CXCR3

Gene Summary

Gene:CXCR3; chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3
Aliases: GPR9, MigR, CD182, CD183, Mig-R, CKR-L2, CMKAR3, IP10-R
Location:Xq13
Summary:This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with selectivity for three chemokines, termed CXCL9/Mig (monokine induced by interferon-g), CXCL10/IP10 (interferon-g-inducible 10 kDa protein) and CXCL11/I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell a-chemoattractant). Binding of chemokines to this protein induces cellular responses that are involved in leukocyte traffic, most notably integrin activation, cytoskeletal changes and chemotactic migration. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. One of the isoforms (CXCR3-B) shows high affinity binding to chemokine, CXCL4/PF4 (PMID:12782716). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 March, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Lung Cancer
  • Lymph Nodes
  • CXCR3
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • Transcription
  • Cell Movement
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • RTPCR
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chemokine CXCL9
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chemokines
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Messenger RNA
  • Disease Progression
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Th2 Cells
  • X Chromosome
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chemokine CXCL10
  • Systems Biology
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Staging
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Tumor Markers
  • Signal Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • CXCR4
Tag cloud generated 17 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCR3 (cancer-related)

Kim SY, Park C, Kim HJ, et al.
Deregulation of immune response genes in patients with Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer and outcomes.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 148(1):137-147.e9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) have a better prognosis than those with gastric cancer not associated with EBV infection (EBVnGC). This is partly because EBV infection recruits lymphocytes, which infiltrate the tumor. A high degree of tumor heterogeneity is likely to be associated with poor response. We investigated differences in gene expression patterns between EBVaGC and EBVnGC.
METHODS: We used gene expression profile analysis to compare tumor and nontumor gastric tissues from 12 patients with EBVaGC and 14 patients with EBVnGC. Findings were validated by whole transcriptome RNAseq and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. CD3(+) primary T cells were isolated from human blood samples; migration of these cells and of Jurkat cells were measured in culture with EBV-infected and uninfected gastric cancer cells.
RESULTS: Based on Pearson correlation matrix analysis, EBVaGCs had a higher degree of homogeneity than EBVnGCs. Although 4550 genes were differentially expressed between tumor and nontumor gastric tissues of patients with EBVnGC, only 186 genes were differentially expressed between tumor and nontumor gastric tissues of patients with EBVaGC (P < .001). This finding supports the concept that EBVaGCs have fewer genetic and epigenetic alterations than EBVnGCs. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II genes and genes that regulate chemokine activity were more often deregulated in EBVaGCs compared with nontumor tissues. In culture, more T cells migrated to EBV-infected gastric cancer cells than to uninfected cells; migration was blocked with a neutralizing antibody against CXCR3 (a receptor for many chemokines).
CONCLUSIONS: Fewer genes are deregulated in EBVaGC than in EBVnGC. Most changes in EBVaGCs occur in immune response genes. These changes might allow EBVaGC to recruit reactive immune cells; this might contribute to the better outcomes of these patients compared with those with EBVnGC.

Xu X, Hegazy WA, Guo L, et al.
Effective cancer vaccine platform based on attenuated salmonella and a type III secretion system.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(21):6260-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Vaccines explored for cancer therapy have been based generally on injectable vector systems used to control foreign infectious pathogens, to which the immune system evolved to respond naturally. However, these vectors may not be effective at presenting tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to the immune system in a manner that is sufficient to engender antitumor responses. We addressed this issue with a novel orally administered Salmonella-based vector that exploits a type III secretion system to deliver selected TAA in the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells in situ. A systematic comparison of candidate genes from the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) locus was conducted in the vaccine design, using model antigens and a codon-optimized form of the human TAA survivin (coSVN), an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in most human cancers. In a screen of 20 SPI2 promoter:effector combinations, a PsifB::sseJ combination exhibited maximal potency for antigen translocation into the APC cytosol, presentation to CD8 T cells, and murine immunogenicity. In the CT26 mouse model of colon carcinoma, therapeutic vaccination with a lead PsifB::sseJ-coSVN construct (p8032) produced CXCR3-dependent infiltration of tumors by CD8 T cells, reversed the CD8:Treg ratio at the tumor site, and triggered potent antitumor activity. Vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor potency were enhanced by coadministration of the natural killer T-cell ligand 7DW8-5, which heightened the production of IL12 and IFNγ. Furthermore, combined treatment with p8032 and 7DW8-5 resulted in complete tumor regression in A20 lymphoma-bearing mice, where protective memory was demonstrated. Taken together, our results demonstrate how antigen delivery using an oral Salmonella vector can provide an effective platform for the development of cancer vaccines.

