Gene Summary

Gene:MCAM; melanoma cell adhesion molecule
Aliases: CD146, MUC18
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cell surface glycoprotein MUC18
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factors
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transfection
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Up-Regulation
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Chromosome 11
  • Disease Progression
  • Base Sequence
  • Messenger RNA
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • MCAM
  • Apoptosis
  • Young Adult
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Melanoma
  • Cell Division
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Proliferation
  • siRNA
  • CD Antigens
  • Western Blotting
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Antigens, CD146
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Tumor Markers
  • Antigens, Surface
  • Transcription
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • CpG Islands
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • TFAP2A
  • Immunohistochemistry
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MCAM (cancer-related)

Ramcharan KS, Lip GY, Stonelake PS, Blann AD
Effect of standard chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy on plasma markers and endothelial cells in colorectal cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(9):1742-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The importance of the endothelium in angiogenesis and cancer is undisputed, and its integrity may be assessed by laboratory markers such as circulating endothelial cells (CECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), plasma von Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble E selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenin. Antiantigenic therapy may be added to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy as a new treatment modality. We hypothesised that additional antiangiogenic therapy acts in a contrasting manner to that of standard chemotherapy on the laboratory markers.
METHODS: We recruited 68 patients with CRC, of whom 16 were treated with surgery alone, 32 were treated with surgery followed by standard chemotherapy (5-flurouracil), and 20 were treated with surgery followed by standard chemotherapy plus anti-VEGF therapy (Avastin). Peripheral blood was taken before surgery, and again 3 months and 6 months later. CD34(+)/CD45(-)/CD146(+) CECs and CD34(+)/CD45(-)/CD309[KDR](+) EPCs were measured by flow cytometry, plasma markers by ELISA.
RESULTS: In each of the three groups, CECs and EPCs fell at 3 months but were back at pre-surgery levels at 6 months (P<0.05). VEGF was lower in both 3-and 6-month samples in the surgery-only and surgery plus standard chemotherapy groups (P<0.05), but in those on surgery followed by standard chemotherapy plus anti-VEGF therapy, low levels at 3 months (P<0.01) increased to pre-surgery levels at 6 months. In those having surgery and standard chemotherapy, soluble E selectin was lower, whereas angiogenin was higher at 6 months than at baseline (both P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: We found disturbances in endotheliod cells regardless of treatment, whereas VEGF returned to levels before surgery in those on antiangiogenic therapy. These observations may have clinical and pathophysiological implications.

Kraan J, van den Broek P, Verhoef C, et al.
Endothelial CD276 (B7-H3) expression is increased in human malignancies and distinguishes between normal and tumour-derived circulating endothelial cells.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(1):149-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mature circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are surrogate markers of endothelial damage. CEC measured in patients with advanced cancer are thought not only to derive from damaged normal vasculature (n-CEC), but also from damaged (t-CEC). Therefore, assays that allow the discrimination between these two putative types of CEC are thought to improve the specificity of the enumeration of CEC in cancer.
METHODS: Identification of tumour-associated endothelial markers (TEM) by comparing antigen expression on normal vs t-CEC and assess the presence of t-CEC in peripheral blood of cancer patients by incorporating TEM in our novel flow cytometry-based CEC detection assay.
RESULTS: No difference in antigen expression between normal and malignant endothelial cells (ECs) was found for CD54, CD109, CD137, CD141, CD144 and CXCR7. In contrast, overexpression for CD105, CD146, CD276 and CD309 was observed in tumour ECs compared with normal ECs. CD276 was most differentially expressed and chosen as a marker for further investigation. CD276-expressing CEC were significantly higher in 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (median 9 (range 1-293 cell per 4 ml); P<0.005), in 83 patients with a glioblastoma multiforme (median 10 (range 0-804); P<0.0001) and in 14 patients with advanced breast cancer (median 14 (range 0-390) P<0.05) as compared with 24 healthy individuals (median 3 (range 0-11)). Of all patients with malignancies, 58% had CD276(+) CEC counts above the ULN (8 cell per 4 ml).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that CD276 can be used to discriminate ECs from malignant tissue from ECs from normal tissue. In addition, CD276(+) CEC do occur in higher frequencies in patients with advanced cancer.

Fukusumi T, Ishii H, Konno M, et al.
CD10 as a novel marker of therapeutic resistance and cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(3):506-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for treatment failure. However, their identification and roles in resistance are not well established in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
METHODS: Three HNSCC cell lines (FaDu, Detroit562 and BICR6) were treated with cisplatin or radiation. Cell surface antigens were analysed by LyoPlate, a novel cell surface antigen array. The expression levels of antigens highly expressed after treatments were further compared between cisplatin-resistant Detroit562 cells and its parental line. Association of the candidate antigen with CSCs properties, namely sphere formation and in vivo tumourigenicity, was also examined.
RESULTS: CD10, CD15s, CD146 and CD282 were upregulated across the treated cell lines, while the increased expression of CD10 was prominent in the cisplatin-resistant cell line. Isolation mediated by FACS revealed that the CD10-positive subpopulation was more refractory to cisplatin, fluorouracil and radiation than the CD10-negative subpopulation. It also showed an increased ability to form spheres in vitro and tumours in vivo. Moreover, the CD10-positive subpopulation expressed the CSC marker OCT3/4 at a higher level than that in the CD10-negative subpopulation.
CONCLUSIONS: CD10 is associated with therapeutic resistance and CSC-like properties of HNSCC. CD10 may serve as a target molecule in the treatment of refractory HNSCC.

