Gene Summary

Gene:ERCC1; ERCC excision repair 1, endonuclease non-catalytic subunit
Aliases: UV20, COFS4, RAD10
Summary:The product of this gene functions in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and is required for the repair of DNA lesions such as those induced by UV light or formed by electrophilic compounds including cisplatin. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the XPF endonuclease (also known as ERCC4), and the heterodimeric endonuclease catalyzes the 5' incision in the process of excising the DNA lesion. The heterodimeric endonuclease is also involved in recombinational DNA repair and in the repair of inter-strand crosslinks. Mutations in this gene result in cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome, and polymorphisms that alter expression of this gene may play a role in carcinogenesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The last exon of this gene overlaps with the CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein gene on the opposite strand. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA excision repair protein ERCC-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: ERCC1 (cancer-related)

Chaszczewska-Markowska M, Kosacka M, Chryplewicz A, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):3269-3272 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Although genetic factors are presumed to account only for a part of the inter-individual variation in lung cancer susceptibility, the results are conflicting and there are no data available regarding the Polish population. We, therefore, performed a case-control study to investigate the association of seven selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes coding for excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 (ERCC1: rs11615, rs3212986, rs2298881), nuclear factor ĸB (NFKB2: rs7897947, rs12769316), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4: rs1957860), complement receptor 1 (CR1: rs7525160) and del/ins polymorphism in the family hypoxia inducible factor 2 gene (EGLN2: rs10680577), with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis was used for genotyping of NSCLC patients and healthy individuals of Polish origin.
RESULTS: The ERCC1 rs11615 T allele and rs3212986 GG homozygosity were found to be associated with a higher risk of developing NSCLC. In addition, NFKB2 rs12769316 GG homozygosity was more frequently detected among male patients than controls, while no significant differences were found between the five polymorphisms.
CONCLUSION: ERCC1 polymorphisms may affect NSCLC risk in the Polish population, while the NFKB2 variant may be a possible marker of the disease in males.

Liang W, Guo M, Pan Z, et al.
Association between certain non-small cell lung cancer driver mutations and predictive markers for chemotherapy or programmed death-ligand 1 inhibition.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2014-2021 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to analyze the association between driver mutations and predictive markers for some anti-tumor agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A cohort of 785 Chinese patients with NSCLC who underwent resection from March 2016 to November 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was investigated. The specimens were subjected to hybridization capture and sequence of 8 important NSCLC-related driver genes. In addition, the slides were tested for PD-L1, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), thymidylate synthase (TS) and β-tubulin III by immunohistochemical staining. A total of 498 (63.4%) patients had at least 1 driver gene alteration. Wild-type, EGFR rare mutation (mut), ALK fusion (fus), RAS mut, RET fus and MET mut had relatively higher proportions of lower ERCC1 expression. EGFR 19del, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut, ALK fus, HER2 mut, ROS1 fus and MET mut were more likely to have TS low expression. Wild-type, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut and BRAF mut were associated with lower β-tubulin III expression. In addition, wild-type, RAS mut, ROS1 fus, BRAF and MET mut had higher proportion of PD-L1 high expression. As a pilot validation, 21 wild-type patients with advanced NSCLC showed better depth of response and response rate to taxanes compared with pemetrexed/gemcitabine (31.2%/60.0% vs 26.6%/45.5%). Our study may aid in selecting the optimal salvage regimen after targeted therapy failure, or the chemo-regimen where targeted therapy has not been a routine option. Further validation is warranted.

Huang YL, Wu JR, Fang M, et al.
The role of ERCC1 and AFP gene polymorphism in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(14):e15090 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) genes and their haplotypes on the susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to decipher the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinicopathologic characteristics of HCC.Peripheral blood DNA was extracted from 206 subjects. SNaPshot technique was used for genotyping 5 SNP sites of the ERCC1 rs735482, rs1046282, rs3212948, and AFP rs737241, rs4024 genotypes. Chi-squared test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the relationship of different genotypes or haplotype and the susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics of HCC.The frequency of GG.GA and AA genotypes at the AFP rs737241 site in the case and control groups showed statistically significant differences (P < .05). The risk of HCC in subjects carrying mutated allele A (GA+AA) was increased by 0.543-times (P < .05) compared to that in the subjects with the GG genotype. Significant differences were observed in the linkage disequilibrium between 2 of the five SNPs (P < .05); the frequency of ERCC1 C-C and AFP A-A haplotypes was significantly lower in the case group than in the control group (P < .05). The results of clinicopathologic analysis showed that A allele at the rs737241 locus could increase the expression level of AFP (P = .007), the rs1046282 mutation C allele could increase the AFP expression level (P = .011), rs4024 locus mutation A allele could reduce the risk of vascular invasion (P = .013), rs3212948 locus mutation T allele could reduce the differentiation of liver cancer (P = .022), rs1046282 locus C allele could reduce the DNA load of hepatitis B virus (P = .035), and rs735482 A allele could increase the tumor size in HCC (P = .037).The SNPs in rs737241 for AFP gene may correlate with the occurrence of HCC. The SNPs in ERCC1 and AFP genes may affect the prognosis of HCC, offering reliable information for early prediction of tumor progression and diagnosis of HCC.

