT-29, SW480, SW620, WiDr and Colo201 cells expressed S100A4, whereas SW837, LoVo and DLD-1 cells expressed little S100A4. Using CpG methylation-sensitive and -insensitive restriction enzymes and PCR-based methylation assay, it was found that the S100A4 gene in HT-29, SW480, SW620, WiDr and Colo201 cells, but not in SW837, LoVo and DLD-1 cells, was hypomethylated and that the hypomethylation of the second intron was correlated well with the expression of S100A4. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of the eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase, induced the expression of the S100A4 gene in SW837, LoVo and DLD-1 cells, while it showed no effect on the expression of the gene in WiDr cells. These results indicate that hypomethylation of the S100A4 gene results in the expression of the gene in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Takenaga K
Suppression of metastasis-associated S100A4 gene expression by gamma-interferon in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Br J Cancer. 1999; 80(1-2):127-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
S100A4 belongs to the S100 subfamily of calcium-binding proteins and has been suggested to be directly involved in invasion and metastasis of rodent and human tumour cells. The present study demonstrates that interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), but not IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, down-regulates the S100A4 mRNA level in colon adenocarcinoma WiDr cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. The effect was not associated with any cytotoxicity and was specific for the S100A4 mRNA, since the levels of the S100A6 and GAPDH mRNAs were not significantly affected by the treatment. IFN-gamma also strongly suppressed the S100A4 mRNA expression in HT-29 cells, but weakly in Colo201 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the level of the IFN-gamma receptor expression in Colo201 cells was lower than that in WiDr and HT-29 cells, suggesting that the suppression of the S100A4 expression by IFN-gamma depends on the amount of cell surface IFN-gamma receptor protein. IFN-gamma had no effect on the transcription rate of the S100A4 gene but reduced the stability of the S100A4 mRNA. WiDr cells treated with IFN-gamma showed reduced motile ability, further supporting the assumption that the S100A4 gene product is involved in controlling cell motility.

Albertazzi E, Cajone F, Leone BE, et al.
Expression of metastasis-associated genes h-mts1 (S100A4) and nm23 in carcinoma of breast is related to disease progression.
DNA Cell Biol. 1998; 17(4):335-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The murine 18A2/mts1 and its human homolog h-mts1 (S100A4), encoding a Ca2+-binding protein belonging to the S-100 family, are associated with high invasive and metastatic potentials of murine tumors, human tumor cell lines in vitro, and human tumors growing as xenografts. The nm23 is a putative metastasis-suppressor gene whose expression has been found to correlate inversely with the metastatic potential of some forms of human cancer. The products of both human genes alter cytoskeletal dynamics, with antagonistic effects. In view of the equivocal association of nm23 with the metastatic potential of human cancer, we suspected that the relative expression of h-mts1 and nm23 might reflect tumor progression more accurately than either of them alone. We describe here the expression of these genes in infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast and show that high h-mts1 expression is associated with metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes. The expression of nm23 on its own did not show a statistically significant inverse correlation with nodal spread. However, the expression status of the two genes, taken together, correlated strongly with the occurrence of nodal metastases. Breast cancers with no detectable expression of h-mts1 were found to be estrogen and progesterone receptor positive. Expression of h-mts1 was not related to tumor differentiation. The clinical data, together with the state of expression of steroid receptors and the expression levels of h-mts1 and nm23 genes, were analyzed using artificial neural networks for accuracy in predicting nodal spread of the carcinomas. These analyses support the conclusion that, overall, h-mts1 expression appears to be associated with and indicative of more aggressive disease. Complemented with nm23, h-mts1 could provide a powerful marker of breast cancer prognosis.

Albertazzi E, Cajone F, Sherbet GV
Characterization of a splice variant of metastasis-associated h-mts1 (S100A4) gene expressed in human infiltrating carcinomas of the breast.
DNA Cell Biol. 1998; 17(12):1003-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The h-mts1 (S100A4) is a member of the S100 gene family, coding for a calcium-binding protein. It is a metastasis-associated gene whose expression shows strong correlation with the proliferative potential and invasive and metastatic ability of cancers. In a proportion of human intraductal carcinomas of the breast, a shorter variant h-mts1 transcript (h-mts1v) of approximately 450 nucleotides is expressed. We have characterized the transcript using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction employing exon-specific oligonucleotides. We show here that the noncoding exon 1a/1b is lost in the variant cDNA. Exons 2 and 3, which code for the protein, seem to be present in the variant isoform. The RT-PCR products obtained using exons 2- and 3-specific oligonucleotides showed a high degree of sequence homology with exons 2 and 3 of the h-mts1 gene. The expression of the variant transcript could be influencing disease progression, albeit not as effectively as the normal unspliced h-mts1 transcript.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. S100A4, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/S100A4.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999