MALAT1

Gene Summary

Gene:MALAT1; metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (non-protein coding)
Aliases: HCN, NEAT2, PRO2853, mascRNA, LINC00047, NCRNA00047
Location:11q13.1
Summary:This gene produces a precursor transcript from which a long non-coding RNA is derived by RNase P cleavage of a tRNA-like small ncRNA (known as mascRNA) from its 3' end. The resultant mature transcript lacks a canonical poly(A) tail but is instead stabilized by a 3' triple helical structure. This transcript is retained in the nucleus where it is thought to form molecular scaffolds for ribonucleoprotein complexes. It may act as a transcriptional regulator for numerous genes, including some genes involved in cancer metastasis and cell migration, and it is involved in cell cycle regulation. Its upregulation in multiple cancerous tissues has been associated with the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 18 March, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 18 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 18 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MALAT1 (cancer-related)

Yang MH, Hu ZY, Xu C, et al.
MALAT1 promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation/migration/invasion via PRKA kinase anchor protein 9.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015; 1852(1):166-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that the 3' end of metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation and migration/invasion in vitro. The role and mechanism of MALAT1 in CRC metastasis in vivo, however, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that MALAT1 was up-regulated in human primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of MALAT1 via RNA activation promoted CRC cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro, and stimulated tumor growth and metastasis in mice in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of MALAT1 inhibited CRC tumor growth and metastasis. MALAT1 regulated at least 243 genes in CRC cells in a genome-wide expression profiling. Among these genes, PRKA kinase anchor protein 9 (AKAP-9) was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels. AKAP-9 was highly expressed in CRC cells with metastatic potential and human primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastasis, but not in normal cells or tissues. Importantly, knockdown of AKAP-9 blocked MALAT1-mediated CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These data indicate that MALAT1 may promote CRC tumor development via its target protein AKAP-9.

Li B, Chen P, Qu J, et al.
Activation of LTBP3 gene by a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 transcript in mesenchymal stem cells from multiple myeloma.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(42):29365-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2015 Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulatory molecules in tumor suppressor and oncogenic pathways. However, the magnitude of the contribution of lncRNA expression to normal human tissues and cancers has not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. Here we explored the biology of the lncRNA MALAT1 and considered the potential significance in mesenchymal stem cells from myeloma patients. By using assays such as RNA interference, luciferase, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA immunoprecipitation, we showed that in mesenchymal stem cells MALAT1 promoted the activation effect of the key transcription factor Sp1 on LTBP3 promoter by modulating recruitment of Sp1 to the LTBP3 gene that regulated the bioavailability of TGF-β in particular. Our data suggested that lncRNA MALAT1 directly interacted with Sp1 and LTBP3 promoter to increase expression of LTBP3 gene. The specificity and efficiency of activation were ensured by the formation of a stable complex between MALAT1 and the LTBP3 promoter, direct interaction of MALAT1 with Sp1, and recruitment of Sp1 to the promoter. In this study, we showed that the mechanism of transcriptional activation of LTBP3 promoter depended on MALAT1 initiated from neighboring gene LTBP3 and involved both the direct interaction of the Sp1 and promoter-specific activation. Our knowledge of the role of MALAT1 in cellular transformation is pointing toward its potential use as a biomarker and a target for novel therapeutic approaches in multiple myeloma.

Zhao Y, Yang Y, Trovik J, et al.
A novel wnt regulatory axis in endometrioid endometrial cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):5103-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Protocadherin 10 (PCDH10) is inactivated often by promoter hypermethylation in various human tumors, but its possible functional role as a tumor suppressor gene is not established. In this study, we identify PCDH10 as a novel Wnt pathway regulatory element in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). PCDH10 was downregulated in EEC tumor cells by aberrant methylation of its promoter. Restoring PCDH10 levels suppressed cell growth and triggered apoptosis in EEC cells and tumor xenografts. Gene expression profiling revealed as part of the transcriptomic changes induced by PCDH10 a reduction in levels of MALAT1, a long noncoding RNA, that mediated tumor suppression functions of PCDH10 in EEC cells. We found that MALAT1 transcription was regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling via TCF promoter binding and PCDH10 decreased MALAT1 by modulating this pathway. Clinically, MALAT1 expression was associated with multiple parameters in patients with EEC. Taken together, our findings establish a novel PCDH10-Wnt/β-catenin-MALAT1 regulatory axis that contributes to EEC development. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5103-17. ©2014 AACR.