Velinovic M, Jankovic R, Jovanovic D, et al.
Tumor characteristics, expressions of ERCC1, Bax, p53, IGF1R, Bcl2, Bcl2/Bax and prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with lung carcinoid.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):256-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine lung tumors (NET) include typical carcinoids (TC), atypical carcinoids (AC), large cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell carcinoma (SCLC), with different clinicopathological profiles and relative grades of malignancy. Although differences between carcinoids and high grade carcinomas are recognized, precise differences and behavior of TC and AC have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to better define the differences in the clinical behavior of TC and AC, and to establish new prognostic factors of overall survival (OS), by determining the levels of genetic expression of IGF1R, ERCC1, Bax, p53, Bcl2 and Bcl2/Bax ratio.
METHODS: The histopathological diagnosis of 52 surgically resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors was made according to the WHO classification. Gene expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR.
RESULTS: The confirmed prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) were pTNM T (p<0.01), pTNM N (p<0.05), clinical stage (p<0.05), type of surgery (p<0.01) and histopathological (HP) tumor type (p<0.05). Bcl2 mRNA level and Bcl2/Bax ratio were found to have a potential for discrimination of the HP type of tumor (AC vs TC, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) cut-off values 0.1451 and 0.3015, respectively), but without statistically significant impact on OS.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NETs, smaller primary tumor, absence of positive lymph nodes, and TC type of tumor predicted longer OS. Type of resection has influence on OS. Bcl2 expression and Bcl2/Bax ratio might be valuable as independent diagnostic parametars in lung carcinoids. Therapeutic approaches using attenuation of Bcl2 or upregulation of Bax might prove useful in lung NETs.

Liu J, Liu Z, Zhang X, et al.
Bioinformatic exploration of OLFML2B overexpression in gastric cancer base on multiple analyzing tools.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):227 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most commonly occuring gastrointestinal tumor types, and early diagnosis and operation have a notable effect on the prognosis of patients. Although certain markers, including HER2, VEGER-2, ERCC1 and Bcl-2, have been utilized in clinical practise to screen out new patients with GC, the results of using these markers remains poor. The role of olfactomedin-like 2B (OLFML2B) in GC, as a member of the olfactomedin domain-containing proteins family, is remain unclear.
METHODS: In the present study, we assessed the expression of OLFML2B, including mRNA and protein level, by using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and 13 pairs of clinical samples between GC and NG tissues. The correlation between expression of OLFML2B and prognosis of GC was evaculated by the Kaplan-Meier plotter and OncoLnc online tools. In addition, mechanism analysis of OLFML2B in GC was explored thought bioinformatic tools, including cBioPortal and FunRich software.
RESULTS: In our study, the mRNA expression of OLFML2B in GC both TCGA database and clinical samples was consistently revealed to be significantly higher compared with that in NG tissues (P < 0.0001 for TCGA database and P = 0.0034 for clinical samples), and high OLFML2B expression was found in 9 (69.23%) of 13 clinical GC by immunohistochemistry and was positively correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and clinical stage (TNM). In addition, the AUC for a ROC of 0.867 indicated a moderate diagnostic ability of OLFML2B for GC. Survival analysis from the Kaplan-Meier plotter (P = 2.6 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, it could be deduced that OLFML2B may act as an oncogene in the development of GC and the overexpression of OLFML2B in GC may be used as a novel diagnostic and prognostic target for GC.

Hattinger CM, Patrizio MP, Luppi S, et al.
Current understanding of pharmacogenetic implications of DNA damaging drugs used in osteosarcoma treatment.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2019; 15(4):299-311 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: DNA damaging drugs are widely used for the chemotherapeutic treatment of high-grade osteosarcoma (HGOS). In HGOS patients, several germline polymorphisms have been reported to impact on the development of adverse toxic events related to DNA damaging drugs treatment. Some of these polymorphisms, when present in tumor cells, may also influence treatment response and prognosis of HGOS patients. Area covered: In this review, the authors have focused on pharmacogenetic markers (mainly germline polymorphisms) described in patients with HGOS, which have proved or indicated to be related to the susceptibility to adverse toxic reactions and/or to influence response to DNA damaging drugs. The concordant and discordant results reported in different studies have also been discussed. Expert opinion: Response and toxicity predisposition to DNA damaging drugs are influenced by genes encoding proteins involved in their uptake, efflux, activation, inactivation, and in DNA repair, activity of which may vary according to specific gene variations. In HGOS, there is a substantial medical need for biomarkers predictive for individual response and toxicity predisposition to DNA-targeting drugs, which may be used to tailor therapy in order to decrease the occurrence of adverse side effects and increase treatment efficacy and safety.

