Research IndicatorsGraph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
TICdb, Universidad de Navarra
Search the database of Translocation breakpoints In Cancer for "HOXA11"
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: HOXA11 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: Metastasis to the cervical (neck) lymph nodes is one of the most significant clinical factors responsible for death from oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Therefore, the lymph nodes are frequently removed when the tumor is excised (neck dissection), even though the majority of patients will not benefit from the extra surgery. Two subtypes of oral SCC distinguished by the presence of tumor genomic aberrations +3q, -8p, +8q and/or +20 differ in risk for metastasis - high for the 3q8pq20 subtype, harboring one or more of the aberrations and low for the non-3q8pq20 subtype, lacking these alterations. A prior analysis of the literature suggested genes differentially methylated in the two subtypes. Therefore, the goal of this study was to further investigate the methylation status of candidate biomarkers of the non-3q8pq20 subtype, and evaluate their utility for identifying patients at low risk for metastasis.
METHODS: Methylation status of genes in a cohort of 52 oral SCC patients with at least five year follow up was determined by pyrosequencing. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Growth following re-expression of HOXA9 in cultured oral SCC cells was assessed by proliferation and colony formation assays.
RESULTS: A pilot study evaluating methylation levels of HOXA9, MT1A and HOXA11 promoters in DNA from 12 tumors (six each of the 3q8pq20 and non-3q8pq20 subtypes) revealed that only HOXA9 was differentially methylated. Significant differences in methylation levels of HOXA9 were observed amongst the 52 oral SCCs with respect to genomic subtype and nodal status (p = 0.014, and p = 0.024, respectively, Wilcoxon rank sum test). High levels of HOXA9 methylation and low levels of expression in oral SCC cell lines were observed compared to HaCaT, a non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line. Re-expression of HOXA9 in the SCC4 oral cancer cell line resulted in diminished proliferation and colony formation.
CONCLUSIONS: HOXA9 methylation is frequent in oral cancers and levels are higher in tumors with greater risk of metastasis. Expression of HOXA9 is low in cells with high levels of methylation and reduced expression appears to confer a growth advantage.
Xavier FC, Destro MF, Duarte CM, Nunes FDEpigenetic repression of HOXB cluster in oral cancer cell lines.
Arch Oral Biol. 2014; 59(8):783-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant DNA methylation is a fundamental transcriptional control mechanism in carcinogenesis. The expression of homeobox genes is usually controlled by an epigenetic mechanism, such as the methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region. The aim of this study was to describe the differential methylation pattern of HOX genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and transcript status in a group of hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes.
DESIGN: Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation was performed on two OSCC cell lines (SCC4 and SCC9) using a method denominated Human Homeobox Genes EpiTect Methyl qPCR Arrays, which allowed fast, precise methylation detection of 24 HOX specific genes without bisulfite conversion.
RESULTS: Methylation greater than 50% was detected in HOXA11, HOXA6, HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXB1, HOXB2, HOXB3, HOXB4, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXC8 and HOXD10. Both cell lines demonstrated similar hypermethylation status for eight HOX genes. A similar pattern of promoter hypermethylation and hypomethylation was demonstrated for the HOXB cluster and HOXA cluster, respectively. Moreover, the hypermethylation profile of the HOXB cluster, especially HOXB4, was correlated with decreased transcript expression, which was restored following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.
CONCLUSIONS: The homeobox methylation profile in OSCC cell lines is consistent with an epigenetic biomarker.
This study was aimed at understanding the functional significance of HOXA11 hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). HOXA11 hypermethylation was characterized in six lung cancer cell lines, and its clinical significance was analyzed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 317 NSCLC patients, and Ki-67 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The promoter region of HOXA11 was highly methylated in six lung cancer cell lines, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. The loss of expression was restored by treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Transient transfection of HOXA11 into H23 lung cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of cell migration and proliferation. HOXA11 hypermethylation was found in 218 (69%) of 317 primary NSCLCs. HOXA11 hypermethylation was found at a higher prevalence in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma (74% vs. 63%, respectively). HOXA11 hypermethylation was associated with Ki-67 proliferation index (P = 0.03) and pT stage (P = 0.002), but not with patient survival. Patients with pT2 and pT3 stages were 1.85 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-3.29; P = 0.04) and 5.47 times (95% CI = 1.18-25.50; P = 0.01), respectively, more likely to show HOXA11 hypermethylation than those with pT1 stage, after adjusting for age, sex, and histology. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HOXA11 hypermethylation may contribute to the progression of NSCLC by promoting cell proliferation or migration.
Kang JUCharacterization of amplification patterns and target genes on the short arm of chromosome 7 in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 8(5):1373-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Chromosomal alterations are a predominant genomic force contributing to the development of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). High density genomic arrays were conducted to identify critical genetic landmarks that may be important mediators in the formation or progression of early‑stage ADC. In this study, the most noteworthy and consistent observation was a copy number gain on the short arm of chromosome 7, which was detected in 85.7% (12/14) of cases. Notably, three distinct regions of amplification were identified between the 7p22.3 and q11.2 regions in 28.6% (4/14) of cases; at a size of 4.1 Mbp (7p22.3‑p21.1), 2.6 Mbp (7p15.2-p14.1) and 1.5 Mbp (7p12.3‑p11.2). Variations of the 7p11.2 locus that encodes EGFR are known to be oncogenic. Furthermore, potential target genes were identified that were previously not assumed to be involved in the pathogenesis of ADC, including CALM1P2 (7p11.2), HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXA6, HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXA10, HOXA11 and HOXA13 (7p15.2) and LOC442586, LOC442589, LOC442282, FAM20C and LOC442651 (7p22.3). The present study determined critical regions on the 7p arm of chromosome 7, which were implicated in ADC. The pattern of rearrangements on the 7p arm may be a consequence of the high density of potential targets and the identified genes at the 7p regions may aid in the development of therapeutic targets for ADC.