Xing S, Luo Y, Liu Z, et al.
Targeting endothelial CD146 attenuates colitis and prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis.
Am J Pathol. 2014; 184(5):1604-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, enhanced CD146 expression was reported on endothelial cells in intestinal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we found that overexpressed endothelial CD146 promoted the inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel disease, which further potentiated the occurrence of colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis. Eliminating endothelial CD146 by conditional knockout significantly ameliorated the severity of inflammation in two different murine models of colitis, and decreased tumor incidence and tumor progression in a murine model of colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis. Mechanistic study showed that cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) up-regulated the expression of endothelial CD146 through NF-κB transactivation. In turn, the enhanced endothelial CD146 expression promoted both angiogenesis and proinflammatory leukocyte extravasations, contributing to inflammation. Using an anti-CD146 antibody, AA98, alone or together with an anti-TNF-α antibody significantly attenuated colitis and prevented colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Our study provides the first evidence that CD146 plays a dual role on endothelium, facilitating leukocyte extravasations and angiogenesis, thus promoting inflammation. This finding not only reveals the function and regulating mechanism of CD146 in inflammatory bowel disease, but also provides a promising therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory bowel disease and preventing colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis.

Bubka M, Link-Lenczowski P, Janik M, et al.
Overexpression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases III and V in human melanoma cells. Implications for MCAM N-glycosylation.
Biochimie. 2014; 103:37-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
An important role in cancer pathogenesis is attributed to N-glycans with "bisecting" N-acetylglucosamine and beta1-6 branches but the exact mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Two structures are formed by Golgi beta-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC =, GnT-III) and alpha-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (EC =, GnT-V) respectively. The enzymes are encoded by MGAT3 and MGAT5 genes. The aim of this study was to establish two human melanoma cell lines with induced overexpression of GnT-III or GnT-V and to perform a preliminary functional characterization. WM-266-4 cells were stably transfected with human MGAT3 or MGAT5 cDNAs. GnT-III and GnT-V activities were assayed with a novel HPLC method based on labeling of N-glycan acceptor with 2-aminobenzamide (adapted from Taniguchi et al., 1989). Higher expression and activities of glycosyltransferases were detected. Increased amounts of "bisected" and beta1-6 branched N-glycans were present on melanoma cell adhesion molecule (known as MCAM/MUC18). However, cells did not display significant differences in viability and capabilities to migrate through an endothelial layer. To the best of our knowledge, the result of our study is the first to demonstrate that "bisected" N-glycans can be carried by MCAM. Moreover, increased modification of this protein by the two glycosyltransferases in WM-266-4-GnT-III cells was the consequence of the overexpression of only one enzyme. The obtained model can be useful for studying mechanisms of N-glycans branching and better understanding of their role in cancer progression. The proposed modification of the glycosyltransferase activity assay has shown to be a good alternative for 2-aminopyridine based HPLC systems.

Zeng Q, Zhang P, Wu Z, et al.
Quantitative proteomics reveals ER-α involvement in CD146-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells.
J Proteomics. 2014; 103:153-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The cell adhesion molecule CD146 is a novel inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). To gain insights into the complex networks that mediate CD146-induced EMT in breast cancers, we conducted a triple Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC), to analyze whole cell protein profiles of MCF-7 cells that had undergone gradual EMT upon CD146 expression from moderate to high levels. In this study, we identified 2293 proteins in total, of which 103 exhibited changes in protein abundance that correlated with CD146 expression levels, revealing extensive morphological and biochemical changes associated with EMT. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that estrogen receptor (ER) was the most significantly inhibited transcription regulator during CD146-induced EMT. Functional assays further revealed that ER-α expression was repressed in cells undergoing CD146-induced EMT, whereas re-expression of ER-α abolished their migratory and invasive behavior. Lastly, we found that ER-α mediated its effects on CD146-induced EMT via repression of the key EMT transcriptional factor Slug. Our study revealed the molecular details of the complex signaling networks during CD146-induced EMT, and provided important clues for future exploration of the mechanisms underlying the association between CD146 and TNBC as observed in the clinic.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study used a proteomics screen to reveal molecular changes mediated by CD146-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells. Estrogen receptor (ER) was found to be the most significantly inhibited transcription regulator, which mediated its effects on CD146-induced EMT via repression of the transcriptional factor Slug. Elucidation of protein interaction networks and signal networks generated from 103 significantly changed proteins would facilitate future investigation into the mechanisms underlying CD146 induced-EMT in breast cancers.

Lin JC, Chiang CF, Wang SW, et al.
Significance of expression of human METCAM/MUC18 in nasopharyngeal carcinomas and metastatic lesions.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(1):245-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human METCAM/MUC18, a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in the immunoglobulin-like gene super family, plays a dual role in the progression of several epithelium cancers; however, its role in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. To initiate the study we determined human METCAM/MUC18 expression in tissue samples of normal nasopharynx (NP), NPCs, and metastatic lesions, and in two established NPC cell lines. Immunoblotting analysis was used for the determination in lysates of frozen tissues, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 7 normal nasopharynx specimens, 94 NPC tissue specimens, and 3 metastatic lesions. Human METCAM/MUC18 was expressed in 100% of the normal NP, not expressed in 73% of NPC specimens (or expressed at very low levels in only about 27% of NPC specimens), and expressed again in all of the metastatic lesions. The level of human METCAM/MUC18 expression in NPC tissues was about one fifth of that in the normal NP and metastatic lesions. The low level of human METCAM/ MUC18 expression in NPC specimens was confirmed by a weak signal of RT-PCR amplification of the mRNA. Low expression levels of human METCAM/MUC18 in NPC tissues were also reflected in the seven established NPC cell lines. These findings provided the first evidence that diminished expression of human METCAM/MUC18 is an indicator for the emergence of NPC, but increased expression then occurs with metastatic progression, suggesting that huMETCAM/MUC18, perhaps similar to TGF-β, may be a tumor suppressor, but a metastasis promoter for NPC.