Tse J, Ghandour R, Singla N, Lotan Y
Molecular Predictors of Complete Response Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder and Upper Tracts.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and upper tracts (UTUC) is often regarded as one entity and is managed generally with similar principles. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by radical cystectomy (RC) is an established standard of care in UCB, strong evidence for a similar approach is lacking in UTUC. The longest survival is seen in patients with complete response (pT0) on pathological examination of the RC specimen, but impact of delayed RC in nonresponders may be detrimental. The rate of pT0 following NAC in UTUC is considerably lower than that in UCB due to differences in access and instrumentation. Molecular markers have been evaluated to try to predict response to chemotherapy to reduce unnecessary treatment and expedite different treatment for nonresponders. A variety of potential biomarkers have been evaluated to predict response to cisplatin based chemotherapy including DNA repair genes (

Zhang Y, Tao L, Fan LX, et al.
Cx32 mediates cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by affecting drug efflux transporter expression and activating the EGFR‑Akt pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(3):2287-2296 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study demonstrated that connexin 32 (Cx32) was upregulated and redistributed to the cytoplasm in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells with acquired resistance to cisplatin; this increased Cx32 feedback promoted cisplatin resistance. To further investigate the mechanism underlying Cx32‑mediated cisplatin resistance, alterations in drug transporters, the DNA repair system and the anti‑apoptotic signalling pathway were investigated by overexpressing or knocking down Cx32 in parental cells (A2780); cisplatin‑resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780/CDDP) were also acquired. Upregulation of efflux transporters [multi‑drug resistance protein 2 (MRP‑2), ATPase copper transporting α (ATP7A) and ATPase copper transporting β] and downregulation of the influx transporter copper uptake protein 1 mediated cisplatin resistance in A2780/CDDP cells. A2780/CDDP cells also exhibited increased expression of the DNA repair enzyme excision repair cross‑complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway. Small interfering RNA‑mediated knockdown of Cx32 in A2780/CDDP cells decreased the expression of efflux transporters (MRP‑2 and ATP7A). Knockdown of Cx32 in A2780/CDDP cells also decreased the expression of ERCC1, inhibited the activation of the EGFR signalling pathway and enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. When Cx32 was overexpressed in A2780 cells, an opposite effect on the expression of efflux transporters (MRP‑2 and ATP7A) and the activation of the EGFR signalling pathway was observed, which resulted in insensitivity to cisplatin‑induced apoptosis. Thus, Cx32 expression may induce cisplatin resistance by modulating drug efflux transporter expression and activating the EGFR‑protein kinase B signalling pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

He L, Wang X, Liu K, et al.
Integrative PDGF/PDGFR and focal adhesion pathways are downregulated in ERCC1-defective non-small cell lung cancer undergoing sodium glycididazole-sensitized cisplatin treatment.
Gene. 2019; 691:70-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemoresistance to cisplatin in lung cancer treatment remains prevalent. Since targeting excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) may be a viable strategy to reestablish the therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-based agents in chemoresistant cases, and low ERCC1 level is beneficial to metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy, we hypothesized that metastasis-associated process is involved in ERCC1-dependent cisplatin-resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: We performed an RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in ERCC1-deficient cells co-treated with cisplatin and sodium glycididazole (CMNa). Differentially expressed genes and the hub genes in the cisplatin/CMNa-treated cells were identified by systematic network analysis. Oncomine expression analysis was also performed to evaluate the clinical implication of the identified hub gene.
RESULTS: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF/PDGFR) and focal adhesion genes were downregulated in ERCC1-defective non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells undergoing combined cisplatin/CMNa treatment. Consistent with the finding, cell migration was reduced in these cells. PDGFRB was identified as the hub gene in the process by differential expressed gene network analysis. Importantly, elevated PDGFRB level was observed in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with metastases.
CONCLUSION: PDGF/PDGFR and focal adhesion signaling may serve as another mechanism in addition to ERCC1-mediated cisplatin-resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Multiple pro-invasion/pro-migration/proliferation and DNA damage repair pathways may be integrated to confer growth advantages on tumor cells.

Jing C, Li H, Du Y, et al.
MEK inhibitor enhanced the antitumor effect of oxaliplatin and 5‑fluorouracil in MEK1 Q56P‑mutant colorectal cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(2):1092-1100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) small molecule inhibitors have been investigated in preclinical or clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. In the present study the genetic test results of 120 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were screened and the mutation rate of MEK1 was identified to be 1.67%. MEK inhibition by U0126 significantly decreased the growth of SW48 cells that harbored the MEK1 Q56P mutation, although it did not evidently affect the growth of NCI‑H508 cells with MEK1 wild‑type. In addition, U0126 increased the sensitivity of SW48 cells to 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU) and oxaliplatin by producing more γH2AX foci and decreasing the expression of excision repair cross‑complementation group 1 and thymidylate synthase. The results suggested that MEK inhibitors in combination with oxaliplatin/5‑FU may offer an improved therapeutic effect in patients with MEK‑mutant CRC.

