Gene Summary

Gene:CREBBP; CREB binding protein
Aliases: CBP, RSTS, KAT3A
Summary:This gene is ubiquitously expressed and is involved in the transcriptional coactivation of many different transcription factors. First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. This protein acetylates both histone and non-histone proteins. This protein shares regions of very high sequence similarity with protein p300 in its bromodomain, cysteine-histidine-rich regions, and histone acetyltransferase domain. Mutations in this gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). Chromosomal translocations involving this gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CREB-binding protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (55)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (27)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Nuclear Proteins
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Tumor Markers
  • Signal Transduction
  • Acetyltransferases
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Virion
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • p53 Protein
  • Response Elements
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Trans-Activators
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Histones
  • Point Mutation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
  • Mutation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Translocation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Up-Regulation
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • CREB-Binding Protein
  • Acetylation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 16
  • Transcription
  • Chromosome 8
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Childhood Cancer
Tag cloud generated 17 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Rubinstein-Taybi SyndromeCREBBP mutation in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome is an autosomal dominant chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation, broad thumbs, and webbing of fingers and toes. Individuals with RTS have an increased risk of brain tumors and certain other cancers.
View Publications76
Breast CancerCREBBP and Breast Cancer View Publications16
Esophageal CancerCREBBP and Esophageal Cancer
CREBBP alterations were noted in a GWAS study of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Song, 2014))
View Publications3

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CREBBP (cancer-related)

Das A, Chai JC, Jung KH, et al.
JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 328(2):361-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53(-/-) NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53(-/-) NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53(-/-) NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53(-/-) NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed.

Gao YB, Chen ZL, Li JG, et al.
Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(10):1097-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications.

Kishimoto W, Nishikori M
Molecular pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014; 54(1):23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
t(14;18) translocation has been recognized as a genetic hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL), but it is now known that additional genetic aberrations are required for the development of FL. With recent advances in the technology for DNA analysis, recurrent gene aberrations such as TNFRSF14, EPHA7, EZH2, CREBBP, EP300, MLL2 and MEF2B have been identified. A few t(14;18)-positive B cells can be detected in healthy individuals, and these B cells are reported to have their own biological features that are closely associated with the pathogenesis of FL. On the other hand, FL is characterized by a unique microenvironment. Further understanding of the pathogenesis of FL is expected to contribute to the development of novel treatment approaches for this disease.

Takata K, Miyata-Takata T, Sato Y, Yoshino T
Pathology of follicular lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014; 54(1):3-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a heterogeneous disease, and there are many different subgroups, such as in terms of age of onset, involved organ (especially extranodal sites such as gastrointestinal tract) and genetic abnormality. Grade 3B is currently regarded as a distinct entity by molecular genetic analyses, but the independence of Grade 3A remains unclear. Variations of clinical course are known in FL. Some cases are very indolent, but others are not. The latter cases show histological transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (high-grade transformation) and an aggressive course. Histological transformation to DLBCL is reported to occur in about 30-40% of patients, at a rate of about 3% each year. However, it reaches a plateau at about 16 years, so the stratification of patients in whom transformation would or would not occur is very important for the therapeutic strategy. From genome-wide analysis by next-generation sequencing, EZH2, CREBBP and MLL2, which are histone-modifying genes, have been shown to be frequently mutated in FL and to have an important role in lymphomagenesis. IGH-BCL2 translocation and CREBBP mutations are early events, whereas MLL2 and TNFSFR14 mutations represent late events during disease evolution. In the 2008 WHO classification, three new variants: (1) pediatric follicular lymphoma, (2) primary intestinal follicular lymphoma and (3) in situ follicular lymphoma, are included. Pathologists and clinicians should consider these new developments when deciding on the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy.

Carbone A, Gloghini A, Kwong YL, Younes A
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma: using pathologic and molecular biomarkers to define subgroups for novel therapy.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(8):1263-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) comprises specific subtypes, disease entities, and other not otherwise specified (NOS) lymphomas. This review will focus on DLBCL NOS because of their prevalence and their heterogeneity with respect to morphology, clinical presentation, biology, and response to treatment. Gene expression profiling of DLBCL NOS has identified molecular subgroups that correlate with prognosis and may have relevance for treatment based on signaling pathways. New technologies have revealed that the "activated B cell" subgroup is linked to activation of the nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathway, with mutations found in CD79A/B, CARD11, and MYD88, and loss of function mutations in TNFAIP3. The "germinal center B cell-like" subgroup is linked to mutational changes in EZH2 and CREBBP. Biomarkers that are related to pathways promoting tumor cell growth and survival in DLBCL have been recognized, although their predictive role requires clinical validation. Immunohistochemistry for detecting the expression of these biomarkers is a practical technique that could provide a rational for clinical trial design.