Ji Q, Zhang L, Liu X, et al.
Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes tumour growth and metastasis in colorectal cancer through binding to SFPQ and releasing oncogene PTBP2 from SFPQ/PTBP2 complex.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(4):736-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis associated with lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1) is a functional long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which is highly expressed in several tumours, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Its biological function and mechanism in the prognosis of human CRC is still largely under investigation.
METHODS: This study aimed to investigate the new effect mechanism of MALAT1 on the proliferation and migration of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo, and detect the expression of MALAT1, SFPQ (also known as PSF (PTB-associated splicing factor)), and PTBP2 (also known as PTB (polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein)) in CRC tumour tissues, followed by correlated analysis with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: We found that overexpression of MALAT1 could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and promote tumour growth and metastasis in nude mice. The underlying mechanism was associated with tumour suppressor gene SFPQ and proto-oncogene PTBP2. In CRC, MALAT1 could bind to SFPQ, thus releasing PTBP2 from the SFPQ/PTBP2 complex. In turn, the increased SFPQ-detached PTBP2 promoted cell proliferation and migration. SFPQ critically mediated the regulatory effects of MALAT1. Moreover, in CRC tissues, MALAT1 and PTBP2 were overexpressed, both of which were associated closely with the invasion and metastasis of CRC. However, the SFPQ showed unchanged expression either in CRC tissues or adjacent normal tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implied that MALAT1 might be a potential predictor for tumour metastasis and prognosis. Furthermore, the interaction between MALAT1 and SFPQ could be a novel therapeutic target for CRC.

Zhou S, Wang J, Zhang Z
An emerging understanding of long noncoding RNAs in kidney cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(12):1989-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in the genome and are emerging as new players in tumorigenesis.
METHODS: An electronic search of all relevant publications in peer-reviewed journals before April 2014 was performed on PubMed, Google scholar databases. The keywords of long-coding RNAs, lncRNAs, kidney tumor, renal cancers were used for searching.
RESULTS: The lncRNA biology was introduced into cancer biology from contemporary research, and the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs was highlighted at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. The kidney cancer-associated onco-lncRNAs (e.g., KCQN1OT1, MALAT-1 and HOTAIT) and tumor suppressive lncRNAs (e.g., H19, GAS5 and MEG3) were summarized and their possible regulatory network was depicted in a comprehensive diagram.
CONCLUSION: LncRNAs are deregulated in various cancers including kidney cancer, demonstrating both oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles, thus suggesting their aberrant expression may be a substantial contributor in cancer development. LncRNAs could serve as potential diagnostics biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets.

Liu JH, Chen G, Dang YW, et al.
Expression and prognostic significance of lncRNA MALAT1 in pancreatic cancer tissues.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(7):2971-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently observed in various human cancers. However, the role of lncRNAs in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclarified. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in PDAC formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues and to investigate the clinical significance of the MALAT1 level.
METHODS: The expression of MALAT1 was examined in 45 PDAC and 25 adjacent non-cancerous FFPE tissues, as well as in five PDAC cell lines and a normal pancreatic epithelium cell line HPDE6c-7, using qRT-PCR. The relationship between MALAT1 level and clinicopathological parameters of PDAC was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: The relative level of MALAT1 was significantly higher in PDAC compared to the adjacent normal pancreatic tissues (p=0.009). When comparing the MALAT1 level in the cultured cell lines, remarkably higher expression of MALAT1 was found in aspc-1 PDAC cells compared with the immortal pancreatic duct epithelial cell line HPDE6c-7 (q=7.573, p<0.05). Furthermore, MALAT1 expression level showed significant correlation with tumor size (r=0.35, p=0.018), tumor stage (r=0.439, p=0.003) and depth of invasion (r=0.334, p=0.025). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher MALAT1 expression had a poorer disease free survival (p=0.043). Additionally, multivariate analysis indicated that overexpression of MALAT1, as well as the tumor location and nerve invasion, was an independent predictor of disease-specific survival of PDAC.
CONCLUSION: MALAT1 might be considered as a potential prognostic indicator and may be a target for diagnosis and gene therapy for PDAC.

Li G, Zhang H, Wan X, et al.
Long noncoding RNA plays a key role in metastasis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:780521 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been attracting immense research interests. However, only a handful of lncRNAs had been thoroughly characterized. They were involved in fundamental cellular processes including regulation of gene expression at epigenetics as well as tumorogenesis. In this paper, we give a systematic and comprehensive review of existing literature about lncRNA involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma. This review exhibited that lncRNAs played important roles in tumorigenesis and subsequent prognosis and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma and elucidated the role of some specific lncRNAs such as MALAT1 and HOTAIR in the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma and their potential of being therapeutic targets.

Tee AE, Ling D, Nelson C, et al.
The histone demethylase JMJD1A induces cell migration and invasion by up-regulating the expression of the long noncoding RNA MALAT1.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(7):1793-804 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
Patients with neuroblastoma due to N-Myc oncogene amplification have a high frequency of tumor metastasis. However, it is not clear how N-Myc induces cell migration, invasion and metastasis. The histone demethylase JMJD1A activates gene transcription by demethylating the lysine 9 residue of histone H3 (H3K9) at target gene promoters. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 induces lung cancer cell migration and plays a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Here we demonstrated that N-Myc up-regulated the expression of JMJD1A in N-Myc oncogene-amplified human neuroblastoma cells by directly binding to the JMJD1A gene promoter. Affymetrix microarray studies revealed that the gene second most significantly up-regulated by JMJD1A was MALAT1. Consistent with this finding, RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that JMJD1A bound to the MALAT1 gene promoter and demethylated histone H3K9 at the MALAT1 gene promoter. Moreover, JMJD1A and MALAT1 induced, while the small molecule JMJD1A inhibitor DMOG suppressed, neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion. Taken together, our data identify a novel pathway through which N-Myc causes neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion, and provide important evidence for further development of more potent JMJD1A/MALAT1 inhibitors for the prevention of tumor metastasis.