Wang X, Zhang FC, Zhao HY, et al.
Human IP10-scFv and DC-induced CTL synergistically inhibit the growth of glioma in a xenograft model.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(8):7781-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant of EGFRvIII is highly expressed in glioma cells, and the EGFRvIII-specific dendritic cell (DC)-induced tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) may hold promise in cancer immunotherapy. Interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10 (IP-10) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and can recruit CXCR3(+) T cells, including CD8(+) T cells, which are important for the control of tumor growth. In this study, we assessed if the combination of IP10-EGFRvIIIscFv with DC-induced CTLs would improve the therapeutic antitumor efficacy. IP10-scFv was generated by linking the human IP-10 gene with the DNA fragment for anti-EGFRvIIIscFv with a (Gly4Ser)3 flexible linker, purified by affinity chromatography, and characterized for its anti-EGFRvIII immunoreactivity and chemotactic activity. DCs were isolated from human peripheral blood monocyte cells and pulsed with EGFRvIII-peptide, then co-cultured with autologous CD8(+) T cells. BALB/c-nu mice were inoculated with human glioma U87-EGFRvIII cells in the brain and treated intracranially with IP10-scFv and/or intravenously with DC-induced CTLs for evaluating the therapeutic effect. Treatment with both IP10-scFv and EGFRvIII peptide-pulsed, DC-induced CTL synergistically inhibited the growth of glioma and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, which was accompanied by the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and enhancement of cytotoxicity, thereby increasing the numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes (BILs) and prolonging the residence time of CTLs in the tumor.

Chaturvedi P, Gilkes DM, Takano N, Semenza GL
Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent signaling between triple-negative breast cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells promotes macrophage recruitment.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(20):E2120-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Intratumoral hypoxia induces the recruitment of stromal cells, such as macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which stimulate invasion and metastasis by breast cancer cells (BCCs). Production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) by BCCs is required for macrophage recruitment, but the mechanisms underlying CSF1 expression have not been delineated. Triple-negative breast cancers have increased expression of genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In this study, we delineate two feed-forward signaling loops between human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative BCCs and human MSCs that drive stromal cell recruitment to primary breast tumors. The first loop, in which BCCs secrete chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) that binds to C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CXCR6) on MSCs and MSCs secrete chemokine CXCL10 that binds to receptor CXCR3 on BCCs, drives recruitment of MSCs. The second loop, in which MSCs secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 that binds to C-C chemokine receptor type 5 on BCCs and BCCs secrete cytokine CSF1 that binds to the CSF1 receptor on MSCs, drives recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These two signaling loops operate independent of each other, but both are dependent on the transcriptional activity of HIFs, with hypoxia serving as a pathophysiological signal that synergizes with chemokine signals from MSCs to trigger CSF1 gene transcription in triple-negative BCCs.

Williams MT, Yousafzai Y, Cox C, et al.
Interleukin-15 enhances cellular proliferation and upregulates CNS homing molecules in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2014; 123(20):3116-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies have consistently implicated the interleukin-15 (IL-15) gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) biology, including associations with disease susceptibility, and increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. However, whether pre-B ALL blasts directly respond to IL-15 is unknown. Here, we show that most pre-B ALL primary samples and cell lines express IL-15 and components of its receptor and that primary pre-B ALL cells show increased growth in culture in response to IL-15. Investigation of mechanisms of action using IL-15-responsive SD-1 cells shows this growth advantage is maximal under low-serum conditions, mimicking those found in cerebrospinal fluid. IL-15 also upregulates PSGL-1 and CXCR3, molecules associated with CNS trafficking. Investigation of downstream signaling pathways indicates that IL-15 induces signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and to a lesser extent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation. The IL-15-mediated growth advantage is abolished by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK), PI3K, and NF-κB inhibitors but preserved in the presence of STAT5 inhibition. Together, these observations provide a mechanistic link between increased levels of IL-15 expression and leukemogenesis, high-risk disease, and CNS relapse and suggest potential therapeutic targets.

Li Z, Qu L, Zhong H, et al.
Low expression of Mig-6 is associated with poor survival outcome in NSCLC and inhibits cell apoptosis via ERK-mediated upregulation of Bcl-2.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(4):1707-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6), an immediate early response gene, is a specific negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Ablation of Mig-6 has been shown to induce tumor formation in various tissues, supporting the tumor suppressor function of Mig-6. However, little is known about the role of Mig-6 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) apoptosis, nor has the contribution of upregulated Mig-6 on biological behaviors of A549 and H157 cells previously been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exogenously transfected Mig-6 on proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of A549 and H157 cells and to identify novel underlying mechanisms of Mig-6-induced apoptosis. We used immunohistochemical staining to examine the expression of Mig-6 protein in NSCLC tissues. For evaluation of the prognostic value of Mig-6 expression to each clinicopathologic factor, Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards model were employed. Mig-6 low expression was correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. Patients with high expression of Mig-6 had a statistically significantly longer survival than those with low expression of Mig-6. Cox's regression analysis indicated that loss of Mig-6 expression was an independent, unfavorable prognostic factors. We utilized siRNA-targeting Mig-6 and Mig-6 overexpression plasmid to determine the effect of Mig-6 on lung cancer cells. Flow cytometry studies revealed Mig-6 overexpression promoted apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines. siRNA-mediated Mig-6 knockdown inhibited apoptosis of cancer cells, but this anti-apoptotic effect was abolished by inhibition of ERK. Upregulation of Mig-6 decreased the proliferation and invasive potential of transfected cells. Moreover, upregulation of Mig-6 inhibited proliferation and invasion of A549 and H157 cells. Collectively, our results showed that Mig-6 is a potential biomarker for evaluation of tumor prognosis of lung cancer. Mig-6 promotes apoptosis in lung cancer cells via the ERK pathway.

