BAP1

Gene Summary

Gene:BAP1; BRCA1 associated protein-1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase)
Aliases: UCHL2, hucep-6, HUCEP-13
Location:3p21.1
Summary:This gene belongs to the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes that are involved in the removal of ubiquitin from proteins. The encoded enzyme binds to the breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) via the RING finger domain of the latter and acts as a tumor suppressor. In addition, the enzyme may be involved in regulation of transcription, regulation of cell cycle and growth, response to DNA damage and chromatin dynamics. Germline mutations in this gene may be associated with tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS), which involves increased risk of cancers including malignant mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase BAP1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 28 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 28 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BAP1 (cancer-related)

van Essen TH, van Pelt SI, Versluis M, et al.
Prognostic parameters in uveal melanoma and their association with BAP1 expression.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2014; 98(12):1738-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To determine whether BAP1 gene and protein expression associates with different prognostic parameters in uveal melanoma and whether BAP1 expression correctly identifies patients as being at risk for metastases, following enucleation of the primary tumour.
METHODS: Thirty cases of uveal melanoma obtained by enucleation between 1999 and 2004 were analysed for a variety of prognostic markers, including histological characteristics, chromosome aberrations obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and gene expression profiling. These parameters were compared with BAP1 gene expression and BAP1 immunostaining.
RESULTS: The presence of monosomy of chromosome 3 as identified by the different chromosome 3 tests showed significantly increased HRs (FISH on isolated nuclei cut-off 30%: HR 11.6, p=0.002; SNP analysis: HR 20.3, p=0.004) for death due to metastasis. The gene expression profile class 2, based on the 15-gene expression profile, similarly provided a significantly increased HR for a poor outcome (HR 8.5, p=0.005). Lower BAP1 gene expression and negative BAP1 immunostaining (50% of 28 tumours were immunonegative) were both associated with these markers for prognostication: FISH cut-off 30% monosomy 3 (BAP1 gene expression: p=0.037; BAP1 immunostaining: p=0.001), SNP-monosomy 3 (BAP1 gene expression: p=0.008; BAP1 immunostaining: p=0.002) and class 2 profile (BAP1 gene expression: p<0.001; BAP1 immunostaining: p=0.001) and were themselves associated with an increased risk of death due to metastasis (BAP1 gene expression dichotomised: HR 8.7, p=0.006; BAP1 immunostaining: HR 4.0, p=0.010).
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of BAP1 expression associated well with all of the methods currently used for prognostication and was itself predictive of death due to metastasis in uveal melanoma after enucleation, thereby emphasising the importance of further research on the role of BAP1 in uveal melanoma.

Petrini I, Meltzer PS, Kim IK, et al.
A specific missense mutation in GTF2I occurs at high frequency in thymic epithelial tumors.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(8):844-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed 28 thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) using next-generation sequencing and identified a missense mutation (chromosome 7 c.74146970T>A) in GTF2I at high frequency in type A thymomas, a relatively indolent subtype. In a series of 274 TETs, we detected the GTF2I mutation in 82% of type A and 74% of type AB thymomas but rarely in the aggressive subtypes, where recurrent mutations of known cancer genes have been identified. Therefore, GTF2I mutation correlated with better survival. GTF2I β and δ isoforms were expressed in TETs, and both mutant isoforms were able to stimulate cell proliferation in vitro. Thymic carcinomas carried a higher number of mutations than thymomas (average of 43.5 and 18.4, respectively). Notably, we identified recurrent mutations of known cancer genes, including TP53, CYLD, CDKN2A, BAP1 and PBRM1, in thymic carcinomas. These findings will complement the diagnostic assessment of these tumors and also facilitate development of a molecular classification and assessment of prognosis and treatment strategies.

Ewens KG, Kanetsky PA, Richards-Yutz J, et al.
Chromosome 3 status combined with BAP1 and EIF1AX mutation profiles are associated with metastasis in uveal melanoma.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55(8):5160-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Somatic mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, SF3B1, EIF1AX, and BAP1 have been identified in uveal melanoma (UM). The aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in these genes in primary tumors were associated with metastases in individuals diagnosed with UM.
METHODS: A total of 63 UM cases who developed a metastasis within 48 months of primary treatment and 53 UM controls who were metastasis-free over a similar time period were selected for the study. Primary UM cases were screened for mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, SF3B1, EIF1AX, and BAP1. The association of these mutations with tumor characteristics, chromosome 3 copy number, and metastatic status was analyzed by logistic regression to estimate the odds of developing metastasis within 48 months.
RESULTS: As expected, tumor diameter, thickness, cilio-choroidal location, and chromosome 3 monosomy were all significantly (P < 0.02) associated with the presence of metastasis. In univariate analysis, GNA11 (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.5) and BAP1 (OR 6.3, 95% CI 2.7-14.4) mutations were positively associated and EIF1AX mutation (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.034-0.47) was inversely associated with metastatic status at 48 months after UM treatment. After adjustment for covariates, a chromosome 3 monosomy/BAP1-mutation/EIF1AX-wild-type (WT) mutation profile was strongly associated (OR 37.5, 95% CI 4.3-414) with the presence of metastasis compared with a chromosome 3 disomy/BAP1-WT/EIF1AX mutation profile.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that knowledge of mutations in BAP1 and EIF1AX can enhance prognostication of UM beyond that determined by chromosome 3 and tumor characteristics. Tumors with chromosome 3 disomy/BAP1-WT/EIF1AX-WT have a 10-fold increased risk of metastasis at 48 months compared with disomy-3/BAP1-WT/EIF1AX mutant tumors.