Wu XS, Wang XA, Wu WG, et al.
MALAT1 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of gallbladder cancer cells by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(6):806-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is associated with metastasis and is an independent prognostic factor for lung cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that MALAT1 plays an important role in other malignancies. However, little is known about the role of MALAT1 in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), which is the most common cancer of the biliary tract and has an extremely poor prognosis. In this study, we focused on the expression, biological functions and mechanism of MALAT1 in GBC and found that MALAT1 was significantly upregulated in GBC tissues compared with corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Knockdown of MALAT1 in GBC cell lines using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference significantly inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of the GBC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ERK/MAPK pathway was found to be inactivated in the GBC cell lines after MALAT1 knockdown. These results indicated that MALAT1 might serve as an oncogenic lncRNA that promotes proliferation and metastasis of GBC and activates the ERK/MAPK pathway.

Zhao Z, Chen C, Liu Y, Wu C
17β-Estradiol treatment inhibits breast cell proliferation, migration and invasion by decreasing MALAT-1 RNA level.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(2):388-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer cells, which express estrogen receptor α (ERα), respond to estrogen in a concentration dependent fashion, resulting in proliferation or apoptosis. But breast cancer cells without ERα show no effect on low concentration of estrogen treatment. Proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF10a, MCF7 and MB231 cells treated with low (1 nM) or high (100 nM) dose of 17β-Estradiol (E2) was performed. We identified the effects of E2 on these breast cell lines, and looked for the difference in the presence and absence of ERα. Specifically, we looked for the changes of long non-coding RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1), which is found extensively and highly expressed in several kinds of tumor cells, including breast carcinoma. It was observed that proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cells were greatly affected by high concentration E2 treatment and were not affected by low concentration E2 treatment in an ERα independent way. We found that the high concentration E2 treatment largely decreased MALAT-1 RNA level. Interestingly, MALAT-1 decreasing by knocking down showed similar effects on proliferation, migration and invasion. E2 treatment affects breast tumor or non-tumor cells proliferation, migration and invasion in an ERα -independent, but a dose-dependent way by decreasing the MALAT-1 RNA level.

Wang J, Wang H, Zhang Y, et al.
Mutual inhibition between YAP and SRSF1 maintains long non-coding RNA, Malat1-induced tumourigenesis in liver cancer.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(5):1048-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging studies have revealed that Malat1 is overexpressed in many malignant diseases, including liver cancer, and contributes to enhancing cell migration or facilitating proliferation. However, the mechanism underlying its regulation has largely remained elusive. Here, we characterised the oncoprotein Yes-associated protein (YAP), which up-regulated metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, whereas serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) played an opposing role. SRSF1 inhibited YAP activity by preventing its co-occupation with TCF/β-catenin on the Malat1 promoter. In contrast, overexpression of YAP impaired the nuclear retention of both SRSF1 and itself via an interaction with Angiomotin (AMOT). This effect removed the inhibitory role of SRSF1 on Malat1 in the nucleus. Furthermore, higher expression of YAP was consistent with a lower SRSF1 nuclear accumulation in human liver cancer tissues. We also revealed that overexpression of YAP combined with a knockdown of SRSF1 resulted in conspicuously enhanced transwell cell mobility, accelerated tumour growth rate, and loss of body weight in a tail vein-injected mouse models. Taken together, these data provided a novel mechanism underlying the balance between SRSF1, YAP and Malat1 and uncovered a new role of YAP in regulating long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). Thus, disrupting the interaction between YAP and SRSF1 may serve as a crucial therapeutic method in liver cancer.

Fan Y, Shen B, Tan M, et al.
TGF-β-induced upregulation of malat1 promotes bladder cancer metastasis by associating with suz12.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(6):1531-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: TGF-β promotes tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms causing this are not entirely clear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been shown to play important regulatory roles in cancer progression. The lncRNA malat1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) is a critical regulator of the metastasis phenotype of lung cancer cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We, therefore, investigated whether TGF-β regulates malat1 expression to promote tumor metastasis of bladder cancer. The expression levels of malat1 and EMT markers were assayed in specimens of bladder cancer. The role of malat1 in regulating bladder cancer metastasis was evaluated in cell and animal models.
RESULTS: TGF-β induces malat1 expression and EMT in bladder cancer cells. malat1 overexpression is significantly correlated with poor survival in patients with bladder cancer. malat1 and E-cadherin expression is negatively correlated in vitro and in vivo. malat1 knockdown inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT. malat1 is associated with suppressor of zeste 12 (suz12), and this association results in decrease of E-cadherin expression and increase of N-cadherin and fibronectin expression. Furthermore, targeted inhibition of malat1 or suz12 suppresses the migratory and invasive properties induced by TGF-β. Finally, we demonstrated that malat1 or suz12 knockdown inhibits tumor metastasis in animal models.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that malat1 is an important mediator of TGF-β-induced EMT, and suggest that malat1 inhibition may represent a promising therapeutic option for suppressing bladder cancer progression.

