EZH2

Gene Summary

Gene:EZH2; enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit
Aliases: WVS, ENX1, EZH1, KMT6, WVS2, ENX-1, EZH2b, KMT6A
Location:7q35-q36
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the Polycomb-group (PcG) family. PcG family members form multimeric protein complexes, which are involved in maintaining the transcriptional repressive state of genes over successive cell generations. This protein associates with the embryonic ectoderm development protein, the VAV1 oncoprotein, and the X-linked nuclear protein. This protein may play a role in the hematopoietic and central nervous systems. Multiple alternatively splcied transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EZH2 (cancer-related)

Datar I, Tegegne H, Qin K, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic control of RKIP transcription.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2014; 19(6):417-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is known to modulate key signaling cascades and regulate normal physiological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The expression of RKIP is found to be downregulated in several cancer metastases and the repressed RKIP expression can be reactivated on treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. RKIP is a proven tumor metastasis suppressor gene and investigating the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of RKIP is therefore of immense clinical importance. In this review, we discuss the basal expression of RKIP in various tissues and the genetic aspects of the RKIP chromosomal locus including the structure of the RKIP promoter as well as gene regulatory elements such as enhancers. We also review the genetic and epigenetic modulation of RKIP transcription through EZH2, a component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and sequence specific transcription factors (TFs) BACH1 and Snail. Emerging experimental evidence supports a unifying model in which both these TFs repress RKIP transcription in cancers by recruiting the EZH2 containing repressive complex to the proximal RKIP promoter. Finally, we review the known mechanisms employed by different types of chemotherapeutic agents to activate RKIP expression in cancer cells.

Bockhorn J, Prat A, Chang YF, et al.
Differentiation and loss of malignant character of spontaneous pulmonary metastases in patient-derived breast cancer models.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7406-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
Patient-derived human-in-mouse xenograft models of breast cancer (PDX models) that exhibit spontaneous lung metastases offer a potentially powerful model of cancer metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the malignant character of lung micrometastases that emerge in such models after orthotopic implantation of human breast tumor cells into the mouse mammary fat pad. Interestingly, relative to the parental primary breast tumors, the lung metastasis (met)-derived mammary tumors exhibited a slower growth rate and a reduced metastatic potential with a more differentiated epithelial status. Epigenetic correlates were determined by gene array analyses. Lung met-derived tumors displayed differential expression of negative regulators of cell proliferation and metabolism and positive regulators of mammary epithelial differentiation. Clinically, this signature correlated with breast tumor subtypes. We identified hsa-miR-138 (miR-138) as a novel regulator of invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells, acting by directly targeting the polycomb epigenetic regulator EZH2. Mechanistic investigations showed that GATA3 transcriptionally controlled miR-138 levels in lung metastases. Notably, the miR-138 activity signature served as a novel independent prognostic marker for patient survival beyond traditional pathologic variables, intrinsic subtypes, or a proliferation gene signature. Our results highlight the loss of malignant character in some lung micrometastatic lesions and the epigenetic regulation of this phenotype.

Gebauer N, Hardel TT, Gebauer J, et al.
Activating mutations affecting the NF-kappa B pathway and EZH2-mediated epigenetic regulation are rare events in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5503-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a distinct subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) frequently observed in young patients. High-dose immunochemotherapy constitutes the current therapeutic gold-standard, despite significant toxicity and serious late effects. Several hotspots harboring oncogenic gain-of-function mutations were recently shown to pose vital hallmarks in activated B-cell like (ABC-) (CD79B, CARD11 and MYD88) and germinal center like (GCB-) DLBCL (EZH2), respectively. Several promising targeted-therapy approaches, derived from these findings, are currently under development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We thoroughly characterized a cohort of 25 untreated patients with de novo PMBL by immunohistochemical and cytogenetic means and assessed the prevalence of activating mutations affecting EZH2, CD79B and CARD11 utilizing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based capillary sequencing approach. Moreover, the MYD88 p. L265P status was assessed by employing a pyrosequencing approach.
RESULTS: PMBLs included in this study did not harbor any of the reported hotspot mutations activating the nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B signaling cascade or the EZH2-mediated epigenetic deregulation of gene expression. Immunohistochemical characterization revealed an ABC phenotype in 44% (n=11) of cases.
CONCLUSION: We report that genetic alterations of these genes are rare events in PMBL unlike other subtypes of DLBCL. Our findings suggest that a substantial subset of PMBL patients may benefit from treatment approaches targeting BCR-mediated activation of NF-kappa B.