Xu J, Kadariya Y, Cheung M, et al.
Germline mutation of Bap1 accelerates development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(16):4388-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2015 Related Publications
Malignant mesotheliomas are highly aggressive tumors usually caused by exposure to asbestos. Germline-inactivating mutations of BAP1 predispose to mesothelioma and certain other cancers. However, why mesothelioma is the predominate malignancy in some BAP1 families and not others, and whether exposure to asbestos is required for development of mesothelioma in BAP1 mutation carriers are not known. To address these questions experimentally, we generated a Bap1(+/-) knockout mouse model to assess its susceptibility to mesothelioma upon chronic exposure to asbestos. Bap1(+/-) mice exhibited a significantly higher incidence of asbestos-induced mesothelioma than wild-type (WT) littermates (73% vs. 32%, respectively). Furthermore, mesotheliomas arose at an accelerated rate in Bap1(+/-) mice than in WT animals (median survival, 43 weeks vs. 55 weeks after initial exposure, respectively) and showed increased invasiveness and proliferation. No spontaneous mesotheliomas were seen in unexposed Bap1(+/-) mice followed for up to 87 weeks of age. Mesothelioma cells from Bap1(+/-) mice showed biallelic inactivation of Bap1, consistent with its proposed role as a recessive cancer susceptibility gene. Unlike in WT mice, mesotheliomas from Bap1(+/-) mice did not require homozygous loss of Cdkn2a. However, normal mesothelial cells and mesothelioma cells from Bap1(+/-) mice showed downregulation of Rb through a p16(Ink4a)-independent mechanism, suggesting that predisposition of Bap1(+/-) mice to mesothelioma may be facilitated, in part, by cooperation between Bap1 and Rb. Drawing parallels to human disease, these unbiased genetic findings indicate that BAP1 mutation carriers are predisposed to the tumorigenic effects of asbestos and suggest that high penetrance of mesothelioma requires such environmental exposure.

Yoshikawa Y, Sato A, Tsujimura T, et al.
Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(3):560-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis.

Simbolo M, Fassan M, Ruzzenente A, et al.
Multigene mutational profiling of cholangiocarcinomas identifies actionable molecular subgroups.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(9):2839-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2015 Related Publications
One-hundred-fifty-three biliary cancers, including 70 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), 57 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECC) and 26 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were assessed for mutations in 56 genes using multigene next-generation sequencing. Expression of EGFR and mTOR pathway genes was investigated by immunohistochemistry. At least one mutated gene was observed in 118/153 (77%) cancers. The genes most frequently involved were KRAS (28%), TP53 (18%), ARID1A (12%), IDH1/2 (9%), PBRM1 (9%), BAP1 (7%), and PIK3CA (7%). IDH1/2 (p=0.0005) and BAP1 (p=0.0097) mutations were characteristic of ICC, while KRAS (p=0.0019) and TP53 (p=0.0019) were more frequent in ECC and GBC. Multivariate analysis identified tumour stage and TP53 mutations as independent predictors of survival. Alterations in chromatin remodeling genes (ARID1A, BAP1, PBRM1, SMARCB1) were seen in 31% of cases. Potentially actionable mutations were seen in 104/153 (68%) cancers: i) KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations were found in 34% of cancers; ii) mTOR pathway activation was documented by immunohistochemistry in 51% of cases and by mutations in mTOR pathway genes in 19% of cancers; iii) TGF-ß/Smad signaling was altered in 10.5% cancers; iv) mutations in tyrosine kinase receptors were found in 9% cases. Our study identified molecular subgroups of cholangiocarcinomas that can be explored for specific drug targeting in clinical trials.

Brugarolas J
Molecular genetics of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(18):1968-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/06/2015 Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma of clear-cell type (ccRCC) is an enigmatic tumor type, characterized by frequent inactivation of the VHL gene (infrequently mutated in other tumor types), responsiveness to angiogenesis inhibitors, and resistance to both chemotherapy and conventional radiation therapy. ccRCC tumors exhibit substantial mutation heterogeneity. Recent studies using massively parallel sequencing technologies have implicated several novel driver genes. In VHL wild-type tumors, mutations were discovered in TCEB1, which encodes Elongin C, a protein that binds to VHL and is required for its function. Several additional tumor suppressor genes have been identified near the VHL gene, within a region that is frequently deleted in ccRCC on chromosome 3p: SETD2, BAP1, and PBRM1. Mutations in BAP1 and PBRM1 are largely mutually exclusive and are associated with different tumor biology and patient outcomes. In addition, the mTORC1 pathway is deregulated by mutations in MTOR, TSC1, PIK3CA, and PTEN in approximately 20% of ccRCCs. Mutations in TSC1, and possibly other genes, may predict for sensitivity to mTORC1 inhibitors. These discoveries provide insight into ccRCC development and set the foundation for the first molecular genetic classification of the disease, paving the way for subtype-specific therapies.