Kuo IY, Wu CC, Chang JM, et al.
Low SOX17 expression is a prognostic factor and drives transcriptional dysregulation and esophageal cancer progression.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(3):563-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional network of the SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17 (SOX17) and the prognostic impact of SOX17 protein expression in human cancers remain largely unclear. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic effect of low SOX17 protein expression and its dysregulation of transcriptional network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Low SOX17 protein expression was found in 47.4% (73 of 154) of ESCC patients with predicted poor prognosis. Re-expression of SOX17 in ESCC cells caused reduced foci formation, cell motility, decreased ESCC xenograft growth and metastasis in animals. Knockdown of SOX17 increased foci formation in ESCC and normal esophageal cells. Notably, 489 significantly differential genes involved in cell growth and motility controls were identified by expression array upon SOX17 overexpression and 47 genes contained putative SRY element in their promoters. Using quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR and promoter activity assays, we confirmed that MACC1, MALAT1, NBN, NFAT5, CSNK1A1, FN1 and SERBP1 genes were suppressed by SOX17 via the SRY binding-mediated transcriptional regulation. Overexpression of FN1 and MACC1 abolished SOX17-mediated migration and invasion suppression. The inverse correlation between SOX17 and FN1 protein expression in ESCC clinical samples further strengthened our conclusion that FN1 is a transcriptional repression target gene of SOX17. This study provides compelling clinical evidence that low SOX17 protein expression is a prognostic biomarker and novel cell and animal data of SOX17-mediated suppression of ESCC metastasis. We establish the first transcriptional network and identify new suppressive downstream genes of SOX17 which can be potential therapeutic targets for ESCC.

Han Y, Liu Y, Zhang H, et al.
Hsa-miR-125b suppresses bladder cancer development by down-regulating oncogene SIRT7 and oncogenic long non-coding RNA MALAT1.
FEBS Lett. 2013; 587(23):3875-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs mainly inhibit coding genes and long non-coding RNA expression. Here, we report that hsa-miR-125b and oncogene SIRT7/oncogenic long non-coding RNA MALAT1 were inversely expressed in bladder cancer. Hsa-miR-125b mimic down-regulated, whereas hsa-miR-125b inhibitor up-regulated the expression of SIRT7 and MALAT1. Binding sites were confirmed between hsa-miR-125b and SIRT7/MALAT1. Up-regulation of hsa-miR-125b or down-regulation of SIRT7 inhibited proliferation, motility and increased apoptosis. The effects of up-regulation of hsa-miR-125b were similar to that of silencing MALAT1 in bladder cancer as we had previously described. These data suggest that hsa-miR-125b suppresses bladder cancer development via inhibiting SIRT7 and MALAT1.

Jiang YJ, Bikle DD
LncRNA profiling reveals new mechanism for VDR protection against skin cancer formation.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 144 Pt A:87-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence strongly suggests a protective role of vitamin D signaling against chemical and UVR-induced skin cancer formation. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. Recently, the emerging role of long, non-coding RNA (lncRNA) as a hallmark of cancer has become better appreciated. LncRNAs are mRNA-like transcripts ranging in length from 200 bases to 100kb lacking significant open reading frames, which are involved in a broad spectrum of tumorigenic/metastatic processes. In this study we profiled 90 well-annotated mouse lncRNAs from cultured mouse keratinocytes after deleting the vitamin D receptor (VDR) (∼90%) vs. control cells using an lncRNA array analysis. We found that several well-known oncogenes, including H19, HOTTIP and Nespas, are significantly increased (6.3-1.8-fold), whereas tumor suppressors (Kcnq1ot1, lincRNA-p21) are decreased (up to 50-70%) in VDR deleted keratinocytes. A similar pattern of lncRNA profiling is observed in the epidermis of K14 driven, tamoxifen-regulated epidermal-specific VDR null vs. wild-type control mice. Additionally there is an increase in the expression levels of other oncogenes (mHOTAIR, Malat1 and SRA) and a decrease of other tumor suppressors (Foxn2-as, Gtl2-as, H19-as). The increased expression levels of HOTTIP and H19 were further confirmed by real-time PCR analysis with individually designed primer sets. The major finding of this study is a novel mechanism for protection by VDR against skin cancer formation by maintaining the balance of oncogenic to tumor suppressing lncRNAs. In keratinocytes lacking VDR this balance is disturbed with increased expression of oncogenes and decreased expression of tumor suppressors, a mechanism that predisposes the VDR deficient mice to skin cancer formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Vitamin D Workshop".