Coenen EA, Zwaan CM, Reinhardt D, et al.Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: a collaborative study by the International-Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster AML-study group.
Blood. 2013; 122(15):2704-13 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytogenetic abnormalities are strong indicators of prognosis. Some recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, such as t(8;16)(p11;p13), are so rare that collaborative studies are required to define their prognostic impact. We collected the clinical characteristics, morphology, and immunophenotypes of 62 pediatric AML patients with t(8;16)(p11;p13) from 18 countries participating in the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (I-BFM) AML study group. We used the AML-BFM cohort diagnosed from 1995-2005 (n = 543) as a reference cohort. Median age of the pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML patients was significantly lower (1.2 years). The majority (97%) had M4-M5 French-American-British type, significantly different from the reference cohort. Erythrophagocytosis (70%), leukemia cutis (58%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (39%) occurred frequently. Strikingly, spontaneous remissions occurred in 7 neonates with t(8;16)(p11;p13), of whom 3 remain in continuous remission. The 5-year overall survival of patients diagnosed after 1993 was 59%, similar to the reference cohort (P = .14). Gene expression profiles of t(8;16)(p11;p13) pediatric AML cases clustered close to, but distinct from, MLL-rearranged AML. Highly expressed genes included HOXA11, HOXA10, RET, PERP, and GGA2. In conclusion, pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML is a rare entity defined by a unique gene expression signature and distinct clinical features in whom spontaneous remissions occur in a subset of neonatal cases.
Skiriutė D, Vaitkienė P, Ašmonienė V, et al.Promoter methylation of AREG, HOXA11, hMLH1, NDRG2, NPTX2 and Tes genes in glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2013; 113(3):441-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations alone or in combination with genetic mechanisms play a key role in brain tumorigenesis. Glioblastoma is one of the most common, lethal and poor clinical outcome primary brain tumors with extraordinarily miscellaneous epigenetic alterations profile. The aim of this study was to investigate new potential prognostic epigenetic markers such as AREG, HOXA11, hMLH1, NDRG2, NTPX2 and Tes genes promoter methylation, frequency and value for patients outcome. We examined the promoter methylation status using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in 100 glioblastoma tissue samples. The value for clinical outcome was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation with log-rank test. DNA promoter methylation was frequent event appearing more than 45 % for gene. AREG and HOXA11 methylation status was significantly associated with patient age. HOXA11 showed the tendency to be associated with patient outcome in glioblastomas. AREG gene promoter methylation showed significant correlation with poor patient outcome. AREG methylation remained significantly associated with patient survival in a Cox multivariate model including MGMT promoter methylation status. This study of new epigenetic targets has shown considerably high level of analyzed genes promoter methylation variability in glioblastoma tissue. AREG gene might be valuable marker for glioblastoma patient survival prognosis, however further analysis is needed to clarify the independence and appropriateness of the marker.
Although PBX proteins are known to increase DNA-binding/transcriptional activity of HOX proteins through their direct binding, the functional importance of their interaction in leukemogenesis is unclear.We recently reported that overexpression of a 4-homeobox-gene signature (ie, PBX3/HOXA7/HOXA9/HOXA11) is an independent predictor of poor survival in patients with cytogenetically abnormal acute myeloid leukemia (CA-AML). Here we show that it is PBX3, but not PBX1 or PBX2, that is consistently coexpressed with HOXA9 in various subtypes of CA-AML, particularly MLL-rearranged AML, and thus appears as a potential pathologic cofactor of HOXA9 in CA-AML. We then show that depletion of endogenous Pbx3 expression by shRNA significantly inhibits MLL-fusion-mediated cell transformation, and coexpressed PBX3 exhibits a significantly synergistic effect with HOXA9 in promoting cell transformation in vitro and leukemogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, we show that a small peptide, namely HXR9, which was developed to specifically disrupt the interactions between HOX and PBX proteins, can selectively kill leukemic cells with overexpression of HOXA/PBX3 genes. Collectively, our data suggest that PBX3 is a critical cofactor of HOXA9 in leukemogenesis, and targeting their interaction is a feasible strategy to treat presently therapy resistant CA-AML (eg, MLL-rearranged leukemia) in which HOXA/PBX3 genes are overexpressed.