Song Y, Li L, Ou Y, et al.
Identification of genomic alterations in oesophageal squamous cell cancer.
Nature. 2014; 509(7498):91-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oesophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 70% of global oesophageal cancer cases occur in China, with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) being the histopathological form in the vast majority of cases (>90%). Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for the early diagnosis and treatment of ESCC, resulting in a 10% five-year survival rate for patients. However, the full repertoire of genomic events leading to the pathogenesis of ESCC remains unclear. Here we describe a comprehensive genomic analysis of 158 ESCC cases, as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium research project. We conducted whole-genome sequencing in 17 ESCC cases and whole-exome sequencing in 71 cases, of which 53 cases, plus an additional 70 ESCC cases not used in the whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, were subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. We identified eight significantly mutated genes, of which six are well known tumour-associated genes (TP53, RB1, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, NFE2L2), and two have not previously been described in ESCC (ADAM29 and FAM135B). Notably, FAM135B is identified as a novel cancer-implicated gene as assayed for its ability to promote malignancy of ESCC cells. Additionally, MIR548K, a microRNA encoded in the amplified 11q13.3-13.4 region, is characterized as a novel oncogene, and functional assays demonstrate that MIR548K enhances malignant phenotypes of ESCC cells. Moreover, we have found that several important histone regulator genes (MLL2 (also called KMT2D), ASH1L, MLL3 (KMT2C), SETD1B, CREBBP and EP300) are frequently altered in ESCC. Pathway assessment reveals that somatic aberrations are mainly involved in the Wnt, cell cycle and Notch pathways. Genomic analyses suggest that ESCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma share some common pathogenic mechanisms, and ESCC development is associated with alcohol drinking. This study has explored novel biological markers and tumorigenic pathways that would greatly improve therapeutic strategies for ESCC.

Roy DM, Walsh LA, Chan TA
Driver mutations of cancer epigenomes.
Protein Cell. 2014; 5(4):265-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations are associated with all aspects of cancer, from tumor initiation to cancer progression and metastasis. It is now well understood that both losses and gains of DNA methylation as well as altered chromatin organization contribute significantly to cancer-associated phenotypes. More recently, new sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of driver mutations in epigenetic regulators, providing a mechanistic link between the cancer epigenome and genetic alterations. Oncogenic activating mutations are now known to occur in a number of epigenetic modifiers (i.e. IDH1/2, EZH2, DNMT3A), pinpointing epigenetic pathways that are involved in tumorigenesis. Similarly, investigations into the role of inactivating mutations in chromatin modifiers (i.e. KDM6A, CREBBP/EP300, SMARCB1) implicate many of these genes as tumor suppressors. Intriguingly, a number of neoplasms are defined by a plethora of mutations in epigenetic regulators, including renal, bladder, and adenoid cystic carcinomas. Particularly striking is the discovery of frequent histone H3.3 mutations in pediatric glioma, a particularly aggressive neoplasm that has long remained poorly understood. Cancer epigenetics is a relatively new, promising frontier with much potential for improving cancer outcomes. Already, therapies such as 5-azacytidine and decitabine have proven that targeting epigenetic alterations in cancer can lead to tangible benefits. Understanding how genetic alterations give rise to the cancer epigenome will offer new possibilities for developing better prognostic and therapeutic strategies.

Koso H, Tsuhako A, Lyons E, et al.
Identification of FoxR2 as an oncogene in medulloblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(8):2351-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor, and in ∼25% of cases, it is driven by aberrant activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in granule neuron precursor (GNP) cells. In this study, we identified novel medulloblastoma driver genes through a transposon mutagenesis screen in the developing brain of wild-type and Trp53 mutant mice. Twenty-six candidates were identified along with established driver genes such as Gli1 and Crebbp. The transcription factor FoxR2, the most frequent gene identified in the screen, is overexpressed in a small subset of human medulloblastoma of the SHH subtype. Tgif2 and Alx4, 2 new putative oncogenes identified in the screen, are strongly expressed in the SHH subtype of human medulloblastoma. Mutations in these two genes were mutually exclusive with mutations in Gli1 and tended to cooccur, consistent with involvement in the SHH pathway. Notably, Foxr2, Tgif2, and Alx4 activated Gli-binding sites in cooperation with Gli1, strengthening evidence that they function in SHH signaling. In support of an oncogenic function, Foxr2 overexpression transformed NIH3T3 cells and promoted proliferation of GNPs, the latter of which was also observed for Tgif2 and Alx4. These findings offer forward genetic and functional evidence associating Foxr2, Tgif2, and Alx4 with SHH subtype medulloblastoma.

