Gene Summary

Gene:GATA1; GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)
Aliases: GF1, GF-1, NFE1, XLTT, ERYF1, NF-E1, XLANP, XLTDA, GATA-1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein which belongs to the GATA family of transcription factors. The protein plays an important role in erythroid development by regulating the switch of fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked dyserythropoietic anemia and thrombocytopenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:erythroid transcription factor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (52)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Acute Erythroblastic Leukemia
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders
  • Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Mutation
  • GATA2 Transcription Factor
  • Risk Factors
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Chromosome 21
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Down Syndrome
  • Messenger RNA
  • gamma-Globulins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Terminology as Topic
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • GATA1
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Leukaemia
  • Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors
  • Promoter Regions
  • Megakaryocytes
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Newborns
  • Gene Expression
  • Risk Assessment
  • Remission Induction
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • X Chromosome
  • Infant
Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GATA1 (cancer-related)

Kolla V, Naraparaju K, Zhuang T, et al.
The tumour suppressor CHD5 forms a NuRD-type chromatin remodelling complex.
Biochem J. 2015; 468(2):345-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Eukaryotic gene expression is developmentally regulated, in part by chromatin remodelling, and its dysregulation has been linked to cancer. CHD5 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5) is a tumour suppressor gene (TSG) that maps to a region of consistent deletion on 1p36.31 in neuroblastomas (NBs) and other tumour types. CHD5 encodes a protein with chromatin remodelling, helicase and DNA-binding motifs that is preferentially expressed in neural and testicular tissues. CHD5 is highly homologous to CHD3 and CHD4, which are the core subunits of nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes. To determine if CHD5 forms a similar complex, we performed studies on nuclear extracts from NBLS, SY5Y (both with endogenous CHD5 expression), NLF (CHD5 null) and NLF cells stably transfected with CHD5 cDNA (wild-type and V5-histidine-tagged). Immunoprecipitation (IP) was performed with either CHD5 antibody or antibody to V5/histidine-tagged protein. We identified NuRD components both by GST-FOG1 (Friend Of GATA1) pull-down and by IP. We also performed MS/MS analysis to confirm the presence of CHD5 or other protein components of the NuRD complex, as well as to identify other novel proteins. CHD5 was clearly associated with all canonical NuRD components, including metastasis-associated protein (MTA)1/2, GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A (GATAD2A), histone deacetylase (HDAC)1/2, retinoblastoma-binding protein (RBBP)4/7 and methyl DNA-binding domain protein (MBD)2/3, as determined by Western blotting and MS/MS. Our data suggest CHD5 forms a NuRD complex similar to CHD4. However, CHD5-NuRD may also have unique protein associations that confer functional specificity and may contribute to normal development and to tumour suppression in NB and other cancers.

Cromer MK, Choi M, Nelson-Williams C, et al.
Neomorphic effects of recurrent somatic mutations in Yin Yang 1 in insulin-producing adenomas.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(13):4062-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Insulinomas are pancreatic islet tumors that inappropriately secrete insulin, producing hypoglycemia. Exome and targeted sequencing revealed that 14 of 43 insulinomas harbored the identical somatic mutation in the DNA-binding zinc finger of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) showed that this T372R substitution changes the DNA motif bound by YY1. Global analysis of gene expression demonstrated distinct clustering of tumors with and without YY1(T372R) mutations. Genes showing large increases in expression in YY1(T372R) tumors included ADCY1 (an adenylyl cyclase) and CACNA2D2 (a Ca(2+) channel); both are expressed at very low levels in normal β-cells and show mutation-specific YY1 binding sites. Both gene products are involved in key pathways regulating insulin secretion. Expression of these genes in rat INS-1 cells demonstrated markedly increased insulin secretion. These findings indicate that YY1(T372R) mutations are neomorphic, resulting in constitutive activation of cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling pathways involved in insulin secretion.

Kim KB, Son HJ, Choi S, et al.
H3K9 methyltransferase G9a negatively regulates UHRF1 transcription during leukemia cell differentiation.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(7):3509-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Histone H3K9 methyltransferase (HMTase) G9a-mediated transcriptional repression is a major epigenetic silencing mechanism. UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1) binds to hemimethylated DNA and plays an essential role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Here, we provide evidence that UHRF1 is transcriptionally downregulated by H3K9 HMTase G9a. We found that increased expression of G9a along with transcription factor YY1 specifically represses UHRF1 transcription during TPA-mediated leukemia cell differentiation. Using ChIP analysis, we found that UHRF1 was among the transcriptionally silenced genes during leukemia cell differentiation. Using a DNA methylation profiling array, we discovered that the UHRF1 promoter was hypomethylated in samples from leukemia patients, further supporting its overexpression and oncogenic activity. Finally, we showed that G9a regulates UHRF1-mediated H3K23 ubiquitination and proper DNA replication maintenance. Therefore, we propose that H3K9 HMTase G9a is a specific epigenetic regulator of UHRF1.

