Gene Summary

Gene:HOXA10; homeobox A10
Aliases: PL, HOX1, HOX1H, HOX1.8
Summary:In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor that may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. More specifically, it may function in fertility, embryo viability, and regulation of hematopoietic lineage commitment. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream homeobox A9 (HOXA9) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein Hox-A10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription
  • Adolescents
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • CpG Islands
  • Transfection
  • Mutation
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Validation Studies as Topic
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Disease Progression
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 7
  • Homeobox Genes
  • Cultured Cells
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcriptome
  • Leukaemia
  • Western Blotting
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • HOXA10
  • KMT2A
  • Repressor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DNA Methylation
  • Transcription Factors
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HOXA10 (cancer-related)

Jarząb A, Grabarska A, Kiełbus M, et al.
Osthole induces apoptosis, suppresses cell-cycle progression and proliferation of cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(11):6473-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of osthole on cell proliferation and viability, cell-cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in human laryngeal cancer RK33 and human medulloblastoma TE671 cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was measured by means of the MTT method and cell proliferation by the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell-cycle progression was determined by flow cytometry, and induction of apoptosis by release of oligonucleosomes to the cytosol. The gene expression was estimated by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. High-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was applied for isolation of osthole from fruits of Mutellina purpurea.
RESULTS: Osthole decreased proliferation and cell viability of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The tested compound induced apoptosis, increased the cell numbers in G1 and decreased cell number in S/G2 phases of the cell cycle, differentially regulating CDKN1A and TP53 gene expression depending on cancer cell type.
CONCLUSION: Osthole could be considered as a potential compound for cancer therapy and chemoprevention.

Brauze D, Fijalkiewicz K, Szaumkessel M, et al.
Diversified expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor dependent genes in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines treated with β-naphthoflavone.
Toxicol Lett. 2014; 231(1):99-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates a variety of biological responses to ubiquitous environmental pollutants. In this study the effect of administration of β-naphthoflavone (BNF), potent AhR ligand, on the expression of AhR, AhRR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, NQO1, GSTA1, ALDH3A1 and UGT1A genes encoding the enzymes controlled by AhR were examined in thirteen laryngeal tumor cell lines and in HepaRG cell line. The analyzed cell lines were derived from patients with squamous laryngeal cancer, with history of cigarette smoking and without signs of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 infection in investigated cells. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed huge interindividual differences in expression of genes from AhR regulatory network. Our results strongly suggest predominant effect of DNA methylation on induction of CYP1A1 expression by AhR ligands as well. Our results indicate that differentiated HepaRG cell line appeared to be very good substitute for human liver in studies on xenobiotic metabolism by AhR regulated enzymes.

Pula B, Olbromski M, Owczarek T, et al.
Nogo-B receptor expression correlates negatively with malignancy grade and ki-67 antigen expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(9):4819-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) has been shown to be involved in endothelial cell chemotaxis and morphogenesis. However, few studies analyzing its expression in cancer cells have been performed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined NgBR expression in 233 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) and corresponding non-malignant breast tissues (NMBT) on mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein levels (immunohistochemistry; IHC and western-blot analysis). NgBR expression was found also analyzed in breast cancer cell lines of varying invasiveness.
RESULTS: NgBR expression was increased in IDC compared to NMBT on the mRNA (p=0.0007) and protein level (p=0.018). NgBR expression decreased significantly with IDC malignancy grade and correlated negatively with the Ki-67 antigen expression (r=-0.18; p=0.0005). High NgBR mRNA expression was associated with estrogen receptor negativity (p=0.0023) and the triple-negative phenotype of the tumors (p=0.0129).
CONCLUSION: NgBR may be involved in IDC development, however, its role in its progression requires further research.

Sewastianik T, Prochorec-Sobieszek M, Chapuy B, Juszczyński P
MYC deregulation in lymphoid tumors: molecular mechanisms, clinical consequences and therapeutic implications.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1846(2):457-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYC is one of the most frequently deregulated oncogenes in human malignancies. It encodes a leucine zipper transcription factor that modulates a broad spectrum of cellular genes responsible for enhancing cell proliferation, cellular metabolism, growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, genomic instability, stem cell self-renewal and reduced differentiation. MYC functions predominantly as an amplifier of expression of already active genes, potentiating the pre-existing transcriptional program, although it can also repress certain transcriptional targets. In mouse models, MYC induces lymphomas, but requires cooperation with other lesions, including inactivation of the p53 pathway, structural alterations of BCL2 family members, or increased PI3K activity. In human B-cell tumors, MYC rearrangements involving the 8q24 region and immunoglobulin heavy or light genes are a hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but can also occur in other lymphoid malignancies, that include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma (BCLU), plasma cell myeloma (PCM), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and plasmablastic lymphoma. For non-BL lymphoid malignancies, MYC fusions represent secondary genetic events and exist in the context of complex karyotypes. Regardless of the mechanism deregulating MYC, lymphomas over-expressing MYC are addicted to this oncogene, highlighting the potential clinical utility of MYC targeting strategies. Several promising approaches for pharmaceutical intervention have been suggested which are now in preclinical or clinical development. Herein, we therefore review the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms associated with MYC deregulation in human B-cell lymphomas and their implications for therapies targeting MYC.