Li H, Kaminski MS, Li Y, et al.
Mutations in linker histone genes HIST1H1 B, C, D, and E; OCT2 (POU2F2); IRF8; and ARID1A underlying the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2014; 123(10):1487-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) constitutes the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the western world. FL carries characteristic recurrent structural genomic aberrations. However, information regarding the coding genome in FL is still evolving. Here, we describe the results of massively parallel exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism 6.0 array genomic profiling of 11 highly purified FL cases, and 1 transformed FL case and the validation of selected mutations in 102 FL cases. We report the identification of 15 novel recurrently mutated genes in FL. These include frequent mutations in the linker histone genes HIST1H1 B-E (27%) and mutations in OCT2 (also known as POU2F2; 8%), IRF8 (6%), and ARID1A (11%). A subset of the mutations in HIST1H1 B-E affected binding to DNMT3B, and mutations in HIST1H1 B-E and in EZH2 or ARID1A were largely mutually exclusive, implicating HIST1H1 B-E in epigenetic deregulation in FL. Mutations in OCT2 (POU2F2) affected its transcriptional and functional properties as measured through luciferase assays, the biological analysis of stably transduced cell lines, and global expression profiling. Finally, multiple novel mutated genes located within regions of acquired uniparental disomy in FL are identified. In aggregate, these data substantially broaden our understanding of the genomic pathogenesis of FL.

Wu S, Zhang X, Li ZM, et al.
Partial Least Squares Based Gene Expression Analysis in EBV- Positive and EBV-Negative Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(11):6347-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a common complication of therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. Gene expression profile facilitates the identification of biological difference between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive and negative PTLDs. Previous studies mainly implemented variance/regression analysis without considering unaccounted array specific factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the gene expression difference between EBV positive and negative PTLDs through partial least squares (PLS) based analysis. With a microarray data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we performed PLS based analysis. We acquired 1188 differentially expressed genes. Pathway and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified significantly over-representation of dysregulated genes in immune response and cancer related biological processes. Network analysis identified three hub genes with degrees higher than 15, including CREBBP, ATXN1, and PML. Proteins encoded by CREBBP and PML have been reported to be interact with EBV before. Our findings shed light on expression distinction of EBV positive and negative PTLDs with the hope to offer theoretical support for future therapeutic study.

Okosun J, Bödör C, Wang J, et al.
Integrated genomic analysis identifies recurrent mutations and evolution patterns driving the initiation and progression of follicular lymphoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(2):176-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma is an incurable malignancy, with transformation to an aggressive subtype representing a critical event during disease progression. Here we performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 10 follicular lymphoma-transformed follicular lymphoma pairs followed by deep sequencing of 28 genes in an extension cohort, and we report the key events and evolutionary processes governing tumor initiation and transformation. Tumor evolution occurred through either a 'rich' or 'sparse' ancestral common progenitor clone (CPC). We identified recurrent mutations in linker histone, JAK-STAT signaling, NF-κB signaling and B cell developmental genes. Longitudinal analyses identified early driver mutations in chromatin regulator genes (CREBBP, EZH2 and KMT2D (MLL2)), whereas mutations in EBF1 and regulators of NF-κB signaling (MYD88 and TNFAIP3) were gained at transformation. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the genetic basis of follicular lymphoma and the clonal dynamics of transformation and suggests that personalizing therapies to target key genetic alterations in the CPC represents an attractive therapeutic strategy.

Li D, Jin L, Alesi GN, et al.
The prometastatic ribosomal S6 kinase 2-cAMP response element-binding protein (RSK2-CREB) signaling pathway up-regulates the actin-binding protein fascin-1 to promote tumor metastasis.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(45):32528-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast, lung, and head and neck cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metastases in these cancers remain unclear. We found that the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway is commonly activated in diverse metastatic human cancer cells, leading to up-regulation of a CREB transcription target Fascin-1. We also observed that the protein expression patterns of RSK2 and Fascin-1 correlate in primary human tumor tissue samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, knockdown of RSK2 disrupts filopodia formation and bundling in highly invasive cancer cells, leading to attenuated cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas expression of Fascin-1 significantly rescues these phenotypes. Furthermore, targeting RSK2 with the small molecule RSK inhibitor FMK-MEA effectively attenuated the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Taken together, our findings for the first time link RSK2-CREB signaling to filopodia formation and bundling through the up-regulation of Fascin-1, providing a proinvasive and prometastatic advantage to human cancers. Therefore, protein effectors of the RSK2-CREB-Fascin-1 pathway represent promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the clinical prognosis and treatment of metastatic human cancers.