Xu J, Shao Z, Li D, et al.
Developmental control of polycomb subunit composition by GATA factors mediates a switch to non-canonical functions.
Mol Cell. 2015; 57(2):304-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/01/2016 Related Publications
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) plays crucial roles in transcriptional regulation and stem cell development. However, the context-specific functions associated with alternative subunits remain largely unexplored. Here we show that the related enzymatic subunits EZH1 and EZH2 undergo an expression switch during blood cell development. An erythroid-specific enhancer mediates transcriptional activation of EZH1, and a switch from GATA2 to GATA1 controls the developmental EZH1/2 switch by differential association with EZH1 enhancers. We further examine the in vivo stoichiometry of the PRC2 complexes by quantitative proteomics and reveal the existence of an EZH1-SUZ12 subcomplex lacking EED. EZH1 together with SUZ12 form a non-canonical PRC2 complex, occupy active chromatin, and positively regulate gene expression. Loss of EZH2 expression leads to repositioning of EZH1 to EZH2 targets. Thus, the lineage- and developmental stage-specific regulation of PRC2 subunit composition leads to a switch from canonical silencing to non-canonical functions during blood stem cell specification.

Shaham L, Vendramini E, Ge Y, et al.
MicroRNA-486-5p is an erythroid oncomiR of the myeloid leukemias of Down syndrome.
Blood. 2015; 125(8):1292-301 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for acute myeloid leukemias (ML-DS) characterized by mixed megakaryocytic and erythroid phenotype and by acquired mutations in the GATA1 gene resulting in a short GATA1s isoform. The chromosome 21 microRNA (miR)-125b cluster has been previously shown to cooperate with GATA1s in transformation of fetal hematopoietic progenitors. In this study, we report that the expression of miR-486-5p is increased in ML-DS compared with non-DS acute megakaryocytic leukemias (AMKLs). miR-486-5p is regulated by GATA1 and GATA1s that bind to the promoter of its host gene ANK1. miR-486-5p is highly expressed in mouse erythroid precursors and knockdown (KD) in ML-DS cells reduced their erythroid phenotype. Ectopic expression and KD of miR-486-5p in primary fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors demonstrated that miR-486-5p cooperates with Gata1s to enhance their self renewal. Consistent with its activation of AKT, overexpression and KD experiments showed its importance for growth and survival of human leukemic cells. Thus, miR-486-5p cooperates with GATA1s in supporting the growth and survival, and the aberrant erythroid phenotype of the megakaryocytic leukemias of DS.

Chen DB, Yang HJ
Comparison of gene regulatory networks of benign and malignant breast cancer samples with normal samples.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(4):9453-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to explain the pathogenesis and deterioration process of breast cancer. Breast cancer expression profile data GSE27567 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and breast cancer-related genes were extracted from databases, including Cancer-Resource and Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man (OMIM). Next, h17 transcription factor data were obtained from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID)-enrichment analysis was applied and gene-regulatory networks were constructed by double-two-way t-tests in 3 states, including normal, benign, and malignant. Furthermore, network topological properties were compared between 2 states, and breast cancer-related bub genes were ranked according to their different degrees between each of the two states. A total of 2380 breast cancer-related genes and 215 transcription factors were screened by exploring databases; the genes were mainly enriched in their functions, such as cell apoptosis and proliferation, and pathways, such as p53 signaling and apoptosis, which were related with carcinogenesis. In addition, gene-regulatory networks in the 3 conditions were constructed. By comparing their network topological properties, we found that there is a larger transition of differences between malignant and benign breast cancer. Moreover, 8 hub genes (YBX1, ZFP36, YY1, XRCC5, XRCC4, ZFHX3, ZMAT3, and XPC) were identified in the top 10 genes ranked by different degrees. Through comparative analysis of gene-regulation networks, we identified the link between related genes and the pathogenesis of breast cancer. However, further experiments are needed to confirm our results.

Chen JM, Chiu SC, Wei TY, et al.
The involvement of nuclear factor-κappaB in the nuclear targeting and cyclin E1 upregulating activities of hepatoma upregulated protein.
Cell Signal. 2015; 27(1):26-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is originally isolated during the search for the genes associated with hepatoma. HURP is upregulated in many human cancers. Culture cells exhibit transformed and invasive phenotype when ectopic HURP is introduced, revealing HURP as an oncogene candidate. Our previous studies demonstrated that Aurora-A regulated the cell transforming activities of HURP by phosphorylating HURP at four serines. To unravel how the Aurora-A/HURP cascade contributes to cell transformation, we firstly noticed that HURP shuttled between cytoplasm and nucleus. The nuclear localization activity of HURP was promoted or abolished by overexpression or knockdown of Aurora-A. Similarly, the HURP phosphorylation mimicking mutant 4E had higher nuclear targeting activity than the phosphorylation deficient mutant 4A. The HURP 4E accelerated G1 progression and upregulated cyclin E1, and the cyclin E1 upregulating and cell transforming activities of HURP were diminished when the nuclear localization signal (NLS) was removed from HURP. Furthermore, HURP employed p38/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) cascade to stimulate cell growth. Interestingly, NF-κB trapped HURP in nucleus by interacting with HURP 4E. At last, the HURP/NF-κB complex activated the cyclin E1 promoter. Collectively, Aurora-A/HURP relays cell transforming signal to NF-κB, and the HURP/NF-κB complex is engaged in the regulation of cyclin E1 expression.