Ning J, Jiao Y, Xie X, et al.
miR‑138‑5p modulates the expression of excision repair cross‑complementing proteins ERCC1 and ERCC4, and regulates the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to cisplatin.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):1131-1139 [PubMed] Related Publications
The microRNA (miR)‑138‑5p affects the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of several human cancer types. In the present study, the expression and regulatory mechanisms of miR‑138‑5p were investigated in the gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 and its cisplatin‑resistant derivative SGC7901/DDP. Gene microarray and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that miR‑138‑5p was expressed at significantly lower levels in SGC7901/DDP compared with SGC7901 cells. Using computational predictive algorithms, two proteins involved in the nuclear excision repair pathway were identified, excision repair cross‑complementing (ERCC)1 and ERCC4, as putative miR‑138‑5p target genes. Western blot analysis confirmed that ERCC1 and ERCC4 expression levels were inversely proportional to miR‑138‑5p levels in SGC7901 and SGC7901/DDP cells. Furthermore, ERCC1 and ERCC4 were upregulated in SGC7901 cells expressing miR‑138‑5p‑targeting short hairpin RNA and, conversely, downregulated in SGC7901/DDP cells overexpressing miR‑138‑5p, confirming that this miRNA regulates ERCC protein levels. Notably, miR‑138‑5p silencing enhanced the cisplatin resistance of SGC7901 cells, while miR‑138‑5p overexpression partially reversed the cisplatin resistance of SGC7901/DDP cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR‑138‑5p regulates the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, possibly by modulating expression of the DNA repair proteins ERCC1 and ERCC4.

Luo SS, Liao XW, Zhu XD
Prognostic Value of Excision Repair Cross-Complementing mRNA Expression in Gastric Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:6204684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Except for excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), mRNA expression of the remaining ERCC genes has not been investigated in the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). The present study aimed to explore the mRNA expression and prognostic values of each member of the ERCC family in GC patients by using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter tool. The details of each ERCC family member were entered into a database and GC patients were separated into high and low expression to draw survival plots using the KM plotter. In the present study, we observed that high expression of ERCC1 mRNA was significantly associated with longer overall survival (OS) for all GC patients (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=0.63-0.95, P=0.016) compared with low expression. High expression of ERCC4 and ERCC6 mRNA indicated a worse OS for all GC patients (HR=1.28, 95% CI=1.02-1.6, P=0.035 and HR=1.25, 95% CI=1.02-1.54, P=0.029, respectively) and especially for patients with intestinal-type GC (HR=1.87, 95% CI=1.26-2.79, P=0.0018 and HR=1.62, 95% CI=1.04-2.54, P=0.033, respectively). High ERCC8 mRNA expression indicated a worse OS for all GC patients (HR=1.34, 95% CI=1.02-1.76, P=0.034) and especially for patients with diffuse-type GC (HR=2.25, 95% CI=1.36-3.75, P=0.0013). In conclusion, our findings indicate that ERCC4, ERCC6, and ERCC8 may be potential biomarkers for GC prognosis and may serve as potential therapeutic targets for GC. However, these findings still need further verification.

Wu J, Zhang X, Han Q, et al.
ZNF326 promotes proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells by regulating ERCC1 expression.
Lab Invest. 2019; 99(2):169-179 [PubMed] Related Publications
The roles and downstream target genes of the transcription factor ZNF326 in malignant tumors are unclear. Out of 146 lung cancer tissue samples, we found that high expression of ZNF326 in 82 samples was closely related to low differentiation and a high pTNM stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that ZNF326 significantly promoted cell cycle progression, colony formation, and proliferation as well as the growth of NSCLC transplanted tumors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, dual-luciferase assay, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that the C2H2 structure of ZNF326 binds to the -833 to -875 bp region of the ERCC1 promoter to initiate transcriptional activity. This binding promoted CyclinB1 synthesis and cell cycle progression. These results show that the ZNF326 transcription factor is highly expressed in lung cancer and promotes the proliferation of NSCLC cells by regulating the expression of ERCC1.

Sabatella M, Theil AF, Ribeiro-Silva C, et al.
Repair protein persistence at DNA lesions characterizes XPF defect with Cockayne syndrome features.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(18):9563-9577 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The structure-specific ERCC1-XPF endonuclease plays a key role in DNA damage excision by nucleotide excision repair (NER) and interstrand crosslink repair. Mutations in this complex can either cause xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or XP combined with Cockayne syndrome (XPCS-complex) or Fanconi anemia. However, most patients carry compound heterozygous mutations, which confounds the dissection of the phenotypic consequences for each of the identified XPF alleles. Here, we analyzed the functional impact of individual pathogenic XPF alleles on NER. We show that XP-causing mutations diminish XPF recruitment to DNA damage and only mildly affect global genome NER. In contrast, an XPCS-complex-specific mutation causes persistent recruitment of XPF and the upstream core NER machinery to DNA damage and severely impairs both global genome and transcription-coupled NER. Remarkably, persistence of NER factors at DNA damage appears to be a common feature of XPCS-complex cells, suggesting that this could be a determining factor contributing to the development of additional developmental and/or neurodegenerative features in XP patients.