Preclinical studies have shown that hypomethylating agents reverse platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. In this phase II clinical trial, based upon the results of our phase I dose defining study, we tested the clinical and biologic activity of low-dose decitabine administered before carboplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients. Among 17 patients with heavily pretreated and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, the regimen induced a 35% objective response rate (RR) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 10.2 months, with nine patients (53%) free of progression at 6 months. Global and gene-specific DNA demethylation was achieved in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumors. The number of demethylated genes was greater (P < 0.05) in tumor biopsies from patients with PFS more than 6 versus less than 6 months (311 vs. 244 genes). Pathways enriched at baseline in tumors from patients with PFS more than 6 months included cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, drug transporters, and mitogen-activated protein kinase, toll-like receptor and Jak-STAT signaling pathways, whereas those enriched in demethylated genes after decitabine treatment included pathways involved in cancer, Wnt signaling, and apoptosis (P < 0.01). Demethylation of MLH1, RASSF1A, HOXA10, and HOXA11 in tumors positively correlated with PFS (P < 0.05). Together, the results of this study suggest that low-dose decitabine altered DNA methylation of genes and cancer pathways, restoring sensitivity to carboplatin in patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer and resulting in a high RR and prolonged PFS.
Li Z, Huang H, Li Y, et al.Up-regulation of a HOXA-PBX3 homeobox-gene signature following down-regulation of miR-181 is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with cytogenetically abnormal AML.
Blood. 2012; 119(10):2314-24 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression levels of miR-181 family members have been shown to be associated with favorable outcome in patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. Here we show that increased expression of miR-181a and miR-181b is also significantly (P < .05; Cox regression) associated with favorable overall survival in cytogenetically abnormal AML (CA-AML) patients. We further show that up-regulation of a gene signature composed of 4 potential miR-181 targets (including HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXA11, and PBX3), associated with down-regulation of miR-181 family members, is an independent predictor of adverse overall survival on multivariable testing in analysis of 183 CA-AML patients. The independent prognostic impact of this 4-homeobox-gene signature was confirmed in a validation set of 271 CA-AML patients. Furthermore, our in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that ectopic expression of miR-181b significantly promoted apoptosis and inhibited viability/proliferation of leukemic cells and delayed leukemogenesis; such effects could be reversed by forced expression of PBX3. Thus, the up-regulation of the 4 homeobox genes resulting from the down-regulation of miR-181 family members probably contribute to the poor prognosis of patients with nonfavorable CA-AML. Restoring expression of miR-181b and/or targeting the HOXA/PBX3 pathways may provide new strategies to improve survival substantially.
AIM: To identify methylation profile and novel tumor marker of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) with high throughout microarray.
METHODS: Differential methylation profile was compared between normal bile duct epithelial cell lines and CCA cell lines by methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) microarray. Bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (BSP) was performed to identify the methylated allels of target genes. Expression of target genes was investigated before and after the treatment with DNA demethylating agent. Expression of candidate genes was also evaluated by immunofluorescence in 30 specimens of CCA tissues and 9 normal bile duct tissues.
RESULTS: Methylation profile of CCA was identified with MeDIP microarray in the respects of different gene functions and signaling pathways. Interestingly, 97 genes with hypermethylated CpG islands in the promoter region were homeobox genes. The top 5 hypermethylated homeobox genes validated by BSP were HOXA2 (94.29%), HOXA5 (95.38%), HOXA11 (91.67%), HOXB4 (90.56%) and HOXD13 (94.38%). Expression of these genes was reactivated with 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Significant expression differences were found between normal bile duct and extrahepatic CCA tissues (66.67%-100% vs 3.33%-10%).
CONCLUSION: HOXA2, HOXA5, HOXA11, HOXB4 and HOXD13 may work as differential epigenetic biomarkers between malignant and benign biliary tissues.
Son JW, Jeong KJ, Jean WS, et al.Genome-wide combination profiling of DNA copy number and methylation for deciphering biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Cancer Lett. 2011; 311(1):29-37 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Early detection of lung cancer provides the highest potential for saving lives. To date, no routine screening method enabling early detection is available, which is a key factor in the disease's high mortality rate. Copy number changes and DNA methylation alterations are good indicators of carcinogenesis and cancer prognosis. In this study, we attempted to combine profiles of DNA copy number and methylation patterns in 20 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and we detected several clinically important genes with genetic and epigenetic relationships. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), statistically significant differences were observed across the histological subtypes for gains at 1p31.1, 3q26.1, and 3q26.31-3q29 as well as for losses at 1p21.1, 2q33.3, 2q37.3, 3p12.3, 4q35.2, and 13q34 in squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) patients, and losses at 12q24.33 were measured in adenocarcinoma (AD) patients (p < 0.05). In an analysis of DNA methylation at 1505 autosomal CpG loci that are associated with 807 cancer-related genes, we identified six and nine loci with higher and lower DNA methylation levels, respectively, in tumor tissue compared to non-tumor lung tissues from AD patients. In addition, three loci with higher and seven loci with lower DNA methylation levels were identified in tumor tissue from SQ patients compared to non-tumor lung tissue. Subsequently, we searched for regions exhibiting concomitant hypermethylation and genomic loss in both ADs and SQs. One clone representing 7p15.2 (which includes candidate genes such as HOXA9 and HOXA11) and one target ID representing HOXA9_E252_R were detected. Quantitative real-time PCR identified the potential candidate gene HOXA9 as being down-regulated in the majority of NSCLC patients. Moreover, following HOXA9 over-expression, the invasion of representative cell lines, A549 and HCC95, were significantly inhibited. Taken together, our results show that the combined profiling analysis technique is a useful tool for identifying biomarkers in lung cancer and that HOXA9 might be a potential candidate gene for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of NSCLC patients.
