Gene Summary

Gene:GATA2; GATA binding protein 2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors that are named for the consensus nucleotide sequence they bind in the promoter regions of target genes. The encoded protein plays an essential role in regulating transcription of genes involved in the development and proliferation of hematopoietic and endocrine cell lineages. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:endothelial transcription factor GATA-2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (43)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 3
  • Recurrence
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Survival Rate
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Base Sequence
  • MDS1 and EVI1 Complex Locus Protein
  • siRNA
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Messenger RNA
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • GATA2 Transcription Factor
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Mutation
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Leukaemia
  • Transfection
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Sus scrofa
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • Pedigree
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Hematopoiesis
  • GATA1
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Germ-Line Mutation
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GATA2 (cancer-related)

Ye Z, Wang F, Yan F, et al.
Bioinformatic identification of candidate biomarkers and related transcription factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol. 2019; 17(1):60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare, but a certain amount of mortality remains in NPC patients. Our study aimed to identify candidate genes as biomarkers for NPC screening, diagnosis, and therapy.
METHODS: We investigated two microarray profile datasets GSE64634 and GSE12452 to screen the potential differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in NPC. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs were also performed. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed by STRING and visualized by Cytoscape software. The associated transcriptional factor regulatory network of the DEGs was also constructed.
RESULTS: A total of 152 DEGs were identified from the GSE64634 and GSE12452 datasets, including 10 upregulated and 142 downregulated genes. Gene functional enrichment analysis indicated that these DEGs were enriched in the cilium movement, antimicrobial humoral response, O-glycan processing, mucosal immune response, carbohydrate transmembrane transporter activity, hormone biosynthetic process, neurotransmitter biosynthetic process, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 pathway. Five hub genes (DNALI1, RSPH4A, RSPH9, DNAI2, and ALDH3A1) and one significant module (score = 5.6) were obtained from the PPI network. Key transcriptional factors, such as SPI1, SIN3B, and GATA2, were identified with close interactions with these five hub DEGs from the gene-transcriptional factor network.
CONCLUSIONS: With the integrated bioinformatic analysis, numerous DEGs related to NPC were screened, and the hub DEGs we identified may be potential biomarkers for NPC.

Kidoya H, Muramatsu F, Shimamura T, et al.
Regnase-1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation is essential for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell homeostasis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1072 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) maintains hematopoietic homeostasis, failure of which can lead to hematopoietic disorder. HSPC fate is controlled by signals from the bone marrow niche resulting in alteration of the stem cell transcription network. Regnase-1, a member of the CCCH zinc finger protein family possessing RNAse activity, mediates post-transcriptional regulatory activity through degradation of target mRNAs. The precise function of Regnase-1 has been explored in inflammation-related cytokine expression but its function in hematopoiesis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that Regnase-1 regulates self-renewal of HSPCs through modulating the stability of Gata2 and Tal1 mRNA. In addition, we found that dysfunction of Regnase-1 leads to the rapid onset of abnormal hematopoiesis. Thus, our data reveal that Regnase-1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation is required for HSPC maintenance and suggest that it represents a leukemia tumor suppressor.