Zhu J, Qi P, Li Z
Interaction Between XRCC1 Gene Polymorphisms and Obesity on Susceptibility to Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Chinese Han Population.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(2):638-644 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within XRCC gene and additional gene- environment interaction with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk.
METHODS: Testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls was conducted using SNPstats (online software: Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to screen the best interaction combination among 5 SNPs within XRCC gene and obesity.
RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that the C allele of rs861539 and T allele of rs1799782 were associated with increased PTC risk Adjusted ORs (95%CI) were 1.65 (1.23-2.12) and 1.61 (1.20-2.04). However There was no relation of rs25489 Rs25487 and rs13181 with PTC. The cross-validation consistency and the testing accuracy for each of the models were determined by GMDR analysis. One two-locus model (rs1799782 and obesity) had a testing accuracy of 62.11% Which was significant at the p < 0.01 level. The D' value between rs1799782 and rs13181 within ERCC1 gene was more than 0.75 (0.825). So haplotype analysis was just conducted for rs1799782 and rs13181 using the SHEsis online haplotype analysis software. In all samples The haplotype C- A was observed most frequently in two groups With 49.46% and 55.79% in the PTC patients and controls Respectively. The results also indicated that haplotype T- C was significantly associated with increased PTC risk.
CONCLUSION: The C allele of rs861539 and T allele of rs1799782 Interaction between rs1799782 and obesity and haplotype T- C were all associated with increased PTC risk.

Guo J, Jin D, Wu Y, et al.
The miR 495-UBE2C-ABCG2/ERCC1 axis reverses cisplatin resistance by downregulating drug resistance genes in cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:204-221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin (DDP) resistance has become the leading cause of mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miRNA dysregulation significantly contributes to tumor progression. In this study, we found that miR-495 was significantly downregulated in lung cancer tissue specimens. This study aimed to elucidate the functions, direct target genes, and molecular mechanisms of miR-495 in lung cancer. miR-495 downregulated its substrate UBE2C through direct interaction with UBE2C 3'- untranslated region. UBE2C is a proto-oncogene activated in lung cancer; however, its role in chemotherapeutic resistance is unclear. Herein, UBE2C expression levels were higher in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells; this was associated with the proliferation, invasion, and DDP resistance in induced cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells. Furthermore, epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) contributed to DDP resistance. Moreover, UBE2C knockdown downregulated vimentin. In contrast, E-cadherin was upregulated. Importantly, miR-495 and UBE2C were associated with cisplatin resistance. We attempted to evaluate their effects on cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance. We also performed EMT, cell migration, and invasion assays in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells overexpressing miR-495 and under-expressing UBE2C. Furthermore, in silico assays coupled with western blotting and luciferase assays revealed that UBE2C directly binds to the 5'-UTR of the drug-resistance genes ABCG2 and ERCC1. Furthermore, miR-495 downregulated ABCG2 and ERCC1 via regulation of UBE2C. Together, the present results indicate that the miR495-UBE2C-ABCG2/ERCC1 axis reverses DDP resistance via downregulation of anti-drug genes and reducing EMT in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells.

Tsai CW, Chang WS, Shen TC, et al.
Contribution of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 genotypes to triple negative breast cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(8):e0202112 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Compared with other subgroups of breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered to be the one with the greatest invasiveness and metastatic mobility, and the highest recurrence rate. Considering the lack of predictive markers for TNBC, we aimed to examine the contribution of excision repair cross complementing-group 1 (ERCC1) genotypes to TNBC. The rs11615 and rs3212986 of ERCC1 were investigated and evaluated for their associations with susceptibility to breast cancer, especially TNBC, in Taiwan. In this study, 1,232 breast cancer patients (104 were TNBC) and 1,232 healthy controls were recruited and their genotypes at ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986 were revealed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Our results indicated that genotypes of ERCC1 rs11615 (Ptrend = 2.2*10E-9), but not rs3212986 (Ptrend = 0.6181), were associated with breast cancer risk. In the allelic frequency distribution analysis, breast cancer patients carried the T allele of ERCC1 rs11615 a higher rate than the control subjects, further supporting the idea that ERCC1 rs11615 TT genotype is positively associated with breast cancer susceptibility. More importantly, the frequency of the ERCC1 rs11615 TT genotype was even higher among TNBC patients than among other subtypes of breast cancer patients (P = 0.0001, odds ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.63). The genotypes of ERCC1 rs11615 were not associated with Ki67 status. Our findings firstly show that the T allele of ERCC1 rs11615 can serve as a predictive biomarker for breast cancer and TNBC. We believe that ERCC1 could serve as a target for personalized treatment of breast cancer, especially for TNBC.