Rønneberg JA, Fleischer T, Solvang HK, et al.Methylation profiling with a panel of cancer related genes: association with estrogen receptor, TP53 mutation status and expression subtypes in sporadic breast cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2011; 5(1):61-76 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided in subtypes based on histology, gene expression profiles as well as differences in genomic aberrations. Distinct global DNA methylation profiles have been reported in normal breast epithelial cells as well as in breast tumors. However, the influence of the tumor methylome on the previously described subgroups of breast cancer is not fully understood. Here we report the DNA methylation profiles of 80 breast tumors using a panel of 807 cancer related genes interrogating 1505 CpG sites. We identified three major clusters based on the methylation profiles; one consisting of mainly tumors of myoepithelial origin and two other clusters with tumors of predominantly luminal epithelial origin. The clusters were different with respect to estrogen receptor status, TP53 status, ErbB2 status and grade. The most significantly differentially methylated genes including HDAC1, TFF1, OGG1, BMP3, FZD9 and HOXA11 were confirmed by pyrosequencing. Gene Ontology analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in developmental processes including homeobox domain genes (HOXA9, HOXA11, PAX6, MYBL2, ISL1 and IPF1) and (ETS1, HDAC1, CREBBP, GAS7, SPI1 and TBX1). Extensive correlation to mRNA expression was observed. Pathway analyses identified a significant association with canonical (curated) pathways such as hepatic fibrosis including genes like EGF, NGFR and TNF, dendritic cell maturation and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results show that breast tumor expression subtypes harbor major epigenetic differences and tumors with similar gene expression profiles might belong to epigenetically different subtypes. Some of the transcription factors identified, with key roles in differentiation and development might play a role in inducing and maintaining the different phenotypes.
Fang F, Balch C, Schilder J, et al.A phase 1 and pharmacodynamic study of decitabine in combination with carboplatin in patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant, epithelial ovarian cancer.
Cancer. 2010; 116(17):4043-53 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer, and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have demonstrated clinical efficacy in hematologic malignancies. On the basis of preclinical studies indicating that hypomethylating agents can reverse platinum resistance in ovarian cancer cells, the authors conducted a phase 1 trial of low-dose decitabine combined with carboplatin in patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Decitabine was administered intravenously daily for 5 days, before carboplatin (area under the curve, 5) on Day 8 of a 28-day cycle. By using a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation, decitabine was tested at 2 dose levels: 10 mg/m(2) (7 patients) or 20 mg/m(2) (3 patients). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma collected on Days 1 (pretreatment), 5, 8, and 15 were used to assess global (LINE-1 repetitive element) and gene-specific DNA methylation.
RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) at the 20-mg/m(2) dose was grade 4 neutropenia (2 patients), and no DLTs were observed at 10 mg/m(2). The most common toxicities were nausea, allergic reactions, neutropenia, fatigue, anorexia, vomiting, and abdominal pain, the majority being grades 1-2. One complete response was observed, and 3 additional patients had stable disease for >/=6 months. LINE-1 hypomethylation on Days 8 and 15 was detected in DNA from PBMCs. Of 5 ovarian cancer-associated methylated genes, HOXA11 and BRCA1 were demethylated in plasma on Days 8 and 15.
CONCLUSIONS: Repetitive low-dose decitabine is tolerated when combined with carboplatin in ovarian cancer patients, and demonstrates biological (ie, DNA-hypomethylating) activity, justifying further testing for clinical efficacy. Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
Widschwendter M, Apostolidou S, Jones AA, et al.HOXA methylation in normal endometrium from premenopausal women is associated with the presence of ovarian cancer: a proof of principle study.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 125(9):2214-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
DNA methylation of polycomb group target (PCGT) genes is an early step in carcinogenesis and could potentially be assayed to determine cancer risk prediction. To assess whether methylation changes in PCGT genes in normal tissue is able to predict the presence of cancer, we studied HOXA gene methylation in normal endometrium from premenopausal ovarian cancer patients and age-matched healthy controls without ovarian cancer. DNA methylation of HOXA9 and HOXA11 genes in normal endometrium was associated with ovarian cancer in an initial test set and this was subsequently confirmed in independent validation sample sets. The overall risk of ovarian cancer was increased 12.3-fold by high HOXA9 methylation for all stages, and 14.8-fold for early stage ovarian cancers, independent of age, phase of the menstrual cycle and histology of the cancer. The results of this proof of principle study demonstrate the potential to detect ovarian cancer via analysis of normal endometrial cells and provide insight into the possible contribution of this novel approach in ovarian cancer risk prediction and prevention.
Apostolidou S, Hadwin R, Burnell M, et al.DNA methylation analysis in liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 125(12):2995-3002 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Preinvasive disease can be detected by cervical cytology. All currently available cytology technologies rely on the visual analysis of exfoliated cells from the uterine cervix. Improvement of conventional cytological screening has been proposed by the introduction of molecular-based markers applied to liquid-based cytology (LBC), the suspension of cells collected from the cervix. DNA methylation changes occur very early in carcinogenesis and identification of appropriate DNA methylation markers in such samples should be able to distinguish high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) from nonspecific cytology changes and the normal cervix. To address this potential, we have undertaken a proof-of-principle study of methylation status of LBC samples from HSIL cytology cases compared against matched normal controls. Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR on 28 genes, we found SOX1, HOXA11 and CADM1 to significantly discriminate between the groups analyzed (p<0.01). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) demonstrated that methylation of SOX1, HOXA11 and CADM1 could discriminate between HSIL cases and controls with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC 0.910, 0.844 and 0.760, respectively). The results were further validated in an independent set. This proof-of-principle study is the first to validate the results in an independent case/control set and presents HOXA11, a gene that is important for cervical development, as a potentially useful DNA marker in LBC samples. Further assessment of these preliminary estimates will need to be performed in a larger cohort to confirm clinical utility.