Kowalczuk O, Burzykowski T, Niklinska WE, et al.
CXCL5 as a potential novel prognostic factor in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: results of a study of expression levels of 23 genes.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4619-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
As the current staging system is imprecise for estimating prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is important to identify other methods for selecting high-risk patients after failed surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of 23 genes as putative prognostic markers in early stage NSCLC. The study was performed on 109 pairs of tumor and matched unaffected lung tissue surgical specimens taken from stage I and II NSCLC patients. We evaluated the mRNA level of 23 genes using the real-time PCR method. The difference in the expression between the tumor and normal tissue for each gene was analyzed using a general linear model. The influence of gene expression on survival was analyzed by using the proportional hazards model. Eighteen out of the 23 genes showed statistically significant differences in expression between the tumor and non-tumor tissue. For 12 genes (ITGB1, ITGB3, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCR3, CXCR4, TNF, CHKA, AGFG1, and CTC1), the expression was lower, and for six genes (ITGA5, IL8, IL6, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL12), it was higher in the tumor tissue as compared to the matched normal tissue. Expression changes were more pronounced in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas or large cell carcinomas. Of all the analyzed genes, only CXCL5 was found to statistically significantly (p = 0.04) influence both overall and disease-free survival. Among the 23 genes previously suggested to be relevant for early staged NSCLC patients' postoperative outcome, only CXCL5 showed a statistically significant prognostic effect.

Maldonado L, Teague JE, Morrow MP, et al.
Intramuscular therapeutic vaccination targeting HPV16 induces T cell responses that localize in mucosal lesions.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(221):221ra13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
About 25% of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN2/3) caused by human papillomavirus serotype 16 (HPV16) undergo complete spontaneous regression. However, to date, therapeutic vaccination strategies for HPV disease have yielded limited success when measured by their ability to induce robust peripheral blood T cell responses to vaccine antigen. We report marked immunologic changes in the target lesion microenvironment after intramuscular therapeutic vaccination targeting HPV16 E6/E7 antigens, in subjects with CIN2/3 who had modest detectable responses in circulating T lymphocytes. Histologic and molecular changes, including markedly (average threefold) increased intensity of CD8(+) T cell infiltrates in both the stromal and epithelial compartments, suggest an effector response to vaccination. Postvaccination cervical tissue immune infiltrates included organized tertiary lymphoid-like structures in the stroma subjacent to residual intraepithelial lesions and, unlike infiltrates in unvaccinated lesions, showed evidence of proliferation induced by recognition of cognate antigen. At a molecular level, these histologic changes in the stroma were characterized by increased expression of genes associated with immune activation (CXCR3) and effector function (Tbet and IFNβ), and were also associated with an immunologic signature in the overlying dysplastic epithelium. High-throughput T cell receptor sequencing of unmanipulated specimens identified clonal expansions in the tissue that were not readily detectable in peripheral blood. Together, these findings indicate that peripheral therapeutic vaccination to HPV antigens can induce a robust tissue-localized effector immune response, and that analyses of immune responses at sites of antigen are likely to be much more informative than analyses of cells that remain in the circulation.

Miyoshi H, Morishita A, Tani J, et al.
Expression profiles of 507 proteins from a biotin label-based antibody array in human colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1277-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular-targeted therapy is one of the most promising therapies for patients with advanced-stage colorectal cancer (CRC). However, a wide range of proteins have unknown expression levels in CRC. The purpose of the present study was to determine the expression levels of various proteins related to colorectal carcinogenesis and cancer development. We examined the expression levels of 507 target proteins using a biotin label-based antibody array in 6 human CRC tissues. We also analyzed the clinicopathological features of CRC patients. In CRC tissues, IL-1α, GRO, Glut5, MIG, ICAM-5, VE-cadherin, uPA and Leptin R were increased when compared to levels in normal colon tissues. MPIF-1/CCL23, FGF R5, MIP2, SAA and IL-18 Rβ were strongly upregulated in rectal cancer when compared to the levels in non-rectal cancer. These data suggest that differential protein expression profiles exist under different conditions, including carcinogenesis and CRC localization. Therefore, an exhaustive analysis of protein expression levels using a biotin label-based antibody protein array is a potentially useful tool for identifying novel individual therapies for CRC patients.

Böttcher A, Ostwald J, Koczan D, et al.
Gene expression profiling of circulating natural killer cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2013 Sep-Oct; 10(5):197-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are a major player of the innate immune system. Besides known risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), impaired immune surveillance may as well lead to tumor manifestation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, microarrays technologies were employed in order to perform gene expression profiling of NK cells in HNSCC patients. Differentially expressed genes have been detected in a comparative setting consisting of non-treated HNSCC patients, treated recurrence-free HNSCC patients and healthy control subjects.
RESULTS: Cytokine receptors such as CCR7, IL-7R, and CXCR3 were down-regulated in non-treated HNSCC patients compared to healthy subjects, indicating impaired immune surveillance. In treated patients, up-regulated genes such as receptors for Fc fragments of specific antibodies, or ficolin-1 can be withheld as an immunological response to tumor manifestation.
CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into gene expression changes in NK cells of HNSCC dependent upon clinical status and introduces several candidate genes suitable for further investigation.