Han SS, Han S, Kamberos NL
Piperlongumine inhibits the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines irrespective of glucocorticoid resistance.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 452(3):669-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Piperlongumine (PL), a pepper plant alkaloid from Piper longum, has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. PL selectively kills both solid and hematologic cancer cells, but not normal counterparts. Here we evaluated the effect of PL on the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), including glucocorticoid (GC)-resistant B-ALL. Regardless of GC-resistance, PL inhibited the proliferation of all B-ALL cell lines, but not normal B cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via elevation of ROS. Interestingly, PL did not sensitize most of B-ALL cell lines to dexamethasone (DEX). Only UoC-B1 exhibited a weak synergistic effect between PL and DEX. All B-ALL cell lines tested exhibited constitutive activation of multiple transcription factors (TFs), including AP-1, MYC, NF-κB, SP1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT6 and YY1. Treatment of the B-ALL cells with PL significantly downregulated these TFs and modulated their target genes. While activation of AURKB, BIRC5, E2F1, and MYB mRNA levels were significantly downregulated by PL, but SOX4 and XBP levels were increased by PL. Intriguingly, PL also increased the expression of p21 in B-ALL cells through a p53-independent mechanism. Given that these TFs and their target genes play critical roles in a variety of hematological malignancies, our findings provide a strong preclinical rationale for considering PL as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including B-ALL and GC-resistant B-ALL.

Abramowicz A, Gos M
Neurofibromin in neurofibromatosis type 1 - mutations in NF1gene as a cause of disease.
Dev Period Med. 2014 Jul-Sep; 18(3):297-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a disease associated with the presence of benign neurofibromas and malignant tumours of the central and peripheral nervous system, that are accompanied by characteristic changes in the skin, such as café-au-lait spots or axillary freckling. In 50% of NF1 patients, the clinical symptoms become apparent below 1st year and in 97%, before the age of 8 years. The disease is mainly caused by the presence of mutation in the NF1 gene that encodes neurofibromin - a protein involved in the regulation of several cellular signaling pathways responsible for cell proliferation and differentiation. Neurofibromin is necessary for embryonic development and involved mainly in the differentiation of neural crest derived cells, mesenchymal cells, neural cells, melanocytes and bone cells. Type I neurofibromatosis is inherited in autosomal dominant manner, nevertheless about 50% of detected mutations are de novo ones. The mutations have full penetrance, although they also have significant pleiotropic effect. Over 1485 different mutations have been identified in the NF1 gene so far, most of which lead to a synthesis of truncated, non-functional protein. It is estimated that the point mutations are responsible for approximately 90% of cases of NF1. The remaining 5-7% of NF1 cases are associated with the presence of a single exon or whole NF1 gene deletion (17q11.2 microdeletion syndrome). The article discusses the role of neurofibromin in cell signaling with the special attention to RAS/MAPK pathway regulation as well as in organism development. Also the basic methods of molecular analysis of NF1 gene are presented in the context of their application in the diagnosis and clinical differentiation of the disease.

Bezniakow N, Gos M, Obersztyn E
The RASopathies as an example of RAS/MAPK pathway disturbances - clinical presentation and molecular pathogenesis of selected syndromes.
Dev Period Med. 2014 Jul-Sep; 18(3):285-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The RASopathies are a class of developmental syndromes. Each of them exhibits distinctive phenotypic features, although there are numerous overlapping clinical manifestations that include: dysmorphic craniofacial features, congenital cardiac defects, skin abnormalities, varying degrees of intellectual disability and increased risk of malignancies. These disorders include: Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, LEOPARD syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), Legius syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The RASopathies are associated with the presence of germline mutation in genes encoding specific proteins of the RAS/mitogen - activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that plays a crucial role in embryonic and postnatal development. In this review, we present the clinical and molecular features of selected syndromes from the RASopathies group.

Starska K, Krześlak A, Forma E, et al.
The -5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 280(2):256-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the -5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region -5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the -5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that -5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer.

Liszka L
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas usually retained SMAD4 and p53 protein status as well as expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers and cell cycle regulators at the stage of liver metastasis.
Pol J Pathol. 2014; 65(2):100-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are limited data on the biology of metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of the present study was to compare the expression of immunohistochemical markers that may be involved in the development of metastatic disease in primary PDAC and in synchronous liver metastatic tissues. Thirty-two stains (corresponding to proteins encoded by 31 genes: SMAD4, TP53, ACTA2, CDH1, CDKN1A, CLDN1, CLDN4, CLDN7, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, FN1, KRT19, MAPK1/MAPK3, MAPK14, MKI67, MMP2, MMP9, MUC1 (3 antibodies), MUC5AC, MUC6, MTOR, MYC, NES, PTGS2, RPS6, RPS6KB1, TGFB1, TGFBR1, VIM) were evaluated using tissue microarray of 26 pairs of primary PDACs and their liver metastases. There were no significant differences in expression levels of examined proteins between primary and secondary lesions. In particular, metastatic PDAC retained the primary tumour's SMAD4 protein status in all and p53 protein status in all but one case. This surprising homogeneity also involved expression levels of markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as cell cycle regulators studied. In conclusion, the biological profiles of primary PDACs and their liver metastases seemed to be similar. Molecular alterations of PDAC related to a set of immunohistochemical markers examined in the present study were already present at the stage of localized disease.