Mirkina I, Hadzijusufovic E, Krepler C, et al.
Phenotyping of human melanoma cells reveals a unique composition of receptor targets and a subpopulation co-expressing ErbB4, EPO-R and NGF-R.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84417 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer increasingly diagnosed in the western world. In advanced disease the prognosis is grave. Growth and metastasis formation in melanomas are regulated by a network of cytokines, cytokine-receptors, and adhesion molecules. However, little is known about surface antigens and target expression profiles in human melanomas. We examined the cell surface antigen profile of human skin melanoma cells by multicolor flow cytometry, and compared their phenotype with 4 melanoma cell lines (A375, 607B, Mel-Juso, SK-Mel28). Melanoma cells were defined as CD45-/CD31- cells co-expressing one or more melanoma-related antigens (CD63, CD146, CD166). In most patients, melanoma cells exhibited ErbB3/Her3, CD44/Pgp-1, ICAM-1/CD54 and IGF-1-R/CD221, but did not express CD20, ErbB2/Her2, KIT/CD117, AC133/CD133 or MDR-1/CD243. Melanoma cell lines were found to display a similar phenotype. In most patients, a distinct subpopulation of melanoma cells (4-40%) expressed the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and ErbB4 together with PD-1 and NGF-R/CD271. Both the EPO-R+ and EPO-R- subpopulations produced melanoma lesions in NOD/SCID IL-2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mice in first and secondary recipients. Normal skin melanocytes did not express ErbB4 or EPO-R, but expressed a functional KIT receptor (CD117) as well as NGF-R, ErbB3/Her3, IGF-1-R and CD44. In conclusion, melanoma cells display a unique composition of surface target antigens and cytokine receptors. Malignant transformation of melanomas is accompanied by loss of KIT and acquisition of EPO-R and ErbB4, both of which are co-expressed with NGF-R and PD-1 in distinct subfractions of melanoma cells. However, expression of EPO-R/ErbB4/PD-1 is not indicative of a selective melanoma-initiating potential.

Ilie M, Long E, Hofman V, et al.
Clinical value of circulating endothelial cells and of soluble CD146 levels in patients undergoing surgery for non-small cell lung cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(5):1236-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that endothelial injury, as demonstrated by the presence of circulating endothelial cells (CECs), may predict clinical outcome in cancer patients. In addition, soluble CD146 (sCD146) may reflect activation of angiogenesis. However, no study has investigated their combined clinical value in patients undergoing resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: Data were collected from preoperative blood samples from 74 patients who underwent resection for NSCLC. Circulating endothelial cells were defined, using the CellSearch Assay, as CD146+CD105+CD45-DAPI+. In parallel, sCD146 was quantified using an ELISA immunoassay. These experiments were also performed on a group of 20 patients with small-cell lung cancer, 60 healthy individuals and 23 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
RESULTS: The CEC count and the plasma level of sCD146 were significantly higher in NSCLC patients than in the sub-groups of controls (P<0.001). Moreover, an increased CEC count was associated with higher levels of sCD146 (P=0.010). Both high CEC count and high sCD146 plasma level at baseline significantly correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P<0.001, respectively) and overall survival (P=0.005; P=0.009) of NSCLC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides supportive evidence to show that both a high CEC count and a high sCD146 level at baseline correlate with poor prognosis and may be useful for the prediction of clinical outcome in patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC.

Schwartz MP, Rogers RE, Singh SP, et al.
A quantitative comparison of human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and primary human dermal fibroblasts identifies a 3D migration mechanism with properties unique to the transformed phenotype.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81689 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
Here, we describe an engineering approach to quantitatively compare migration, morphologies, and adhesion for tumorigenic human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080s) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) with the aim of identifying distinguishing properties of the transformed phenotype. Relative adhesiveness was quantified using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) arrays and proteolytic 3-dimensional (3D) migration was investigated using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels ("synthetic extracellular matrix" or "synthetic ECM"). In synthetic ECM, hDFs were characterized by vinculin-containing features on the tips of protrusions, multipolar morphologies, and organized actomyosin filaments. In contrast, HT-1080s were characterized by diffuse vinculin expression, pronounced β1-integrin on the tips of protrusions, a cortically-organized F-actin cytoskeleton, and quantitatively more rounded morphologies, decreased adhesiveness, and increased directional motility compared to hDFs. Further, HT-1080s were characterized by contractility-dependent motility, pronounced blebbing, and cortical contraction waves or constriction rings, while quantified 3D motility was similar in matrices with a wide range of biochemical and biophysical properties (including collagen) despite substantial morphological changes. While HT-1080s were distinct from hDFs for each of the 2D and 3D properties investigated, several features were similar to WM239a melanoma cells, including rounded, proteolytic migration modes, cortical F-actin organization, and prominent uropod-like structures enriched with β1-integrin, F-actin, and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146/MUC18). Importantly, many of the features observed for HT-1080s were analogous to cellular changes induced by transformation, including cell rounding, a disorganized F-actin cytoskeleton, altered organization of focal adhesion proteins, and a weakly adherent phenotype. Based on our results, we propose that HT-1080s migrate in synthetic ECM with functional properties that are a direct consequence of their transformed phenotype.