Martinez R, Martin-Subero JI, Rohde V, et al.A microarray-based DNA methylation study of glioblastoma multiforme.
Epigenetics. 2009; 4(4):255-64 [PubMed
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and devastating primary brain tumor in adults. The presence of epigenetic lesions, like hypermethylation of known tumor suppressor genes such as MGMT, has been widely described in GBM, but to our knowledge, a genome-wide profile of DNA methylation changes in these lethal tumors is not yet available. In the present analysis, we have quantified the DNA methylation level of 1,505 CpG dinucleotides (807 genes) in 87 consecutive GBMs using universal BeadArrays. Supervised cluster analyses identified 25 and seven genes that were respectively hypermethylated and hypomethylated in more than 20% of the cases studied. The most frequently hypermethylated genes were HOXA11, CD81, PRKCDBP, TES, MEST, TNFRSF10A and FZD9, being involved in more than half of the cases. Studying the biological features of hypermethylated genes, we found that the group of genes hypermethylated in GBM was highly enriched (41%, p < 0.001) for targets of the PRC2 (Polycomb repressive complex 2) in embryonic stem cells. This suggests that GBM might be derived from precursor cells with stem cell-like features. DNA methylation profiles were associated with overall survival in GBM, and we confirmed the favorable prognostic impact of MGMT methylation in patients treated with alkylating agents. Furthermore, we identified that promoter hypermethylation of the transcription factor gene GATA6 (occurring in 30% of GBM) was significantly associated with unfavorable patient survival.
High-throughput microarray technologies were used to study DNA methylation accompanied by transcriptional changes in follicular lymphoma (FL). Using Methylated CpG Island Amplification with Microarrays to study CpG Island DNA methylation in FL, we discovered widespread hypermethylation of homeobox genes and previously identified targets of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in cell lines and primary tumors, but not in benign follicular hyperplasia (BFH). DNA methylation for HOXA11, HOXD10, HOXB7, HOXC12, PAX6, LHX9, SFMBT2, EN2, and PAX7 was independently validated in the RL cell line and HOXA11, HOXD10, PAX6, and EN2 in primary tumors. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) also established DNA methylation for the previously identified PRC2 targets DCC, DES, GAD2, AQP5, GPR61, GRIA4, GJD2, and AMPH in FL but not in BFH. Gene expression analyses revealed 411 genes that were hypermethylated and transcriptionally repressed in RL, 74% of which were reactivated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azaD) plus or minus the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Forty genes were also downregulated in primary FL. Our results suggest that extensive hypermethylation in promoters of polycomb target genes is a characteristic of FL and that loss of expression of certain SUZ12 target genes could be functionally relevant for lymphomagenesis.
Mizoguchi Y, Fujita N, Taki T, et al.Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia with t(7;11)(p15;p15) and NUP98-HOXA11 fusion.
Am J Hematol. 2009; 84(5):295-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation has been reported as a rare and recurrent chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The NUP98-HOXA9 fusion gene with t(7;11)(p15;p15) was identified and revealed to be essential for leukemogenesis and myeloproliferative disease. To date, t(7;11)(p15;p15) with NUP98-HOXA11 fusion has been reported only in one case of ph-negative chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Here, we report a case of a 3-year-old girl with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) carrying t(7;11)(p15;p15) abnormality with NUP98-HOXA11 fusion. AML chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was found to be effective in treating this disorder, and she remains in complete remission for 3 years after BMT. We suggest the possibility that AML chemotherapy might be effective for treating JMML with t(7;11)(p15;p15) abnormality and NUP98-HOXA11 fusion.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of uterine leiomyomas on the endometrium using molecular markers of endometrial receptivity: HOXA10, HOXA11, LIF, and BTEB1.
DESIGN: Case-control study.
SETTING: University medical center.
PATIENT(S): Thirty reproductive-aged women with submucosal, intramural, or no uterine myomas who underwent hysteroscopy or hysterectomy.
INTERVENTION(S): Proliferative phase endometrial sampling was performed at the time of surgery. In uteri with a submucosal myoma, directed endometrial biopsies were obtained over the myoma and over normal myometrium.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Endometrial HOXA10 expression was evaluated as a primary endpoint using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. HOXA11, BTEB1, and LIF were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR.
RESULT(S): Endometrial HOXA10 and HOXA11 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were significantly decreased in uteri with submucosal myomas compared with controls and with uteri with intramural myomas. A similar trend was seen in BTEB1 mRNA expression; however, no difference was found in LIF mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry localized the decrease in endometrial HOXA10 protein expression to stroma. In the presence of a submucosal myoma, there were no regional differences in gene expression.
CONCLUSION(S): The molecular mechanism by which submucosal myomas adversely affect reproduction includes a global decrease in endometrial HOX gene expression, not simply a focal change over the myoma. This may explain the reproductive dysfunction observed with submucosal myomas.
Chow KU, Nowak D, Kim SZ, et al.In vivo drug-response in patients with leukemic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is associated with in vitro chemosensitivity and gene expression profiling.