Neo WH, Lim JF, Grumont R, et al.
c-Rel regulates Ezh2 expression in activated lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(46):31693-707 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
The polycomb group protein Ezh2 is a histone methyltransferase that modifies chromatin structure to alter gene expression during embryonic development, lymphocyte activation, and tumorigenesis. The mechanism by which Ezh2 expression is regulated is not well defined. In the current study, we report that c-Rel is a critical activator of Ezh2 transcription in lymphoid cells. In activated primary murine B and T cells, plus human leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines, recruitment of c-Rel to the first intron of the Ezh2 locus promoted Ezh2 mRNA expression. This up-regulation was abolished in activated c-Rel-deficient lymphocytes and by c-Rel knockdown in Jurkat T cells. Treatment of malignant cells with the c-Rel inhibitor pentoxifylline not only reduced c-Rel nuclear translocation and Ezh2 expression, but also enhanced their sensitivity to the Ezh2-specific drug, GSK126 through increased growth inhibition and cell death. In summary, our demonstration that c-Rel regulates Ezh2 expression in lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cells reveals a novel transcriptional network in transformed lymphoid cells expressing high levels of Ezh2 that provides a molecular justification for combinatorial drug therapy.

Zhang Y, Tong T
FOXA1 antagonizes EZH2-mediated CDKN2A repression in carcinogenesis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 453(1):172-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CDKN2A (p16(INK4a)) is a crucial tumor suppressor involved in many cancers. Our recent investigations revealed that FOXA1 as a forkhead transcription factor mediates CDKN2A activation in cellular senescence. However, the contribution of this axis in carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, using a comprehensive collection of cancer microarray data, we found FOXA1 is down-regulated in many cancers compared to their normal counterparts and the positive correlation between FOXA1 and CDKN2A could be observed in prostate and breast cancers with lower EZH2 (epigenetic repressor for CDKN2A) expression. Experimentally, epistasis analysis in prostate and breast cancer cells indicated that higher expression of FOXA1 opposes EZH2-mediated CDKN2A repression, as further depletion of FOXA1 reverts the de-silencing of CDKN2A caused by EZH2 inhibition. Concomitantly, EZH2-depletion suppresses cancer cell cycle progression and this regulation is optimized in the presence of FOXA1 and CDKN2A. A further oncogenic transformation assay suggested that overexpression of EZH2 is insufficient to block RAS-induced CDKN2A activation and loss of FOXA1 is mandatory to potentiate EZH2-mediated CDKN2A silencing and to bypass the senescence barrier. Importantly, using an in vitro histone methyltransferase (HMTase) system, we found FOXA1 directly inhibits EZH2's histone methyltransferase activity through its C-terminal histone binding motif. These data support that positive regulation of CDKN2A by FOXA1 counteracts its tumorigenic repression of by EZH2 in cancers.

Oktyabri D, Tange S, Terashima M, et al.
EED regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells induced by TGF-β.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 453(1):124-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone methylation is involved in various biological and pathological processes including cancer development. In this study, we found that EED, a component of Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) that catalyzes methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27), was involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells induced by Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β). The expression of EED was increased during TGF-β-induced EMT and knockdown of EED inhibited TGF-β-induced morphological conversion of the cells associated with EMT. EED knockdown antagonized TGF-β-dependent expression changes of EMT-related genes such as CDH1, ZEB1, ZEB2 and microRNA-200 (miR-200) family. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that EED was implicated in TGF-β-induced transcriptional repression of CDH1 and miR-200 family genes through the regulation of histone H3 methylation and EZH2 occupancies on their regulatory regions. Our study demonstrated a novel role of EED, which regulates PRC2 activity and histone methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT of cancer cells.

Gjerstorff MF, Relster MM, Greve KB, et al.
SSX2 is a novel DNA-binding protein that antagonizes polycomb group body formation and gene repression.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(18):11433-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycomb group (PcG) complexes regulate cellular identity through epigenetic programming of chromatin. Here, we show that SSX2, a germline-specific protein ectopically expressed in melanoma and other types of human cancers, is a chromatin-associated protein that antagonizes BMI1 and EZH2 PcG body formation and derepresses PcG target genes. SSX2 further negatively regulates the level of the PcG-associated histone mark H3K27me3 in melanoma cells, and there is a clear inverse correlation between SSX2/3 expression and H3K27me3 in spermatogenesis. However, SSX2 does not affect the overall composition and stability of PcG complexes, and there is no direct concordance between SSX2 and BMI1/H3K27me3 presence at regulated genes. This suggests that SSX2 antagonizes PcG function through an indirect mechanism, such as modulation of chromatin structure. SSX2 binds double-stranded DNA in a sequence non-specific manner in agreement with the observed widespread association with chromatin. Our results implicate SSX2 in regulation of chromatin structure and function.