Minato H, Kurose N, Fukushima M, et al.
Comparative immunohistochemical analysis of IMP3, GLUT1, EMA, CD146, and desmin for distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from reactive mesothelial cells.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2014; 141(1):85-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To identify useful biomarkers for differentiating between malignant mesothelioma (MM) and reactive mesothelial cells (RMCs).
METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from 34 MM and 40 RMC samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and the findings were compared.
RESULTS: Positive markers for MM included insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA binding protein 3 (IMP3), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and CD146, which showed sensitivities of 94%, 85%, 79%, and 71% and specificities of 78%, 100%, 88%, and 98%, respectively. In sarcomatoid MM, EMA had significantly lower expression than did IMP3, GLUT1, and CD146 (P < .001). The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were the highest for IMP3 (0.95), followed by GLUT1 (0.93). When the optimal cutoff points for IMP3 (30%) and GLUT1 (10%) were used, the sensitivity of IMP3 and GLUT1 for MM was 100%, and the specificity of both for MM was 95%.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of IMP3 and GLUT1 is most appropriate for distinguishing MM from RMC using FFPE sections.

Vizio B, Biasi F, Scirelli T, et al.
Pancreatic-carcinoma-cell-derived pro-angiogenic factors can induce endothelial-cell differentiation of a subset of circulating CD34+ progenitors.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:314 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD34+ progenitor cells comprise both hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells. Recent studies suggest that circulating endothelial progenitor cells are recruited into the angiogenic vascular system of several cancers, including pancreatic carcinoma, and that they correlate with clinical progress. However, whether endothelial progenitor cell mobilization occurs in response to cytokine release by tumor cells is still unclear.
METHODS: The chemotactic- and/or differentiating-activities of the poorly-differentiated pancreatic carcinoma cell line PT45, and of the immortal H6c7 cell line, a line of near-normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells, on endothelial progenitor cells were investigated in vitro using circulating CD34+ as model.
RESULTS: The study showed that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor produced by PT45 cells and, at lesser extent, by H6c7 cells, predominantly chemoattract peripheral blood CD34+ expressing the type 2 relative receptor. Addition of PT45-conditioned medium to CD34+ cells, cultured under conditions supporting myeloid cell development, diverted the differentiation of a subset of these progenitor cells into cells expressing endothelial cell markers, such as CD146, CD105, VE-cadherin and von Willebrand Factor-related antigen. Moreover, these endothelial-like cells formed capillary networks in vitro, chiefly through the release of Angiopoietin-1 by PT45 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that pancreatic-carcinoma cells potentially attract circulating endothelial progenitor cells to the tumor site, by releasing high levels of pro-angiogenic factors such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiopoietin-1, and may direct the differentiation of these cell subsets of the CD34+ cell population into endothelial cells; the latter cells may become a component of the newly-formed vessels, contributing to angiogenesis-mediated tumor growth and metastasis.

Marrelli M, Paduano F, Tatullo M
Cells isolated from human periapical cysts express mesenchymal stem cell-like properties.
Int J Biol Sci. 2013; 9(10):1070-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
We provide a detailed description of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human periapical cysts, which we have termed hPCy-MSCs. These cells have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic surfaces. hPCy-MSCs possess high proliferative potential and self-renewal capacity properties. We characterised the immunophenotype of hPCy-MSCs (CD73(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), CD13(+), CD29(+), CD44(+), CD45(-), STRO-1(+), CD146(+)) by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. hPCy-MSCs possess the potential to differentiate into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells in vitro. Multi-potentiality was evaluated with culture-specific staining and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis for osteo/odontogenic and adipogenic markers. This is the first report to indicate that human periapical cysts contain cells with MSC-like properties. Taken together, our findings indicate that human periapical cysts could be a rich source of MSCs.

Mesri M, Birse C, Heidbrink J, et al.
Identification and characterization of angiogenesis targets through proteomic profiling of endothelial cells in human cancer tissues.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78885 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
Genomic and proteomic analysis of normal and cancer tissues has yielded abundant molecular information for potential biomarker and therapeutic targets. Considering potential advantages in accessibility to pharmacological intervention, identification of targets resident on the vascular endothelium within tumors is particularly attractive. By employing mass spectrometry (MS) as a tool to identify proteins that are over-expressed in tumor-associated endothelium relative to normal cells, we aimed to discover targets that could be utilized in tumor angiogenesis cancer therapy. We developed proteomic methods that allowed us to focus our studies on the discovery of cell surface/secreted proteins, as they represent key antibody therapeutic and biomarker opportunities. First, we isolated endothelial cells (ECs) from human normal and kidney cancer tissues by FACS using CD146 as a marker. Additionally, dispersed human colon and lung cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues were cultured ex-vivo and their endothelial content were preferentially expanded, isolated and passaged. Cell surface proteins were then preferentially captured, digested with trypsin and subjected to MS-based proteomic analysis. Peptides were first quantified, and then the sequences of differentially expressed peptides were resolved by MS analysis. A total of 127 unique non-overlapped (157 total) tumor endothelial cell over-expressed proteins identified from directly isolated kidney-associated ECs and those identified from ex-vivo cultured lung and colon tissues including known EC markers such as CD146, CD31, and VWF. The expression analyses of a panel of the identified targets were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) including CD146, B7H3, Thy-1 and ATP1B3. To determine if the proteins identified mediate any functional role, we performed siRNA studies which led to previously unidentified functional dependency for B7H3 and ATP1B3.