Rahman MR, Islam T, Gov E, et al.
Identification of Prognostic Biomarker Signatures and Candidate Drugs in Colorectal Cancer: Insights from Systems Biology Analysis.
Medicina (Kaunas). 2019; 55(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, but early diagnosis ameliorates the survival of CRC. This report aimed to identify molecular biomarker signatures in CRC. We analyzed two microarray datasets (GSE35279 and GSE21815) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) to identify mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We integrated DEGs with protein⁻protein interaction and transcriptional/post-transcriptional regulatory networks to identify reporter signaling and regulatory molecules; utilized functional overrepresentation and pathway enrichment analyses to elucidate their roles in biological processes and molecular pathways; performed survival analyses to evaluate their prognostic performance; and applied drug repositioning analyses through Connectivity Map (CMap) and geneXpharma tools to hypothesize possible drug candidates targeting reporter molecules. A total of 727 upregulated and 99 downregulated DEGs were detected. The PI3K/Akt signaling, Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, and cell cycle were identified as significantly enriched pathways. Ten hub proteins (ADNP, CCND1, CD44, CDK4, CEBPB, CENPA, CENPH, CENPN, MYC, and RFC2), 10 transcription factors (ETS1, ESR1, GATA1, GATA2, GATA3, AR, YBX1, FOXP3, E2F4, and PRDM14) and two microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-193b-3p and miR-615-3p) were detected as reporter molecules. The survival analyses through Kaplan⁻Meier curves indicated remarkable performance of reporter molecules in the estimation of survival probability in CRC patients. In addition, several drug candidates including anti-neoplastic and immunomodulating agents were repositioned. This study presents biomarker signatures at protein and RNA levels with prognostic capability in CRC. We think that the molecular signatures and candidate drugs presented in this study might be useful in future studies indenting the development of accurate diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker screens and efficient therapeutic strategies in CRC.

Obrochta E, Godley LA
Identifying patients with genetic predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2018; 31(4):373-378 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline syndromes in myeloid leukemias are being discovered increasingly in patients, and their identification is essential for proper medical management to yield positive health outcomes for patients and their families. There needs to be a greater appreciation of germline predisposition driving the development of hematologic malignancies within the field of myeloid malignancies. Characterization of the influence of germline mutations on the development of myeloid malignancies is ongoing by utilization of next generation sequencing data and prognostic panels. Here, we propose modifications to the utilization and analysis of genetic results, specifically to have a high index of clinical suspicion for germline predisposition, to use assays that are comprehensive for detection of these variants, and a few caveats to interpreting sequencing data. Presented are the benefits and shortcomings of prognostic panels and clinical examples of the utilization of the prognostic panel used within the Department of Pathology at The University of Chicago. The examples demonstrate that panels performed for prognostication on DNA derived from malignant cells are able to identify patients with germline syndromes, but they can lack coverage for genes that confer inherited susceptibility. Furthermore, the panels are often not designed to find duplication and deletion mutations, which calls for a need to improve assay design and bioinformatic approaches to interpret such variants using these data.

Fei DL, Zhen T, Durham B, et al.
Impaired hematopoiesis and leukemia development in mice with a conditional knock-in allele of a mutant splicing factor gene
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(44):E10437-E10446 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations affecting the spliceosomal protein U2AF1 are commonly found in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). We have generated mice that carry Cre-dependent knock-in alleles of

Katsumura KR, Mehta C, Hewitt KJ, et al.
Human leukemia mutations corrupt but do not abrogate GATA-2 function.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(43):E10109-E10118 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
By inducing the generation and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, the master regulator of hematopoiesis GATA-2 controls the production of all blood cell types. Heterozygous

Tien FM, Hou HA, Tsai CH, et al.
GATA2 zinc finger 1 mutations are associated with distinct clinico-biological features and outcomes different from GATA2 zinc finger 2 mutations in adult acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(9):87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations of the GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) gene in myeloid malignancies usually cluster in the zinc finger 1 (ZF1) and the ZF2 domains. Mutations in different locations of GATA2 may have distinct impact on clinico-biological features and outcomes in AML patients, but little is known in this aspect. In this study, we explored GATA2 mutations in 693 de novo non-M3 AML patients and identified 44 GATA2 mutations in 43 (6.2%) patients, including 31 in ZF1, 10 in ZF2, and three outside the two domains. Different from GATA2 ZF2 mutations, ZF1 mutations were closely associated with French-American-British (FAB) M1 subtype, CEBPA double mutations (CEBPA