Bödör C, Grossmann V, Popov N, et al.
EZH2 mutations are frequent and represent an early event in follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 122(18):3165-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gain of function mutations in the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 represent a promising therapeutic target in germinal center lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the frequency and distribution of EZH2 mutations in a large cohort of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 366) and performed a longitudinal analysis of mutation during the disease progression from FL to transformed FL (tFL) (n = 33). Mutations were detected at 3 recurrent mutation hot spots (Y646, A682, and A692) in 27% of FL cases with variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 2% to 61%. By comparing VAF of EZH2 with other mutation targets (CREBBP, MLL2, TNFRSF14, and MEF2B), we were able to distinguish patients harboring clonal EZH2 mutation from rarer cases with subclonal mutations. Overall, the high incidence of EZH2 mutations in FL and their stability during disease progression makes FL an appropriate disease to evaluate EZH2 targeted therapy.

Kim MS, Yoo NJ, Lee SH
Expressional and mutational analysis of CREBBP gene in gastric and colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(1):221-2 [PubMed] Related Publications

Gang EJ, Hsieh YT, Pham J, et al.
Small-molecule inhibition of CBP/catenin interactions eliminates drug-resistant clones in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(17):2169-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a major problem warranting new treatment strategies. Wnt/catenin signaling is critical for the self-renewal of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Deregulated Wnt signaling is evident in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia; however, little is known about ALL. Differential interaction of catenin with either the Kat3 coactivator CREBBP (CREB-binding protein (CBP)) or the highly homologous EP300 (p300) is critical to determine divergent cellular responses and provides a rationale for the regulation of both proliferation and differentiation by the Wnt signaling pathway. Usage of the coactivator CBP by catenin leads to transcriptional activation of cassettes of genes that are involved in maintenance of progenitor cell self-renewal. However, the use of the coactivator p300 leads to activation of genes involved in the initiation of differentiation. ICG-001 is a novel small-molecule modulator of Wnt/catenin signaling, which specifically binds to the N-terminus of CBP and not p300, within amino acids 1-110, thereby disrupting the interaction between CBP and catenin. Here, we report that selective disruption of the CBP/β- and γ-catenin interactions using ICG-001 leads to differentiation of pre-B ALL cells and loss of self-renewal capacity. Survivin, an inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein, was also downregulated in primary ALL after treatment with ICG-001. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrate occupancy of the survivin promoter by CBP that is decreased by ICG-001 in primary ALL. CBP mutations have been recently identified in a significant percentage of ALL patients, however, almost all of the identified mutations reported occur C-terminal to the binding site for ICG-001. Importantly, ICG-001, regardless of CBP mutational status and chromosomal aberration, leads to eradication of drug-resistant primary leukemia in combination with conventional therapy in vitro and significantly prolongs the survival of NOD/SCID mice engrafted with primary ALL. Therefore, specifically inhibiting CBP/catenin transcription represents a novel approach to overcome relapse in ALL.

Ho AS, Kannan K, Roy DM, et al.
The mutational landscape of adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(7):791-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary gland cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole-genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor-normal pairs. These analyses identified a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent events per megabase) and wide mutational diversity. Notably, we found mutations in genes encoding chromatin-state regulators, such as SMARCA2, CREBBP and KDM6A, suggesting that there is aberrant epigenetic regulation in ACC oncogenesis. Mutations in genes central to the DNA damage response and protein kinase A signaling also implicate these processes. We observed MYB-NFIB translocations and somatic mutations in MYB-associated genes, solidifying the role of these aberrations as critical events in ACC. Lastly, we identified recurrent mutations in the FGF-IGF-PI3K pathway (30% of tumors) that might represent new avenues for therapy. Collectively, our observations establish a molecular foundation for understanding and exploring new treatments for ACC.

Jiao Y, Li ZG
[Research progress on mechanism of bone marrow relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 21(1):231-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mechanism of bone marrow relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been deeply researched in recent years. The roles of hematopoietic stem cells, some gene abnormalities including IKZF1, JAK, CRLF2 and CREBBP, as well as mutation of genes influencing drug resistance have been confirmed to related with relapse of disease. The microRNAs, gene expression profile of patient, microenvironment of bone marrow including bone marrow fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells and matrix metalloprotease, also play an important role in the process of leukemia recurrence. This article reviewed the details mentioned above.