Bedognetti D, Spivey TL, Zhao Y, et al.
CXCR3/CCR5 pathways in metastatic melanoma patients treated with adoptive therapy and interleukin-2.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(9):2412-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adoptive therapy with tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) induces durable complete responses (CR) in ∼20% of patients with metastatic melanoma. The recruitment of T cells through CXCR3/CCR5 chemokine ligands is critical for immune-mediated rejection. We postulated that polymorphisms and/or expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and the expression of their ligands in tumour influence the migration of TILs to tumours and tumour regression.
METHODS: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from 142 metastatic melanoma patients enrolled in adoptive therapy trials were genotyped for CXCR3 rs2280964 and CCR5-Δ32 deletion, which encodes a protein not expressed on the cell surface. Expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and CXCR3/CCR5 and ligand genes in 113 available parental tumours was also assessed. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte data were validated by flow cytometry (N=50).
RESULTS: The full gene expression/polymorphism model, which includes CXCR3 and CCR5 expression data, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism data and their interaction, was significantly associated with both CR and overall response (OR; P=0.0009, and P=0.007, respectively). More in detail, the predicted underexpression of both CXCR3 and CCR5 according to gene expression and polymorphism data (protein prediction model, PPM) was associated with response to therapy (odds ratio=6.16 and 2.32, for CR and OR, respectively). Flow cytometric analysis confirmed the PPM. Coordinate upregulation of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumour biopsies was associated with OR.
CONCLUSION: Coordinate overexpression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumours was associated with responsiveness to treatment. Conversely, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism and CXCR3/CCR5 underexpression influence downregulation of the corresponding receptors in TILs and were associated with likelihood and degree of response.

Zhang HH, Zhang ZY, Che CL, et al.
Array analysis for potential biomarker of gemcitabine identification in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(9):1734-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Gemcitabine is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of advanced Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but modest objective response rate of patients to gemcitabine makes it necessary to identify novel biomarkers for patients who can benefit from gemcitabine-based therapy and to improve the effect of clinical therapy. In this work, 3 NSCLC cell lines displaying different sensitivities to gemcitabine were applied for mRNA and microRNA (miR) expression chips to figure out the biomarkers for gemcitabine sensitivity. Genes whose expression increased dramatically in sensitive cell lines were mainly enriched in cell adhesion (NRP2, CXCR3, CDK5R1, IL32 and CDH2) and secretory granule (SLC11A1, GP5, CD36 and IGF1), while genes with significantly upregulated expression in resistant cell line were mainly clustered in methylation modification (HIST1H2BF, RAB23 and TP53) and oxidoreductase (TP53I3, CYP27B1 and SOD3). The most intriguing is the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in gemcitabine resistant NSCLC cell lines. The miR-155, miR-10a, miR-30a, miR-24-2* and miR-30c-2* were upregulated in sensitive cell lines, while expression of miR-200c, miR-203, miR-885-5p, miR-195 and miR-25* was increased in resistant cell line. Genes with significantly altered expression and putatively mediated by the expression-changed miRs were mainly enriched in chromatin assembly (MAF, HLF, BCL2, and IGSF3), anti-apoptosis (BCL2, IGF1 and IKBKB), protein kinase (NRP2, PAK7 and CDK5R1) (all the above genes were upregulated in sensitive cells) and small GTPase mediated signal transduction (GNA13, RAP2A, ARHGAP5 and RAB23, down-regulated in sensitive cells). Our results might provide potential biomarkers for gemcitabine sensitivity prediction and putative targets to overcome gemcitabine resistance in NSCLC patients.

Lau TS, Chung TK, Cheung TH, et al.
Cancer cell-derived lymphotoxin mediates reciprocal tumour-stromal interactions in human ovarian cancer by inducing CXCL11 in fibroblasts.
J Pathol. 2014; 232(1):43-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have investigated the role of cytokine lymphotoxin in tumour-stromal interactions in human ovarian cancer. We found that lymphotoxin overexpression is commonly shared by the cancer cells of various ovarian cancer subtypes, and lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTBR) is expressed ubiquitously in both the cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). In monoculture, we showed that ovarian cancer cells are not the major lymphotoxin-responsive cells. On the other hand, our co-culture studies demonstrated that the cancer cell-derived lymphotoxin induces chemokine expression in stromal fibroblasts through LTBR-NF-κB signalling. Amongst the chemokines being produced, we found that fibroblast-secreted CXCL11 promotes proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells via the chemokine receptor CXCR3. CXCL11 is highly expressed in CAFs in ovarian cancer biopsies, while CXCR3 is found in malignant cells in primary ovarian tumours. Additionally, the overexpression of CXCR3 is significantly associated with the tumour grade and lymph node metastasis of ovarian cancer, further supporting the role of CXCR3, which interacts with CXCL11, in promoting growth and metastasis of human ovarian cancer. Taken together, these results demonstrated that cancer-cell-derived lymphotoxin mediates reciprocal tumour-stromal interactions in human ovarian cancer by inducing CXCL11 in fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that lymphotoxin-LTBR and CXCL11-CXCR3 signalling represent therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer.