Rodriguez-Bravo V, Pippa R, Song WM, et al.
Nuclear Pores Promote Lethal Prostate Cancer by Increasing POM121-Driven E2F1, MYC, and AR Nuclear Import.
Cell. 2018; 174(5):1200-1215.e20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) regulate nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, transcription, and genome integrity in eukaryotic cells. However, their functional roles in cancer remain poorly understood. We interrogated the evolutionary transcriptomic landscape of NPC components, nucleoporins (Nups), from primary to advanced metastatic human prostate cancer (PC). Focused loss-of-function genetic screen of top-upregulated Nups in aggressive PC models identified POM121 as a key contributor to PC aggressiveness. Mechanistically, POM121 promoted PC progression by enhancing importin-dependent nuclear transport of key oncogenic (E2F1, MYC) and PC-specific (AR-GATA2) transcription factors, uncovering a pharmacologically targetable axis that, when inhibited, decreased tumor growth, restored standard therapy efficacy, and improved survival in patient-derived pre-clinical models. Our studies molecularly establish a role of NPCs in PC progression and give a rationale for NPC-regulated nuclear import targeting as a therapeutic strategy for lethal PC. These findings may have implications for understanding how NPC deregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of other tumor types.

Gao Y, de Wit M, Struys EA, et al.
IDH1-mutated transgenic zebrafish lines: An in-vivo model for drug screening and functional analysis.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0199737 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is frequently mutated in several tumor types including gliomas. The most prevalent mutation in gliomas is a missense mutation leading to a substitution of arginine with histidine at the residue 132 (R132H). Wild type IDH1 catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) whereas mutant IDH1 converts α-KG into D2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). Unfortunately, there are few in vivo model systems for IDH-mutated tumors to study the effects of IDH1 mutations in tumor development. We have therefore created transgenic zebrafish lines that express various IDH1 mutants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: IDH1 mutations (IDH1R132H, IDH1R132C and loss-of-function mutation IDH1G70D), IDH1wildtype or eGFP were cloned into constructs with several brain-specific promoters (Nestin, Gfap or Gata2). These constructs were injected into fertilized zebrafish eggs at the one-cell stage.
RESULTS: In total more than ten transgenic zebrafish lines expressing various brain-specific IDH1 mutations were created. A significant increase in the level of D2HG was observed in all transgenic lines expressing IDH1R132C or IDH1R132H, but not in any of the lines expressing IDH1wildtype, IDH1G70D or eGFP. No differences in 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine and mature collagen IV levels were observed between wildtype and mutant IDH1 transgenic fish. To our surprise, we failed to identify any strong phenotype, despite increased levels of the oncometabolite D2HG. No tumors were observed, even when backcrossing with tp53-mutant fish which suggests that additional transforming events are required for tumor formation. Elevated D2HG levels could be lowered by treatment of the transgenic zebrafish with an inhibitor of mutant IDH1 activity.
CONCLUSIONS: We have generated a transgenic zebrafish model system for mutations in IDH1 that can be used for functional analysis and drug screening. Our model systems help understand the biology of IDH1 mutations and its role in tumor formation.

Wang S, Zhang YX, Huang T, et al.
Mutation profile and associated clinical features in Chinese patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2018; 40(4):408-418 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), which accounted for nearly half of total AML patients, is a highly heterogeneous subset of AML. The specific genetic profile and the ethnic features of CN-AML are worth to be studied.
METHODS: Using deep sequencing technology, we detected the mutation pattern of 39 genes in 152 Chinese CN-AML patients and analyzed their clinical features.
RESULTS: A total of 503 mutations of 39 genes were identified in 145 (95.4%) patients, with the median number of 3 mutations per case. Nine genes (NPM1, CEBPA, DNMT3A, GATA2, NRAS, TET2, FLT3, IDH2, and WT1) mutated in more than 10% patients. Function groups of myeloid transcription factors, activated signaling, and DNA methylation were most affected. The distribution of variant allele frequencies (VAF) of recurrent genes was different among functional groups. High mutation rates of CEBPA and GATA2 together with the low frequency of FLT3-ITD mutation seemed to be the distinct characteristics of Chinese patients. Furthermore, CEBPAbi and GATA2 were found to mutate most in M2 subtype, while NPM1 and DNMT3A mutated more in M4 and M5. The prognostic analysis identified CEBPAmo mutation as an inferior factor. FLT3-ITD, TP53, DNMT3A, CEBPAmo, and WT1 mutations were selected as high-risk markers to identify the CN-AML patients with poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Our study provided the valuable information of ethnic genetic characteristics and the clinical relevance of Chinese CN-AML patients.