Field MG, Harbour JW
Recent developments in prognostic and predictive testing in uveal melanoma.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2014; 25(3):234-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the rapidly evolving methods for assessing prognosis and predicting response to targeted molecular therapy in uveal melanoma.
RECENT FINDINGS: The techniques for assessing prognosis in uveal melanoma have evolved from simple physical features, such as tumor size, location, and cell morphology, to the slightly more sophisticated counting of chromosomal gains and losses. More recently, gene expression profiling has provided a highly accurate and biologically informative gold standard for molecular prognostication. The latest step in the evolution of molecular testing has been the recent discovery of major driver mutations that allow predictive testing of response to targeted molecular therapies. Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 are early events that promote cell proliferation, and these mutations are sensitive to MAPK kinase, PKC, and AKT inhibitors. Mutations in BAP1, SF3B1, and EIF1AX are later events that are largely mutually exclusive. Mutations in BAP1 are strongly associated with metastasis, whereas those in SF3B1 and EIF1AX are associated with good prognosis. Uveal melanomas with BAP1 mutations demonstrate sensitivity to epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Clinical trials are now available to evaluate the efficacy of these targeted molecular agents in patients with uveal melanoma.
SUMMARY: Molecular prognostic testing and enrollment of high-risk patients into clinical trials of targeted molecular therapy are rapidly becoming the standard of care in the management of uveal melanoma.

Martorano LM, Winkelmann RR, Cebulla CM, et al.
Ocular melanoma and the BAP1 hereditary cancer syndrome: implications for the dermatologist.
Int J Dermatol. 2014; 53(6):657-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ocular melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma, which includes uveal melanoma (UM) and conjunctival melanoma. UM is associated with an increased risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in addition to mesothelioma, skin lesions such as epithelioid atypical Spitz tumors, and other internal malignancies due to a germline mutation of the BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) gene. Such familial risks are important for dermatologists to recognize when screening patients with a history of UM for CM and other malignancies. Molecular genetics further help to elucidate the connections between UM and CM by revealing similarities and differences in important mutations among the melanoma subtypes. Both UM and CM have been shown to harbor germline mutation of BAP1. However, somatic mutations in either GNAQ or GNA11 are unique to UM tumors and could be used as potential markers to differentiate UM from metastatic CM and act as direct therapeutic targets. However, CM-associated BRAF and CDKN2A mutations are rare in UM. This review addresses the clinical features, pathogenesis, and current treatment options of UM, focusing on UM and the BAP1 cancer syndrome to raise awareness of ocular melanoma and its greater role in the predisposition to a hereditary cancer syndrome.

Robles-Espinoza CD, Harland M, Ramsay AJ, et al.
POT1 loss-of-function variants predispose to familial melanoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(5):478-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/06/2015 Related Publications
Deleterious germline variants in CDKN2A account for around 40% of familial melanoma cases, and rare variants in CDK4, BRCA2, BAP1 and the promoter of TERT have also been linked to the disease. Here we set out to identify new high-penetrance susceptibility genes by sequencing 184 melanoma cases from 105 pedigrees recruited in the UK, The Netherlands and Australia that were negative for variants in known predisposition genes. We identified families where melanoma cosegregates with loss-of-function variants in the protection of telomeres 1 gene (POT1), with a proportion of family members presenting with an early age of onset and multiple primary tumors. We show that these variants either affect POT1 mRNA splicing or alter key residues in the highly conserved oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) domains of POT1, disrupting protein-telomere binding and leading to increased telomere length. These findings suggest that POT1 variants predispose to melanoma formation via a direct effect on telomeres.

Gold AS, Murray TG, Markoe AM, et al.
Uveal melanoma gene expression status post radiotherapy.
Optom Vis Sci. 2014; 91(1):e14-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gene expression profiling has been shown to yield two distinct molecular genetic signatures for uveal melanoma. These class designations tend to predict tumor aggressiveness and the likelihood of metastasis. Tumors with a class 1 genetic signature are generally much less aggressive than tumors with a class 2 genetic signature. Gene expression analysis for previously treated uveal melanoma has not yet been reported. The authors report three cases where genetic analysis was successfully obtained from uveal melanoma that was previously treated years earlier with radiotherapy.
CASE REPORT: The patients in all three cases received globe-conserving radiotherapy for treatment of choroidal melanoma before gene expression profiling was readily available. The patients in cases 1 and 2 received 125I plaque brachytherapy while the patient in case 3 received proton irradiation therapy. When secondary surgery was necessary to stabilize these eyes from the effects of radiation retinopathy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy was also performed for gene expression profiling. Genomic analysis revealed a class 1 molecular signature for the patient in case 1 and a class 2 molecular signature for the patients in cases 2 and 3.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression profiling for uveal melanoma may be obtained from patients who were previously treated with radiotherapy; however, the implication of these results will benefit from ongoing clinical evaluation.

Harbour JW, Chao DL
A molecular revolution in uveal melanoma: implications for patient care and targeted therapy.
Ophthalmology. 2014; 121(6):1281-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and has a strong propensity for fatal metastasis. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of uveal melanoma are revolutionizing our understanding of this cancer and the care of patients. The development of a new molecular classification of uveal melanoma based on a widely available 15-gene expression profile now allows patients at high risk of metastasis to be identified early so that individualized management can be offered. The recent discovery of major driver mutations in uveal melanoma provide a rational basis for development of new targeted therapies. Taken together, these advances are transforming our understanding and management of uveal melanoma with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes.