Han SS, Han S, Kamberos NL
Piperlongumine inhibits the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines irrespective of glucocorticoid resistance.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 452(3):669-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Piperlongumine (PL), a pepper plant alkaloid from Piper longum, has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. PL selectively kills both solid and hematologic cancer cells, but not normal counterparts. Here we evaluated the effect of PL on the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), including glucocorticoid (GC)-resistant B-ALL. Regardless of GC-resistance, PL inhibited the proliferation of all B-ALL cell lines, but not normal B cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via elevation of ROS. Interestingly, PL did not sensitize most of B-ALL cell lines to dexamethasone (DEX). Only UoC-B1 exhibited a weak synergistic effect between PL and DEX. All B-ALL cell lines tested exhibited constitutive activation of multiple transcription factors (TFs), including AP-1, MYC, NF-κB, SP1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT6 and YY1. Treatment of the B-ALL cells with PL significantly downregulated these TFs and modulated their target genes. While activation of AURKB, BIRC5, E2F1, and MYB mRNA levels were significantly downregulated by PL, but SOX4 and XBP levels were increased by PL. Intriguingly, PL also increased the expression of p21 in B-ALL cells through a p53-independent mechanism. Given that these TFs and their target genes play critical roles in a variety of hematological malignancies, our findings provide a strong preclinical rationale for considering PL as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including B-ALL and GC-resistant B-ALL.

Hernandez-Cueto A, Hernandez-Cueto D, Antonio-Andres G, et al.
Death receptor 5 expression is inversely correlated with prostate cancer progression.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(5):2279-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
Prostate carcinoma (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used to predict the outcome of PCa and screening with PSA has resulted in a decline in mortality. However, PSA is not an optimal prognostic tool as its sensitivity may be too low to reduce morbidity and mortality. Consequently, there is a demand for additional robust biomarkers for prostate cancer. Death receptor 5 (DR5) has been implicated in the prognosis of several cancers and it has been previously shown that it is negatively regulated by Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in prostate cancer cell lines. The present study investigated the clinical significance of DR5 expression in a prostate cancer patient cohort and its correlation with YY1 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression distribution was performed using tissue microarray constructs from 54 primary PCa and 39 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) specimens. DR5 expression was dramatically reduced as a function of higher tumor grade. By contrast, YY1 expression was elevated in PCa tumors as compared with that in PIN, and was increased with higher tumor grade. DR5 had an inverse correlation with YY1 expression. Bioinformatic analyses corroborated these data. The present findings suggested that DR5 and YY1 expression levels may serve as progression biomarkers for prostate cancer.

Roberts I, Izraeli S
Haematopoietic development and leukaemia in Down syndrome.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(5):587-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Children with constitutional trisomy 21 (cT21, Down Syndrome, DS) are at a higher risk for both myeloid and B-lymphoid leukaemias. The myeloid leukaemias are often preceded by a transient neonatal pre-leukaemic syndrome, Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis (TAM). TAM is caused by cooperation between cT21 and acquired somatic N-terminal truncating mutations in the key haematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. These mutations, which are not leukaemogenic in the absence of cT21, are found in almost one-third of neonates with DS. Analysis of primary human fetal liver haematopoietic cells and of human embryonic stem cells demonstrates that cT21 itself substantially alters human fetal haematopoietic development. Consequently, many haematopoietic developmental defects are observed in neonates with DS even in the absence of TAM. Although studies in mouse models have suggested a pathogenic role of deregulated expression of several chromosome 21-encoded genes, their role in human leukaemogenesis remains unclear. As cT21 exists in all embryonic cells, the molecular basis of cT21-associated leukaemias probably reflects a complex interaction between deregulated gene expression in haematopoietic cells and the fetal haematopoietic microenvironment in DS.

Yang H, Hui H, Wang Q, et al.
Wogonin induces cell cycle arrest and erythroid differentiation in imatinib-resistant K562 cells and primary CML cells.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(18):8188-201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
Wogonin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating hematologic malignancies. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of wogonin on K562 cells, K562 imatinib-resistant cells, and primary patient-derived CML cells. Wogonin up-regulated transcription factor GATA-1 and enhanced binding between GATA-1 and FOG-1, thereby increasing expression of erythroid-differentiation genes. Wogonin also up-regulated the expression of p21 and induced cell cycle arrest. Studies employing benzidine staining and analyses of cell surface markers glycophorin A (GPA) and CD71 indicated that wogonin promoted differentiation of K562, imatinib-resistant K562, and primary patient-derived CML cells. Wogonin also enhanced binding between GATA-1 and MEK, resulting in inhibition of the growth of CML cells. Additionally, in vivo studies showed that wogonin decreased the number of CML cells and prolonged survival of NOD/SCID mice injected with K562 and imatinib-resistant K562 cells. These data suggested that wogonin induces cycle arrest and erythroid differentiation in vitro and inhibits proliferation in vivo.