Huang SS, Clarke DC, Gosline SJ, et al.
Linking proteomic and transcriptional data through the interactome and epigenome reveals a map of oncogene-induced signaling.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2013; 9(2):e1002887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular signal transduction generally involves cascades of post-translational protein modifications that rapidly catalyze changes in protein-DNA interactions and gene expression. High-throughput measurements are improving our ability to study each of these stages individually, but do not capture the connections between them. Here we present an approach for building a network of physical links among these data that can be used to prioritize targets for pharmacological intervention. Our method recovers the critical missing links between proteomic and transcriptional data by relating changes in chromatin accessibility to changes in expression and then uses these links to connect proteomic and transcriptome data. We applied our approach to integrate epigenomic, phosphoproteomic and transcriptome changes induced by the variant III mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) in a cell line model of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). To test the relevance of the network, we used small molecules to target highly connected nodes implicated by the network model that were not detected by the experimental data in isolation and we found that a large fraction of these agents alter cell viability. Among these are two compounds, ICG-001, targeting CREB binding protein (CREBBP), and PKF118-310, targeting β-catenin (CTNNB1), which have not been tested previously for effectiveness against GBM. At the level of transcriptional regulation, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to experimentally determine the genome-wide binding locations of p300, a transcriptional co-regulator highly connected in the network. Analysis of p300 target genes suggested its role in tumorigenesis. We propose that this general method, in which experimental measurements are used as constraints for building regulatory networks from the interactome while taking into account noise and missing data, should be applicable to a wide range of high-throughput datasets.

Bhan A, Hussain I, Ansari KI, et al.
Antisense transcript long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR is transcriptionally induced by estradiol.
J Mol Biol. 2013; 425(19):3707-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HOTAIR (HOX antisense intergenic RNA) is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is transcribed from the antisense strand of homeobox C gene locus in chromosome 12. HOTAIR coordinates with chromatin-modifying enzymes and regulates gene silencing. It is overexpressed in various carcinomas including breast cancer. Herein, we demonstrated that HOTAIR is crucial for cell growth and viability and its knockdown induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We also demonstrated that HOTAIR is transcriptionally induced by estradiol (E2). Its promoter contains multiple functional estrogen response elements (EREs). Estrogen receptors (ERs) along with various ER coregulators such as histone methylases MLL1 (mixed lineage leukemia 1) and MLL3 and CREB-binding protein/p300 bind to the promoter of HOTAIR in an E2-dependent manner. Level of histone H3 lysine-4 trimethylation, histone acetylation, and RNA polymerase II recruitment is enriched at the HOTAIR promoter in the presence of E2. Knockdown of ERs and MLLs downregulated the E2-induced HOTAIR expression. Thus, similar to protein-coding gene transcription, E2-induced transcription of antisense transcript HOTAIR is coordinated via ERs and ER coregulators, and this mechanism of HOTAIR overexpression potentially contributes towards breast cancer progression.

Collins HM, Abdelghany MK, Messmer M, et al.
Differential effects of garcinol and curcumin on histone and p53 modifications in tumour cells.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones and other proteins are perturbed in tumours. For example, reduced levels of acetylated H4K16 and trimethylated H4K20 are associated with high tumour grade and poor survival in breast cancer. Drug-like molecules that can reprogram selected histone PTMs in tumour cells are therefore of interest as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study we assessed the effects of the phytocompounds garcinol and curcumin on histone and p53 modification in cancer cells, focussing on the breast tumour cell line MCF7.
METHODS: Cell viability/proliferation assays, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, immunodetection of specific histone and p53 acetylation marks, western blotting, siRNA and RT-qPCR.
RESULTS: Although treatment with curcumin, garcinol or the garcinol derivative LTK-14 hampered MCF7 cell proliferation, differential effects of these compounds on histone modifications were observed. Garcinol treatment resulted in a strong reduction in H3K18 acetylation, which is required for S phase progression. Similar effects of garcinol on H3K18 acetylation were observed in the osteosarcoma cells lines U2OS and SaOS2. In contrast, global levels of acetylated H4K16 and trimethylated H4K20 in MCF7 cells were elevated after garcinol treatment. This was accompanied by upregulation of DNA damage signalling markers such as γH2A.X, H3K56Ac, p53 and TIP60. In contrast, exposure of MCF7 cells to curcumin resulted in increased global levels of acetylated H3K18 and H4K16, and was less effective in inducing DNA damage markers. In addition to its effects on histone modifications, garcinol was found to block CBP/p300-mediated acetylation of the C-terminal activation domain of p53, but resulted in enhanced acetylation of p53K120, and accumulation of p53 in the cytoplasmic compartment. Finally, we show that the elevation of H4K20Me3 levels by garcinol correlated with increased expression of SUV420H2, and was prevented by siRNA targeting of SUV420H2.
CONCLUSION: In summary, although garcinol and curcumin can both inhibit histone acetyltransferase activities, our results show that these compounds have differential effects on cancer cells in culture. Garcinol treatment alters expression of chromatin modifying enzymes in MCF7 cells, resulting in reprogramming of key histone and p53 PTMs and growth arrest, underscoring its potential as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