Tawana K, Drazer MW, Churpek JE
Universal genetic testing for inherited susceptibility in children and adults with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia: are we there yet?
Leukemia. 2018; 32(7):1482-1492 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comprehensive genomic profiling of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases have enabled the detection and differentiation of driver and subclonal mutations, informed risk prognostication, and defined targeted therapies. These insights into disease biology, and management have made multigene-acquired mutation testing a critical part of the diagnostic assessment of patients with sporadic MDS and AML. More recently, our understanding of the role of an increasing number of inherited genetic factors on MDS/AML risk and management has rapidly progressed. In recognition of the growing impact of this field, clinical guidelines and disease classification systems for both MDS and AML have recently incorporated familial MDS/AML predisposition syndromes into their diagnostic algorithms. In this perspective piece, we contemplate the advantages, disadvantages, and barriers that would need to be overcome to incorporate inherited MDS/AML genetic testing into the upfront molecular diagnostic work-up of every MDS/AML patient. For centers already performing panel-based tumor-only testing, including genes associated with familial forms of MDS/AML (e.g., RUNX1, CEBPA, GATA2, TP53), we advocate optimizing these tests to detect all types of germline variants in these genes and moving toward upfront paired tumor/germline testing to maximize detection and streamline patient care.

Zhong L, Huot J, Simard MJ
p38 activation induces production of miR-146a and miR-31 to repress E-selectin expression and inhibit transendothelial migration of colon cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):2334 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extravasation of circulating cancer cells determines their metastatic potential. This process is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells through specific interactions between endothelial adhesion receptors such as E-selectin and their ligands on cancer cells. In the present study, we show that miR-146a and miR-181b impede the expression of E-selectin by repressing the activity of its transcription factor NF-κB, thereby impairing the metastatic potentials of colon cancer cells by decreasing their adhesion to, and migration through, the endothelium. Among the two microRNAs, only miR-146a is activated by IL-1β, through the activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAP kinases, as well as their downstream transcription factors GATA2, c-Fos and c-Jun. Inhibiting p38 MAP kinase increases NF-κB activity, at least partially via miR-146a. Inhibiting p38 also increases the expression of E-selectin at the post-transcriptional level via decreasing miR-31, which targets E-selectin mRNA and also depends on p38 for its expression. In response to IL-1β, p38 MAP kinase hence represses the expression of E-selectin at the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels, via miR-146a and miR-31, respectively. These results highlight novel mechanisms by which p38 downregulates the expression of E-selectin through different microRNAs following inflammatory stimuli associated to cancer progression.

Drazer MW, Kadri S, Sukhanova M, et al.
Prognostic tumor sequencing panels frequently identify germ line variants associated with hereditary hematopoietic malignancies.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(2):146-150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based targeted gene capture panels are used to profile hematopoietic malignancies to guide prognostication and treatment decisions. Because these panels include genes associated with hereditary hematopoietic malignancies (HHMs), we hypothesized that these panels could identify pathogenic germ line variants in malignant cells, thereby identifying patients at risk for HHMs. In total, pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in