Tang X, Yang F, Jia L, et al.
Placental site trophoblastic tumor in the pelvic wall: a case report and review of the literature.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2013 Jul-Sep; 56(3):300-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extra-uterine placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is extremely rare. To our knowledge, PSTT that occurs in the pelvic wall has not yet been reported. A 29-year-old woman presented with amenorrhea and irregular vaginal bleeding of 1 month. A solid tumor mass was detected by ultrasonography in the right pelvic wall. The tumor was comprised of large, polygonal tumor cells, with brisk mitosis and obvious vascular invasion. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for human placental lactogen, CD146, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase, human chorionic gonadotropin were positive, the Ki-67 proliferative index was about 80%. The pathological diagnosis was PSTT. After the operation, the patient was treated with six cycles of etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine. The patient was followed for 18 months without recurrence. The report shows that extra-uterine PSTT is extremely rare and may have a good prognosis; surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy are good options. However, further experience to diagnose and cure this rare tumor is warranted.

Choi Y, Lee HJ, Jang MH, et al.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition increases during the progression of in situ to invasive basal-like breast cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(11):2581-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in breast cancer invasion and metastatic progression. However, the pattern of expression of EMT markers in the progression from in situ to invasive breast carcinoma is not clear. To investigate this, we performed immunohistochemical analyses of EMT markers (expression of vimentin, smooth muscle actin, osteonectin, and N-cadherin; loss of E-cadherin; alteration of β-catenin), breast cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD44(+)/CD24(-), ALDH1), and CD146, an EMT inducer, in invasive carcinomas and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Expression of EMT markers was closely associated with the basal-like subtype and CSC phenotype in invasive carcinoma but not in pure DCIS, except for vimentin. The expression of smooth muscle actin and N-cadherin, loss of E-cadherin, and alteration of β-catenin were significantly higher in invasive carcinomas than in pure DCIS (P = .015, P = .029, P = .001, and P = .007, respectively). Subgroup analyses revealed greater loss of E-cadherin and alteration of β-catenin in invasive carcinoma than in pure DCIS in basal-like subtype (P = .001) but not in non-basal-like subtypes. Moreover, expression of EMT markers and CD146 was higher in the invasive than in the DCIS component of basal-like cancers. Our study confirmed that EMT is an intrinsic characteristic of basal-like subtype and is associated with CSC phenotype. Furthermore, we showed higher expression of EMT markers in invasive carcinomas than in pure DCIS, especially in basal-like subtype, and in the invasive component of basal-like breast cancers, suggesting that EMT may be involved in the progression from in situ to invasive basal-like breast cancers.

Huan J, Wang L, Xing L, et al.
Insights into significant pathways and gene interaction networks underlying breast cancer cell line MCF-7 treated with 17β-estradiol (E2).
Gene. 2014; 533(1):346-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Estrogens are known to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to alter their cytoarchitectural and phenotypic properties, but the gene networks and pathways by which estrogenic hormones regulate these events are only partially understood.
METHODS: We used global gene expression profiling by Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analysis, with KEGG pathway enrichment, PPI network construction, module analysis and text mining methods to identify patterns and time courses of genes that are either stimulated or inhibited by estradiol (E2) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: Of the genes queried on the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 microarray, we identified 628 (12h), 852 (24h) and 880 (48 h) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that showed a robust pattern of regulation by E2. From pathway enrichment analysis, we found out the changes of metabolic pathways of E2 treated samples at each time point. At 12h time point, the changes of metabolic pathways were mainly focused on pathways in cancer, focal adhesion, and chemokine signaling pathway. At 24h time point, the changes were mainly enriched in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and calcium signaling pathway. At 48 h time point, the significant pathways were pathways in cancer, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), axon guidance and ErbB signaling pathway. Of interest, our PPI network analysis and module analysis found that E2 treatment induced enhancement of PRSS23 at the three time points and PRSS23 was in the central position of each module. Text mining results showed that the important genes of DEGs have relationship with signal pathways, such as ERbB pathway (AREG), Wnt pathway (NDP), MAPK pathway (NTRK3, TH), IP3 pathway (TRA@) and some transcript factors (TCF4, MAF).
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies highlight the diverse gene networks and metabolic and cell regulatory pathways through which E2 operates to achieve its widespread effects on breast cancer cells.

Yu HK, Lee HJ, Choi HN, et al.
Characterization of CD45-/CD31+/CD105+ circulating cells in the peripheral blood of patients with gynecologic malignancies.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(19):5340-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) have been widely used as a prognostic biomarker and regarded as a promising strategy for monitoring the response to treatment in several cancers. However, the presence and biologic roles of CECs have remained controversial for decades because technical standards for the identification and quantification of CECs have not been established. Here, we hypothesized that CECs detected by flow cytometry might be monocytes rather than endothelial cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The frequency of representative CEC subsets (i.e., CD45(-)/CD31(+), CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD146(+), CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD105(+)) was analyzed in the peripheral blood of patients with gynecologic cancer (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 44). CD45(-)/CD31(+) cells, which are components of CECs, were isolated and the expression of various markers (CD146, CD105, vWF, and CD144 for endothelial cells; CD68 and CD14 for monocytes) was examined by immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD105(+) cells were significantly increased in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer, whereas evaluation of CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD146(+) cells was not possible both in patients with cancer and healthy controls due to the limited resolution of the flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry analyses showed that these CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD105(+) cells did not express vWF and CD146 but rather CD144. Furthermore, CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD105(+) cells uniformly expressed the monocyte-specific markers CD14 and CD68. These results suggest that CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD105(+) cells carry the characteristics of monocytes rather than endothelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that CD45(-)/CD31(+)/CD105(+) circulating cells, which are significantly increased in the peripheral blood of patients with gynecologic cancer, are monocytes rather than endothelial cells. Further investigation is required to determine the biologic significance of their presence and function in relation with angiogenesis.