Green MR, Gentles AJ, Nair RV, et al.
Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 121(9):1604-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is currently incurable using conventional chemotherapy or immunotherapy regimes, compelling new strategies. Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies that can reveal oncogenic pathways have stimulated interest in tailoring therapies toward actionable somatic mutations. However, for mutation-directed therapies to be most effective, the mutations must be uniformly present in evolved tumor cells as well as in the self-renewing tumor-cell precursors. Here, we show striking intratumoral clonal diversity within FL tumors in the representation of mutations in the majority of genes as revealed by whole exome sequencing of subpopulations. This diversity captures a clonal hierarchy, resolved using immunoglobulin somatic mutations and IGH-BCL2 translocations as a frame of reference and by comparing diagnosis and relapse tumor pairs, allowing us to distinguish early versus late genetic eventsduring lymphomagenesis. We provide evidence that IGH-BCL2 translocations and CREBBP mutations are early events, whereas MLL2 and TNFRSF14 mutations probably represent late events during disease evolution. These observations provide insight into which of the genetic lesions represent suitable candidates for targeted therapies.

Kanamori M, Sano A, Yasuda T, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for genomic-wide screening of DNA copy number alterations in aggressive bone tumors.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The genetic pathways of aggressive changes of bone tumors are still poorly understood. It is very important to analyze DNA copy number alterations (DCNAs), to identify the molecular events in the step of progression to the aggressive change of bone tissue.
METHODS: Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to investigate DCNAs of 14 samples from 13 aggressive bone tumors, such as giant cell tumors (GCTs) and osteosarcoma (OS), etc.
RESULTS: Primary aggressive bone tumors had copy number gains of 17.8±12.7% in the genome, and losses of 17.3±11.4% in 287 target clones (threshold for each DCNA: ≦085, 1.15≦). Genetic unstable cases, which were defined by the total DCNAs aberration ≧30%, were identified in 9 of 13 patients (3 of 7 GCTs and all malignant tumors). High-level amplification of TGFβ2, CCND3, WI-6509, SHGC-5557, TCL1A, CREBBP, HIC1, THRA, AFM217YD10, LAMA3, RUNX1 and D22S543, were commonly observed in aggressive bone tumors. On the other hand, NRAS, D2S447, RAF1, ROBO1, MYB, MOS, FGFR2, HRAS, D13S319, D13S327, D18S552, YES1 and DCC, were commonly low. We compared genetic instability between a primary OS and its metastatic site in Case #13. Metastatic lesion showed increased 9 DCNAs of remarkable change (m/p ratio ≧1.3 folds), compared to a primary lesion. D1S214, D1S1635, EXT1, AFM137XA11, 8 M16/SP6, CCND2, IGH, 282 M15/SP6, HIC1 and LAMA3, were overexpressed. We gave attention to HIC1 (17p13.3), which was common high amplification in this series.
CONCLUSION: Our results may provide several entry points for the identification of candidate genes associated with aggressive change of bone tumors. Especially, the locus 17p11-13 including HIC1 close to p53 was common high amplification in this series and review of the literature.

Jiang P, Zang W, Wang L, et al.
Protein-protein interaction and SNP analysis in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.
Gene. 2013; 513(1):219-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a type of tumor that grows within the pancreatic ducts. It is a progress from hyperplasia to intraductal adenoma (IPMA), to noninvasive carcinoma, and ultimately to invasive carcinoma (IPMC). The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the progression from IPMA to IPMC. By using the GSE19650 affymetrix microarray data accessible from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between IPMA and IPMC, followed by the protein-protein interaction and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the DEGs. Our study identified thousands of DEGs which involved regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis in this progression from IPMA to IPMC. Protein-protein interaction network construction found that MYC, IL6ST, NR3C1, CREBBP, GATA1 and LRP1 might play an important role in the progression. Furthermore, the SNP analysis confirmed the association between BRAC1 and pancreas cancer. In conclusion, our data provide a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of genes and pathways which may be involved in the progression of IPMN from IPMA to IPMC.