Milanovich S, Peterson J, Allred J, et al.
Sall4 overexpression blocks murine hematopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(1):53-64.e1-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is a transcription factor that exists in two splice isoforms, SALL4a and SALL4b, and regulates transcription in embryonic stem cells, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia. Constitutive overexpression of SALL4 in mice induces acute myeloid leukemia. Interestingly, a potential benefit of using SALL4 to facilitate ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell expansion has been proposed. However, distinct roles for how SALL4 contributes to normal versus malignant processes remain undefined. Here we show that SALL4b is the predominant isoform in murine hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Overexpression of either SALL4 isoform in hematopoietic stem cells or progenitors impairs hematopoietic colony formation and expansion in vitro. Lineage-negative bone marrow overexpressing SALL4b fails to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis when transplanted. We found that both SALL4a and SALL4b overexpression impair hematopoiesis, in part through dose-dependent repression of BMI1. Additionally, we have identified the following potential novel SALL4 target genes in hematopoiesis: ARID5B (SALL4a and SALL4b), EZH2, and KLF2 (SALL4a). Lastly, we found that SALL4 expression is variable in acute myeloid leukemia, ranging from no expression to levels comparable to embryonic stem cells. These results show that SALL4 isoforms contribute to only a subset of acute myeloid leukemia and that overexpression of SALL4 isoforms impairs hematopoiesis through repression of BMI1. Together these data demonstrate the sensitivity of hematopoiesis to appropriately balanced SALL4 expression, highlighting the importance of regulating this dynamic in potential therapeutic applications such as ex vivo stem cell expansion.

Ning G, Bijron JG, Yamamoto Y, et al.
The PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(4):478-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are γ-H2AX(p) - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover, both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2(n) ). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs, and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynaecological tract and adult Fallopian tube were Krt7(p) /PAX2(n) /EZH2(p) and underwent ciliated (PAX2(n) /EZH2(n) /FOXJ1(p) ) and basal (Krt7(n) /EZH2(n) /Krt5(p) ) differentiation. Similarly, non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2(p) but became PAX2(n) in multi-layered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2(n) SCOUTs fell into two groups: type 1 were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a 'tubal' phenotype and were ALDH1(n) and β-catenin(mem) (membraneous only). Type 2 displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2(p) , ALDH1(p) , β-catenin(nc) (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathmin(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and RUNX2(p) expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the type 1 immunophenotype of PAX2(n) , ALDH1(n) , β-catenin(mem) , but highly expressed EZH2(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and stathmin(p) . This study, for the first time, links PAX2(n) with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs, and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumour suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1), and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and neoplastic entities links normal progenitor cell expansion to abnormal and neoplastic outgrowth in the oviduct and exposes a common pathway that could be a target for early prevention.

Boros J, Arnoult N, Stroobant V, et al.
Polycomb repressive complex 2 and H3K27me3 cooperate with H3K9 methylation to maintain heterochromatin protein 1α at chromatin.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(19):3662-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 or 27 is crucial for heterochromatin formation. Previously considered hallmarks of, respectively, constitutive and facultative heterochromatin, recent evidence has accumulated in favor of coexistence of these two marks and their cooperation in gene silencing maintenance. H3K9me2/3 ensures anchorage at chromatin of heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a main component of heterochromatin. HP1α chromoshadow domain, involved in dimerization and interaction with partners, has additional but still unclear roles in HP1α recruitment to chromatin. Because of previously suggested links between polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which catalyzes H3K27 methylation, and HP1α, we tested whether PRC2 may regulate HP1α abundance at chromatin. We found that the EZH2 and SUZ12 subunits of PRC2 are required for HP1α stability, as knockdown of either protein led to HP1α degradation. Similar results were obtained upon overexpression of H3K27me2/3 demethylases. We further showed that binding of HP1α/β/γ to H3K9me3 peptides is greatly increased in the presence of H3K27me3, and this is dependent on PRC2. These data fit with recent proteomic studies identifying PRC2 as an indirect H3K9me3 binder in mouse tissues and suggest the existence of a cooperative mechanism of HP1α anchorage at chromatin involving H3 methylation on both K9 and K27 residues.

Shibuya R, Matsuyama A, Nakamoto M, et al.
The combination of CD99 and NKX2.2, a transcriptional target of EWSR1-FLI1, is highly specific for the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(5):599-605 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant neoplasm primarily affecting children and young adults. The diagnosis of ES is often difficult because of its broad differential diagnosis comprising a diverse group of small round cell tumors (SRCTs). Although the identification of tumor type-specific fusion genes by molecular testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of ES, such approaches are not always available in a routine pathology practice. Thus, a reliable immunohistochemical marker is required. A recent study using a limited number of tumor samples has shown that NKX2.2, a putative transcriptional target of EWSR1-FLI1, is a useful marker for the diagnosis of ES. In the present study, the immunohistochemical expression of NKX2.2 was evaluated on 46 genetically confirmed ES and 85 non-ES SRCTs, together with comparative assessment of CD99 and other molecular targets of EWSR1-FLI1, including NR0B1, E2F3, and EZH2. NKX2.2 was expressed in 37 (80 %) of the ES samples with a mostly diffuse and strong staining pattern, and 14 (16 %) of the non-ES SRCTs, including olfactory neuroblastomas, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, small cell carcinomas, and Merkel cell carcinoma, also expressed this marker. The sensitivity and specificity of the NKX2.2 expression in this cohort were 80 and 84 %, respectively. The specificity when combined with CD99 was 98 %, with exceptional expression of both markers in only two non-ES SRCTs, including one case each of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma and small cell carcinoma. NR0B1, E2F3, and EZH2 were less sensitive for specific markers for ES when applied singly or in any combination. In conclusion, the study reinforces that NKX2.2 is a useful immunohistochemical marker for ES, and that the combination of CD99 and NKX2.2 is a powerful diagnostic tool that can differentiate ES from other SRCTs.