Peng H, Yao S, Dong Q, et al.
Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) overexpression inhibits cell apoptosis and is associated with unfavorable prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(31):e11697 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) functions as a nucleotide excision repair (NER) enzyme. Altered ERCC1 expression or function is closely associated with cancer development and progression. This study determined the association of ERCC1 expression with survivin expression, clinicopathological characteristics, and survival of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients after postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy.Tissue specimens from 102 resected ESCC patients were acquired for immunohistochemical analysis of ERCC1 and survivin protein expression.ERCC1 expression was detected in 62.7% of ESCC tissues and in 9.8% of normal squamous epithelium tissues (P < .01), while survivin expression was detected in 60.8% of ESCC tissues and in 19.6% of normal squamous epithelia (P < .01). ERCC1 overexpression associated with advanced tumor clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P < .05), but not with tumor size, depth of invasion, or differentiation (P > .05). ERCC1 overexpression was also associated with survivin levels (r = 0.42, P < .01) and worse progression-free survival of ESCC patients after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Multivariate analysis data revealed that ERCC1 and survivin protein expression were independent predictors of overall survival of ESCC patients after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (P < .05).ERCC1 overexpression is an important phenotype that is associated with ESCC lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor clinical stages. ERCC1 expression may also inhibit ESCC cell apoptosis via regulating survivin expression, and ERCC1 and survivin overexpression are independent predictors of prognosis for ESCC patients who receive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

Xia A, Li H, Li R, et al.
Co-treatment with BEZ235 enhances chemosensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and downregulation of ERCC1 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(4):2353-2362 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and upregulation of excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) are the two most important factors that confer resistance to cisplatin (DDP) therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and ERCC1 expression is a potential approach for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. In the present study, whether combined treatment with DDP and BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, could provide a synergistic antitumor effect in A549/DDP cells was investigated, and the possible mechanisms involved were explored. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated in A549/DDP cells. Synergistic interaction of BEZ235 and DDP was evaluated by combination index (CI) analysis. The levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), apoptosis-related proteins and ERCC1 were detected by western blot analysis. Apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. The migration and invasion abilities of A549/DDP cells were evaluated by wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. It was observed that the dose reduction index (DRI) of BEZ235 was 13.82 and for DDP it was 13.58, and the CI of combination was <1 over a wide range of doses. In addition, the levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR and ERCC1 were significantly elevated by DDP treatment, and were reduced by co-administration of BEZ235 and DDP. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly induced apoptotic cell death, decreased migration and invasion abilities compared with those treated with either BEZ235 or DDP alone. In conclusion, the combination of BEZ235 with DDP had synergistic antitumor effects in A549/DDP cells as reflected by reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and suppression of the migration and invasion abilities of A549/DDP cells, and the mechanism mediating these effects may be associated with the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and down-regulation of ERCC1 expression.

Obiedat H, Alrabadi N, Sultan E, et al.
The effect of ERCC1 and ERCC2 gene polymorphysims on response to cisplatin based therapy in osteosarcoma patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2018; 19(1):112 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the major drugs that used in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Cisplatin exerts its function by making cisplatin-DNA adducts culminating in cellular death. These adducts found to be repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. This study aimed to evaluate if polymorphisms in two main genes in the NER pathway, excision repair cross-complementing group 1 and 2 (ERCC1 and ERCC2) could affect the histological response to cisplatin based chemotherapy or clinical outcomes, particularly, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates.
METHOD: ERCC1 (C118T (rs11615) and C8092A (rs3212986)) and ERCC2 (A751C (rs171140) and G312A (rs1799793)) polymorphisms were analysed in 44 patients with osteosarcoma, who were treated with cisplatin based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DNA was extracted from patient's formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, patient's genotypes were determined by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP assay. The distribution of the patients' genotype and the allele frequencies were reported. The association between each of these genotypes and many clinical and patho-histological parameters (e.g. EFS, OS and patho-histological response to treatment) was examined. The associations between gender, tumor location, presence of metastasis at diagnosis, histological subtypes, and type of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and between the histological response, EFS and OS rates were also examined.
RESULTS: This study revealed that there was a positive and significant association between ERCC1 C8092 A genotypes and median EFS rate in years; patients who were carriers of C allele (CC & CA) were found to have longer EFS rates than patients with AA genotype (P value = 0.006) and the median EFS rates were respectively as following: 2.04, 0.24 years. As well, both the presence of metastasis and the histological subtype at the time of diagnosis, were able to affect the EFS rate but not the OS. However, there was a positive correlation between OS rate and the patients' primary response to treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that ERCC1 8092 C allele may play a role as a candidate prognostic marker in patients with osteosarcoma.

Yang Z, Zhang R, Ge Y, et al.
Somatic FGFR3 Mutations Distinguish a Subgroup of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancers with Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:198-203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) preceding radical cystectomy benefits overall survival for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, the relationship between the genetic profiling of MIBC and NAC response remains unclear. Here, a mutation panel of six cancer-associated genes (TSC1, FGFR3, TERT, TP53, PIK3CA and ERBB2) and an immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel containing eight bladder cancer (BC) biomarkers (EGFR, RRM1, PD-L1, BRCA1, TUBB3, ERCC, ERCC1, aberrantly glycosylated integrin α3β1 (AG) and CK5/6) were developed. BC samples from patients who showed a pathologic response (n = 39) and non-response (n = 13) were applied to the panel analysis. ERBB2, FGFR3 and PIK3CA exclusively altered in the responders group (19/39, 48.7%), in which FGFR3 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with a response in the cohort (14/39, 35.9%; P = 0.01). Additionally, strong expression of ERCC1 was associated with a pathologic response (P = 0.01). However, positive lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and lymph-vascular invasion (LVI) (P = 0.03) were correlated with a non-response. Overall, the data show that FGFR3 mutations and elevated expression of ERCC1 in MIBCs are potential predictive biomarkers of the response to NAC.