Kaufmann A, Keim A, Thiel G
Regulation of immediate-early gene transcription following activation of Gα(q)-coupled designer receptors.
J Cell Biochem. 2013; 114(3):681-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
G-protein coupled designer receptors that are specifically activated by designer drugs have been developed. Here, we have analyzed the regulation of gene transcription following activation of Gα(q)-coupled designer receptor (Rα(q)). Stimulation of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing Rα(q) with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), a pharmacologically inert compound, induced the expression of biologically active Egr-1, a zinc finger transcription factor. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of the ternary complex factor (TCF) Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element (SRE)-driven gene transcription, prevented Egr-1 expression. Stimulation of Rα(q) with CNO increased the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1 and enhanced transcription of an SRE regulated reporter gene. In addition, AP-1 transcriptional activity was significantly elevated. AP-1 activity was controlled by TCFs and c-Jun in cells expressing an activated Gα(q)-coupled designer receptor. CNO stimulation did not increase Egr-1 and AP-1 activity in neuroblastoma cells expressing endogenous M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, indicating that CNO did not function as a ligand for these receptors. Rα(q) stimulation also increased the transcriptional activation potential of CREB and cAMP response controlled gene transcription. Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that the protein kinases Raf and ERK were essential to connect Rα(q) stimulation with enhanced Egr-1 and AP-1 controlled transcription. In contrast, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 functioned as a nuclear shut-off device of stimulus-transcription coupling. The fact that Rα(q) stimulation activates the transcription factors Egr-1, Elk-1, AP-1, and CREB indicates that regulation of gene transcription is an integral part of Gα(q)-coupled receptor signaling.

Díaz-Beyá M, Navarro A, Ferrer G, et al.
Acute myeloid leukemia with translocation (8;16)(p11;p13) and MYST3-CREBBP rearrangement harbors a distinctive microRNA signature targeting RET proto-oncogene.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(3):595-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;16)(p11;p13) (t(8;16) AML) has unique clinico-biological characteristics, but its microRNA pattern is unknown. We analyzed 670 microRNAs in seven patients with t(8;16) AML and 113 with other AML subtypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that all t(8;16) AML patients grouped in an independent cluster. Supervised analysis revealed a distinctive signature of 94-microRNAs, most of which were downregulated, including miR-21 and cluster miR-17-92. The mRNA expression analysis of two known transcription factors of these microRNAs (STAT3 and c-Myc, respectively) showed significant downregulation of STAT3 (P=0.04). A bioinformatic analysis showed that 29 of the downregulated microRNAs might be regulated by methylation; we treated a t(8;16) AML sample with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-dC) and trichostatin A and found that 27 microRNAs were re-expressed after treatment. However, there was no difference in methylation status between t(8;16) and other AML subtypes, either overall or in the microRNA promoter. Cross-correlation of mRNA and microRNA expression identified RET as a potential target of several microRNAs. A Renilla-luciferase assay and flow cytometry after transfection with pre-microRNAs confirmed that RET is regulated by miR-218, miR-128, miR-27b, miR-15a and miR-195. In conclusion, t(8;16) AML harbors a specific microRNA signature that is partially epigenetically regulated and targets RET proto-oncogene.

Chung YR, Schatoff E, Abdel-Wahab O
Epigenetic alterations in hematopoietic malignancies.
Int J Hematol. 2012; 96(4):413-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene discovery efforts in patients with hematopoietic malignancies have brought to the forefront a series of mutations in genes thought to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. These mutations occur in genes known, or suspected, to play a role in modifying cytosine nucleotides on DNA and/or altering the state of histone modifications. Genes such as ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, MLL1, and TET2 all have been shown to be mutated and/or translocated in patients with myeloid malignancies. Intriguingly, many of the alterations affecting DNA cytosine modifications in myeloid malignancies (mutations in DNMT3A, IDH1/2, and TET2) have also been found in patients with T-cell lymphomas, and EZH2 mutations appear to be critical in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development as well. In addition, the discovery of frequent mutations in CREBBP, EP300, EZH2, and MLL2 in B-cell lymphomas suggests that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in lymphomagenesis. The purpose of this review is to present functional evidence of how alterations in these epigenetic modifiers promote hematopoietic transformation. The conclusions drawn from these data are valuable in understanding biological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