Shao N, Li J, Xu B, et al.
Role of the functional variant (-652T>G) in the XRCC4 promoter in prostate cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(11):7463-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several genes encoding DNA repair molecules have been proposed as cancer-susceptibility genes. Many studies have suggested that SNPs in XRCC4 could be implicated in altering the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). We examined the role of the functional variant (-652T>G) in the XRCC4 promoter in PCa. The transcriptional activity of XRCC4 gene was measured by luciferase assay. We performed real-time PCR/immunohistochemical assay to verify the association between expression level of XRCC4 mRNA/protein and XRCC4 -652T>G polymorphism. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to confirm whether this polymorphism has an effect on binding ability of the transcription factor. We found that the G variant significantly increased the transcription activity of the XRCC4 gene and the binding ability of transcriptional factor GATA-1 to the XRCC4 promoter. Furthermore, the results suggested that the XRCC4 protein and mRNA were overexpressed in individuals who carried the -652G allele compared to carriers of the -652T allele. In addition, the expression of XRCC4 in PCa tissues was lower than in adjacent normal tissues. Our data suggest that the XRCC4 promoter -652G>T polymorphism is functional and may influence genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer. Case-control studies are required to validate our findings in the future.

Inoue T, Swain A, Nakanishi Y, Sugiyama D
Multicolor analysis of cell surface marker of human leukemia cell lines using flow cytometry.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(8):4539-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leukemia cell lines are utilized as tools for molecular analysis. Their implementation in therapy will require standards for quality control, including appropriate selection criteria for functional analysis and efficacy determination.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Characteristics of six human leukemia cell lines -Kasumi-1, NB-4, MOLM-13, MV-4-11, K562, and Jurkat cells-were investigated using multiple color analysis of surface antigen expression and comparative analysis of gene expression.
RESULTS: Differentiation states of Kasumi-1 and MOLM-13 cells are colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage equivalent cells to myeloblasts with comparatively high Growth factor independent-1(GFI1) and Transcription factor PU.1 (PU.1) expression, respectively. NB4 and MV-4-11 express high levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (CEBPα) and differentiate from myeloblasts to pro-monocytes and myeloblasts, respectively. K562 cells are colony-forming units-erythroid equivalent cells to erythroblasts, with the highest expression of GATA-binding factor 2 (GATA2), GATA1 and Friend of gata-1 (FOG1). Jurkat cells are pro-T to mature T-cells with the highest Neurogenic locus notch-1 homolog protein 1 (NOTCH1) expression.
CONCLUSION: Our study gives a useful guideline of standards for appropriate usage of leukemia cell lines for examining novel targets in vitro.

Wang AM, Huang TT, Hsu KW, et al.
Yin Yang 1 is a target of microRNA-34 family and contributes to gastric carcinogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):5002-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Herein, we investigated the role of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a multi-functional protein, in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells. Results showed that YY1 contributed to gastric carcinogenesis of SC-M1 cells including growth, viability, and abilities of colony formation, migration, invasion, and tumorsphere formation. Levels of pluripotency genes CD44, Oct4, SOX-2, and Nanog were also up-regulated by YY1 in SC-M1 cells. Additionally, the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of YY1 mRNA was the target of microRNA-34 (miR-34) family consisting of miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c. Overexpression of miR-34 family suppressed carcinogenesis through down-regulation of YY1 in NUGC-3 gastric cancer cells scarcely expressing miR-34 family. Alternatively, knockdown of miR-34 family promoted tumorigenesis via up-regulation of YY1 in SC-M1 and AZ521 gastric cancer cells with higher levels of miR-34 family. The miR-34 family also affected tumorsphere ultra-structure and inhibited the xenografted tumor growth as well as lung metastasis of SC-M1 cells through YY1. Expressions of miR-34a and miR-34c in gastric cancer tissues of patients were lower than those in normal tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-34 family-YY1 axis plays an important role in the control of gastric carcinogenesis.

Huerta-Yepez S, Liu H, Baritaki S, et al.
Overexpression of Yin Yang 1 in bone marrow-derived human multiple myeloma and its clinical significance.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1184-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) patients initially respond to conventional therapy, however, many develop resistance and have recurrences. We have reported in other tumors that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a resistant factor and, thus, we hypothesized that YY1 may be over-expressed in MM. Significantly, higher expression (staining intensity and cell frequency) of YY1 in MM cell lines and in bone marrow-derived (BM) MM from 22 MM patients was observed as compared to expression in normal BM. Higher nuclear YY1 staining was associated with disease progression. Bioinformatic analyses of mRNA in data sets corroborated the above findings and showed significant overexpression of YY1 in MM compared to normal tissues and other hematopoietic disorders. The role of YY1 expression in the regulation of drug resistance was exemplified in a drug-resistant MM cell line transfected with YY1 siRNA and which was shown to be sensitized to bortezomib-induced apoptosis. These findings highlight the potential prognostic significance of YY1 expression level in MM patients and as a therapeutic target.