Pharmacol Res. 2006; 53(1):49-61 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Only a few approaches are available to address the mechanisms of cell death in vivo which are induced by anticancer treatment in patients with malignancies. In this study in vitro chemosensitivity testing of primary peripheral blood leukemic cells of five patients suffering from different leukemic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas was combined with the analysis of the in vivo rate of apoptosis by flow-cytometry (Annexin V and depolarisation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by JC-1). Furthermore, changes in expression patterns of apoptosis related proteins during chemotherapeutic treatment were detected by Western Blot. Gene expression profiling (HG-U133A, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) was employed to identify common marker genes of in vivo drug response. In vitro chemosensitivity was tested using the cytotoxic agents which the patients were scheduled to receive and was strongly correlated with effective reduction of leukemic lymphoma cells in patients resulting in complete remissions in all five cases. Due to the rapid clearance of apoptotic tumor cells in vivo neither the analysis of the in vivo rate of apoptosis and depolarisation of MMP nor the assessment of expression of regulators of apoptosis showed concordant results concerning the drug response. However, assessment of gene expression during therapy could identify a set of 30 genes to significantly discriminate between samples from patients before treatment compared to samples from the same patients after receiving cytotoxic therapy. Among these 30 genes we found a high proportion of genes associated with apoptotic cell death, cell proliferation and cell cycle signalling including complement lysis inhibitor (clusterin/CLU), beta-catenin interacting protein (ICAT), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), TNF alpha converting enzyme (ADAM17/TACE), homeo box A3 (HOX1), inositol polyphosphatase 5-phosphatase type IV (PPI5PIV) and inhibitor of p53 induced apoptosis alpha (IPIA-Alpha/NM23-H6). These results indicate that in vitro chemosensitivity testing and gene expression profiling can successfully be utilised to analyse in vivo drug response in patients with leukemic NHL's and can be used to explore new pathway models of drug-induced cell death in vivo which are independent of different lymphoma subtypes and different treatment regimens.
Cheng W, Liu J, Yoshida H, et al.Lineage infidelity of epithelial ovarian cancers is controlled by HOX genes that specify regional identity in the reproductive tract.
Nat Med. 2005; 11(5):531-7 [PubMed
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Although epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) have been thought to arise from the simple epithelium lining the ovarian surface or inclusion cysts, the major subtypes of EOCs show morphologic features that resemble those of the müllerian duct-derived epithelia of the reproductive tract. We found that HOX genes, which normally regulate mullerian duct differentiation, are not expressed in normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), but are expressed in different EOC subtypes according to the pattern of mullerian-like differentiation of these cancers. Ectopic expression of Hoxa9 in tumorigenic mouse OSE cells gave rise to papillary tumors resembling serous EOCs. In contrast, Hoxa10 and Hoxa11 induced morphogenesis of endometrioid-like and mucinous-like EOCs, respectively. Hoxa7 showed no lineage specificity, but promoted the abilities of Hoxa9, Hoxa10 and Hoxa11 to induce differentiation along their respective pathways. Therefore, inappropriate activation of a molecular program that controls patterning of the reproductive tract could explain the morphologic heterogeneity of EOCs and their assumption of müllerian-like features.
Speleman F, Cauwelier B, Dastugue N, et al.A new recurrent inversion, inv(7)(p15q34), leads to transcriptional activation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 in a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
Leukemia. 2005; 19(3):358-66 [PubMed
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Chromosomal translocations with breakpoints in T-cell receptor (TCR) genes are recurrent in T-cell malignancies. These translocations involve the TCRalphadelta gene (14q11), the TCRbeta gene (7q34) and to a lesser extent the TCRgamma gene at chromosomal band 7p14 and juxtapose T-cell oncogenes next to TCR regulatory sequences leading to deregulated expression of those oncogenes. Here, we describe a new recurrent chromosomal inversion of chromosome 7, inv(7)(p15q34), in a subset of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by CD2 negative and CD4 positive, CD8 negative blasts. This rearrangement juxtaposes the distal part of the HOXA gene cluster on 7p15 to the TCRbeta locus on 7q34. Real time quantitative PCR analysis for all HOXA genes revealed high levels of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression in all inv(7) positive cases. This is the first report of a recurrent chromosome rearrangement targeting the HOXA gene cluster in T-cell malignancies resulting in deregulated HOXA gene expression (particularly HOXA10 and HOXA11) and is in keeping with a previous report suggesting HOXA deregulation in MLL-rearranged T- and B cell lymphoblastic leukemia as the key factor in leukaemic transformation. Finally, our observation also supports the previous suggested role of HOXA10 and HOXA11 in normal thymocyte development.
Maeda K, Hamada J, Takahashi Y, et al.Altered expressions of HOX genes in human cutaneous malignant melanoma.
Int J Cancer. 2005; 114(3):436-41 [PubMed
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HOX genes act as master genes to control morphogenesis. In human, HOX genes form 4 clusters composing 9 to 11 HOX genes (39 genes in total) on different chromosomes. We hypothesized that aberrant expression of HOX genes was associated with development and subsequent progression of melanoma and that the 39 HOX gene expression pattern determined the sites where melanoma grew. The expression levels of 39 HOX genes in 15 human cutaneous melanoma specimens and 7 nevus pigmentosus specimens were quantified by a comprehensive analysis system based on the real-time RT-PCR method. We found that the expression levels of HOXA11, A13, B9, D12 and D13 in melanoma were higher than those in nevus pigmentosus and that the expression levels of HOXA11, B2 and C13 were significantly different between pT4 melanoma and pT1 to pT3 melanoma. It was most notable that the expression levels of HOXA1, A2, C4 and B13 in melanoma with distant metastasis were higher than those in melanoma without it. On the other hand, we found no relationship between HOX genes expression patterns and the growing sites of melanoma. These results indicated that the misexpressions of some specific HOX genes were implicated in melanoma genesis and metastasis but had no linkage with melanoma sites.