Ferguson SD, Zheng S, Xiu J, et al.
Profiles of brain metastases: Prioritization of therapeutic targets.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(11):3019-3026 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We sought to compare the tumor profiles of brain metastases from common cancers with those of primary tumors and extracranial metastases in order to identify potential targets and prioritize rational treatment strategies. Tumor samples were collected from both the primary and metastatic sites of nonsmall cell lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma from patients in locations worldwide, and these were submitted to Caris Life Sciences for tumor multiplatform analysis, including gene sequencing (Sanger and next-generation sequencing with a targeted 47-gene panel), protein expression (assayed by immunohistochemistry) and gene amplification (assayed by in situ hybridization). The data analysis considered differential protein expression, gene amplification and mutations among brain metastases, extracranial metastases and primary tumors. The analyzed population included: 16,999 unmatched primary tumor and/or metastasis samples: 8,178 nonsmall cell lung cancers (5,098 primaries; 2,787 systemic metastases; 293 brain metastases), 7,064 breast cancers (3,496 primaries; 3,469 systemic metastases; 99 brain metastases) and 1,757 melanomas (660 primaries; 996 systemic metastases; 101 brain metastases). TOP2A expression was increased in brain metastases from all 3 cancers, and brain metastases overexpressed multiple proteins clustering around functions critical to DNA synthesis and repair and implicated in chemotherapy resistance, including RRM1, TS, ERCC1 and TOPO1. cMET was overexpressed in melanoma brain metastases relative to primary skin specimens. Brain metastasis patients may particularly benefit from therapeutic targeting of enzymes associated with DNA synthesis, replication and/or repair.

Saha A, Roy S, Kar M, et al.
Role of Telomeric TRF2 in Orosphere Formation and CSC Phenotype Maintenance Through Efficient DNA Repair Pathway and its Correlation with Recurrence in OSCC.
Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2018; 14(6):871-887 [PubMed] Related Publications
The major problem to effective treatment of oral cancer is the presence of therapy resistance. Presence of cancer stem cell in the bulk of tumor have been implicated in therapeutic resistance. In this study, we report a non-telomeric role of TRF2 in formation of oral cancer spheroids and CSC phenotype maintenance via an efficient DNA damage repair mechanism in the presence of chemotherapeutic insult. We report reduced sphere formation efficiency and reduced spheroid size in TRF2 silenced oral cancer cell lines. TRF2 silenced orospheres further reported reduced proliferative capacity as compared to non-silenced orospheres. Furthermore, TRF2 silencing hampered the migratory potential of oral cancer cell line and also reduced the expression of several CSC markers like CD44, Oct4, Sox2, KLF4 and c-Myc along with β-catenin and hTERT molecules both in Cal27 cell line and generated orospheres. TRF2 silencing impaired efficient DNA damage repair capacity of non-orospheric and orospheric cells and repressed ERCC1 expression levels when treated with Cisplatin. TRF2 overexpression was also observed to correlate with poor overall survival and disease relapse of OSCC patients. In silico studies further identified several amino acid residues that show high binding affinity and strong protein-protein interactions among TRF2 and CSC marker KLF4. Hence, our report confirms a non-telomeric role of TRF2 in spheroid generation, maintenance of CSC phenotype and efficient DNA damage repair capacity contributing to chemotherapy resistance in oral cancer cell line. We further iterate the use of TRF2 as a prognostic marker in OSCC for faster detection and improved survival.

Hurtado AM, Luengo-Gil G, Chen-Liang TH, et al.
Transcriptomic rationale for synthetic lethality-targeting ERCC1 and CDKN1A in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 182(3):373-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the absence of mutations in the DNA repair machinery in myeloid malignancies, the advent of high-throughput sequencing and discovery of splicing and epigenetics defects in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) prompted us to revisit a pathogenic role for genes involved in DNA damage response. We screened for misregulated DNA repair genes by enhanced RNA-sequencing on bone marrow from a discovery cohort of 27 CMML patients and 9 controls. We validated 4 differentially expressed candidates in CMML CD34

He L, Liu K, Wang X, et al.
NDRG1 disruption alleviates cisplatin/sodium glycididazole-induced DNA damage response and apoptosis in ERCC1-defective lung cancer cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 100:54-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy becomes a major obstacle in lung cancer treatment. Compensatory activation of nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is the major mechanism accounting for cisplatin-resistance. We aimed at identifying additional regulators in NER-mediated chemoresistance in a hypoxic setting induced by sodium glycididazole (CMNa)-sensitized cisplatin chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: We performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis to identify the genes whose expression had been differentially regulated in NER-deficient cells that had been treated by cisplatin/CMNa. DNA damage, apoptosis, and correlational analysis between the differentially expressed gene and drug sensitivity were determined by Western blots, flow cytometry and Oncomine expression analysis.
RESULTS: The stress response gene, NDRG1 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1), was among the differentially expressed genes in NER-deficient cells upon treatment of cisplatin/CMNa. Downregulation of NDRG1 by ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing 1) could be a prevalent mechanism for drug resistance. Furthermore, lower NDRG1 level is observed in human lung cancer cells showing chemotherapeutic drug resistance compared with the drug-sensitive cells.
CONCLUSION: NDRG1 is an important modulator linking DNA damage response and hypoxia-related cellular stress response during the development of drug resistance to cisplatin/CMNa in lung cancer. Targeting both NDRG1 and ERCC1 may be a viable strategy for overcoming drug resistance in cancer therapy, and has significant clinical implications.