Yu H, Neale G, Zhang H, et al.
Downregulation of Prdm16 mRNA is a specific antileukemic mechanism during HOXB4-mediated HSC expansion in vivo.
Blood. 2014; 124(11):1737-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of HOXB4 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) leads to increased self-renewal without causing hematopoietic malignancies in transplanted mice. The molecular basis of HOXB4-mediated benign HSC expansion in vivo is not well understood. To gain further insight into the molecular events underlying HOXB4-mediated HSC expansion, we analyzed gene expression changes at multiple time points in Lin(-)Sca1(+)c-kit(+) cells from mice transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with a MSCV-HOXB4-ires-YFP vector. A distinct HOXB4 transcriptional program was reproducibly induced and stabilized by 12 weeks after transplant. Dynamic expression changes were observed in genes critical for HSC self-renewal as well as in genes involved in myeloid and B-cell differentiation. Prdm16, a transcription factor associated with human acute myeloid leukemia, was markedly repressed by HOXB4 but upregulated by HOXA9 and HOXA10, suggesting that Prdm16 downregulation was involved in preventing leukemia in HOXB4 transplanted mice. Functional evidence to support this mechanism was obtained by enforcing coexpression of sPrdm16 and HOXB4, which led to enhanced self-renewal, myeloid expansion, and leukemia. Altogether, these studies define the transcriptional pathways involved in HOXB4 HSC expansion in vivo and identify repression of Prdm16 transcription as a mechanism by which expanding HSCs avoid leukemic transformation.

Jin HO, Lee YH, Park JA, et al.
Piperlongumine induces cell death through ROS-mediated CHOP activation and potentiates TRAIL-induced cell death in breast cancer cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(12):2039-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Piperlongumine (PL) has been shown to selectively induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In this study, we characterized a molecular mechanism for PL-induced cell death.
METHODS: Cell viability and cell death were assessed by MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively. ROS generation was measured using the H2DCFDA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used for suppressing gene expression. The mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively.
RESULTS: We found that PL promotes C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induction, which leads to the up-regulation of its targets Bim and DR5. Pretreatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine abolishes the PL-induced up-regulation of CHOP and its target genes, suggesting an essential role for ROS in PL-induced CHOP activation. The down-regulation of CHOP or Bim with siRNA efficiently attenuates PL-induced cell death, suggesting a critical role for CHOP in this cell death. Furthermore, PL potentiates TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells by upregulating DR5, as DR5 knockdown abolished the sensitizing effect of PL on TRAIL responses.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data suggest a new mechanism for the PL-induced cell death in which ROS mediates CHOP activation, and combination treatment with PL and TRAIL could be a potential strategy for breast cancer therapy.

Olinski R, Styczynski J, Olinska E, Gackowski D
Viral infection-oxidative stress/DNA damage-aberrant DNA methylation: separate or interrelated events responsible for genetic instability and childhood ALL development?
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1846(1):226-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder that originates in a single B- or T-lymphocyte progenitor and is characterized by a range of numeric and structural chromosomal aberrations. Although, so far no clear cause can be found for ALL the most commonly recognized and strongest causal factor is infection. However, an interesting question is how viral infection may be responsible for genetic changes that lead to lymphoid cell transformation. A plausible mechanism by which infection might impact the process of leukemogenesis via genetic alteration is through: oxidative stress/DNA damage which is closely linked with inflammation, aberrant expression of AID/ABOBEC family enzymes which may be responsible for massive mutation introduction and alteration of DNA methylation, leading to changes in the expression of hematopoietic genes. In this review we propose several specific molecular mechanisms which link infection with all the above-mentioned processes. The most likely event which links common virus infection with ALL pathogenesis is aberrant expression of AID/APOBEC. This event may be directly responsible for the introduction of point mutations (as the result of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine deamination and formation of G:U or G:T misspairs) as well as changes in DNA methylation status.

Homa I, Sawicki M, Wojas-Krawczyk K, et al.
Rare co-existence of mutation in KRAS and ALK gene re-arrangement in an adenocarcinoma patient--a case report.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(7):3701-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene re-arrangements are present in approximately 4% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), mostly in non-smokers with adenocarcinoma. V-KI-RAS2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations are more common in smokers. These molecular lesions were usually described as are mutually exclusive. We herein describe a rare case of co-existence of ALK and KRAS abnormalities in adenocarcinoma tumor with massive local growth (disproportionality of clinical symptoms) and rapid central nervous system (CNS) metastases spread. T3N1M0 stage tumor (size: 10×12×13 cm) in upper lobe of the right lung was diagnosed in a 56-year-old Caucasian male smoker. Adenocarcinoma of solid predominant was surgically resected with chest wall reconstruction. One month after surgery, CNS metastases were diagnosed and subsequently treated with radiotherapy. We noted an 8-month overall survival from tumor resection. In the case of comorbidity of disorders in the ALK (uncertain prognostic significance) and KRAS gene (described as unfavorable prognostic factor), these abnormalities may ultimately decide the course of the disease in the form of brain metastases.