de Reyniès A, Jaurand MC, Renier A, et al.
Molecular classification of malignant pleural mesothelioma: identification of a poor prognosis subgroup linked to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(5):1323-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite research efforts to develop more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) prognosis remains poor. The assessment of tumor response to therapy can be improved by a deeper phenotypical classification of the tumor, with emphasis on its clinico-biological heterogeneity. The identification of molecular profiles is a powerful approach to better define MPM subclasses and targeted therapies.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Molecular subclasses were defined by transcriptomic microarray on 38 primary MPM cultures. A three-gene predictor, identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, was used to classify an independent series of 108 frozen tumor samples. Gene mutations were determined in BAP1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, NF2, and TP53. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were studied at the mRNA and protein levels.
RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering on transcriptomic data defined two robust MPM subgroups (C1 and C2), closely related to prognosis and partly to histologic subtypes. All sarcomatoid/desmoplastic MPM were included in the C2 subgroup. Epithelioid MPM were found in both subgroups, with a worse survival prognosis in the C2 subgroup. This classification and its association with histologic subtypes and survival were validated in our independent series using the three-gene predictor. Similar subgroups were found after classification of other MPM series from transcriptomic public datasets. C1 subgroup exhibited more frequent BAP1 alterations. Pathway analysis revealed that EMT was differentially regulated between MPM subgroups. C2 subgroup is characterized by a mesenchymal phenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: A robust classification of MPM that defines two subgroups of epithelioid MPM, characterized by different molecular profiles, gene alterations, and survival outcomes, was established.

Dono M, Angelini G, Cecconi M, et al.
Mutation frequencies of GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1, SF3B1, EIF1AX and TERT in uveal melanoma: detection of an activating mutation in the TERT gene promoter in a single case of uveal melanoma.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(4):1058-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary tumour of the eye. It is molecularly clearly distinct from cutaneous melanoma and shows a different pattern of driver mutations. The influence of sunlight ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the aetiology of uveal melanoma is a matter of debate. The recent identification of driver mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene with UV-induced cytidine-to-thymidine transitions in cutaneous melanoma prompted us to investigate whether these mutations also occur in uveal melanoma.
METHODS: We analysed 50 cases of uveal melanoma obtained from enucleation surgery for mutations in the genes GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1, SF3B1, EIFAX1 and TERT, measured gene expression using microarrays and analysed gene copy numbers by SNP arrays.
RESULTS: We detected a TERT mutation in only one case of a 57-year-old white male patient with clinical and histopathological features typical for uveal melanoma. The tumour showed mutations in GNA11 and EIF1AX that are typical for uveal melanoma and absent from cutaneous melanoma. No mutations were detected in GNAQ, BAP1 and SF3B1 that are frequently mutated in uveal melanoma. Both copies of chromosome 3 were retained. Several tumours among which the one carrying the TERT promoter mutation showed elevated TERT expression. Consistent with previous reports, GNAQ is inversely associated with chromosome 3 monosomy and metastasis. BAP1 mutations are significantly associated with chromosome 3 monosomy but not with relapse.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that TERT mutations are rare in uveal melanoma. No conclusion can be drawn on their potential influence on tumour progression.

Ross JS, Wang K, Rand JV, et al.
Comprehensive genomic profiling of relapsed and metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas by next-generation sequencing reveals potential new routes to targeted therapies.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(2):235-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We hypothesized that next-generation sequencing could reveal actionable genomic alterations (GAs) and potentially expand treatment options for patients with advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Genomic profiling using next-generation sequencing was performed on hybridization-captured, adapter ligation libraries derived from 28 relapsed and metastatic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ACC. The 3230 exons of 182 cancer-related genes and 37 introns of 14 genes frequently rearranged in cancer were fully sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000. All classes of GAs were evaluated. Actionable GAs were defined as those impacting targeted anticancer therapies on the market or in registered clinical trials. A total of 44 GAs were identified in the 28 ACC tumors, with 12 of 28 (42.9%) of tumors harboring at least 1 potentially actionable GA. The most common nonactionable GAs were identified in KD6MA (5 cases; 18%), ARID1A (4 cases; 14%), RUNX1 (2 cases; 7%), and MYC (2 cases; 7%). Actionable GAs included NOTCH1 (3 cases; 11%), MDM2 (2 cases; 7%), PDGFRA (2 cases; 7%), and CDKN2A/B (p16) (2 cases; 7%). Other potentially actionable GAs identified in a single case included: mutations in AKT1, BAP1, EGFR, and PIK3CA, homozygous deletion of FBXW7, and amplifications of CDK4, FGFR1, IGF1R, KDR, KIT, and MCL1. The frequency of GA in ACC is lower than that seen in the more common solid tumors. Comprehensive genomic profiling of ACC can identify actionable GAs in a subset of patients that could influence therapy for these difficult-to-treat progressive neoplasms.

Haas NB, Nathanson KL
Hereditary kidney cancer syndromes.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2014; 21(1):81-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Inherited susceptibility to kidney cancer is a fascinating and complex topic. Our knowledge about types of genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of disease is continually expanding. Currently, there are 10 syndromes associated with an increased risk of all types of kidney cancer, which are reviewed herein. Clear cell kidney cancer is associated with von Hippel Lindau disease, chromosome 3 translocations, PTEN hamartomatous syndrome, and mutations in the BAP1 gene as well as several of the genes encoding the proteins comprising the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHB/C/D). Type 1 papillary kidney cancers arise in conjunction with germline mutations in MET and type 2 as part of hereditary leiomyomatosis and kidney cell cancer (fumarate hydratase [FH] mutations). Chromophone and oncocytic kidney cancers are predominantly associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) commonly have angiomyolipomas and rarely their malignant counterpart epithelioid angiomyolipomas. The targeted therapeutic options for the kidney cancer associated with these diseases are just starting to expand and are an area of active clinical research.