Tao T, Liu D, Liu C, et al.
Autoregulatory feedback loop of EZH2/miR-200c/E2F3 as a driving force for prostate cancer development.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(9):858-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has recently attracted considerable attention because of its dysregulation in prostate cancer (PCa) and its important function in PCa development. To date, little is known about the underlying cellular function and regulatory networks of EZH2 in PCa. This study aims to determine whether or not the autoregulatory feedback loop of EZH2/miR-200c/E2F3 serves key functions in PCa development. Bioinformatics and integrative analytical approaches were employed to identify the relationships of EZH2 to specific cancer-related gene sets. Results indicated that the enrichment of gene sets about cell cycle progression was associated with EZH2 expression. The depletion of EZH2 in cell experiments inhibited PCa cell growth and blocked cell cycle accompanying the downregulation of E2F3 expression. Furthermore, miR-200c served as an important mediator between EZH2 and E2F3. Compared with scrambled control cells, sh-EZH2 cells showed lower H3K27me3 expression and higher miR-200c expression. Western blot and luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-200c inversely modulated E2F3 by directly targeting the binding site within 3'UTR. Moreover, decreased miR-200c expression largely abrogated the effect of sh-EZH2 on E2F3 expression and E2F3-induced cell cycle progression. EZH2 was positively regulated by E2F3 at the transcriptional level. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed a significant correlation among EZH2, miR-200c, and E2F3 expression in human PCa tissues. In conclusion, the autoregulatory feedback loop of EZH2/miR-200c/E2F3 served an important function in PCa development. Targeting this aberrantly activated feedback loop may provide a new therapeutic strategy against PCa.

Sun M, Liu XH, Lu KH, et al.
EZH2-mediated epigenetic suppression of long noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 promotes NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis by affecting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1298 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a critical role in the regulation of cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and metastasis. These lncRNAs are dysregulated in a variety of cancers and many function as tumor suppressors; however, the regulatory factors involved in silencing lncRNA transcription are poorly understood. In this study, we showed that epigenetic silencing of lncRNA SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (SPRY4-IT1) occurs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells through direct transcriptional repression mediated by the Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). SPRY4-IT1 is derived from an intron within SPRY4, and is upregulated in melanoma cells; knockdown of its expression leads to cell growth arrest, invasion inhibition, and elevated rates of apoptosis. Upon depletion of EZH2 by RNA interference, SPRY4-IT1 expression was restored, and transfection of SPRY4-IT1 into NSCLC cells resulted in a significant antitumoral effect, both in culture and in xenografted nude mice. Moreover, overexpression of SPRY4-IT1 was found to have a key role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the regulation of E-cadherin and vimentin expression. In EZH2-knockdown cells, which characteristically showed impaired cell proliferation and metastasis, the induction of SPRY4-IT1 depletion partially rescued the oncogenic phenotype, suggesting that SPRY4-IT1 repression has an important role in EZH2 oncogenesis. Of most relevance, translation of these findings into human NSCLC tissue samples demonstrated that patients with low levels of SPRY4-IT1 expression had a shorter overall survival time, suggesting that SPRY4-IT1 could be a biomarker for poor prognosis of NSCLC.

Hung SY, Lin HH, Yeh KT, Chang JG
Histone-modifying genes as biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(5):2496-507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the world's fifth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in Taiwan. Over 600,000 HCC patients die each year worldwide despite recent advances in surgical techniques and medical treatments. Epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation and histone modification control gene expressions and play important roles during tumorigenesis. This study evaluates association between histone-modifying genes and prognosis of HCC to ferret out new diagnostic markers. We collected 50 paired HCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from Taiwanese patients for survey by RT-qPCR and tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry (TMA-based IHC) staining. RT-qPCR data showed four of twenty-four genes over eightfold up-regulated in tumor tissues: e.g., histone phosphorylation gene-ARK2, methylation genes-G9a, SUV39H2, and EZH2 (n=50, all p<0.0001). Results of TMA-based IHC staining showed proteins of ARK2, EZH2, G9a, and SUV39H2 also overexpressed in tumor tissues. Staining intensity of SUV39H2 correlated with HCV infection (p=0.025). We further restricted the analysis only in tumor tissues, we found EZH2 staining intensity associated with tumor stage (p=0.016) and survival (p=0.007); SUV39H2 intensity associated with tumor stage (p=0.044). Our findings indicate overexpression of histone-modifying genes EZH2 and SUV39H2 associated with prognosis of HCC cases. EZH2 expression can serve as a novel prognostic biomarker during HCC progression among Taiwanese.