Ji Q, Liu X, Fu X, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells via MALAT1 mediated Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78700 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Resveratrol, extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Polygonum cuspidatum, is known to inhibit invasion and metastasis of human colorectal cancer (CRC), in which long non-coding Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (RNA-MALAT1) also plays an important role. Using MALAT1 lentiviral shRNA and over-expression constructs in CRC derived cell lines, LoVo and HCT116, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on CRC are through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thus the expression of its target genes such as c-Myc, MMP-7, as well as the expression of MALAT1. In detail, resveratrol down-regulates MALAT1, resulting in decreased nuclear localization of β-catenin thus attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which leads to the inhibition of CRC invasion and metastasis. This finding of ours surely provides important pre-clinical evidence supporting future use of resveratrol in prevention and treatment of CRC.

He Y, Meng XM, Huang C, et al.
Long noncoding RNAs: Novel insights into hepatocelluar carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 344(1):20-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in non-protein coding part of human genome analysis have discovered extensive transcription of large RNA transcripts that lack of coding protein function, termed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). It is becoming evident that lncRNAs may be an important class of pervasive genes involved in carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in diverse diseases are not yet fully understood. Thus, it is anticipated that more efforts should be made to clarify the lncRNAs world. Moreover, accumulating studies have demonstrated that a class of lncRNAs are dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and closely related with tumorigenesis, metastasis, prognosis or diagnosis. In this review, we will briefly discuss the regulation and functional role of lncRNAs in HCC, therefore evaluating the potential of lncRNAs as prospective novel therapeutic targets in HCC.

Mathews J, Duncavage EJ, Pfeifer JD
Characterization of translocations in mesenchymal hamartoma and undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2013; 95(3):319-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver (MHL) is an uncommon benign primary liver tumor that typically occurs in the pediatric population, although cases have been described in adults. MHL is sometimes associated with the highly malignant undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), and the synchronous or metachronous occurrence of MHL and UES suggests they share a common genetic link. Although the exact mechanism of tumorigenesis has not been identified, MHL cases harbor recurring chromosomal rearrangements involving 19q13.
DESIGN: In order to provide more details on the genetic events of MHL tumorigenesis, capture-based next generation sequencing (NGS) targeted to loci recently shown to be involved in a translocation in a case of UES arising in MHL (specifically, the MALAT1 gene on chromosome 11 and a gene poor region termed MHLB1 on chromosome 19) was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue from seven cases of MHL.
RESULTS: Chromosome rearrangements involving the MHLB1 locus were identified in three of the seven cases, including the translocation t(11,19)(q13.1;q13.42) involving the MALAT1 gene; the translocation t(2,19)(q31.1;q13.42) involving AK023515, an uncharacterized noncoding gene; and the inversion inv(19,19)(q13.42;q13.43) involving the PEG3 gene encoding a Kruppel-type zinc-finger protein. Rearrangements were exclusively identified in pediatric tumors. In each case, the presence of the rearrangement was confirmed by PCR and interphase FISH. Interphase FISH also demonstrated that the arrangements occur within the spindle cell component but not within the epithelial components of the tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Since the MHLB1 locus contains a CpG-rich region whose methylation regulates C19MC miRNA genes, rearrangements that disrupt this region may contribute to MHL development through alteration of miRNA expression. The demonstration that the loose stromal cells harbor the rearrangements indicates that (some cases of) MHL are a neoplastic process due to a somatic genetic change and not a germline abnormality.

Akbari Moqadam F, Lange-Turenhout EA, Ariës IM, et al.
MiR-125b, miR-100 and miR-99a co-regulate vincristine resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2013; 37(10):1315-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b), miR-99a and miR-100 are overexpressed in vincristine-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Cellular viability of ETV6-RUNX1-positive Reh cells significantly increased in presence of 9 ng/mL vincristine upon co-expression of miR-125b/miR-99a (91 ± 4%), miR-125b/miR-100 (93 ± 5%) or miR-125b/miR-99a/miR-100 (82 ± 17%) compared with miR-125b-transduced cells (38 ± 13%, P<0.05). Co-expression of these miRNAs resulted in downregulation of DNTT, NUCKS1, MALAT1, SNRPE, PNO1, SET, KIF5B, PRPS2, RPS11, RPL38 and RPL23A (fold-change 1.3-1.9, p<0.05). Similarly, 7 out of these genes are lower expressed in vincristine-resistant ALL cells of children (p<0.05). The concerted function of miR-125b in combination with miR-99a and/or miR-100 illustrates the complexity of vincristine-resistant pediatric ALL.