Yu H, Pak H, Hammond-Martel I, et al.
Tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase BAP1 promotes DNA double-strand break repair.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(1):285-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
The cellular response to highly genotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) involves the exquisite coordination of multiple signaling and repair factors. Here, we conducted a functional RNAi screen and identified BAP1 as a deubiquitinase required for efficient assembly of the homologous recombination (HR) factors BRCA1 and RAD51 at ionizing radiation (IR) -induced foci. BAP1 is a chromatin-associated protein frequently inactivated in cancers of various tissues. To further investigate the role of BAP1 in DSB repair, we used a gene targeting approach to knockout (KO) this deubiquitinase in chicken DT40 cells. We show that BAP1-deficient cells are (i) sensitive to IR and other agents that induce DSBs, (ii) defective in HR-mediated immunoglobulin gene conversion, and (iii) exhibit an increased frequency of chromosomal breaks after IR treatment. We also show that BAP1 is recruited to chromatin in the proximity of a single site-specific I-SceI-induced DSB. Finally, we identified six IR-induced phosphorylation sites in BAP1 and showed that mutation of these residues inhibits BAP1 recruitment to DSB sites. We also found that both BAP1 catalytic activity and its phosphorylation are critical for promoting DNA repair and cellular recovery from DNA damage. Our data reveal an important role for BAP1 in DSB repair by HR, thereby providing a possible molecular basis for its tumor suppressor function.

Jiao Y, Yonescu R, Offerhaus GJ, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing of pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation.
J Pathol. 2014; 232(4):428-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Pancreatic carcinomas with acinar differentiation, including acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma and carcinomas with mixed differentiation, are distinct pancreatic neoplasms with poor prognosis. Although recent whole-exome sequencing analyses have defined the somatic mutations that characterize the other major neoplasms of the pancreas, the molecular alterations underlying pancreatic carcinomas with acinar differentiation remain largely unknown. In the current study, we sequenced the exomes of 23 surgically resected pancreatic carcinomas with acinar differentiation. These analyses revealed a relatively large number of genetic alterations at both the individual base pair and chromosomal levels. There was an average of 119 somatic mutations/carcinoma. When three outliers were excluded, there was an average of 64 somatic mutations/tumour (range 12-189). The mean fractional allelic loss (FAL) was 0.27 (range 0-0.89) and heterogeneity at the chromosome level was confirmed in selected cases using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). No gene was mutated in >30% of the cancers. Genes altered in other neoplasms of the pancreas were occasionally targeted in carcinomas with acinar differentiation; SMAD4 was mutated in six tumours (26%), TP53 in three (13%), GNAS in two (9%), RNF43 in one (4%) and MEN1 in one (4%). Somatic mutations were identified in genes in which constitutional alterations are associated with familial pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, such as ATM, BRCA2 and PALB2 (one tumour each), as well as in genes altered in extra-pancreatic neoplasms, such as JAK1 in four tumours (17%), BRAF in three (13%), RB1 in three (13%), APC in two (9%), PTEN in two (9%), ARID1A in two (9%), MLL3 in two (9%) and BAP1 in one (4%). Perhaps most importantly, we found that more than one-third of these carcinomas have potentially targetable genetic alterations, including mutations in BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, BAP1, BRAF and JAK1.

Marzuka-Alcalá A, Gabree MJ, Tsao H
Melanoma susceptibility genes and risk assessment.
Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1102:381-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial melanoma accounts for approximately a tenth of all melanoma cases. The most commonly known melanoma susceptibility gene is the highly penetrant CDKN2A (p16INK4a) locus, which is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion and accounts for approximately 20-50 % of familial melanoma cases. Mutated p16INK4a shows impaired capacity to inhibit the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex, allowing for unchecked cell cycle progression. Mutations in the second protein coded by CDKN2A, p14ARF, are much less common and result in proteasomal degradation of p53 with subsequent accumulation of DNA damage as the cell progresses through the cell cycle without a functional p53-mediated DNA damage response. Mutations in CDK4 that impair the inhibitory interaction with p16INK4a also increase melanoma risk but these mutations are extremely rare. Genes of the melanin biosynthetic pathway, including MC1R and MITF, have also been implicated in melanomagenesis. MC1R variants were traditionally thought to increase risk for melanoma secondary to intensified UV-mediated DNA damage in the setting of absent photoprotective eumelanin. Accumulation of pheomelanin, which appears to have a carcinogenic effect regardless of UV exposure, may be a more likely mechanism. Impaired SUMOylation of the E318K variant of MITF results in increased transcription of genes that confer melanocytes with a pro-malignant phenotype. Mutations in the tumor suppressor BAP1 enhance the metastatic potential of uveal melanoma and predispose to cutaneous/ocular melanoma, atypical melanocytic tumors, and other internal malignancies (COMMON syndrome). Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous low-risk alleles. Although several melanoma susceptibility genes have been identified, risk assessment tools have been developed only for the most common gene implicated with hereditary melanoma, CDKN2A. MelaPRO, a validated model that relies on Mendelian inheritance and Bayesian probability theories, estimates carrier probability for CDKN2A and future risk of melanoma taking into account a patient's family and past medical history of melanoma. Genetic testing for CDKN2A mutations is currently available but the Melanoma Genetics Consortium recommends offering such testing to patients only in the context of research protocols because clinical utility is uncertain.