López J, Valdez-Morales FJ, Benítez-Bribiesca L, et al.
Normal and cancer stem cells of the human female reproductive system.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013; 11:53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
The female reproductive system (FRS) has a great capacity for regeneration. The existence of somatic stem cells (SSC) that are likely to reside in distinct tissue compartments of the FRS is anticipated. Normal SSC are capable of regenerating themselves, produce a progeny of cells that differentiate and maintain tissue architecture and functional characteristics, and respond to homeostatic controls. Among those SSC of the FRS that have been identified are: a) undifferentiated cells capable of differentiating into thecal cells and synthesizing hormones upon transplantation, b) ovarian surface epithelium stem cells, mitotically responsive to ovulation, c) uterine endometrial and myometrial cells, as clonogenic epithelial and stromal cells, and d) epithelial and mesenchymal cells with self-renewal capacity and multipotential from cervical tissues. Importantly, these cells are believed to significantly contribute to the development of different pathologies and tumors of the FRS.It is now widely accepted that cancer stem cells (CSC) are at the origin of many tumors. They are capable of regenerating themselves, produce a progeny that will differentiate aberrantly and do not respond adequately to homeostatic controls. Several cell surface antigens such as CD44, CD117, CD133 and MYD88 have been used to isolate ovarian cancer stem cells. Clonogenic epithelial and stromal endometrial and myometrial cells have been found in normal and cancer tissues, as side population, label-retaining cells, and CD146/PDGF-R beta-positive cells with stem-like features. In summary, here we describe a number of studies supporting the existence of somatic stem cells in the normal tissues and cancer stem cells in tumors of the human female reproductive system.

Zhang X, Wang Z, Kang Y, et al.
MCAM expression is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2014; 16(2):178-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MCAM has been recently identified as a biomarker for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is potentially involved in metastasis of cancer. The current study aimed at investigating the expression of MCAM in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinico-pathological significance.
METHODS: A follow-up analysis was performed on 118 patients with NSCLC resected by lobectomy or pneumectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. All patients were followed for 6-60 months. Immunostaining of tissue sections from primary tumors and their lymph node metastasis was performed and evaluated using monoclonal antibody against MCAM, E-cadherin, and vimentin. Correlations were investigated between MCAM immunostaining in primary tumors and E-cadherin, vimentin immunostaining, lymph node metastasis, and survival.
RESULTS: MCAM protein expression was found in 46.61 % of squamous cell carcinomas and 37.47 % of adenocarcinomas; MCAM expression positively correlated with vimentin, but inversely with E-cadherin (both P values <0.05). There were significant correlations between the MCAM immunostaining score in primary tumors and in their lymph node metastasis (P = 0.03). According to the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate, the level of MCAM expression in primary tumors was a statistically significant prognostic factor (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: MCAM expression in surgically treated NSCLC is clearly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis.

Tian B, Zhang Y, Li N
CD146 protein as a marker to predict postoperative liver metastasis in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013 Jul-Aug; 28(6):466-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression and regulatory effects of CD146 protein in colorectal cancer and the correlation between CD146 protein expression and the prognosis of colorectal cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CD146 protein level was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. The relationship between CD146 expression and clinicopathological parameters of colorectal cancer was determined.
RESULTS: It was observed that 216 (20.00%) of the 1080 cases positively expressed CD146 protein. Univariate analyses indicated that CD146 expression was related to histological grade, Duke's stage, and liver metastasis (p=0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). Spearman correlation analysis showed that CD146 expression has line correlation to histological grade, Duke's stage, and liver metastasis (p=0.02, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). After multivariate analysis, Duke's stage and CD146 were related to liver metastasis (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively). In the Cox regression test, histological grade, Duke's stage, and CD146 were detected as the independent prognostic factors (p=0.045, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: CD146 protein may be a potential biomarker for the postoperative liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.

Abd Elmageed ZY, Moroz K, Kandil E
Clinical significance of CD146 and latexin during different stages of thyroid cancer.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 381(1-2):95-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid tumorigenesis and identifying new therapeutic targets are still under investigation. We aim to investigate the role of CD146 and latexin (Lxn) and examine whether they have any clinical significance in thyroid cancer. Human thyroid papillary (PTC), follicular (FTC), anaplastic (ATC) cancer cells, and other control cells were used in this study. Western blot, cell proliferation, invasion assay, and shRNA were applied to study the expression levels and functional significances of CD146 and Lxn in thyroid cells. The protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using human tissue microarray (TMA) slides. Multivariate analysis was used to examine whether these proteins have any clinical significance in patients with thyroid cancer. The protein expressions of CD146 and Lxn were detected in most thyroid cancer cell lines when compared with normal cells. Notably, knockdown of CD146 reduced the migration and invasion in K1 (PTC) and OCUT-1 (ATC) cells. TMAs showed more immunoreactivity against CD146 and Lxn in PTC cores compared with FTC, ATC, and normal tissues. A positive correlation was established between CD146 and both Lxn (r = 0.421, p = 0.045) and age (r = 0.566, p = 0.012); however, it showed a negative correlation with tumor stage (r = -0.231, p = 0.010). In conclusion, CD146 and Lxn increased tumor migration and invasion in vitro and showed a high expression in PTC compared to those in ATC and normal human tissues demonstrating their role in early stage of thyroid tumorigenesis. CD146 was positively correlated with age, but negatively correlated with tumor stage.