Kishimoto W, Nishikori M
Molecular pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014; 54(1):23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
t(14;18) translocation has been recognized as a genetic hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL), but it is now known that additional genetic aberrations are required for the development of FL. With recent advances in the technology for DNA analysis, recurrent gene aberrations such as TNFRSF14, EPHA7, EZH2, CREBBP, EP300, MLL2 and MEF2B have been identified. A few t(14;18)-positive B cells can be detected in healthy individuals, and these B cells are reported to have their own biological features that are closely associated with the pathogenesis of FL. On the other hand, FL is characterized by a unique microenvironment. Further understanding of the pathogenesis of FL is expected to contribute to the development of novel treatment approaches for this disease.

Takata K, Miyata-Takata T, Sato Y, Yoshino T
Pathology of follicular lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014; 54(1):3-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a heterogeneous disease, and there are many different subgroups, such as in terms of age of onset, involved organ (especially extranodal sites such as gastrointestinal tract) and genetic abnormality. Grade 3B is currently regarded as a distinct entity by molecular genetic analyses, but the independence of Grade 3A remains unclear. Variations of clinical course are known in FL. Some cases are very indolent, but others are not. The latter cases show histological transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (high-grade transformation) and an aggressive course. Histological transformation to DLBCL is reported to occur in about 30-40% of patients, at a rate of about 3% each year. However, it reaches a plateau at about 16 years, so the stratification of patients in whom transformation would or would not occur is very important for the therapeutic strategy. From genome-wide analysis by next-generation sequencing, EZH2, CREBBP and MLL2, which are histone-modifying genes, have been shown to be frequently mutated in FL and to have an important role in lymphomagenesis. IGH-BCL2 translocation and CREBBP mutations are early events, whereas MLL2 and TNFSFR14 mutations represent late events during disease evolution. In the 2008 WHO classification, three new variants: (1) pediatric follicular lymphoma, (2) primary intestinal follicular lymphoma and (3) in situ follicular lymphoma, are included. Pathologists and clinicians should consider these new developments when deciding on the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy.

Qin R, Li K, Qi X, et al.
β-Arrestin1 promotes the progression of chronic myeloid leukaemia by regulating BCR/ABL H4 acetylation.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(3):568-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: β-Arrestins are scaffold proteins that interact with various cellular signals. Although β-arrestin2 mediates the initiation and progression of myeloid leukaemia, the critical role of β-arrestin1 in the chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the essential function of β-arrestin1 in CML.
METHODS: The expressions of β-arrestin1 and BCR/ABL in CML patients, animal models and K562 cells were measured by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blotting. The effect of β-arrestin1 on CML animal models and K562 cells by colony formation, MTT and survival analysis were assessed. BCR/ABL H4 acetylation was analysed through the use of Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) -on-chip and confirmed by ChIP respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal were examined for the binding of β-arrestin1 with enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2).
RESULTS: The higher expression of β-arrestin1 is positively correlated with clinical phases of CML patients. Depletion of β-arrestin1 decelerates progression of K562 and primary cells, and increases survival of CML mice. Importantly, silenced β-arrestin1 results in the decrease of BCR/ABL H4 acetylation level in K562 cells. Further data illustrate that nuclear β-arrestin1 binds to EZH2 to mediate BCR/ABL acetylation and thus regulates cell progression in K562 cells and the survival of CML mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a novel function of β-arrestin1 binding to EZH2 to promote CML progression by regulating BCR/ABL H4 acetylation.

Dai X, North BJ, Inuzuka H
Negative regulation of DAB2IP by Akt and SCFFbw7 pathways.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3307-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Deletion of ovarian carcinoma 2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interacting protein (DAB2IP), is a tumor suppressor that serves as a scaffold protein involved in coordinately regulating cell proliferation, survival and apoptotic pathways. DAB2IP is epigenetically down-regulated in a variety of tumors through the action of the histone methyltransferase EZH2. Although DAB2IP is transcriptionally down-regulated in a variety of tumors, it remains unclear if other mechanisms contribute to functional inactivation of DAB2IP. Here we demonstrate that DAB2IP can be functionally down-regulated by two independent mechanisms. First, we identified that Akt1 can phosphorylate DAB2IP on S847, which regulates the interaction between DAB2IP and its effector molecules H-Ras and TRAF2. Second, we demonstrated that DAB2IP can be degraded in part through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by SCF(Fbw7). DAB2IP harbors two Fbw7 phosho-degron motifs, which can be regulated by the kinase, CK1δ. Our data hence indicate that in addition to epigenetic down-regulation, two additional pathways can functional inactivate DAB2IP. Given that DAB2IP has previously been identified to possess direct causal role in tumorigenesis and metastasis, our data indicate that a variety of pathways may pass through DAB2IP to govern cancer development, and therefore highlight DAB2IP agonists as potential therapeutic approaches for future anti-cancer drug development.