Cha Z, Zang Y, Guo H, et al.
Association of peripheral CD4+ CXCR5+ T cells with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(6):3579-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidences indicate that immune dysregulation plays a key role in both lymphomagenesis and patient outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Peripheral blood CD4+ CXCR5+ T cells, known as circulating follicular helper T cells (Tfh), can induce B cell activation and production of specific antibody responses. The aim of the study was to investigate changes of circulating Tfh in CLL. Tfh and it subtypes were tested by measuring CD4, CXCR5, CXCR3, and CCR6 in 72 CLL cases and 86 healthy controls using flow cytometry. Data showed that the percentage of Tfh in the peripheral CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in CLL (25.1%) than in controls (8.4%) (p < 0.001). Further analysis revealed that the upregulation of Tfh was contributed by Tfh-th2 subtype and Tfh-th17 subtype. Investigating staging of the cases demonstrated that the prevalence of Tfh was significantly elevated in cases with Binet stage C (37.3%) than those with stage A (20.1 %) or stage B (23.9 %). In addition, we analyzed Tfh in patients with immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IGHV) gene mutational status. Results presented that Tfh-th17 subtype had clearly higher frequency in patients with IGHV mutation compared to the unmutated cases (p = 0.035). This study suggested the involvement of Tfh in the pathogenesis and progression of CLL, and provided a potential target for treating this disease.

Drier Y, Sheffer M, Domany E
Pathway-based personalized analysis of cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(16):6388-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
We introduce Pathifier, an algorithm that infers pathway deregulation scores for each tumor sample on the basis of expression data. This score is determined, in a context-specific manner, for every particular dataset and type of cancer that is being investigated. The algorithm transforms gene-level information into pathway-level information, generating a compact and biologically relevant representation of each sample. We demonstrate the algorithm's performance on three colorectal cancer datasets and two glioblastoma multiforme datasets and show that our multipathway-based representation is reproducible, preserves much of the original information, and allows inference of complex biologically significant information. We discovered several pathways that were significantly associated with survival of glioblastoma patients and two whose scores are predictive of survival in colorectal cancer: CXCR3-mediated signaling and oxidative phosphorylation. We also identified a subclass of proneural and neural glioblastoma with significantly better survival, and an EGF receptor-deregulated subclass of colon cancers.

Mulligan AM, Raitman I, Feeley L, et al.
Tumoral lymphocytic infiltration and expression of the chemokine CXCL10 in breast cancers from the Ontario Familial Breast Cancer Registry.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(2):336-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast carcinomas, including basal and hereditary cases, often present with a prominent tumoral lymphocytic infiltrate. Chemokines could play a role in attracting these cells and contribute to tumor progression. We explored tumoral expression of CXCL10 and determined the relationship between CXCL10 and lymphocytic infiltrate in a cohort of breast cancers.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using tissue microarrays of 364 breast tumors, we evaluated expression of CXCL10 and its receptor, CXCR3, in relation to histopathologic features, biomarkers, and lymphocyte markers. In addition, we overexpressed CXCL10 and CXCR3 in MCF7 breast cancer cells and monitored T-lymphocyte migration and invasion.
RESULTS: Forty-five percent of tumors expressed CXCL10, and a significant association was found with CXCR3 and lymphocytic infiltrate. Further characterization of the lymphocytic infiltrate revealed an association with CXCL10 expression for peritumoral CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. CD8+ intratumoral lymphocytes, FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), and T-BET+ T(H)1 cells were associated with BRCA1 and basal tumors. Conditioned media from MCF7 cells overexpressing both CXCL10 and CXCR3 increased T-lymphocyte migration and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that CXCL10 may act in a paracrine manner, affecting the tumor microenvironment, and in an autocrine manner, acting on the tumor cells themselves and may play a role in tumor invasiveness and progression. The CXCL10-CXCR3 axis can serve as a potential target in BRCA1 and basal breast cancers, which present with a prominent lymphocytic infiltrate and a poor prognosis. Clin Cancer Res; 19(2); 336-46. ©2012 AACR.