Amesse LS, Moulton R, Zhang YM, Pfaff-Amesse TExpression of HOX gene products in normal and abnormal trophoblastic tissue.
Gynecol Oncol. 2003; 90(3):512-8 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: The expression pattern of three homeobox genes products, HOX A11, HOX B6, and HOX C6, was examined in normal human placental tissue and abnormal trophoblastic tissue derived from complete hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma tumors. We sought to determine whether expression of these gene products during different states of trophoblastic differentiation and proliferation is constant or demonstrates variation. Variation in expression of these respective homeobox genes may provide insight into predicting which molar tissues are likely to develop into choriocarcinoma tumors.
METHODS: Tissue sections from a total of 12 samples were studied. Among these, six full-term human placentas, three complete hydatidiform moles, and three choriocarcinoma tumors were examined for expression of the homeobox HOX A11, HOX B6, and HOX C6 gene products, using immunohistochemistry staining methods.
RESULTS: Expression of HOX homeobox gene products, HOX A11, HOX B6, and HOX C6, was detected in full-term human placenta and tissue from complete hydatiform moles. Abnormal trophoblasts from complete moles demonstrated an immunoreactivity expression pattern comparable to that of normal trophoblasts from term pregnancies. However, definitive expression of these respective homeobox genes was not identified in tissue obtained from choriocarcinoma tumors.
CONCLUSION: Variation in expression of HOX homeobox gene products, HOX A11, HOX B6, and HOX C6, was established in trophoblast tissue obtained from full-term human placentas, complete hydatiform moles, and choriocarcinoma tumors. This finding indicates that normal full-term trophoblasts and abnormal molar trophoblasts may share similar fundamental regulatory control mechanisms. The absence of definitive expression of these HOX gene products in trophoblastic cells derived from choriocarcinoma tumors indicates that while HOX A11, HOX B6, and HOX C6 genes may be involved in maintenance of some trophoblastic cell states, they may be either downregulated or have alterations in their expression in trophoblasts from choriocarcinoma tumors.
Whitcomb BP, Mutch DG, Herzog TJ, et al.Frequent HOXA11 and THBS2 promoter methylation, and a methylator phenotype in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003; 9(6):2277-87 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether there is a methylator phenotype in stage I and II endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, and if so, whether methylation correlates with recurrence.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bisulfite-converted DNAs from 24 stage I and II primary cancers (12 recurrent and 12 nonrecurrent), and 5 endometrial cancer cell lines were analyzed for methylation in the promoter regions of seven genes. A methylation index (MeI) was calculated for each tumor. Frequent HOXA11 and THBS2 methylation prompted analysis of case-matched bloods and 25 additional nonrecurrent primary cancers. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact and Student t tests.
RESULTS: Rates of methylation in the initial tumor series were as follows: HOXA11, 70.8%; THBS2, 62.5%; MLH1, 33.3%; CTNNB1, 16.7%; VDR, 4.2%; CDKN2A, 4.2%; and THBS1, 0%. There was no difference in the MeI of recurrent and nonrecurrent cases. However, cell lines had higher mean MeI. High rates of HOXA11 and THBS2 methylation were confirmed in the additional nonrecurrent tumors. None of the 24 case-matched bloods had HOXA11 methylation, whereas three blood DNAs showed THBS2 methylation. There was a statistically significant difference in the rate of HOXA11 methylation in recurrent and nonrecurrent tumors (P = 0.0167).
CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial adenocarcinomas have a methylator phenotype. No correlation between MeI and clinicopathologic variables in early stage tumors was observed. High rates of methylation were found in the HOXA11 and THBS2 promoter regions. HOXA11 promoter methylation was significantly more frequent in recurrent than nonrecurrent cases. HOXA11 methylation in early stage endometrial cancer is associated with poor outcome.
Panagopoulos I, Isaksson M, Billström R, et al.Fusion of the NUP98 gene and the homeobox gene HOXC13 in acute myeloid leukemia with t(11;12)(p15;q13).
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003; 36(1):107-12 [PubMed
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The NUP98 gene at 11p15 is known to be fused to DDX10, HOXA9, HOXA11, HOXA13, HOXD11, HOXD13, LEDGF, NSD1, NSD3, PMX1, RAP1GDS1, and TOP1 in various hematologic malignancies. The common theme in all NUP98 chimeras is a transcript consisting of the 5' part of NUP98 and the 3' portion of the partner gene; however, apart from the frequent fusion to different homeobox genes, there is no apparent similarity among the other partners. We here report a de novo acute myeloid leukemia with a t(11;12)(p15;q13), resulting in a novel NUP98/HOXC13 fusion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses, by the use of probes covering NUP98 and the HOXC gene cluster at 12q13, revealed a fusion signal at the der(11)t(11;12), indicating a NUP98/HOXC chimera, whereas no fusion was found on the der(12)t(11;12), suggesting that the translocation was accompanied by a deletion of the reciprocal fusion gene. Reverse transcription-PCR and sequence analyses showed that exon 16 (nucleotide 2290) of NUP98 was fused in-frame with exon 2 (nucleotide 852) of HOXC13. Neither the HOXC13/NUP98 transcript nor the normal HOXC13 was expressed. The present results, together with previous studies of NUP98/homeobox gene fusions, strongly indicate that NUP98/HOXC13 is of pathogenetic importance in t(11;12)-positive acute myeloid leukemia.