Magnoni C, Giudice S, Pellacani G, et al.
Stem cell properties in cell cultures from different stage of melanoma progression.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(3):171-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous melanoma is an extremely heterogenous human cancer. The most aggressive melanoma may contain deregulated cells with undifferentiated/stem cell-like phenotype. A critical mechanism by which melanoma cells enhance their invasive capacity is the dissolution of the intercellular adhesion and the acquisition of mesenchymal features as a part of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of a stem cell-like population in human melanomas by means of melanocytic cell culture analysis obtained from distinct histotypes of primary and metastatic malignant melanoma. Patients with advanced melanoma >2 cm in diameter and/or >300 mm surface were enrolled. The melanoma cells were isolated from skin biopsies of lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. The colony forming unit assay and alkaline phosphatase stain were evaluated. Cells were subsequently cultured and maintained in different media to evaluate their ability to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis were performed to evaluate antigenic markers CD90, CD73, CD105, CD146, CD20, CD166, and Nestin. This study confirms that melanoma can include heterogenous cell populations with the ability both to self-renew and to a give rise to differentiated progeny. Melanoma cells displayed intratumoral heterogeneity and dynamic antigen phenotypes. Histologically, transitions from normal skin to melanoma were associated with a gradual increase in the expression of CD146, CD20, CD133, Nestin, and CD73. These molecular profiles could be further analyzed and, in the future, used for the development of novel biomolecular targeted-therapy approaches.

Ramcharan SK, Lip GY, Stonelake PS, Blann AD
Angiogenin outperforms VEGF, EPCs and CECs in predicting Dukes' and AJCC stage in colorectal cancer.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2013; 43(8):801-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble E-selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenin are of interest in cancer vascular biology. However, few studies have looked at more than one in combination. We set out to determine which would be best in predicting the Dukes' and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) scores in colorectal cancer patients.
METHODS: We recruited 154 patients with colorectal cancer, 29 healthy controls and 26 patients with benign bowel disease. CD34(+) /CD45(-) /CD146(+) CECs and CD34(+) /CD45(-) /CD309[KDR](+) EPCs were measured by flow cytometry, plasma markers by ELISA.
RESULTS: All research indices were raised in colorectal cancer (P < 0·05) compared to control groups. Although CECs (P < 0·05), EPCs (P < 0·01) and angiogenin (P < 0·01) increased stepwise across the four Dukes' stages and four AJCC stages, only angiogenin remained significant in multiple regression analysis (P = 0·003 for Dukes, P = 0·01 for AJCC). Angiogenin levels were higher in Dukes' stages C and D compared to stage A, and AJCC stages 4-6 and 7-10 compared to stage 1 (all P < 0·05). Adding a second research marker to angiogenin did not markedly improve this relationship.
CONCLUSION: Although we found disturbances in endotheliod cells and plasma markers of the endothelium and growth factors, only angiogenin levels were independently associated with progression of the Dukes' stage and AJCC stage, with the association with Duke's stage being stronger. We suggest that angiogenin is a potential biomarker in risk stratification for colorectal cancer, and may aid clinical decision making.

Szmigielska-Kapłon A, Krawczyńska A, Czemerska M, et al.
Circulating endothelial cell kinetics and their potential predictive value during mobilization procedure.
J Clin Apher. 2013; 28(5):341-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in patients with hematological malignancies are assessed as a noninvasive marker of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the numbers of CECs and their subsets during mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled to the study (19 females and 19 males) at median age of 56.5 years. The group consisted of patients with multiple myeloma (26), lymphoma (10), and acute myeloid leukemia (2). Blood samples were collected before chemotherapy (0), 1 day after chemotherapy (Cht+1), on the day G-CSF commenced (G0), after 1 day of G-CSF (G+1), and on the day of the first apheresis. CECs were evaluated by four-color flow cytometry. Circulating progenitor cells were defined as CD45-/CD34+/CD31+/CD133+. Apoptotic CECs (ApoCECs) were defined as CD146+/AnnexinV+.
RESULTS: Median (Me) CECs number was 10.5/µl and it decreased after chemotherapy (Me = 8.3/µl, P < 0.001 when compared with baseline). Based on the number of aphereses needed to obtain 2 × 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells, patients were divided into "highly efficient" (one apheresis) and "poorly efficient" mobilizers (two or more aphereses). Median ApoCEC at Day G+1 was lower in highly efficient than in poorly efficient mobilizers (Me = 3.1/µl vs. Me = 5.1/µl, P = 0.02). ApoCEC at Day G+1 correlated with the number of aphereses (r = 0.48, P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, ApoCEC at Day G+1 was an independent factor for successful mobilization during one apheresis.
CONCLUSIONS: CECs and their subsets change significantly during mobilization of HSCs. ApoCECs measured at the time of G-CSF commencement can predict the efficacy of HSC collection.

Wang HF, Chen H, Ma MW, et al.
miR-573 regulates melanoma progression by targeting the melanoma cell adhesion molecule.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(1):520-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of the melanocytes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of cancer-related processes. A thorough understanding of miRNAs in melanoma progression is important for developing new therapeutic targets. miRNA expression was detected by quantitative PCR. In vitro, MTT assay, colony formation assay, invasion assay and flow cytometry analysis were performed to test the effect of miR-573 on melanoma cells. The effect of miR-573 in vivo was validated using a murine xenograft model. Using quantitative PCR, we found that the expression levels of miR-573 were lower in melanoma tissues and cell lines compared to normal skin tissues. miR-573 upregulation inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and invasion, and overexpression of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) could alleviate the effect of miR-573 on melanoma cells. In vivo, miR-573 overexpression groups showed lower rates of tumor growth compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the elevated MCAM expression due to miR-573 reduction is essential in melanoma initiation and progression.