Shi X, Sun M, Liu H, et al.
Long non-coding RNAs: a new frontier in the study of human diseases.
Cancer Lett. 2013; 339(2):159-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
With the development of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have received increased attention. Multiple studies indicate that lncRNAs act not only as the intermediary between DNA and protein but also as important protagonists of cellular functions. LncRNAs can regulate gene expression in many ways, including chromosome remodeling, transcription and post-transcriptional processing. Moreover, the dysregulation of lncRNAs has increasingly been linked to many human diseases, especially in cancers. Here, we reviewed the rapidly advancing field of lncRNAs and described the relationship between the dysregulation of lncRNAs and human diseases, highlighting the specific roles of lncRNAs in human diseases.

Li CH, Chen Y
Targeting long non-coding RNAs in cancers: progress and prospects.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(8):1895-910 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pervasive transcription occurs in the human genome to generate thousands of RNA transcripts, and accumulating evidence suggested that the RNA molecules, without protein coding ability, have important roles in diverse biological functions. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), with size larger than 200 nt, is a new class of the non-coding RNA that contributes to cancer development and progression. Roles for several lncRNAs in cancers have been characterized and strategies targeting them have inhibitory effects to malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings point to the potential of lncRNAs as prospective novel therapeutic targets in cancers. Recent advance in biological drugs, led by nucleic acid drugs (i.e. siRNAs, antisense oligonucleotides), suggest directions for the development of cancer therapies targeting lncRNAs. Here, we discuss the characteristics of lncRNAs regarding their synthesis, stability and functional role in cells, and emphasize their unique properties that determine their molecular functions. We then discuss the association of lncRNAs with cancers, and illustrate the anticancer effects induced upon modulating the level and function of lncRNAs. We also revisit established methods for targeting RNA molecules and discuss new agents and strategies to attenuate lncRNAs in cancer.

Ren S, Wang F, Shen J, et al.
Long non-coding RNA metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 derived miniRNA as a novel plasma-based biomarker for diagnosing prostate cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(13):2949-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Examining plasma RNA is an emerging non-invasive diagnosis technique. However, whether tumour-derived long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in plasma can be used as a novel approach to detect human prostate cancer (PCa) has not yet been established. The study was divided into three parts: (1) the characteristics of PCa-related lncRNA fragments were systematically studied in the plasma or serum of 25 patients; (2) the source of the circulating lncRNA fragments was explored in vitro and in vivo; and (3) the diagnostic performance of metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) derived (MD) miniRNA was validated in an independent cohort of 192 patients. The expression levels of lncRNAs were measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MD-miniRNA copies were calculated using a standard curve in an area under the ROC curve (AUC)-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Genome-wide profiling revealed that MALAT-1 and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) are overexpressed in PCa tissues. Plasma lncRNAs probably exist in the form of fragments in a stable form. MD-miniRNA enters cell culture medium at measurable levels, and MD-miniRNA derived from human PCa xenografts actually enters the circulation in vivo and can be measured to distinguish xenografted mice from controls. In addition, plasma MD-miniRNA levels are significantly elevated in PCa patients compared to non-PCa patients (p<0.001). At a cut-off of 867.8 MD-miniRNA copies per microlitre of plasma, the sensitivity is 58.6%, 58.6% and 43.5% and the specificity is 84.8%, 84.8% and 81.6% for discriminating PCa from non-PCa, positive biopsy from negative biopsy and positive biopsy from negative biopsy, respectively. We conclude that MD-miniRNA can be used as a novel plasma-based biomarker for PCa detection and can improve diagnostic accuracy by predicting prostate biopsy outcomes. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Eißmann M, Schwamb B, Melzer IM, et al.
A functional yeast survival screen of tumor-derived cDNA libraries designed to identify anti-apoptotic mammalian oncogenes.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64873 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Yeast cells can be killed upon expression of pro-apoptotic mammalian proteins. We have established a functional yeast survival screen that was used to isolate novel human anti-apoptotic genes overexpressed in treatment-resistant tumors. The screening of three different cDNA libraries prepared from metastatic melanoma, glioblastomas and leukemic blasts allowed for the identification of many yeast cell death-repressing cDNAs, including 28% of genes that are already known to inhibit apoptosis, 35% of genes upregulated in at least one tumor entity and 16% of genes described as both anti-apoptotic in function and upregulated in tumors. These results confirm the great potential of this screening tool to identify novel anti-apoptotic and tumor-relevant molecules. Three of the isolated candidate genes were further analyzed regarding their anti-apoptotic function in cell culture and their potential as a therapeutic target for molecular therapy. PAICS, an enzyme required for de novo purine biosynthesis, the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 and the MAST2 kinase are overexpressed in certain tumor entities and capable of suppressing apoptosis in human cells. Using a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model, we also demonstrated that glioblastoma tumor growth requires MAST2 expression. An additional advantage of the yeast survival screen is its universal applicability. By using various inducible pro-apoptotic killer proteins and screening the appropriate cDNA library prepared from normal or pathologic tissue of interest, the survival screen can be used to identify apoptosis inhibitors in many different systems.