Du L, Xu WT, Fan QM, et al.
Tumorigenesis and spontaneous metastasis by luciferase-labeled human xenograft osteosarcoma cells in nude mice.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012; 125(22):4022-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone. Mouse models of human OS can invariably provide greater insight into the complex mechanisms that underlie the development and pathogenesis of this aggressive tumor. Bioluminescence technology favored tracing cancer cells in vivo. In this study, an OS model was described and evaluated using human OS cell line, Saos2, labeled with luciferase (Saos2-luc).
METHODS: Saos2 cells were infected by lentivirus loading a firefly luciferase gene. Luciferase expression of Saos2-luc cells was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Specific biologic and oncologic features of Saos2-luc cells were analyzed. The OS was established as orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. Both orthotopic tumors and spontaneous lung metastasis were analyzed.
RESULTS: Tumorigenesis and spontaneous lung metastasis in nude mice could be monitored in vivo through in vivo imaging system. The enhancement in proliferation, migration and invasion abilities and the attenuation in adhesion ability were observed in Saos2-luc cells compared with Saos2 cells. Furthermore, there were the up-regulation of Osteocalcin, CCR10, CXCR1 and ID1 and the down-regulation of ALP, collagen I, CCR1, CCR3, CXCR3, NID and N-cadherin in Saos2-luc cells compare to Saos2 cells. The rate of spontaneous lung metastasis in Saos2-luc cells was higher than that in Saos2 cells, although without significant difference.
CONCLUSIONS: Lentivirus transfection may cause alteration of gene expression profiles and further biological functions. This model can be used in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the screening of new therapeutic agents.

Al-Zahrani KN, Baron KD, Sabourin LA
Ste20-like kinase SLK, at the crossroads: a matter of life and death.
Cell Adh Migr. 2013 Jan-Feb; 7(1):1-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Reorganization of the cytoskeleton is necessary for apoptosis, proliferation, migration, development and tissue repair. However, it is well established that mutations or overexpression of key regulators contribute to the phenotype and progression of several pathologies such as cancer. For instance, c-src mutations and the overexpression of FAK have been implicated in the invasive and metastatic process, suggesting that components of the motility system may represent a new class of therapeutic targets. Over the last several years, we and others have established distinct roles for the Ste20-like kinase SLK, encompassing apoptosis, growth, motility and development. Here, we review the SLK field from its initial cloning to the most recent findings from our laboratory. We summarize the various roles of SLK and the biochemical mechanisms that regulate its activity. These various findings reveal very complex functions and pattern of regulation for SLK in development and cancer, making it a potential therapeutic target.

Razmkhah M, Jaberipour M, Safaei A, et al.
Chemokine and chemokine receptors: a comparative study between metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.
Eur Cytokine Netw. 2012 Jul-Sep; 23(3):72-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lymph nodes (LNs) are among the first sites of tumor metastasis. The expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in LNs are involved in cancer prognosis and are considered to be good predictors of tumor progression. The main aim of this study was to assess the expression of important, tumor-promoting chemokines and chemokine receptors in LNs of breast cancer patients. LNs were isolated from eighteen women diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were compared between positive and negative LNs. Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Results of qRT-PCR showed that all chemokines, in particular MCP-1, IL-8, SDF-1 and CXCL13, and chemokine receptors CXCR3, CXCR4 and CCR5 showed greater mRNA expression in LN(+) compared to LN(-) samples. However, these differences were not statistically significant. IL-8 and CXCR5 gene transcripts had significantly higher expression in LN(+ )patients with stage III compared to those with stage II tumors (P value = 0.04). Results of flow cytometry analysis showed a higher, significant presence of CD69(+), CCR5(+) and CD3(+)CCR5(+) cells in LN of LN(+) compared to LN(- )breast cancer patients (P value<0.05). Expression of MCP-1 was higher in LN(+) patients, which was near significance (P value = 0.07).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide additional information on the expression of essential chemokines and chemokine receptors in LN and on their relationships to important prognostic factors in breast cancer. These findings have important implications for immunotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of breast cancer.

Pouliot N, Kusuma N
Laminin-511: a multi-functional adhesion protein regulating cell migration, tumor invasion and metastasis.
Cell Adh Migr. 2013 Jan-Feb; 7(1):142-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Laminins are major constituents of basement membranes. At least 16 isoforms have now been described, each with distinct spatio-temporal expression patterns and functions. The laminin-511 heterotrimer (α5β1γ1) is one of the more recent isoforms to be identified and a potent adhesive and pro-migratory substrate for a variety of normal and tumor cell lines in vitro. As our understanding of its precise function in normal tissues and in pathologies is rapidly unraveling, current evidence suggests an important regulatory role in cancer. This review describes published data on laminin-511 expression in several malignancies and experimental evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies supporting its functional role during tumor progression. A particular emphasis is put on more recent studies from our laboratory and that of others indicating that laminin-511 contributes to tumor dissemination and metastasis in advanced breast carcinomas and other tumor types. Collectively, the experimental evidence suggests that high expression of laminin-511 has prognostic significance and that targeting tumor-laminin-511 interactions may have therapeutic potential in advanced cancer patients.

Brentnall TA
Arousal of cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts: palladin-activated fibroblasts promote tumor invasion.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Nov-Dec; 6(6):488-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), comprised of activated fibroblasts or myofibroblasts, are found in stroma surrounding solid tumors; these myofibroblasts promote invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Activation of stromal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is induced by expression of cystoskeleton protein, palladin, at early stages in tumorigenesis and increases with neoplastic progression. Expression of palladin in fibroblasts is triggered by paracrine signaling from adjacent k-ras-expressing epithelial cells. Three-dimensional co-cultures of palladin-expressing fibroblasts and pancreatic cancer cells reveals that the activated fibroblasts lead the invasion by creating tunnels through the extracellular matrix through which the cancer cells follow. Invasive tunneling occurs as a result of the development of invadopodia-like cellular protrusions in the palladin-activated fibroblasts and the addition of a wounding/inflammatory trigger. Abrogation of palladin reduces the invasive capacity of these cells. CAF also play a role in cancer resistance and immuno-privilege, making the targeting of activators of these cells of interest for oncologists.