Ordóñez NG
Value of melanocytic-associated immunohistochemical markers in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma: a review and update.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(2):191-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since the identification of S100 protein as an immunohistochemical marker that could be useful in the diagnosis of melanoma in the early 1980s, a large number of other melanocytic-associated markers that could potentially be used to assist in the differential diagnosis of these tumors have also been investigated. A great variation exists, however, among these markers, not only in their expression in some subtypes of melanoma, particularly desmoplastic melanoma, but also in their specificity because some of them can also be expressed in nonmelanocytic neoplasms, including various types of soft tissue tumors and carcinomas. This article reviews the information that is currently available on the practical value of some of the markers that have more often been recommended for assisting in the diagnosis of melanomas, including those that have only recently become available.

Hung PF, Hong TM, Hsu YC, et al.
The motor protein KIF14 inhibits tumor growth and cancer metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61664 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
The motor protein kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are involved in cancer progression. The depletion of one of the KIFs, KIF14, might delay the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, resulting in a binucleated status, which enhances tumor progression; however, the exact correlation between KIF14 and cancer progression remains ambiguous. In this study, using loss of heterozygosity and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses, we observed a 30% loss in the regions surrounding KIF14 on chromosome 1q in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, the protein expression levels of KIF14 in 122 lung adenocarcinomas also indicated that approximately 30% of adenocarcinomas showed KIF14 down-regulation compared with the expression in the bronchial epithelial cells of adjacent normal counterparts. In addition, the reduced expression of KIF14 mRNA or proteins was correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.0158 and <0.0001, respectively), and the protein levels were also inversely correlated with metastasis (P<0.0001). The overexpression of KIF14 in lung adenocarcinoma cells inhibited anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 also inhibited or enhanced cancer cell migration, invasion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen IV. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion molecules cadherin 11 (CDH11) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) as cargo on KIF14. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 enhanced or reduced the recruitment of CDH11 in the membrane fraction, suggesting that KIF14 might act through recruiting adhesion molecules to the cell membrane and modulating cell adhesive, migratory and invasive properties. Thus, KIF14 might inhibit tumor growth and cancer metastasis in lung adenocarcinomas.

Le Rhun E, Tu Q, De Carvalho Bittencourt M, et al.
Detection and quantification of CSF malignant cells by the CellSearch technology in patients with melanoma leptomeningeal metastasis.
Med Oncol. 2013; 30(2):538 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is the most frequent solid tumor associated with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). The usual diagnostic tools, that is, cytomorphological assessment of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the entire neuraxis both lack effectiveness. The CellSearch Veridex technology for the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in blood was designed for the follow-up and prognosis of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer, which express EpCAM markers. We have previously adapted this technology to detect malignant cells in the CSF of breast cancer LM. Our objective here was to check if this technology would also allow the detection and the enumeration of CTC in the CSF of melanoma patients presenting with LM although melanoma does not express EpCAM markers. On the occasion of the intrathecal treatment of LM in 2 melanoma patients, 5 mL of CSF and 7.5 mL of blood were collected on CellSave Preservative Tubes and analyzed within 3 days after CSF sampling using a melanoma-dedicated kit. The CellSearch Veridex technology was then adapted to direct enrichment, enumeration, and visualization of melanoma cells in the CSF. CD146+, HMW-MAA+, CD34-, and CD45- cells with typical morphology could be observed and enumerated sequentially with reproducible results, corresponding to CSF melanoma cells (CSFMC). In contrast to the current gold standard cytomorphological analysis, this new approach allowed a precise quantification of CSFMC in all samples concomitantly analyzed. This methodology, established on a limited volume of sample and allowing delayed processing, could prove of great interest in the diagnosis and follow-up of melanoma patients with LM.

Jaszberenyi M, Schally AV, Block NL, et al.
Suppression of the proliferation of human U-87 MG glioblastoma cells by new antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro.
Target Oncol. 2013; 8(4):281-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Five-year survival of patients afflicted with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is rare, making this cancer one of the most feared malignancies. Previously, we reported that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a potent growth factor in cancers. The present work evaluated the effects of two antagonistic analogs of GHRH (MIA-604 and MIA-690) on the proliferation of U-87 MG GBM tumors, in vivo as well as in vitro. Both analogs were administered subcutaneously and dose-dependently inhibited the growth of tumors transplanted into nude mice (127 animals in seven groups). The analogs also inhibited cell proliferation in vitro, decreased cell size, and promoted apoptotic and autophagic processes. Both antagonists stimulated contact inhibition, as indicated by the expression of the E-cadherin-β-catenin complex and integrins, and decreased the release of humoral regulators of glial growth such as FGF, PDGFβ, and TGFβ, as revealed by genomic or proteomic detection methods. The GHRH analogs downregulated other tumor markers (Jun-proto-oncogene, mitogen-activated protein kinase-1, and melanoma cell adhesion molecule), upregulated tumor suppressors (p53, metastasis suppressor-1, nexin, TNF receptor 1A, BCL-2-associated agonist of cell death, and ifκBα), and inhibited the expression of the regulators of angiogenesis and invasion (angiopoetin-1, VEGF, matrix metallopeptidase-1, S100 calcium binding protein A4, and synuclein-γ). Our findings indicate that GHRH antagonists inhibit growth of GBMs by multiple mechanisms and decrease both tumor cell size and number.

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