Shah AA, Bourne TD, Murali R
BAP1 protein loss by immunohistochemistry: a potentially useful tool for prognostic prediction in patients with uveal melanoma.
Pathology. 2013; 45(7):651-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumour in adults. Recently, biallelic inactivation of the BAP1 gene was shown to be associated with increased risk of metastasis in patients with uveal melanoma. Immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of BAP1 protein loss has been shown to be an excellent surrogate for biallelic inactivation of BAP1. In this pilot study, we investigated whether loss of BAP1 expression by IHC is associated with prognosis in uveal melanoma patients.
METHODS: We retrieved clinical data, reviewed pathological slides, and performed IHC for BAP1 in 40 primary uveal melanomas. Tumour cell type was classified as: spindle (>90% spindle cells); epithelioid (>90% epithelioid cells); or mixed. BAP1 expression was scored as diffuse (nuclear staining in >90% of tumour cells), heterogenous (nuclear staining in <90% of tumour cells), or absent (no nuclear staining). We analysed associations of BAP1 expression with clinical and pathological parameters, and with overall survival.
RESULTS: Tumours were obtained from 20 males and 20 females, with a median age of 60 years (range 31-81 years). Tumour cell types were: epithelioid (n=7, 18%), mixed (n=20, 50%), and spindled (n=13, 33%). BAP1 expression was absent in 23 (58%) tumours, heterogenous in seven (18%) tumours, and diffuse in 10 (25%) tumours. Absent BAP1 expression was more frequently seen in epithelioid/mixed cell tumours (19/27, 70%) than was heterogenous (3/27, 11%) or diffuse (5/27, 19%) expression; the corresponding figures for spindle cell tumours were 4/13 (31%), 4/13 (31%) and 5/13 (38%), respectively (p=0.057). Factors associated with improved survival were diffuse or heterogenous BAP1 expression (compared with absent expression, p=0.03) and age less than 60 years (p=0.049).
CONCLUSION: Analysis of BAP1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry may serve as a rapid and cost-effective means of identifying uveal melanoma patients with aggressive disease, who can then be managed appropriately.

Pilarski R, Cebulla CM, Massengill JB, et al.
Expanding the clinical phenotype of hereditary BAP1 cancer predisposition syndrome, reporting three new cases.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(2):177-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
The clinical phenotype of BAP1 hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome (MIM 614327) includes uveal melanoma (UM), cutaneous melanoma (CM), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mesothelioma. However, the frequency of the syndrome in patients with UM and the association with other cancers are still not clear. In this study, we screened 46 previously untested, unrelated UM patients with high risk for hereditary cancer for germline mutation in BAP1. We also studied four additional patients with a personal or family history suggestive of BAP1 hereditary cancer syndrome. We identified three patients with germline pathogenic mutations (c.2050 C>T, pGln684*; c.1182C>G, p.Tyr394*, and c.1882_1885delTCAC, p. Ser628Profs*8) in BAP1. Two of these three patients presented with UM and the third with a metastatic adenocarcinoma likely from a hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Reported family histories included UM, mesothelioma, RCC, CM, and several other internal malignancies. The results of this study confirm the association between germline BAP1 mutation and predisposition to UM, mesothelioma, CM and RCC. However, other cancers, such as cholangiocarcinoma and breast carcinoma may be part of the phenotype of this hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome. In addition, the results support the existence of other candidate genes in addition to BAP1 contributing to hereditary predisposition to UM.

Campbell K, Brosseau S, Reviron-Rabec L, et al.
[Malignant pleural mesothelioma: 2013 state of the art].
Bull Cancer. 2013; 100(12):1283-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a bad-prognosis cancer raising difficult issues according to diagnosis. Reliable histological diagnosis indeed requires large-sized pathological samples obtained by thoracoscopy, and need diagnosis certification by the MESOPATH national expert pathological committee. MPM epidemiology shows a rising incidence among females, whereas an incidence plateau has been reached for males in France. The incidence peak is still predicted for 2030 decade in UK, Australia and North America, because of the asbestosis massive use in their industry until the end of 1980 decade. Pleural carcinogenesis is better understood with the recent discovery of BAP1 susceptibility gene although no oncogenic driver has been ever uncovered for targeted therapies, although several more or less targeted biological therapies are currently tested in early phase or more advanced-phase trials. Surgery is more and more questioned, since radical surgery is currently abandoned, whereas debulking or cyto-reduction surgery has been proposed within a multimodality approach also including adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy but still need prospective trials. Pemetrexed and cisplatin-based chemotherapy remains the reference treatment, which has proved in mesothelioma some efficacy on overall survival in randomized trials, with a 13-15 months median-overall survival. Final results of the large phase 3 clinical trial "MAPS" sponsored by French collaborative Intergroup (IFCT) evaluating the effect of bevacizumab addition to pemetrexed-cisplatin doublet will be released in early 2015, since 445 patients have been included by November 2013.