Dória ML, Ribeiro AS, Wang J, et al.
Fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthetic pathways are regulated throughout mammary epithelial cell differentiation and correlate to breast cancer survival.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(10):4247-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
This work combined gene and protein expression, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare lipid metabolism changes in undifferentiated/proliferating vs. functionally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and to study their correlation to breast cancer survival. Sixty-eight genes involved in lipid metabolism were changed in MEC differentiation. Differentiated cells showed induction of Elovl6 (2-fold), Scd1 (4-fold), and Fads2 (2-fold), which correlated with increased levels of C16:1 n-7 and C18:1 n-9 (1.5-fold), C20:3 n-6 (2.5-fold), and C20:4 n-6 (6-fold) fatty acids (FAs) and more phospholipids (PLs) containing these species. Further, increased expression (2- to 3-fold) of genes in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) de novo biosynthesis resulted in a 20% PE increase. Proliferating/undifferentiated cells showed higher C16:0 (1.7-fold) and C18:2 n-6 (4.2-fold) levels and more PLs containing C16:0 FAs [PC(16:0/16:1), PG(16:0/18:2), PG(16:0/18:1), and SM(16:0/18:0)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis of data from 3455 patients with breast cancer disclosed a positive correlation for 59% of genes expressed in differentiated MECs with better survival. PE biosynthesis and FA oxidation correlated with better prognosis in patients with breast cancer, including the basal-like subtype. Therefore, genes involved in mammary gland FA and PL metabolism and their resulting molecular species reflect the cellular proliferative ability and differentiation state and deserve further studies as potential markers of breast cancer progression

Mirecka A, Paszkowska-Szczur K, Scott RJ, et al.
Common variants of xeroderma pigmentosum genes and prostate cancer risk.
Gene. 2014; 546(2):156-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic basis of prostate cancer (PC) is complex and appears to involve multiple susceptibility genes. A number of studies have evaluated a possible correlation between several NER gene polymorphisms and PC risk, but most of them evaluated only single SNPs among XP genes and the results remain inconsistent. Out of 94 SNPs located in seven XP genes (XPA-XPG) a total of 15 SNPs were assayed in 720 unselected patients with PC and compared to 1121 healthy adults. An increased risk of disease was associated with the XPD SNP, rs1799793 (Asp312Asn) AG genotype (OR=2.60; p<0.001) and with the AA genotype (OR=531; p<0.0001) compared to the control population. Haplotype analysis of XPD revealed one protective haplotype and four associated with an increased disease risk, which showed that the A allele (XPD rs1799793) appeared to drive the main effect on promoting prostate cancer risk. Polymorphism in XPD gene appears to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

Stoczynska-Fidelus E, Och W, Rieske P, et al.
Spontaneous in vitro senescence of glioma cells confirmed by an antibody against IDH1R132H.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(6):2859-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have recently suggested that glioblastoma cells become spontaneously senescent in cell culture conditions. The antibody specific against IDH1(R132H) offers the perfect opportunity to verify this hypothesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the features of senescence in 8 glioma cell cultures showing the IDH1(R132H) mutation based on combination of immunocytochemistry, enzymo-cytochemistry, BrdU incorporation assay and real-time microscopic observation.
RESULTS: We report that glioma cells showing the IDH1(R132H) mutation become rapidly and spontaneously senescent in vitro. Senescence was observed in both classical and novel serum-free cell culture conditions. Importantly, the senescent IDH1(R132H)-positive cells showed the expression of stemness marker (SOX2).
CONCLUSION: In vitro senescence appeared to be the main reason of the difficulties in any kind culturing of glioma cells. 3D cell cultures prolonged the survival and in vitro proliferation of neoplastic IDH1(R132H)-positive cells, however, did not enhance the stabilization efficiency. Senescence of glioma cells is spontaneously triggered in vitro, which offers the opportunity of potential new therapeutic strategies based on this phenomenon.

Duechler M, Peczek L, Szubert M, Suzin J
Influence of hypoxia inducible factors on the immune microenvironment in ovarian cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(6):2811-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors remain immunogenic even at advanced stages, but cancer-induced immunosuppression abrogates immune surveillance. The composition of the immune microenvironment in ovarian tumors was characterized by analyzing selected immunosuppressive factors in specimens from cancer patients. The influence of the hypoxia inducible factors on the immune microenvironment was also addressed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue was collected from 21 ovarian cancer patients immediately following tumor excision during surgery. The mRNA expression of selected genes was quantified, and tumor infiltrating leukocytes were characterized by flow cytometry to identify regulatory T-cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and type-2 macrophages.
RESULTS: Overall, a pronounced heterogeneity was found among the analyzed samples. Nevertheless, statistical analysis revealed that the expression of hypoxia inducible factors correlated with the transcription levels of several immunosuppressive molecules.
CONCLUSION: The activity of hypoxia inducible factors contributes to cancer immunosuppression in ovarian cancer patients.

Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk A, Macieja A, Mały E, et al.
Polymorphisms in microRNA target sites modulate risk of lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemias and affect microRNA binding.
J Hematol Oncol. 2014; 7(1):43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA dysregulation is a common event in leukemia. Polymorphisms in microRNA-binding sites (miRSNPs) in target genes may alter the strength of microRNA interaction with target transcripts thereby affecting protein levels. In this study we aimed at identifying miRSNPs associated with leukemia risk and assessing impact of these miRSNPs on miRNA binding to target transcripts.
METHODS: We analyzed with specialized algorithms the 3' untranslated regions of 137 leukemia-associated genes and identified 111 putative miRSNPs, of which 10 were chosen for further investigation. We genotyped patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 87), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, n = 140), childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 101) and healthy controls (n = 471). Association between SNPs and leukemia risk was calculated by estimating odds ratios in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. For miRSNPs that were associated with leukemia risk we performed luciferase reporter assays to examine whether they influence miRNA binding.
RESULTS: Here we show that variant alleles of TLX1_rs2742038 and ETV6_rs1573613 were associated with increased risk of childhood ALL (OR (95% CI) = 3.97 (1.43-11.02) and 1.9 (1.16-3.11), respectively), while PML_rs9479 was associated with decreased ALL risk (OR = 0.55 (0.36-0.86). In adult myeloid leukemias we found significant associations between the variant allele of PML_rs9479 and decreased AML risk (OR = 0.61 (0.38-0.97), and between variant alleles of IRF8_ rs10514611 and ARHGAP26_rs187729 and increased CML risk (OR = 2.4 (1.12-5.15) and 1.63 (1.07-2.47), respectively). Moreover, we observed a significant trend for an increasing ALL and CML risk with the growing number of risk genotypes with OR = 13.91 (4.38-44.11) for carriers of ≥3 risk genotypes in ALL and OR = 4.9 (1.27-18.85) for carriers of 2 risk genotypes in CML. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that the C allele of ARHGAP26_rs187729 creates an illegitimate binding site for miR-18a-3p, while the A allele of PML_rs9479 enhances binding of miR-510-5p and the C allele of ETV6_rs1573613 weakens binding of miR-34c-5p and miR-449b-5p.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study implicates that microRNA-binding site polymorphisms modulate leukemia risk by interfering with the miRNA-mediated regulation. Our findings underscore the significance of variability in 3' untranslated regions in leukemia.

Musialik E, Bujko M, Kober P, et al.
Comparison of promoter DNA methylation and expression levels of genes encoding CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins in AML patients.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(7):850-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (CEBPs) are transcription factors regulating myeloid differentiation. Disturbances of their expression may contribute to leukemogenesis. In this study we compared promoter methylation and expression levels of selected CEBP genes in a group of 78 AML patients, normal bone marrow and hematopoietic precursor cells. CEBPA, CEBPD and CEBPE promoter methylation levels were elevated in 37%, 35.5% and 56.7% of patients. No CEBPZ(DDIT3) methylation was observed. An inverse relationship between CEBPA and CEBPD DNA methylation and expression levels was observed. AML cytogenetic risk groups and patients with particular translocation are characterized by distinct methylation/expression profile of CEBPs encoding genes.

Januchowski R, Zawierucha P, Ruciński M, et al.
Drug transporter expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(4):447-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is characterized by the higher mortality among gynecological cancers. In results of MDR development during chemotherapy cancer cells become resistant to further treatment. Microarray techniques can provide information about MDR development at gene expression level. ABC and SLC transporters are most important proteins responsible for this phenomenon. In this study changes of ABC and SLC genes expression pattern in drugs resistant sublines of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line were demonstrated. The cytostatic resistant sublines were generated by culture of A2780 cell line with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. As screening methods, we used Affymetrix U219 Human Genome microarrays. Independent t-tests were used to determinate statistical significances of results. Genes that expression levels were higher than assumed threshold (upregulated above threefold and downregulated under -3 fold) were visualized using scatter plot method, selected and listed in table. Between the ABC genes increased expression of seven genes and decreased expression of three genes were observed. Expression of two genes was increased or decreased depending on the cell line. We observed significant (more than tenfold) increase in expression of four ABC genes: ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 and decreased expression of ABCA3 gene. We also observed changes in expression of 32 SLC genes. Between them we observe increased expression of 17 genes and decreased expression of 15 genes. Expression of four genes was increased or decreased dependent on cell line. The expression of nine SLC genes increased or decreased very significantly (more than tenfold). Five genes were significantly upregulated: SLC2A9, SLC16A3, SLC16A14, SLC38A4 and SLC39A8. Four additional genes were significantly downregulated: SLC2A14, SLC6A15, SLC8A1 and SLC27A2. Expression profiles of these genes give strong arguments for assumption of correlation between expression of ABC and SLC genes and drug resistance phenomenon. Identifying correlations between specific drug transporters and cytostatic drug resistance will require further investigation.