Zhang YM, Xu B, Rote N, et al.Expression of homeobox gene transcripts in trophoblastic cells.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 187(1):24-32 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the dynamics of homeobox gene expression in the differentiation of trophoblasts as a key to the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in placental development.
STUDY DESIGN: Expression of homeobox genes was examined in primary trophoblastic cells and in the BeWo choriocarcinoma model cell lines by molecular and immunocytochemistry techniques.
RESULTS: We demonstrated the expression of 3 homeobox genes (HOX B6, HOX C6, and HOX A11) in primary trophoblastic cells. BeWo cells showed an expression pattern similar to that of the primary cell lines. In both primary trophoblasts and BeWo cells, the HOX A11 gene, but not the HOX B6 or HOX C6 genes, were found to down-regulate with differentiation from single- to multinucleate giant cells.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a novel expression pattern for HOX A11 gene in trophoblastic differentiation and suggests that the down-regulation of HOX A11 may be necessary for the differentiation of cytotrophoblasts into syncytiotrophoblasts.
Wilms' tumor (WT) has been considered a prototype for arrested cellular differentiation in cancer, but previous studies have relied on selected markers. We have now performed an unbiased survey of gene expression in WTs using oligonucleotide microarrays. Statistical criteria identified 357 genes as differentially expressed between WTs and fetal kidneys. This set contained 124 matches to genes on a microarray used by Stuart and colleagues (Stuart RO, Bush KT, Nigam SK: Changes in global gene expression patterns during development and maturation of the rat kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:5649-5654) to establish genes with stage-specific expression in the developing rat kidney. Mapping between the two data sets showed that WTs systematically overexpressed genes corresponding to the earliest stage of metanephric development, and underexpressed genes corresponding to later stages. Automated clustering identified a smaller group of 27 genes that were highly expressed in WTs compared to fetal kidney and heterologous tumor and normal tissues. This signature set was enriched in genes encoding transcription factors. Four of these, PAX2, EYA1, HBF2, and HOXA11, are essential for cell survival and proliferation in early metanephric development, whereas others, including SIX1, MOX1, and SALL2, are predicted to act at this stage. SIX1 and SALL2 proteins were expressed in the condensing mesenchyme in normal human fetal kidneys, but were absent (SIX1) or reduced (SALL2) in cells at other developmental stages. These data imply that the blastema in WTs has progressed to the committed stage in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, where it is partially arrested in differentiation. The WT-signature set also contained the Wnt receptor FZD7, the tumor antigen PRAME, the imprinted gene NNAT and the metastasis-associated transcription factor E1AF.
Suzuki A, Ito Y, Sashida G, et al.t(7;11)(p15;p15) Chronic myeloid leukaemia developed into blastic transformation showing a novel NUP98/HOXA11 fusion.
Br J Haematol. 2002; 116(1):170-2 [PubMed
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We encountered a patient with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloid leukaemia, with t(7;11)(p15;p15), in whom acute leukaemia phase (acute myeloid leukaemia-M2 morphology) developed within a short period. We detected a novel gene fusion between NUP98 and HOXA11 both in the chronic phase and in the acute leukaemia phase in this case. Although it is well known that a fusion of NUP98-HOXA9 in myeloid malignancies is created by the t(7;11)(p15;p15), this case suggests the possibility that HOXA11 might be another partner gene for NUP98 in t(7;11)(p15;p15) leukaemia.
Fujino T, Suzuki A, Ito Y, et al.Single-translocation and double-chimeric transcripts: detection of NUP98-HOXA9 in myeloid leukemias with HOXA11 or HOXA13 breaks of the chromosomal translocation t(7;11)(p15;p15).
Blood. 2002; 99(4):1428-33 [PubMed
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It has been demonstrated that the chromosomal translocation t(7;11)(p15;p15) in patients with human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) invariably involves fusion of the nucleoporin gene, NUP98, on chromosome 11 and the class 1 HOX gene, HOXA9, on chromosome 7, and that the fusion gene NUP98-HOXA9 is an important gene in myeloid leukemogenesis. Here are reported 2 novel chromosome 7p15 targets of the t(7;11)(p15;p15) chromosomal translocation in 2 patients with CML and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of leukemia cell DNA failed to show rearrangement of HOXA9, whereas NUP98 was found to be rearranged in both cases. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis using a NUP98 primer and a degenerate primer corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of HOXA demonstrated that NUP98 was fused in-frame to HOXA11 in the patient with CML and to HOXA13 in the patient with MDS. The chromosomal breakpoints on 7p15 were located within introns of HOXA11 or HOXA13 genes. In both patients chimeric NUP98-HOXA9 transcripts were also observed. These findings suggest that AbdB-type HOXA genes are common targets of t(7;11)(p15;p15) chromosomal translocations and that a single translocation can produce more than one NUP98-HOXA fusion gene, presumably because of altered splicing.