Fernández Asensio A, Iglesias T, Cotarelo A, et al.
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction in combination with gel electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A powerful tool for the determination of gene copy number variations and gene expression changes.
Anal Chim Acta. 2018; 1023:64-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
During the last few years multiplex real-time or quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice for multiplex gene expression changes and gene copy number variations (CNVs) analysis. However, such determinations require the use of different fluorescent labels for the different amplified sequences, which increases significantly the costs of the analysis and limits the applicability of the technique for simultaneous amplification of many targets of interest in a single reaction. In this regard, the use of the coupling between gel electrophoresis (GE) separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection allows the label-free determination of multiplex PCR-amplified sequences (amplicons) by monitoring the P present in the DNA backbone. The quantitative dimension is obtained since under optimal and controlled multiplex PCR conditions the peak areas of the separated amplicons are directly proportional to the amount of DNA template in the original sample. Moreover, the calibration of the GE-ICP-MS system with a DNA ladder permits direct estimation of the size (bp) of the PCR products. The suitability of the proposed multiplex strategy has been evaluated addressing two different situations: determination of CNVs and gene expression changes in human ovarian cancer cells. In the first case, the results obtained for the simultaneous quantitation of CNVs of four genes (HER2, CCNE1, GSTM1, ACTB) on DNA obtained from OVCAR-3 cells were in accordance with the literature data, and also with the results obtained by conventional simplex qPCR. In the second case, multiplex gene expression changes of BAX, ERCC1 and CTR1 genes, using ACTB as constitutive gene, on A2780cis respect to A2780 cells, resistant and sensitive to cisplatin, respectively, provided the same information as single reaction reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR.

Li B, Shi X, Yuan Y, et al.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), a DNA repair protein, is vital for maintaining genomic fidelity and integrity. Despite the fact that a mounting body of case-control studies has concentrated on investigating the association of the

Zhao Z, Zhang A, Zhao Y, et al.
The association of polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes with ovarian cancer susceptibility.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleotide excision repair (NER), the core mechanism of DNA repair pathway, was commonly used to maintain genomic stability and prevent tumorigenesis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NER pathway genes were associated with various types of cancer. However, there was no research elucidating the genetic association of entire NER pathway with ovarian cancer susceptibility. Therefore, we conducted genotyping for 17 SNPs of six NER core genes (

Pérez-Ramírez C, Cañadas-Garre M, Alnatsha A, et al.
Pharmacogenetics of platinum-based chemotherapy: impact of DNA repair and folate metabolism gene polymorphisms on prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2019; 19(2):164-177 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy based on platinum compounds is the standard treatment for NSCLC patients with EGFR wild type, and is also used as second line in mutated EGFR patients. Nevertheless, this therapy presents poor clinical outcomes. ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1, MDM2, MTHFR, MTR, and SLC19A1 gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual variation in response and survival to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on response and survival of NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. A retrospective-prospective cohorts study was conducted, including 141 NSCLC patients. Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR real-time with Taqman® probes. Patients with ERCC1 rs3212986-GG (p = 0.0268; OR = 2.50; CI

Batar B, Mutlu T, Bostanci M, et al.
DNA repair and apoptosis: Roles in radiotherapy-related acute reactions in breast cancer patients.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(4):64-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Normal tissue reactions are therapy limiting factor for the effectiveness of the radiotherapy in cancer patients. DNA repair and apoptosis are estimated to be critical players of adverse effects in response to radiotherapy. Our aim was to define the association of DNA repair (ERCC1 and XPC) and apoptotic (BCL2, CASP3 and NFKB1) gene expression, DNA damage levels, apoptosis changes and DNA repair gene variations with the risk of acute side effects in breast cancer patients. The study included 100 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=50) with acute side effects and the control group (n=50) without side effects. Gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Micronucleus (MN) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) assays were performed to compare the DNA damage levels. Apoptosis was examined by TDT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. ERCC1 rs3212986 and XPC rs3731055 polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time PCR technique. No significantly correlation of DNA repair and apoptosis gene expression and DNA damage levels with acute side effects in response to radiotherapy. Also, there was no association between apoptosis levels and acute effects. ERCC1 rs3212986 CC genotype showed a protective effect against radiotherapy-induced acute reactions (p<0.001; OR: 0.21; 95% CI= 0.08-0.52). Our results suggest that apoptosis and DNA damage levels are not associated with acute radiosensitivity. DNA repair may affect the risk of acute reactions. Further studies are needed to validate the current findings.

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