Giebel S, Boratyn-Nowicka A, Karabon L, et al.
Associations between genes for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their ligands in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
Hum Immunol. 2014; 75(6):508-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate function of NK cells and subsets of T cells. HLA class I molecules are ligands for inhibitory KIRs while specificity of activating KIRs is mainly unknown. Both KIR and HLA genotypes are highly polymorphic. In this study we analyzed associations of KIR and KIR ligand genes with the incidence and clinical course of epithelial ovarian cancer. DNA of 142 patients was analyzed for KIR genes and 103 samples were typed for HLA class I. Control group consisted of 200 healthy individuals, including 83 women, analyzed separately. The frequency of KIR genes in patients and controls were comparable. HLA-C group 1 (ligand for KIR2DL2/3) was more frequent in patients than in controls (86.4% vs. 67.5%, p=0.002). The frequency of KIR2DS4fl was higher in patients with endometrioid cancer (72.3%) compared with other histological subtypes (36.5%, p=0.004) and controls (29.5%, p=0.0001). KIR and KIR ligand genotype did not influence significantly the clinical course of the disease. We conclude that the genotype of KIR ligands is strongly associated with the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer while KIR2DS4fl confers susceptibility to endometrioid subtype of the disease.

Bubka M, Link-Lenczowski P, Janik M, et al.
Overexpression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases III and V in human melanoma cells. Implications for MCAM N-glycosylation.
Biochimie. 2014; 103:37-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
An important role in cancer pathogenesis is attributed to N-glycans with "bisecting" N-acetylglucosamine and beta1-6 branches but the exact mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Two structures are formed by Golgi beta-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC =, GnT-III) and alpha-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (EC =, GnT-V) respectively. The enzymes are encoded by MGAT3 and MGAT5 genes. The aim of this study was to establish two human melanoma cell lines with induced overexpression of GnT-III or GnT-V and to perform a preliminary functional characterization. WM-266-4 cells were stably transfected with human MGAT3 or MGAT5 cDNAs. GnT-III and GnT-V activities were assayed with a novel HPLC method based on labeling of N-glycan acceptor with 2-aminobenzamide (adapted from Taniguchi et al., 1989). Higher expression and activities of glycosyltransferases were detected. Increased amounts of "bisected" and beta1-6 branched N-glycans were present on melanoma cell adhesion molecule (known as MCAM/MUC18). However, cells did not display significant differences in viability and capabilities to migrate through an endothelial layer. To the best of our knowledge, the result of our study is the first to demonstrate that "bisected" N-glycans can be carried by MCAM. Moreover, increased modification of this protein by the two glycosyltransferases in WM-266-4-GnT-III cells was the consequence of the overexpression of only one enzyme. The obtained model can be useful for studying mechanisms of N-glycans branching and better understanding of their role in cancer progression. The proposed modification of the glycosyltransferase activity assay has shown to be a good alternative for 2-aminopyridine based HPLC systems.

Guin S, Pollard C, Ru Y, et al.
Role in tumor growth of a glycogen debranching enzyme lost in glycogen storage disease.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(5) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system, yet our molecular understanding of this disease is incomplete, hampering therapeutic advances.
METHODS: Here we used a genome-wide functional short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen to identify suppressors of in vivo bladder tumor xenograft growth (n = 50) using bladder cancer UMUC3 cells. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify the most frequently occurring shRNAs in tumors. Genes so identified were studied in 561 patients with bladder cancer for their association with stratification of clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The best prognostic marker was studied to determine its mechanism in tumor suppression using anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, xenograft (n = 20), and metabolomic assays. Statistical significance was determined using two-sided Student t test and repeated-measures statistical analysis.
RESULTS: We identified the glycogen debranching enzyme AGL as a prognostic indicator of patient survival (P = .04) and as a novel regulator of bladder cancer anchorage-dependent (P < .001), anchorage-independent (mean ± standard deviation, 180 ± 23.1 colonies vs 20±9.5 in control, P < .001), and xenograft growth (P < .001). Rescue experiments using catalytically dead AGL variants revealed that this effect is independent of AGL enzymatic functions. We demonstrated that reduced AGL enhances tumor growth by increasing glycine synthesis through increased expression of serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2.
CONCLUSIONS: Using an in vivo RNA interference screen, we discovered that AGL, a glycogen debranching enzyme, has a biologically and statistically significant role in suppressing human cancer growth.