Tanaka M, Yamazaki Y, Kanno Y, et al.
Ewing's sarcoma precursors are highly enriched in embryonic osteochondrogenic progenitors.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(7):3061-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents, and the origin of this malignancy is not well understood. Here, we introduced a Ewing's sarcoma-associated genetic fusion of the genes encoding the RNA-binding protein EWS and the transcription factor ETS (EWS-ETS) into a fraction of cells enriched for osteochondrogenic progenitors derived from the embryonic superficial zone (eSZ) of long bones collected from late gestational murine embryos. EWS-ETS fusions efficiently induced Ewing's sarcoma-like small round cell sarcoma formation by these cells. Analysis of the eSZ revealed a fraction of a precursor cells that express growth/differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5), the transcription factor Erg, and parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh), and selection of the Pthlh-positive fraction alone further enhanced EWS-ETS-dependent tumor induction. Genes downstream of the EWS-ETS fusion protein were quite transcriptionally active in eSZ cells, especially in regions in which the chromatin structure of the ETS-responsive locus was open. Inhibition of β-catenin, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), or enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) suppressed cell growth in a murine model of Ewing's sarcoma, suggesting the utility of the current system as a preclinical model. These results indicate that eSZ cells are highly enriched in precursors to Ewing's sarcoma and provide clues to the histogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma in bone.

Carbone A, Gloghini A, Kwong YL, Younes A
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma: using pathologic and molecular biomarkers to define subgroups for novel therapy.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(8):1263-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) comprises specific subtypes, disease entities, and other not otherwise specified (NOS) lymphomas. This review will focus on DLBCL NOS because of their prevalence and their heterogeneity with respect to morphology, clinical presentation, biology, and response to treatment. Gene expression profiling of DLBCL NOS has identified molecular subgroups that correlate with prognosis and may have relevance for treatment based on signaling pathways. New technologies have revealed that the "activated B cell" subgroup is linked to activation of the nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathway, with mutations found in CD79A/B, CARD11, and MYD88, and loss of function mutations in TNFAIP3. The "germinal center B cell-like" subgroup is linked to mutational changes in EZH2 and CREBBP. Biomarkers that are related to pathways promoting tumor cell growth and survival in DLBCL have been recognized, although their predictive role requires clinical validation. Immunohistochemistry for detecting the expression of these biomarkers is a practical technique that could provide a rational for clinical trial design.

Kottakis F, Foltopoulou P, Sanidas I, et al.
NDY1/KDM2B functions as a master regulator of polycomb complexes and controls self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(14):3935-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The JmjC domain histone H3K36me2/me1 demethylase NDY1/KDM2B is overexpressed in various types of cancer. Here we show that knocking down NDY1 in a set of 10 cell lines derived from a broad range of human tumors inhibited their anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth by inducing senescence and/or apoptosis in some and by inhibiting G1 progression in all. We further show that the knockdown of NDY1 in mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines decreased the number, size, and replating efficiency of mammospheres and downregulated the stem cell markers ALDH and CD44, while upregulating CD24. Together, these findings suggest that NDY1 is required for the self-renewal of cancer stem cells and are in agreement with additional findings showing that tumor cells in which NDY1 was knocked down undergo differentiation and a higher number of them is required to induce mammary adenocarcinomas, upon orthotopic injection in animals. Mechanistically, NDY1 functions as a master regulator of a set of miRNAs that target several members of the polycomb complexes PRC1 and PRC2, and its knockdown results in the de-repression of these miRNAs and the downregulation of their polycomb targets. Consistent with these observations, NDY1/KDM2B is expressed at higher levels in basal-like triple-negative breast cancers, and its overexpression is associated with higher rates of relapse after treatment. In addition, NDY1-regulated miRNAs are downregulated in both normal and cancer mammary stem cells. Finally, in primary human breast cancer, NDY1/KDM2B expression correlates negatively with the expression of the NDY1-regulated miRNAs and positively with the expression of their PRC targets.

Zhang EB, Yin DD, Sun M, et al.
P53-regulated long non-coding RNA TUG1 affects cell proliferation in human non-small cell lung cancer, partly through epigenetically regulating HOXB7 expression.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1243 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Recently, a novel class of transcripts, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), is being identified at a rapid pace. These RNAs have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Here we report that taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), a 7.1-kb lncRNA, recruiting and binding to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is generally downregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tissues. In a cohort of 192 NSCLC patients, the lower expression of TUG1 was associated with a higher TNM stage and tumor size, as well as poorer overall survival (P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that TUG1 expression serves as an independent predictor for overall survival (P<0.001). Further experiments revealed that TUG1 expression was induced by p53, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that TUG1 was a direct transcriptional target of p53. TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the lncRNA-mediated regulation of the expression of HOX genes in tumorigenesis and development has been recently receiving increased attention. Interestingly, inhibition of TUG1 could upregulate homeobox B7 (HOXB7) expression; ChIP assays demonstrated that the promoter of HOXB7 locus was bound by EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a key component of PRC2, and was H3K27 trimethylated. This TUG1-mediated growth regulation is in part due to specific modulation of HOXB7, thus participating in AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these results suggest that p53-regulated TUG1 is a growth regulator, which acts in part through control of HOXB7. The p53/TUG1/PRC2/HOXB7 interaction might serve as targets for NSCLC diagnosis and therapy.