Maerker DA, Zeschnigk M, Nelles J, et al.
BAP1 germline mutation in two first grade family members with uveal melanoma.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2014; 98(2):224-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye in adults. About half of the patients are at risk of developing metastatic disease resulting in a poor clinical prognosis. Metastatic progression is strongly associated with loss of one chromosome 3 in the tumour (monosomy 3). The tumour suppressor gene BAP1 was found to be recurrently mutated in UM with monosomy 3. Familial UM is rare and amounts to about 0.6-6% of all patients with melanoma. However, BAP1 germline mutations have been identified in rare hereditary tumour syndromes, including cases with UM. One may assume that UM may be part of these hereditary conditions with predisposition to malignant cancers.
METHODS: The patients underwent complete ophthalmological workup and enucleation due to UM. Microsatellite analysis was performed to determine the chromosome 3 status of the tumours. Sanger sequencing of all coding exons of the BAP1 gene was performed in blood DNA of the patients.
RESULTS: Here we report on two family members (mother and son) diagnosed with UM. In both patients, a cosegregating BAP1 germline mutation (c.299 T>C) was found. The mutant BAP1 allele was retained in the tumour of the son showing monosomy 3. The son further developed urothelial carcinoma and liver metastasis, the mother was affected by the UM and cholangiocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: [corrected] We detected a cosegregating BAP1 germline mutation in two family members with UM. This suggests that, consistent with a classic tumour suppressor model, carriers of damaging mutations in BAP1 are predisposed to UM. However, as BAP1 germline mutations have been found to cause other cancer syndromes as well, there must be other factors that decide about the type of tumour emerging from BAP1 inactivation.

Chan-On W, Nairismägi ML, Ong CK, et al.
Exome sequencing identifies distinct mutational patterns in liver fluke-related and non-infection-related bile duct cancers.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(12):1474-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The impact of different carcinogenic exposures on the specific patterns of somatic mutation in human tumors remains unclear. To address this issue, we profiled 209 cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) from Asia and Europe, including 108 cases caused by infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and 101 cases caused by non-O. viverrini-related etiologies. Whole-exome sequencing (n = 15) and prevalence screening (n = 194) identified recurrent somatic mutations in BAP1 and ARID1A, neither of which, to our knowledge, has previously been reported to be mutated in CCA. Comparisons between intrahepatic O. viverrini-related and non-O. viverrini-related CCAs demonstrated statistically significant differences in mutation patterns: BAP1, IDH1 and IDH2 were more frequently mutated in non-O. viverrini CCAs, whereas TP53 mutations showed the reciprocal pattern. Functional studies demonstrated tumor suppressive functions for BAP1 and ARID1A, establishing the role of chromatin modulators in CCA pathogenesis. These findings indicate that different causative etiologies may induce distinct somatic alterations, even within the same tumor type.

Jiao Y, Pawlik TM, Anders RA, et al.
Exome sequencing identifies frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(12):1470-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Through exomic sequencing of 32 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, we discovered frequent inactivating mutations in multiple chromatin-remodeling genes (including BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1), and mutation in one of these genes occurred in almost half of the carcinomas sequenced. We also identified frequent mutations at previously reported hotspots in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding metabolic enzymes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. In contrast, TP53 was the most frequently altered gene in a series of nine gallbladder carcinomas. These discoveries highlight the key role of dysregulated chromatin remodeling in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.

Gossage L, Murtaza M, Slatter AF, et al.
Clinical and pathological impact of VHL, PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2, KDM6A, and JARID1c in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(1):38-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
VHL is mutated in the majority of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), with conflicting clinical relevance. Recent studies have identified recurrent mutations in histone modifying and chromatin remodeling genes, including BAP1, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM6A, and JARID1c. Current evidence suggests that BAP1 mutations are associated with aggressive disease. The clinical significance of the remaining genes is unknown. In this study, targeted sequencing of VHL and JARID1c (entire genes) and coding regions of BAP1, PBRM1, SETD2, and KDM6A was performed on 132 ccRCCs and matched normal tissues. Associations between mutations and clinical and pathological outcomes were interrogated. Inactivation of VHL (coding mutation or promoter methylation) was seen in 75% of ccRCCs. Somatic noncoding VHL alterations were identified in 29% of ccRCCs and may be associated with improved overall survival. BAP1 (11%), PBRM1 (33%), SETD2 (16%), JARID1c (4%), and KDM6A (3%) mutations were identified. BAP1-mutated tumors were associated with metastatic disease at presentation (P = 0.023), advanced clinical stage (P = 0.042) and a trend towards shorter recurrence free survival (P = 0.059) when compared with tumors exclusively mutated for PBRM1. Our results support those of recent publications pointing towards a role for BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations in risk stratifying ccRCCs. Further investigation of noncoding alterations in VHL is warranted.

Simon JM, Hacker KE, Singh D, et al.
Variation in chromatin accessibility in human kidney cancer links H3K36 methyltransferase loss with widespread RNA processing defects.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(2):241-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Comprehensive sequencing of human cancers has identified recurrent mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulatory proteins. For clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), three of the five commonly mutated genes encode the chromatin regulators PBRM1, SETD2, and BAP1. How these mutations alter the chromatin landscape and transcriptional program in ccRCC or other cancers is not understood. Here, we identified alterations in chromatin organization and transcript profiles associated with mutations in chromatin regulators in a large cohort of primary human kidney tumors. By associating variation in chromatin organization with mutations in SETD2, which encodes the enzyme responsible for H3K36 trimethylation, we found that changes in chromatin accessibility occurred primarily within actively transcribed genes. This increase in chromatin accessibility was linked with widespread alterations in RNA processing, including intron retention and aberrant splicing, affecting ∼25% of all expressed genes. Furthermore, decreased nucleosome occupancy proximal to misspliced exons was observed in tumors lacking H3K36me3. These results directly link mutations in SETD2 to chromatin accessibility changes and RNA processing defects in cancer. Detecting the functional consequences of specific mutations in chromatin regulatory proteins in primary human samples could ultimately inform the therapeutic application of an emerging class of chromatin-targeted compounds.