Valdiglesias V, Fernández-Tajes J, Méndez J, et al.
The marine toxin okadaic acid induces alterations in the expression level of cancer-related genes in human neuronal cells.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013; 92:303-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most common and highly distributed marine toxins. It can be accumulated in several molluscs and other marine organisms and cause acute gastrointestinal symptoms after oral consumption by humans, called diarrheic shellfish poisoning. However other toxic effects beyond these gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported. Thus, OA was found to induce important chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic injuries that can lead to severe pathologies, including cancer. Furthermore, the relationship between OA and carcinogenic processes has been previously demonstrated in in vivo studies with rodents, and also suggested in human epidemiological studies. In this context, further research is required to better understand the underlying mechanisms of OA-related tumourigenesis. In a previous study, we identified 247 genes differentially expressed in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to 100nM OA at different times (3, 24 and 48h) by means of suppression subtractive hybridization. These genes were involved in relevant cell functions such as signal transduction, cell cycle, metabolism, and transcription and translation processes. However, due to the high potential percentage of false positives that may be obtained by this approach, results from SSH are recommended to be analyzed by an independent method. In the present study, we selected ten genes related to cancer initiation or progression, directly or indirectly, for further quantitative PCR analysis (ANAPC13, PTTG1, CALM2, CLU, HN1, MALAT1, MAPRE2, MLLT11, SGA-81M and TAX1BP1). Results obtained showed important alterations in the expression patterns of all the genes evaluated at one or more treatment times, providing, for the first time, a possible explanation at the molecular level of the potential relationship between the consumption of OA-contaminated shellfish and the incidence of different cancers in humans. Nevertheless, given the complexity of this process, more exhaustive studies are required before drawing any final conclusion.

Tripathi V, Shen Z, Chakraborty A, et al.
Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 controls cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of oncogenic transcription factor B-MYB.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(3):e1003368 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
The long noncoding MALAT1 RNA is upregulated in cancer tissues and its elevated expression is associated with hyper-proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We demonstrate that MALAT1 levels are regulated during normal cell cycle progression. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses in normal human diploid fibroblasts reveal that MALAT1 modulates the expression of cell cycle genes and is required for G1/S and mitotic progression. Depletion of MALAT1 leads to activation of p53 and its target genes. The cell cycle defects observed in MALAT1-depleted cells are sensitive to p53 levels, indicating that p53 is a major downstream mediator of MALAT1 activity. Furthermore, MALAT1-depleted cells display reduced expression of B-MYB (Mybl2), an oncogenic transcription factor involved in G2/M progression, due to altered binding of splicing factors on B-MYB pre-mRNA and aberrant alternative splicing. In human cells, MALAT1 promotes cellular proliferation by modulating the expression and/or pre-mRNA processing of cell cycle-regulated transcription factors. These findings provide mechanistic insights on the role of MALAT1 in regulating cellular proliferation.

Gutschner T, Hämmerle M, Diederichs S
MALAT1 -- a paradigm for long noncoding RNA function in cancer.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2013; 91(7):791-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a bona fide long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). MALAT1, also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), was discovered as a prognostic marker for lung cancer metastasis but also has been linked to several other human tumor entities. Recent work established a critical regulatory function of this lncRNA in lung cancer metastasis and cell migration. Moreover, MALAT1 is an interesting target for antimetastatic therapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Two alternative modes of action have been proposed for MALAT1: regulation of gene expression or alternative splicing. Although the exact mechanism of action in different physiological and pathological conditions still needs to be elucidated, MALAT1 acts as a regulator of gene expression. Although MALAT1 is highly evolutionary conserved in mammals and plays an important role in cancer and metastasis, MALAT1 is not essential for development in a knockout mouse model under normal physiological conditions. Hence, one central question for the future is finding the right stressor and the pathological or environmental condition which requires MALAT1 expression in vivo and entailing its strong evolutionary conservation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about this important lncRNA. We introduce its discovery, biogenesis, and regulation and describe its known functions, mechanisms of action, and interaction partners.

Gutschner T, Hämmerle M, Eissmann M, et al.
The noncoding RNA MALAT1 is a critical regulator of the metastasis phenotype of lung cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(3):1180-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), also known as MALAT-1 or NEAT2 (nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 2), is a highly conserved nuclear noncoding RNA (ncRNA) and a predictive marker for metastasis development in lung cancer. To uncover its functional importance, we developed a MALAT1 knockout model in human lung tumor cells by genomically integrating RNA destabilizing elements using zinc finger nucleases. The achieved 1,000-fold MALAT1 silencing provides a unique loss-of-function model. Proposed mechanisms of action include regulation of splicing or gene expression. In lung cancer, MALAT1 does not alter alternative splicing but actively regulates gene expression including a set of metastasis-associated genes. Consequently, MALAT1-deficient cells are impaired in migration and form fewer tumor nodules in a mouse xenograft. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) blocking MALAT1 prevent metastasis formation after tumor implantation. Thus, targeting MALAT1 with ASOs provides a potential therapeutic approach to prevent lung cancer metastasis with this ncRNA serving as both predictive marker and therapeutic target. Finally, regulating gene expression, but not alternative splicing, is the critical function of MALAT1 in lung cancer metastasis. In summary, 10 years after the discovery of the lncRNA MALAT1 as a biomarker for lung cancer metastasis, our loss-of-function model unravels the active function of MALAT1 as a regulator of gene expression governing hallmarks of lung cancer metastasis.