Zhang JJ, Zhu Y, Xie KL, et al.
Yin Yang-1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:130 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates an important role of transcription factor Yin Yang-1 (YY1) in human tumorigenesis. However, its function in cancer remains controversial and the relevance of YY1 to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains to be clarified.
METHODS: In this study, we detected YY1 expression in clinical PDAC tissue samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. We also detected MUC4 and MMP10 mRNA levels in 108 PDAC samples using qRT-PCR and analyzed the correlations between YY1 and MUC4 or MMP10 expression. The role of YY1 in the proliferation, invasion and metastatic abilities of PDAC cells in vitro was studied by CCK-8 assay, cell migration and invasion assays. In vivo pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis was studied by a xenogenous subcutaneously implant model and a tail vein metastasis model. The potential mechanisms underlying YY1 mediated tumor progression in PDAC were explored by digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing, signal transduction pathways blockage experiments and luciferase assays. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 15.0 software.
RESULTS: We found that the expression of YY1 in PDACs was higher compared with their adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal pancreas tissues. However, PDAC patients with high level overexpression of YY1 had better outcome than those with low level overexpression. YY1 expression levels were statistically negatively correlated with MMP10 expression levels, but not correlated with MUC4 expression levels. YY1 overexpression suppressed, whereas YY1 knockdown enhanced, the proliferation, invasion and metastatic properties of BXPC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. YY1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that YY1 plays a negative role, i.e. is a tumor suppressor, in PDAC, and may become a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker of PDAC.

Satgé D
Are GATA1 mutations occurring at random in Down syndrome transient leukemia?
Med Hypotheses. 2014; 83(2):154-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The somatic mutation theory of cancer proposes that cancer begins with a somatic mutation occurring at random in a single cell that then passes the mutation to its progeny, generating a clone of premalignant cells. This clone leads to a full malignant tumor through additional mutations and selection processes. Strikingly, the best-documented human model of early oncogenesis, i.e., transient myeloproliferative disorder followed by acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) in infants with Down syndrome (DS, or trisomy 21), exhibits important discrepancies with the SMT. Somatic mutations in megakaryocytic precursors occur at least 100,000 times more frequently in the GATA1 gene in fetuses with DS compared to the general population. Further, mutations are limited to GATA1 only; the general mutation rate does not significantly differ between individuals with DS and euploid individuals. Importantly, the mutations are also lineage-specific, occurring only in the megakaryocytic lineage, and proliferative anomalies of the megakaryocytic lineage are observed before the occurrence of GATA1 mutations. Thus, GATA1 mutations in fetuses with DS cannot be random events occurring in normal cells. Here, transcription-associated mutagenesis is proposed as the mechanism by which the earliest mutations of AMKL occur in DS. Transcription-associated mutagenesis is observed in non-dividing cells when a gene is over-expressed. The over-expression of GATA1 in the megakaryocytic lineage in DS fetal liver cells is proposed to be the cause of targeted GATA1 somatic mutations. As transcription-associated mutagenesis is a universal process, this mechanism may also apply to early oncogenesis in other situations, including after birth and following exposure to a carcinogenic agent. Thus, this hypothesis represents a new avenue for understanding and exploring oncogenesis in the context of DS and in other disease states.

Hsieh FS, Chen NT, Yao YL, et al.
The transcriptional repression activity of STAF65γ is facilitated by promoter tethering and nuclear import of class IIa histone deacetylases.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(7):579-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression levels of transcriptional regulators result in alterations in transcriptional control. STAF65γ is a structural subunit of the GCN5 transcriptional co-activator complex. Reports showed that STAF65γ is highly expressed in several human cancer cells, but the consequences of this aberrant expression pattern remain elusive. Here, we show that the STAF65γ protein is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma patients and high levels of STAF65γ correlate with poor prognosis. High levels of STAF65γ cause repression of the c-Myc oncogene through physical association with transcription factor YY1 and co-repressors HDACs. Physical interactions between STAF65γ and class IIa HDACs facilitate nuclear enrichment and regulate the assembly of HDAC complexes. Moreover, SUMOylation of STAF65γ is necessary for maintaining the co-repressor complex containing YY1 and class IIa HDACs at the promoter. Our findings reveal a distinct role of STAF65γ in nuclear import, transcriptional repression, and cell cycle regulation at high levels of expression, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes of lung adenocarcinoma.