Veeravalli KK, Rao JS
MMP-9 and uPAR regulated glioma cell migration.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Nov-Dec; 6(6):509-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Integrin-dependent and -independent MMP-9 and uPAR signaling plays a key role in glioma cell migration and invasion. In this article, we comment on all the possible pathways and molecules associated with MMP-9- and uPAR-mediated glioma cell migration with a special emphasis on integrins, a family of cell adhesion molecules. Our recent research investigations highlighted the substantial benefit of silencing both MMP-9 and uPAR together compared with their individual treatments in glioma. Simultaneous knockdown of both MMP-9 and uPAR regulated a majority of the molecules associated with glioma cell migration and significantly reduced the migration potential of glioma cells. Our results point out that the bicistronic construct, which can simultaneously silence both MMP-9 and uPAR offers a great therapeutic potential and is worth developing as a new drug for treating GBM patients.

Kachgal S, Mace KA, Boudreau NJ
The dual roles of homeobox genes in vascularization and wound healing.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Nov-Dec; 6(6):457-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Homeobox genes represent a family of highly conserved transcription factors originally discovered to regulate organ patterning during development. More recently, several homeobox genes were shown to affect processes in adult tissue, including angiogenesis and wound healing. Whereas a subset of members of the Hox-family of homeobox genes activate growth and migration to promote angiogenesis or wound healing, other Hox genes function to restore or maintain quiescent, differentiated tissue function. Pathological tissue remodeling is linked to differential expression of activating or stabilizing Hox genes and dysregulation of Hox expression can contribute to disease progression. Studies aimed at understanding the role and regulation of Hox genes have provided insight into how these potent morphoregulatory genes can be applied to enhance tissue engineering or limit cancer progression.

Bradbury P, Fabry B, O'Neill GM
Occupy tissue: the movement in cancer metastasis.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Sep-Oct; 6(5):424-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
The critical role of migration and invasion in cancer metastasis warrants new therapeutic approaches targeting the machinery regulating cell migration and invasion. While 2-dimensional (2D) models have helped identify a range of adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal components and regulators that are potentially important for cell migration, the use of models that better mimic the 3-dimensional (3D) environment has yielded new insights into the physiology of cell movement. For example, studying cells in 3D models has revealed that invading cancer cells may switch between heterogeneous invasion modes and thus evade pharmacological inhibition of invasion. Here we summarize published data in which the role of cell adhesion molecules in 2D vs. 3D migration have been directly compared and discuss mechanisms that regulate migration speed and persistence in 2D and 3D. Finally we discuss limits of 3D culture models to recapitulate the in vivo situation.

Smith BN, Odero-Marah VA
The role of Snail in prostate cancer.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Sep-Oct; 6(5):433-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer in men. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which cancer cells invade and migrate, and is characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin and increased expression of mesenchymal proteins such as vimentin; EMT is also associated with resistance to therapy. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been extensively studied and reported in cancers such as breast and colon; however, its role in prostate cancer is not as widely reported. The purpose of this review is to put together recent facts that summarize Snail signaling in human prostate cancer. Snail is overexpressed in prostate cancer and its expression and activity is controlled via phosphorylation and growth factor signaling. Snail is involved in its canonical role of inducing EMT in prostate cancer cells; however, it plays a role in non-canonical pathways that do not involve EMT such regulation of bone turnover and neuroendocrine differentiation. Thus, studies indicate that Snail signaling contributes to prostate cancer progression and metastasis and therapeutic targeting of Snail in prostate cancer holds promise in future.

Péglion F, Etienne-Manneville S
N-cadherin expression level as a critical indicator of invasion in non-epithelial tumors.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Jul-Aug; 6(4):327-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Cancer cell dissemination away from the primary tumor and their ability to form metastases remain the major causes of death from cancer. Understanding the molecular mechanisms triggering this event could lead to the design of new cancer treatments. The establishment and the maintenance of tissue architecture depend on the coordination of cell behavior within this tissue. Cell-cell interactions must form adhesive structures between neighboring cells while remaining highly dynamic to allow and control tissue renewal or remodeling. Among intercellular junctions, cadherin-based adherens junctions mediate strong physical interactions and transmit information from the cell microenvironment to the cytoplasm. Disruption of these cell-cell contacts perturbs the polarity of epithelial tissues leading to their disorganization and ultimately to aggressive carcinomas. In non-epithelial tissues, the role of cadherins in the development of cancer is still debated. We recently found that downregulation of N-cadherin in malignant glioma-the most frequent primary brain tumor-results in cell polarization defects leading to abnormal motile behavior with increased cell speed and decreased persistence in directionality. Re-expression of N-cadherin in glioma cells restores cell polarity and limits glioma cell migration, providing a potential therapeutic tool for diffuse glioma.