Han Y, Liu Y, Nie L, et al.
Inducing cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and motility reduction by silencing long noncoding ribonucleic acid metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Urology. 2013; 81(1):209.e1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression patterns of long noncoding ribonucleic acid (RNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and the cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and motility changes induced by silencing MALAT1 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of MALAT1 were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cancerous tissues and paired normal tissues in a total of 36 patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Expression differences were analyzed according to the grade and stage. Bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with MALAT1 small interfering RNA or negative control small interfering RNA. The cell proliferation changes of the transfected bladder urothelial carcinoma cells were determined using the MTT assay. Apoptosis caused by silencing MALAT1 was evaluated using the flow cytometry assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The motility changes induced by silencing MALAT1 were measured using the wound healing assay.
RESULTS: MALAT1 was upregulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared with matched normal urothelium (P=.008). The MALAT1 expression levels were greater in high-grade carcinomas than in low-grade carcinoma (P=.001). The MALAT1 expression levels were greater in invasive carcinoma than in noninvasive carcinoma (P=.018). Cell proliferation inhibition, increased apoptosis, and decreased motility were observed in MALAT1 small interfering RNA-transfected bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells.
CONCLUSION: MALAT1 plays an oncogenic role in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Silencing MALAT1 is a potential novel therapeutic approach for this cancer.

Argani P, Yonescu R, Morsberger L, et al.
Molecular confirmation of t(6;11)(p21;q12) renal cell carcinoma in archival paraffin-embedded material using a break-apart TFEB FISH assay expands its clinicopathologic spectrum.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2012; 36(10):1516-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
A subset of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) is characterized by t(6;11)(p21;q12), which results in fusion of the untranslated Alpha (MALAT1) gene to the TFEB gene. Only 21 genetically confirmed cases of t(6;11) RCCs have been reported. This neoplasm typically demonstrates a distinctive biphasic morphology, comprising larger epithelioid cells and smaller cells clustered around basement membrane material; however, the full spectrum of its morphologic appearances is not known. The t(6;11) RCCs differ from most conventional RCCs in that they consistently express melanocytic immunohistochemical (IHC) markers such as HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cathepsin K but are often negative for epithelial markers such as cytokeratins. TFEB IHC has been proven to be useful to confirm the diagnosis of t(6;11) RCCs in archival material, because native TFEB is upregulated through promoter substitution by the gene fusion. However, IHC is highly fixation dependent and has been proven to be particularly difficult for TFEB. A validated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for molecular confirmation of the t(6;11) RCC in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material has not been previously reported. We report herein the development of a break-apart TFEB FISH assay for the diagnosis of t(6;11)(p21;q12) RCCs. We validated the assay on 4 genetically confirmed cases and 76 relevant expected negative control cases and used the assay to report 8 new cases that expand the clinicopathologic spectrum of t(6;11) RCCs. An additional previously reported TFEB IHC-positive case was confirmed by TFEB FISH in 46-year-old archival material. In conclusion, TFEB FISH is a robust, clinically validated assay that can confirm the diagnosis of t(6;11) RCC in archival material and should allow a more comprehensive clinicopathologic delineation of this recently recognized neoplastic entity.

Eißmann M, Gutschner T, Hämmerle M, et al.
Loss of the abundant nuclear non-coding RNA MALAT1 is compatible with life and development.
RNA Biol. 2012; 9(8):1076-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1, MALAT1, is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been discovered as a marker for lung cancer metastasis. It is highly abundant, its expression is strongly regulated in many tumor entities including lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as physiological processes, and it is associated with many RNA binding proteins and highly conserved throughout evolution. The nuclear transcript MALAT-1 has been functionally associated with gene regulation and alternative splicing and its regulation has been shown to impact proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion.   Here, we have developed a human and a mouse knockout system to study the loss-of-function phenotypes of this important ncRNA. In human tumor cells, MALAT1 expression was abrogated using Zinc Finger Nucleases. Unexpectedly, the quantitative loss of MALAT1 did neither affect proliferation nor cell cycle progression nor nuclear architecture in human lung or liver cancer cells. Moreover, genetic loss of Malat1 in a knockout mouse model did not give rise to any obvious phenotype or histological abnormalities in Malat1-null compared with wild-type animals. Thus, loss of the abundant nuclear long ncRNA MALAT1 is compatible with cell viability and normal development.

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