Lin G, Andrejeva G, Wong Te Fong AC, et al.
Reduced Warburg effect in cancer cells undergoing autophagy: steady- state 1H-MRS and real-time hyperpolarized 13C-MRS studies.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92645 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autophagy is a highly regulated, energy dependent cellular process where proteins, organelles and cytoplasm are sequestered in autophagosomes and digested to sustain cellular homeostasis. We hypothesized that during autophagy induced in cancer cells by i) starvation through serum and amino acid deprivation or ii) treatment with PI-103, a class I PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, glycolytic metabolism would be affected, reducing flux to lactate, and that this effect may be reversible. We probed metabolism during autophagy in colorectal HT29 and HCT116 Bax knock-out cells using hyperpolarized (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and steady-state (1)H-MRS. 24 hr PI103-treatment or starvation caused significant reduction in the apparent forward rate constant (k(PL)) for pyruvate to lactate exchange compared with controls in HT29 (100 μM PI-103: 82%, p = 0.05) and HCT116 Bax-ko cells (10 μM PI-103: 53%, p = 0.05; 20 μM PI-103: 42%, p<0.0001; starvation: 52%, p<0.001), associated with reduced lactate excretion and intracellular lactate in all cases, and unchanged lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and increased NAD+/NADH ratio following PI103 treatment or decreased LDH activity and unchanged NAD+/NADH ratio following starvation. After 48 hr recovery from PI103 treatment, k(PL) remained below control levels in HT29 cells (74%, p = 0.02), and increased above treated values, but remained below 24 hr vehicle-treated control levels in HCT116 Bax-ko cells (65%, p = 0.004) both were accompanied by sustained reduction in lactate excretion, recovery of NAD+/NADH ratio and intracellular lactate. Following recovery from starvation, k(PL) was significantly higher than 24 hr vehicle-treated controls (140%, p = 0.05), associated with increased LDH activity and total cellular NAD(H). Changes in k(PL) and cellular and excreted lactate provided measureable indicators of the major metabolic processes accompanying starvation- and drug-induced autophagy. The changes are reversible, returning towards and exceeding control values on cellular recovery, which potentially identifies resistance. k(PL) (hyperpolarized (13)C-MRS) and lactate ((1)H-MRS) provide useful biomarkers for the autophagic process, enabling non-invasive monitoring of the Warburg effect.

Glodkowska-Mrowka E, Mrowka P, Basak GW, et al.
Statins inhibit ABCB1 and ABCG2 drug transporter activity in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and potentiate antileukemic effects of imatinib.
Exp Hematol. 2014; 42(6):439-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite undisputed success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), development of drug resistance and inability to cure the disease challenge clinicians and researchers. Additionally, recent reports regarding cardiovascular toxicities of second and third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors prove that there is still a place for novel therapeutic combinations in CML. We have previously shown that statins are able to modulate activity of chemotherapeutics or antibodies used in oncology. Therefore, we decided to verify that statins are able to potentiate antileukemic activity of imatinib, still a frontline treatment of CML. Lovastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, synergistically potentiates antileukemic activity of imatinib in cell lines and in primary CD34+ CML cells from patients in different phases of the disease, including patients resistant to imatinib with no detectable mutations. This effect is related to increased intracellular concentration of imatinib in CD34+ CML cells and cell lines measured using uptake of (14)C-labeled imatinib. Lovastatin does not influence influx but significantly inhibits efflux of imatinib mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters: ABCB1 and ABCG2. The addition of cholesterol completely reverses these effects. Statins do not affect expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. The effects are drug-class specific, as observed with other statins. Our results suggest that statins may offer a valuable addition to imatinib in a select group of CML patients.

Wojtas B, Ferraz C, Stokowy T, et al.
Differential miRNA expression defines migration and reduced apoptosis in follicular thyroid carcinomas.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 388(1-2):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the study was to identify microRNAs (miRs) characteristic for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and to define their role in tumorigenesis. A miR-microarray study was conducted to identify miRs differentially expressed between FTCs and their surrounding tissues. Selection was further reinforced by a literature review. Four miRs were selected and confirmed by RT-qPCR: miR-146b, -183, -221 were up-regulated, whereas miR-199b down-regulated in FTCs. The influence of these miRs on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and migration was studied in HTori and FTC-133 cells. Functional characterization suggests an impact of miR-183 and miR-146b in FTC development. Overexpression of both miRs significantly induces migration. Moreover, overexpression of miR-183 significantly represses apoptosis. MiR-199b and -221 do not have significant effects on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis or migration in HTori and FTC-133 cells. Our data suggest that miR-146b and miR-183 may influence FTC development through the induction of migration and apoptosis inhibition.

Zhang P, Suidasari S, Hasegawa T, et al.
Vitamin B₆ activates p53 and elevates p21 gene expression in cancer cells and the mouse colon.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2371-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence indicates vitamin B6 acts as a protective factor against colon cancer. However, the mechanisms of the effect of vitamin B6 are poorly understood. The present preliminary study using DNA microarray and real-time PCR indicates p21 mRNA is upregulated in human colon carcinoma (HT29) cells exposed to pyridoxal (PL, 500 µM). A similar effect was observed in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco2) cells, human colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo) cells, human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells, and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Adding other B6-vitamers such as pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) caused no such effect. In order to understand the mechanism of higher mRNA expression of p21 by PL, effect of PL on the p53 activation was examined (the upstream factor for p21 mRNA transcription) in HT29 cells, LoVo cells, and HepG2 cells. PL increased the phosphorylated p53 protein levels (active form) in whole-cell lysates and the nuclei of the cells. Noteworthy, the consumption of a vitamin B6-deficient diet for 5 weeks significantly reduced p21 mRNA levels and tended to reduce phosphorylated p53 protein levels (P=0.053) in the colons of mice compared to a diet with adequate vitamin B6. Thus, these results suggest vitamin B6 plays a role in increasing p21 gene expression via p53 activation in several cancer cells and the mouse colon.