Zauderer MG, Bott M, McMillan R, et al.
Clinical characteristics of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma harboring somatic BAP1 mutations.
J Thorac Oncol. 2013; 8(11):1430-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Genomic studies of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have recently identified frequent mutations in the BRCA-associated protein 1(BAP1) gene. In uveal melanoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma, BAP1 mutations are associated with poor outcomes but their clinical significance in MPM is unknown. We therefore undertook this study to define the characteristics of patients whose MPM tumors harbor somatic BAP1 mutation and to examine the relationship between BAP1 mutation and survival.
METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 121 patients with MPM tumors diagnosed between 1991 and 2009 tested for BAP1 mutation, and extracted the following information: age at diagnosis, sex, histology, stage, smoking status, asbestos exposure, family or personal history of malignancy, and treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation as well as survival status.
RESULTS: Twenty-four of the 121 tumors (20%) harbored somatic BAP1 mutations. The percentage of current or former smokers among cases with BAP1 mutations was significantly higher than in BAP1 wild-type cases, (75% versus 42%; p = 0.006). However, the types of nucleotide substitutions in BAP1 did not suggest that this association was because of a causative role of smoking in BAP1 mutations. No other clinical feature was significantly different among those with and without BAP1 mutations in their MPM. There was also no difference in survival according to somatic BAP1 mutation status.
CONCLUSION: There is no apparent distinct clinical phenotype for MPM with somatic BAP1 mutation. The significance of the more frequent history of smoking among patients with BAP1-mutated MPM warrants further study.

Kapur P, Christie A, Raman JD, et al.
BAP1 immunohistochemistry predicts outcomes in a multi-institutional cohort with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Urol. 2014; 191(3):603-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BAP1 occur in approximately 15% of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases. Sequencing efforts demonstrated worse outcomes in patients with BAP1 mutated clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We investigated the clinicopathological significance and oncologic outcomes of BAP1 loss using a previously validated immunohistochemical assay.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was performed on tissue microarray sections from 559 nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases treated with nephrectomy at multiple institutions. The association of BAP1 expression with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Survival was assessed by Cox regression analysis, which also identified independent predictors of time dependent outcomes.
RESULTS: At a median followup of 50 months (range 0 to 183) 86 of 483 patients (17.8%) experienced recurrence and 121 of 559 (21.6%) had died. BAP1 was negative in 82 of 559 tumors (14.7%). BAP1 loss was associated with adverse clinicopathological variables, including high Fuhrman grade (p <0.0001), advanced pT stage (p = 0.0021), sarcomatoid dedifferentiation (p = 0.0001) and necrosis (p <0.0001). Cox regression revealed that patients with BAP1 negative tumors had significantly worse disease-free survival (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.7, p <0.0001) and overall survival (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1, p = 0.0010) than patients with BAP1 positive tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 serves as a powerful marker to predict poor oncologic outcomes and adverse clinicopathological features in patients with nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. BAP1 assessment using immunohistochemistry on needle biopsy may benefit preoperative risk stratification and guide treatment planning in the future.

Karlo CA, Di Paolo PL, Chaim J, et al.
Radiogenomics of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: associations between CT imaging features and mutations.
Radiology. 2014; 270(2):464-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between computed tomographic (CT) features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and mutations in VHL, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM5C, or BAP1 genes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective, hypothesis-generating study of 233 patients with clear cell RCC and waived the informed consent requirement. The study was HIPAA compliant. Three radiologists independently reviewed pretreatment CT images of all clear cell RCCs without knowledge of their genomic profile. One radiologist measured largest diameter and enhancement parameters of each clear cell RCC. Associations between CT features and mutations in VHL, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM5C, and BAP1 genes were tested by using the Fisher exact test. Associations between mutations and size and enhancement were assessed by using the independent t test. Interreader agreement was calculated by using the Fleiss κ.
RESULTS: Mutation frequencies among clear cell RCCs were as follows: VHL, 53.2% (124 of 233); PBRM1, 28.8% (67 of 233); SETD2, 7.3% (17 of 233); KDM5C, 6.9% (16 of 233); and BAP1, 6.0% (14 of 233). Mutations of VHL were significantly associated with well-defined tumor margins (P = .013), nodular tumor enhancement (P = .021), and gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity (P = .018). Mutations of KDM5C and BAP1 were significantly associated with evidence of renal vein invasion (P = .022 and .046, respectively). The genotype of solid clear cell RCC differed significantly from the genotype of multicystic clear cell RCC. While mutations of SETD2, KDM5C, and BAP1 were absent in multicystic clear cell RCC, mutations of VHL (P = .016) and PBRM1 (P = .017) were significantly more common among solid clear cell RCC. Interreader agreement for CT feature assessments ranged from substantial to excellent (κ = 0.791-0.912).
CONCLUSION: This preliminary radiogenomics analysis of clear cell RCC revealed associations between CT features and underlying mutations that warrant further investigation and validation.

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