Domingos-Pereira S, Decrausaz L, Derré L, et al.
Intravaginal TLR agonists increase local vaccine-specific CD8 T cells and human papillomavirus-associated genital-tumor regression in mice.
Mucosal Immunol. 2013; 6(2):393-404 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Human papillomaviruses (HPV)-related cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Despite active development, HPV E6/E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines have had limited clinical efficacy to date. Here, we report that intravaginal (IVAG) instillation of CpG-ODN (TLR9 agonist) or poly-(I:C) (TLR3 agonist) after subcutaneous E7 vaccination increased ~fivefold the number of vaccine-specific interferon-γ-secreting CD8 T cells in the genital mucosa (GM) of mice, without affecting the E7-specific systemic response. The IVAG treatment locally increased both E7-specific and total CD8 T cells, but not CD4 T cells. This previously unreported selective recruitment of CD8 T cells from the periphery by IVAG CpG-ODN or poly-(I:C) was mediated by TLR9 and TLR3/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 signaling pathways, respectively. For CpG, this recruitment was associated with a higher proportion of GM-localized CD8 T cells expressing both CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors and E-selectin ligands. Most interestingly, IVAG CpG-ODN following vaccination led to complete regression of large genital HPV tumors in 75% of mice, instead of 20% with vaccination alone. These findings suggest that mucosal application of immunostimulatory molecules might substantially increase the effectiveness of parenterally administered vaccines.

Nikolaienko RM, Agyekum B, Bouyain S
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases and cancer: new insights from structural biology.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Jul-Aug; 6(4):356-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
There is general agreement that many cancers are associated with aberrant phosphotyrosine signaling, which can be caused by the inappropriate activities of tyrosine kinases or tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incorrect activation of signaling pathways has been often linked to changes in adhesion events mediated by cell surface receptors. Among these receptors, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) both antagonize tyrosine kinases as well as engage extracellular ligands. A recent wealth of data on this intriguing family indicates that its members can fulfill either tumor suppressing or oncogenic roles. The interpretation of these results at a molecular level has been greatly facilitated by the recent availability of structural information on the extra- and intracellular regions of RPTPs. These structures provide a molecular framework to understand how alterations in extracellular interactions can inactivate RPTPs in cancers or why the overexpression of certain RPTPs may also participate in tumor progression.

Le Bras GF, Taubenslag KJ, Andl CD
The regulation of cell-cell adhesion during epithelial-mesenchymal transition, motility and tumor progression.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Jul-Aug; 6(4):365-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Adherens junctions (AJs) are essential for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis and a key factor in the regulation of cell migration and tumor progression. AJs maintain cell-cell adhesion by linking transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, they participate in recruitment of signaling receptors and cytoplasmic proteins to the membrane. During cellular invasion or migration, AJs are dynamically regulated and their composition modified to initiate changes in signaling pathways and cytoskeleton organization involved in cellular motility. Loss of E-cadherin, a key component of AJs, is characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and is associated with tumor cell invasion. We will review recent findings describing novel mechanisms involved in E-cadherin transcription regulation, endocytosis of E-cadherin and signaling associated with loss of AJs as well as reorganization of the AJ during EMT.

Gupta B, Iancu EM, Gannon PO, et al.
Simultaneous coexpression of memory-related and effector-related genes by individual human CD8 T cells depends on antigen specificity and differentiation.
J Immunother. 2012; 35(6):488-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phenotypic and functional cell properties are usually analyzed at the level of defined cell populations but not single cells. Yet, large differences between individual cells may have important functional consequences. It is likely that T-cell-mediated immunity depends on the polyfunctionality of individual T cells, rather than the sum of functions of responding T-cell subpopulations. We performed highly sensitive single-cell gene expression profiling, allowing the direct ex vivo characterization of individual virus-specific and tumor-specific T cells from healthy donors and melanoma patients. We have previously shown that vaccination with the natural tumor peptide Melan-A-induced T cells with superior effector functions as compared with vaccination with the analog peptide optimized for enhanced HLA-A*0201 binding. Here we found that natural peptide vaccination induced tumor-reactive CD8 T cells with frequent coexpression of both memory/homing-associated genes (CD27, IL7R, EOMES, CXCR3, and CCR5) and effector-related genes (IFNG, KLRD1, PRF1, and GZMB), comparable with protective Epstein-Barr virus-specific and cytomegalovirus-specific T cells. In contrast, memory/homing-associated and effector-associated genes were less frequently coexpressed after vaccination with the analog peptide. Remarkably, these findings reveal a previously unknown level of gene expression diversity among vaccine-specific and virus-specific T cells with the simultaneous coexpression of multiple memory/homing-related and effector-related genes by the same cell. Such broad functional gene expression signatures within antigen-specific T cells may be critical for mounting efficient responses to pathogens or tumors. In summary, direct ex vivo high-resolution molecular characterization of individual T cells provides key insights into the processes shaping the functional properties of tumor-specific and virus-specific T cells.

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