Pawlus MR, Wang L, Ware K, Hu CJ
Upstream stimulatory factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) cooperatively activate HIF2 target genes during hypoxia.
Mol Cell Biol. 2012; 32(22):4595-610 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While the functions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and HIF2α/ARNT (HIF2) proteins in activating hypoxia-inducible genes are well established, the role of other transcription factors in the hypoxic transcriptional response is less clear. We report here for the first time that the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zip transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) is required for the hypoxic transcriptional response, specifically, for hypoxic activation of HIF2 target genes. We show that inhibiting USF2 activity greatly reduces hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes in cell lines that have USF2 activity, while inducing USF2 activity in cells lacking USF2 activity restores hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes. Mechanistically, USF2 activates HIF2 target genes by binding to HIF2 target gene promoters, interacting with HIF2α protein, and recruiting coactivators CBP and p300 to form enhanceosome complexes that contain HIF2α, USF2, CBP, p300, and RNA polymerase II on HIF2 target gene promoters. Functionally, the effect of USF2 knockdown on proliferation, motility, and clonogenic survival of HIF2-dependent tumor cells in vitro is phenocopied by HIF2α knockdown, indicating that USF2 works with HIF2 to activate HIF2 target genes and to drive HIF2-depedent tumorigenesis.

Peifer M, Fernández-Cuesta L, Sos ML, et al.
Integrative genome analyses identify key somatic driver mutations of small-cell lung cancer.
Nat Genet. 2012; 44(10):1104-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung tumor subtype with poor prognosis. We sequenced 29 SCLC exomes, 2 genomes and 15 transcriptomes and found an extremely high mutation rate of 7.4±1 protein-changing mutations per million base pairs. Therefore, we conducted integrated analyses of the various data sets to identify pathogenetically relevant mutated genes. In all cases, we found evidence for inactivation of TP53 and RB1 and identified recurrent mutations in the CREBBP, EP300 and MLL genes that encode histone modifiers. Furthermore, we observed mutations in PTEN, SLIT2 and EPHA7, as well as focal amplifications of the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase gene. Finally, we detected many of the alterations found in humans in SCLC tumors from Tp53 and Rb1 double knockout mice. Our study implicates histone modification as a major feature of SCLC, reveals potentially therapeutically tractable genomic alterations and provides a generalizable framework for the identification of biologically relevant genes in the context of high mutational background.

Chen CH, Liu YK, Lin YL, et al.
A rapid and convenient method to enhance transgenic expression in target cells.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2012; 42(5):448-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene therapy provides a novel strategy and a new hope for patients with cancer. Unfortunately, the specifics of the delivery systems or the promoters have not achieved the specified efficacy so far, and the perfection of either system will be extremely difficult. In this study, we introduce a simple concept that a combination of a partially specific delivery system and a partially specific promoter activity may achieve a more specific effect on transgenic expression in target cells. The first section describes tumor-related transcription factors that were assayed in tumors or rapidly proliferating cells to determine their activities. The activities of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, CREB, and HIF-1 were higher, and three copies of each response element were used to construct a transcription factor-based synthetic promoter (TSP). The results showed that the expression of the TSP was active and partially specific to cell types. As described in the second section, the multifunctional peptide RGD-4C-HA was designed to absorb polyethyleneimine (PEI) molecules, and this complex was targeted to integrin αvβ3 on B16F10 cells. The results indicated that RGD-4C-HA could associate with PEI to mediate specific targeting in vitro. Finally, the combination of the PEI-peptide complex and TSP could enhance the specifically transgenic expression in B16F10 cells. This strategy has been proven to work in vitro and might potentially be used for specific gene therapy in vivo.

Li Y, Low HQ, Foo JN, et al.
Genetic variants in ER cofactor genes and endometrial cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42445 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Given that the transcriptional regulatory activity of estrogen receptor (ER) is modulated by its biochemical cofactors, genetic variation within the ER cofactor genes may alter cellular response to estrogen exposure and consequently modify the risk for endometrial cancer. We genotyped 685 tagging SNPs within 60 ER cofactor genes in 564 endometrial cancer cases and 1,510 controls from Sweden, and tested their associations with the risk of endometrial cancer. We investigated the associations of individual SNPs by using a trend test as well as multiple SNPs within a gene or gene complex by using multi-variant association analysis. No significant association was observed for any individual SNPs or genes, but a marginal association of the cumulative genetic variation of the NCOA2 complex as a whole (NCOA2, CARM1, CREBBP, PRMT1 and EP300) with endometrial cancer risk was observed (P(adjusted) = 0.033). However, the association failed to be replicated in an independent European dataset of 1265 cases and 5190 controls (P = 0.71). The results indicate that common genetic variants within ER cofactor genes are unlikely to play a significant role in endometrial cancer risk in European population.

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