Sponziello M, Durante C, Boichard A, et al.
Epigenetic-related gene expression profile in medullary thyroid cancer revealed the overexpression of the histone methyltransferases EZH2 and SMYD3 in aggressive tumours.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 392(1-2):8-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic control of gene expression plays a major influence in the development and progression of many cancer types. Aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of epigenetic regulators in a large cohort of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), correlating the data with the clinical outcome and mutational status of the patients. Taqman Low Density Arrays (TLDAs) were used to analyze expression levels of several genes involved in the epigenetic control of transcription in a series of 54 MTCs. The patients cohort included 13 familial MTCs and 41 sporadic forms; 33 hosted a RET mutation and 13 a RAS somatic mutation. The expression profiling revealed in the more aggressive diseases (i.e. occurrence of metastases; persistent disease; disease-related death) a significant increase of EZH2 and SMYD3 gene expression. The increased levels of EZH2 and SMYD3 did not correlate significantly with mutational status of RET or RAS genes. Thus, the histone methyltransferases EZH2 and SMYD3 mRNA expression may represent useful prognostic biomarkers tailoring the most appropriate follow-up and timing of therapeutic approaches.

Chuang CH, Wang WJ, Li CF, et al.
The combination of the prodrugs perforin-CEBPD and perforin-granzyme B efficiently enhances the activation of caspase signaling and kills prostate cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1220 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
The survival of prostate cancer (PrCa) patients is associated with the transition to hormone-independent tumor growth and metastasis. Clinically, the dysregulation of androgen action has been associated with the formation of PrCa and the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy in PrCa. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) is a transcription factor that has been reported to act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor, depending on the extra- and intracellular environments following tumorigenesis. We found that androgen can activate CEBPD transcription by direct binding of the androgen receptor (AR) to the CEBPD promoter region. Increases of suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) attenuated the androgen-induced transcription of CEBPD. Importantly, the increases in E2F1, SUZ12 and EZH2 as well as the inactivation of CEBPD were associated with the clinicopathological variables and survival of PrCa patients. We revealed that caspase 8 (CASP8), an apoptotic initiator, is responsive to CEBPD induction. Reporter and in vivo DNA-binding assays revealed that CEBPD directly binds to and activates CASP8 reporter activity. A prodrug system was developed for therapeutic application in AR-independent or androgen-insensitive PrCa to avoid the epigenetic effects on the suppression of CEBPD expression. Our results showed that the combination of a perforin (PF)-CEBPD prodrug (which increases the level of procaspase-8) and a PF-granzyme B prodrug (which activates CASP8 and caspase 3 (CASP3)) showed an additive effect in triggering the apoptotic pathway and enhancing apoptosis in PrCa cells.

Lei Q, Shen F, Wu J, et al.
MiR-101, downregulated in retinoblastoma, functions as a tumor suppressor in human retinoblastoma cells by targeting EZH2.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):261-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in cancer development and progression, and several miRNAs have emerged as candidate components of oncogene or tumor-suppressor networks in retinoblastoma. miR-101 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in several types of human cancer. However, the specific function of miR-101 in retinoblastoma remains unclear. In the present study, we found that the expression of miR-101 in retinoblastoma tissues was much lower than that in the normal controls. In addition, downregulation of miR-101 more frequently occurred in retinoblastoma specimens with adverse clinicopathological and histopathological features. In addition, miR-101 inhibited cell viability and progression in retinoblastoma cells by promoting cell apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle. Finally, we found that miR-101 directly inhibited EZH2 expression by targeting its 3'-UTR, and EZH2 was upregulated and inversely correlated with miR-101 expression in the retinoblastoma tissues. Thus, for the first time, we provide convincing evidence that downregulation of miR-101 is associated with tumor aggressiveness in retinoblastoma and inhibits cell growth and proliferation of retinoblastoma cells by targeting EZH2. In conclusion, all the evidence supports the tumor-suppressor role of miR-101 in human retinoblastoma.

Berg T, Thoene S, Yap D, et al.
A transgenic mouse model demonstrating the oncogenic role of mutations in the polycomb-group gene EZH2 in lymphomagenesis.
Blood. 2014; 123(25):3914-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is frequently mutated in germinal center-derived diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. To further characterize these EZH2 mutations in lymphomagenesis, we generated a mouse line where EZH2(Y641F) is expressed from a lymphocyte-specific promoter. Spleen cells isolated from the transgenic mice displayed a global increase in trimethylated H3K27, but the mice did not show an increased tendency to develop lymphoma. As EZH2 mutations often coincide with other mutations in lymphoma, we combined the expression of EZH2(Y641F) by crossing these transgenic mice with Eµ-Myc transgenic mice. We observed a dramatic acceleration of lymphoma development in this combination model of Myc and EZH2(Y641F). The lymphomas show histologic features of high-grade disease with a shift toward a more mature B-cell phenotype, increased cycling and gene expression, and epigenetic changes involving important pathways in B-cell regulation and function. Furthermore, they initiate disease in secondary recipients. In summary, EZH2(Y641F) can collaborate with Myc to accelerate lymphomagenesis demonstrating a cooperative role of EZH2 mutations in oncogenesis. This murine lymphoma model provides a new tool to study global changes in the epigenome caused by this frequent mutation and a promising model system for testing novel treatments.