Palma CA, Al Sheikha D, Lim TK, et al.
MicroRNA-155 as an inducer of apoptosis and cell differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterised by the halt in maturation of myeloid progenitor cells, combined with uncontrolled proliferation and abnormal survival, leading to the accumulation of immature blasts. In many subtypes of AML the underlying causative genetic insults are not fully described. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated during oncogenesis. Overexpression of miR-155 is associated with some cancers, including haematological malignancies, and it has been postulated that miR-155 has an oncogenic role. This study investigated the effects of modulating miR-155 expression in human AML cells, and its mechanism of action.
RESULTS: Analysis of miR-155 expression patterns in AML patients found that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-wildtype AML has the same expression level as normal bone marrow, with increased expression restricted to AML with the FLT3-ITD mutation. Induction of apoptosis by cytarabine arabinoside or myelomonocytic differentiation by 1,23-dihydroxyvitaminD3 in FLT3-wildtype AML cells led to upregulated miR-155 expression. Knockdown of miR-155 by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides in the FLT3-wildtype AML cells conferred resistance to cytarabine arabinoside induced apoptosis and suppressed the ability of cells to differentiate.Ectopic expression of miR-155 in FLT3-wildtype AML cells led to a significant gain of myelomonocytic markers (CD11b, CD14 and CD15), increase in apoptosis (AnnexinV binding), decrease in cell growth and clonogenic capacity.In silico target prediction identified a number of putative miR-155 target genes, and the expression changes of key transcription regulators of myeloid differentiation and apoptosis (MEIS1, GF1, cMYC, JARID2, cJUN, FOS, CTNNB1 and TRIB2) were confirmed by PCR. Assessment of expression of apoptosis-related proteins demonstrated a marked increase in cleaved caspase-3 expression confirming activation of the apoptosis cascade.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for an anti-leukaemic role for miR-155 in human FLT3-wildtype AML, by inducing cell apoptosis and myelomonocytic differentiation, which is in contrast to its previously hypothesized role as an oncogene. This highlights the complexity of gene regulation by microRNAs that may have tumour repressor or oncogenic effects depending on disease context or tissue type.

Su S, Yang X, Omiecinski CJ
Intronic DNA elements regulate Nrf2 chemical responsiveness of the human microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1) through a far upstream alternative promoter.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):493-505 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
In humans, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) contributes important biological functions that underlie both detoxification and bioactivation fates arising from exposures to foreign chemicals. Previously, we discovered that human mEH gene transcription is initiated from alternative promoters. The respective transcripts are programmed with tissue specificity and the upstream E1b promoter contributes predominantly to mEH expression. The results presented demonstrate that exposures to the Nrf2 activators, sulforaphane (SFN) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), markedly activate E1b transcription in human lung and liver cells. Genomic analyses identified two major DNase I hypersensitive regions (HS-1 and HS-2) within the ~15 kb intervening sequence separating E1b from the downstream E1 promoter. In BEAS-2B cells, the Nrf2 effectors, SFN and tBHQ, selectively activated the more distal HS-2 through an antioxidant response element (ARE). An activator protein 1/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate interaction was further identified within the HS-2 enhancer that functioned to additionally contribute to ARE-mediated induction responsiveness of the E1b promoter. The results demonstrate that ARE modulation, integrated with additional transcriptional complexes, regulates the tissue-specific expression of mEH and that these processes likely coordinate both the protective and bioactivation functions contributed by mEH activities in human tissues.

Song Y, Luo Q, Long H, et al.
Alpha-enolase as a potential cancer prognostic marker promotes cell growth, migration, and invasion in glioma.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The success of using glycolytic inhibitors for cancer treatment relies on better understanding the roles of each frequently deregulated glycolytic genes in cancer. This report analyzed the involvement of a key glycolytic enzyme, alpha-enolase (ENO1), in tumor progression and prognosis of human glioma.
METHODS: ENO1 expression levels were examined in glioma tissues and normal brain (NB) tissues. The molecular mechanisms of ENO1 expression and its effects on cell growth, migration and invasion were also explored by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Transwell chamber assay, Boyden chamber assay, Western blot and in vivo tumorigenesis in nude mice.
RESULTS: ENO1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in glioma tissues compared to NB. In addition, increased ENO1 was associated disease progression in glioma samples. Knocking down ENO1 expression not only significantly decreased cell proliferation, but also markedly inhibited cell migration and invasion as well as in vivo tumorigenesis. Mechanistic analyses revealed that Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, pRb, and NF-κB were downregulated after stable ENO1 knockdown in glioma U251 and U87 cells. Conversely, knockdown of ENO1 resulted in restoration of E-cadherin expression and suppression of mesenchymal cell markers, such as Vimentin, Snail, N-Cadherin, β-Catenin and Slug. Furthermore, ENO1 suppression inactivated PI3K/Akt pathway regulating the cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of ENO1 is associated with glioma progression. Knockdown of ENO1 expression led to suppressed cell growth, migration and invasion progression by inactivating the PI3K/Akt pathway in glioma cells.