Tang W, Jiang Y, Mu X, et al.
MiR-135a functions as a tumor suppressor in epithelial ovarian cancer and regulates HOXA10 expression.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(7):1420-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activation of homeobox A10 (HOXA10) has been proved to be an important event in epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis, yet its regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is still not fully understood. Here, we aimed to reveal the mechanism that a predicted target miRNA regulates HOXA10 expression and the association of its expression with progression of EOC. Here, by using computer-assisted algorithms from PicTar, TargetScan, and miRBase, we identified that the predicted target miRNA of HOXA10 was miR-135a. MiR-135a expression in EOC tissues and controls was measured with quantitative RT-PCR. The role of miR-135a and HOXA10 in the growth and survival of several EOC cell lines was determined with several in vitro approaches. We found that miR-135a expression was downregulated in an EOC patient cohort. Also, patients with low miR-135a expression had shorter overall survival and progression-free survival durations than those with high expression. Functional analysis of three EOC-derived cell lines (SKOV-3, HEY, and OVCAR-3) demonstrated that miR-135a directly regulated HOXA10 expression by targeting its 3'-UTR. Inhibition of HOXA10 expression with miR-135a mimics and HOXA10 siRNA consistently resulted in cell apoptosis with concomitant enhancement of caspase-3, increase of p53 expression and reduction of Bcl-2 expression, and also suppressed cell growth and adhesion. These findings suggest that ubiquitous loss of miR-135a expression is a critical mechanism for the overexpression of HOXA10 in EOC cells, which is implicated in epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis. Furthermore, miR-135a may be predictive of EOC prognosis.

Harakeh S, Diab-Assaf M, Azar R, et al.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits tax-dependent activation of nuclear factor kappa B and of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 positive leukemia cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1219-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol molecule from green tea and is known to exhibit antioxidative as well as tumor suppressing activity. In order to examine EGCG tumor invasion and suppressing activity against adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), two HTLV-1 positive leukemia cells (HuT-102 and C91- PL) were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of EGCG for 2 and 4 days. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by 100 μM at 4 days, with low cell lysis or cytotoxicity. HTLV-1 oncoprotein (Tax) expression in HuT- 102 and C91-PL cells was inhibited by 25 μM and 125 μM respectively. The same concentrations of EGCG inhibited NF-kB nuclearization and stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in both cell lines. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit proliferation and reduce the invasive potential of HTLV-1- positive leukemia cells. It apparently exerted its effects by suppressing Tax expression, manifested by inhibiting the activation of NF-kB pathway and induction of MMP-9 transcription in HTLV-1 positive cells.

Machowska M, Wachowicz K, Sopel M, Rzepecki R
Nuclear location of tumor suppressor protein maspin inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells without affecting proliferation of normal epithelial cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:142 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Maspin, which is classified as a tumor suppressor protein, is downregulated in many types of cancer. Several studies have suggested potential anti-proliferative activity of maspin as well as sensitizing activity of maspin for therapeutic cytotoxic agents in breast cancer tissue culture and animal models. All of the experimental data gathered so far have been based on studies with maspin localized cytoplasmically, while maspin in breast cancer tumor cells may be located in the cytoplasm, nucleus or both. In this study, the effect of maspin cytoplasmic and nuclear location and expression level on breast cancer proliferation and patient survival was studied.
METHODS: Tissue sections from 166 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer were stained by immunohistochemistry for maspin and Ki-67 protein. The localization and expression level of maspin were correlated with estimated patient overall survival and percent of Ki-67-positive cells. In further studies, we created constructs for transient transfection of maspin into breast cancer cells with targeted cytoplasmic and nuclear location. We analyzed the effect of maspin location in normal epithelial cell line MCF10A and three breast cancer cell lines - MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 - by immunofluorescence and proliferation assay.
RESULTS: We observed a strong positive correlation between moderate and high nuclear maspin level and survival of patients. Moreover, a statistically significant negative relationship was observed between nuclear maspin and Ki-67 expression in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Spearman's correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between level of maspin localized in nucleus and percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. No such differences were observed in cells with cytoplasmic maspin. We found a strong correlation between nuclear maspin and loss of Ki-67 protein in breast cancer cell lines, while there was no effect in normal epithelial cells from breast. The anti-proliferative effect of nuclear maspin on breast cancer cells was statistically significant in comparison to cytoplasmic maspin.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that nuclear maspin localization may be a prognostic factor in breast cancer and may have a strong therapeutic potential in gene therapy. Moreover, these data provide a new insight into the role of cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of maspin in breast cancer.

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