Maftouh M, Avan A, Funel N, et al.
A polymorphism in the promoter is associated with EZH2 expression but not with outcome in advanced pancreatic cancer patients.
Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15(5):609-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: EZH2 expression is a prognostic marker in radically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Here we investigated its role in locally advanced/metastatic patients, as well as candidate polymorphisms.
MATERIALS & METHODS: EZH2 expression and polymorphisms were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 32 laser microdissected tumors, while polymorphisms were also studied in blood samples from two additional cohorts treated with gemcitabine monotherapy (n = 93) or polychemotherapeutic regimens (n = 247).
RESULTS: EZH2 expression correlated with survival and with the rs6958683 polymorphism in the first cohort of patients, but this polymorphism was not associated with survival in our larger cohorts.
CONCLUSION: EZH2 is a prognostic factor for locally advanced/metastatic PDACs, while candidate polymorphisms cannot predict clinical outcome. Other factors involved in EZH2 regulation, such as miR-101, should be investigated in accessible samples in order to improve the clinical management of advanced PDAC.

Wang H, Li W, Guo R, et al.
An intragenic long noncoding RNA interacts epigenetically with the RUNX1 promoter and enhancer chromatin DNA in hematopoietic malignancies.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(12):2783-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
RUNX1, a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is the most commonly perturbed target of chromosomal abnormalities in hematopoietic malignancies. The t(8;21) translocation is found in 30-40% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent whole-exome sequencing also reveals mutations and deletions of RUNX1 in some solid tumors. We describe a RUNX1-intragenic long noncoding RNA RUNXOR that is transcribed as unspliced transcript from an upstream overlapping promoter. RUNXOR was upregulated in AML samples and in response to Ara-C treatment in vitro. RUNXOR utilizes its 3'-terminal fragment to directly interact with the RUNX1 promoter and enhancers and participates in the orchestration of an intrachromosomal loop. The 3' region of RUNXOR also participates in long-range interchromosomal interactions with chromatin regions that are involved in multiple RUNX1 translocations. These data suggest that RUNXOR noncoding RNA may function as a previously unidentified candidate component that is involved in chromosomal translocation in hematopoietic malignancies.

Xia H, Zhang W, Li Y, et al.
EZH2 silencing with RNA interference induces G2/M arrest in human lung cancer cells in vitro.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:348728 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Nonsmall-cell lung cancer has a high mortality rate and poor prognosis. In the present study, we silenced EZH2 and explored the consequent cell cycle changes. The expression of cell-cycle-related proteins, including p53, p21, Cdc2, and cyclin B1, was detected with western blotting, and the cell cycle distribution was determined with flow cytometry. Inhibition of EZH2 expression changed the cell cycle distribution, in particular inducing G2/M arrest. Expression of Cdc2 and cyclin B1 was significantly decreased in A549 and HTB-56 cells after EZH2-siRNA treatment. In addition, p53 expression was increased by 21% and 18%, and p21 expression was increased by 31% and 23%, in A549 and HTB-56 cells, respectively, in the presence of EZH2-siRNA. This study clearly demonstrates that modulation of EZH2 expression with siRNA affects the cell cycle and the expression levels of p53 and p21, thereby changing cyclin B1 and Cdc2 expression and inducing G2/M arrest. These results may explain the observed antitumor activity of EZH2 silencing. Such explorations of the molecular mechanism of EZH2 will help us develop novel approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nonsmall-cell lung cancer.

Wu Y, Yu J, Liu Y, et al.
Delivery of EZH2-shRNA with mPEG-PEI nanoparticles for the treatment of prostate cancer in vitro.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 33(6):1563-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising therapeutic approach for castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). For the clinical application of siRNA, it is vital to find a safe and efficient gene transfer vector. Nanotechnology can provide a crucial advantage in developing strategies for cancer management and treatment by helping to improve the safety and efficacy of new therapeutic delivery vehicles. In this study, we describe a novel nanoparticle (mPEG-PEI) as an efficient non-viral carrier and found that this copolymer displayed enhanced efficiency in the shRNA-mediated knockdown of target genes. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is often elevated in castration-resistant PCa and has been implicated in the progression of human PCa. Targeting EZH2 may have therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of metastatic, hormone-refractory PCa. mPEG-PEI binds plasmid DNA yielding nanoparticles and these complexes exhibit low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency. Taken together, mPEG-PEI may be a promising non-viral gene carrier for the delivery of EZH2 short hairpin (sh)RNA to PC3 cells for advanced PCa therapy.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. EZH2 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/EZH2.htm Accessed:

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