Zhang D, Wang G, Wang Y
Transcriptional regulation prediction of antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer based on RNA polymerase II binding data.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2014; 15 Suppl 2:S10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although endocrine therapy impedes estrogen-ER signaling pathway and thus reduces breast cancer mortality, patients remain at continued risk of relapse after tamoxifen or other endocrine therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of endocrine resistance, particularly the role of transcriptional regulation is very important and necessary.
METHODS: We propose a two-step workflow based on linear model to investigate the significant differences between MCF7 and OHT cells stimulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) respect to regulatory transcription factors (TFs) and their interactions. We additionally compared predicted regulatory TFs based on RNA polymerase II (PolII) binding quantity data and gene expression data, which were taken from MCF7/MCF7+E2 and OHT/OHT+E2 cell lines following the same analysis workflow. Enrichment analysis concerning diseases and cell functions and regulatory pattern analysis of different motifs of the same TF also were performed.
RESULTS: The results showed PolII data could provide more information and predict more recognizably important regulatory TFs. Large differences in TF regulatory mode were found between two cell lines. Through verified through GO annotation, enrichment analysis and related literature regarding these TFs, we found some regulatory TFs such as AP-1, C/EBP, FoxA1, GATA1, Oct-1 and NF-κB, maintained OHT cells through molecular interactions or signaling pathways that were different from the surviving MCF7 cells. From TF regulatory interaction network, we identified E2F, E2F-1 and AP-2 as hub-TFs in MCF7 cells; whereas, in addition to E2F and E2F-1, we identified C/EBP and Oct-1 as hub-TFs in OHT cells. Notably, we found the regulatory patterns of different motifs of the same TF were very different from one another sometimes.
CONCLUSIONS: We inferred some regulatory TFs, such as AP-1 and NF-κB, cooperated with ER through both genomic action and non-genomic action. The TFs that were involved in both protein-protein interactions and signaling pathways could be one of the key resistant mechanisms of endocrine therapy and thus also could be new treatment targets for endocrine resistance. Our flexible workflow could be integrated into an existing analytical framework and guide biologists to further determine underlying mechanisms in human diseases.

Weng W, Wang M, Xie S, et al.
YY1-C/EBPα-miR34a regulatory circuitry is involved in renal cell carcinoma progression.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(4):1921-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common urological malignancy. It remains unclear, however, whether Yin Yang 1 (YY1) plays a functional role in the development of human RCC. In the present study, we demonstrated that levels of YY1 were significantly increased in primary RCC tissues when compared to these levels in the matched healthy tissues. YY1 knockdown inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion of RCC cells. Additionally, we highlighted a positive feedback-loop pathway resulting in YY1 upregulation. We observed that overexpression of YY1 caused repression of C/EBPα and the inhibition of C/EBPα led to the suppression of miR-34a. Since YY1 is a direct target of miR-34a, the low level of miR-34a increased the expression of YY1, promoting the aggressiveness of RCC cells. Furthermore, this feedforward mechanism was found in RCC tissues. We observed that miR-34a was downregulated in the pools of cancer tissues when compared to that of the normal tissues. The expression of miR-34a displayed an inverse correlation with YY1, but a positive correlation with C/EBPα. In conclusion, our study highlights the importance of a novel regulatory circuitry for YY1 activation in maintaining the aggressive phenotypes of RCC.

Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Lambrou GI, Spandidos DA
Gene set enrichment analysis of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in multiple myeloma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4987-5005 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of a dysregulated NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP loop was recently established in metastatic prostate cancer cells and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, its involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) has yet to be investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in MM and how each gene is correlated with the remaining genes of the loop. Using gene set enrichment analysis and gene neighbours analysis in data received from four datasets included in the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal of the Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium, we identified various enriched gene sets associated with each member of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry. In each dataset, the 20 most co-expressed genes with the circuitry genes were isolated subjected to Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment. Among many, we highlighted on FNDC3B, TPD52, BBX, MBNL1 and MFAP2. Many co-expressed genes participated in the regulation of metabolic processes and nucleic acid binding, or were transcription factor binding genes and genes with metallopeptidase activity. The transcription factors FOXO4, GATA binding factor, Sp1 and AP4 most likely affect the expression of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes. Computational analysis of various GEO datasets revealed elevated YY1 and RKIP levels in MM vs. the normal plasma cells, as well as elevated RKIP levels in MM vs. normal B lymphocytes. The present study highlights the relationships of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes with specific cancer-related gene sets in multiple myeloma.

Ung M, Ma X, Johnson KC, et al.
Effect of estrogen receptor α binding on functional DNA methylation in breast cancer.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(4):523-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
Epigenetic modifications introduce an additional layer of regulation that drastically expands the instructional capability of the human genome. The regulatory consequences of DNA methylation is context dependent; it can induce, enhance, and suppress gene expression, or have no effect on gene regulation. Therefore, it is essential to account for the genomic location of its occurrence and the protein factors it associates with to improve our understanding of its function and effects. Here, we use ENCODE ChIP-seq and DNase I hypersensitivity data, along with large-scale breast cancer genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to computationally dissect the intricacies of DNA methylation in regulation of cancer transcriptomes. In particular, we identified a relationship between estrogen receptor α (ERα) activity and DNA methylation patterning in breast cancer. We found compelling evidence that methylation status of DNA sequences at ERα binding sites is tightly coupled with ERα activity. Furthermore, we predicted several transcription factors including FOXA1, GATA1, and SUZ12 to be associated with breast cancer by examining the methylation status of their binding sites in breast cancer. Lastly, we determine that methylated CpGs highly correlated with gene expression are enriched in regions 1kb or more downstream of TSSs, suggesting more significant regulatory roles for CpGs distal to gene TSSs. Our study provides novel insights into the role of ERα in breast cancers.

Kraemer A, Chen IP, Henning S, et al.
UVA and UVB irradiation differentially regulate microRNA expression in human primary keratinocytes.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83392 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of the cellular transcriptome is an important epigenetic mechanism for fine-tuning regulatory pathways. These include processes related to skin cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of microRNA as an intermediary in the carcinogenic processes following exposure to UV-radiation. We now show that UV irradiation of human primary keratinocytes modulates the expression of several cellular miRNAs. A common set of miRNAs was influenced by exposure to both UVA and UVB. However, each wavelength band also activated a distinct subset of miRNAs. Common sets of UVA- and UVB-regulated miRNAs harbor the regulatory elements GLYCA-nTRE, GATA-1-undefined-site-13 or Hox-2.3-undefined-site-2 in their promoters. In silico analysis indicates that the differentially expressed miRNAs responding to UV have potential functions in the cellular pathways of cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of miR-23b, which is a differentiation marker of human keratinocytes, is remarkably up-regulated after UVA irradiation. Studying the interaction between miR-23b and its putative skin-relevant targets using a Luciferase reporter assay revealed that RRAS2 (related RAS viral oncogene homolog 2), which is strongly expressed in highly aggressive malignant skin cancer, to be a direct target of miR-23b. This study demonstrates for the first time a differential miRNA response to UVA and UVB in human primary keratinocytes. This suggests that selective regulation of signaling pathways occurs in response to different UV energies. This may shed new light on miRNA-regulated carcinogenic processes involved in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Gong Y, Cao Y, Song L, et al.
HMGB3 characterization in gastric cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(4):6032-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is a major health problem worldwide; it is the second most common cause of cancer death in the world. Recent studies indicate that the high-mobility group (HMG) of chromosomal proteins is associated with cancer progression. However, HMGB3 has been little studied. We analyzed the co-expression network between HMGB3 and differentially-expressed genes in the GSE17187 database, identifying the relevant transcription factors, and the conserved domain of HMGB3 to understand the underlying regulation mechanisms involved in gastric cancer. Thirty-one relationships between 11 differentially-expressed genes were included in a co-expression network; many of these genes have been identified as related to cancer, including TBX5 and TFR2. Further analysis identified nine transcription factors, these being GATA3, MZF1, GATA1, GATA2, SRY, REL, NFYB, NFYC, and NFYA, which could interact with HMGB3 to regulate target gene expression and consequently regulate gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The HMG-box domain was very similar in various species, with only a few amino acid changes, indicating conserved functions in HMG-box. This information helps to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of HMGB3 in human gastric cancer.

Maroz A, Stachorski L, Emmrich S, et al.
GATA1s induces hyperproliferation of eosinophil precursors in Down syndrome transient leukemia.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(6):1259-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/02/2016 Related Publications
Transient leukemia (TL) is evident in 5-10% of all neonates with Down syndrome (DS) and associated with N-terminal truncating GATA1 mutations (GATA1s). Here we report that TL-cell clones generate abundant eosinophils in a substantial fraction of patients. Sorted eosinophils from patients with TL and eosinophilia carried the same GATA1s mutations as sorted TL blasts, consistent with their clonal origin. TL blasts exhibited a genetic program characteristic of eosinophils and differentiated along the eosinophil lineage in vitro. Similarly, ectopic expression of Gata1s, but not Gata1, in wild-type CD34(+)-hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells induced hyperproliferation of eosinophil promyelocytes in vitro. Although GATA1s retained the function of GATA1 to induce eosinophil genes by occupying their promoter regions, GATA1s was impaired in its ability to repress oncogenic MYC and the pro-proliferative E2F transcription network. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (ChIP-seq) indicated reduced GATA1s occupancy at the MYC promoter. Knockdown of MYC, or the obligate E2F-cooperation partner DP1, rescued the GATA1s-induced hyperproliferative phenotype. In agreement, terminal eosinophil maturation was blocked in Gata1(Δe2) knockin mice, exclusively expressing Gata1s, leading to accumulation of eosinophil precursors in blood and bone marrow. These data suggest a direct relationship between the N-terminal truncating mutations of GATA1 and clonal eosinophilia in DS patients.

Cao Y, Gao Z, Li L, et al.
Whole exome sequencing of insulinoma reveals recurrent T372R mutations in YY1.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2810 [PubMed] Related Publications
Functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) are mainly represented by insulinoma, which secrete insulin independent of glucose and cause hypoglycaemia. The major genetic alterations in sporadic insulinomas are still unknown. Here we identify recurrent somatic T372R mutations in YY1 by whole exome sequencing of 10 sporadic insulinomas. Further screening in 103 additional insulinomas reveals this hotspot mutation in 30% (34/113) of all tumours. T372R mutation alters the expression of YY1 target genes in insulinomas. Clinically, the T372R mutation is associated with the later onset of tumours. Genotyping of YY1, a target of mTOR inhibitors, may contribute to medical treatment of insulinomas. Our findings highlight the importance of YY1 in pancreatic β-cells and may provide therapeutic targets for PNETs.

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