Bolouri H, Farrar JE, Triche T, et al.
The molecular landscape of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia reveals recurrent structural alterations and age-specific mutational interactions.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(1):103-112 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We present the molecular landscape of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and characterize nearly 1,000 participants in Children's Oncology Group (COG) AML trials. The COG-National Cancer Institute (NCI) TARGET AML initiative assessed cases by whole-genome, targeted DNA, mRNA and microRNA sequencing and CpG methylation profiling. Validated DNA variants corresponded to diverse, infrequent mutations, with fewer than 40 genes mutated in >2% of cases. In contrast, somatic structural variants, including new gene fusions and focal deletions of MBNL1, ZEB2 and ELF1, were disproportionately prevalent in young individuals as compared to adults. Conversely, mutations in DNMT3A and TP53, which were common in adults, were conspicuously absent from virtually all pediatric cases. New mutations in GATA2, FLT3 and CBL and recurrent mutations in MYC-ITD, NRAS, KRAS and WT1 were frequent in pediatric AML. Deletions, mutations and promoter DNA hypermethylation convergently impacted Wnt signaling, Polycomb repression, innate immune cell interactions and a cluster of zinc finger-encoding genes associated with KMT2A rearrangements. These results highlight the need for and facilitate the development of age-tailored targeted therapies for the treatment of pediatric AML.

Yang JS, Lee CY, Cho HC, et al.
ITR‑284 modulates cell differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(1):383-391 [PubMed] Related Publications
ITR‑284 is a carboxamide analog that can inhibit proliferation in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. To understand the effects and molecular mechanisms of ITR‑284 in human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia, we treated K562 cells with different concentrations of ITR‑284 (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 nM) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 µM) for 24 h. The IC50 of ITR‑284 was ~10 nM in K562 cells treated for 24 h as determined by MTT assay. May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assays were used to determine cell morphology changes and differentiation after ITR‑284 and ATRA treatment. In addition, mRNA expression levels of hematopoietic factors, including GATA‑1, NF-E2 and GATA‑2, were elevated, while expression levels of BCR‑ABL were downregulated in K562 cells after 24 h of treatment with ITR‑284 as determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, western blot analyses showed that FOXM1, GLI 1 and c-MYC protein levels were decreased by ITR‑284. Taken together, our data show that ITR‑284 induced K562 cell differentiation, which led to decreased tumorigenesis. Our findings suggest that ITR‑284 could be a potential candidate for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Song SH, Jeon MS, Nam JW, et al.
Aberrant GATA2 epigenetic dysregulation induces a GATA2/GATA6 switch in human gastric cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(8):993-1004 [PubMed] Related Publications
Six GATA transcription factors play important roles in eukaryotic development. Among these, GATA2, an essential factor for the hematopoietic cell lineage, exhibits low expression in human gastric tissues, whereas GATA6, which is crucial for gastrointestinal development and differentiation, is frequently amplified and/or overexpressed in human gastric cancer. Interestingly, we found that GATA6 was overexpressed in human gastric cancer cells only when GATA2 expression was completely absent, thereby showing an inverse correlation between GATA2 and GATA6. In gastric cancer cells that express high GATA6 levels, a GATA2 CpG island is hypermethylated, repressing expression in these cells. In contrast, GATA6 expression is undetectable in GATA2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells, which lack GATA2 DNA methylation. Furthermore, PRC2 complex-mediated transcriptional silencing of GATA6 was observed in the GATA2-overexpressing cells. We also show that the GATA2 and PRC2 complexes are enriched within the GATA6 locus, and that the recruitment of the PRC2 complex is impaired by disrupting GATA2 expression, resulting in GATA6 upregulation. In addition, ectopic GATA2 expression significantly downregulates GATA6 expression, suggesting GATA2 directly represses GATA6. Furthermore, GATA6 downregulation showed antitumor activity by inducing growth arrest. Finally, we show that aberrant GATA2 methylation occurs early during the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis regardless of Helicobacter pylori infection. Taken together, GATA2 dysregulation by epigenetic modification is associated with unfavorable phenotypes in human gastric cancer cells by allowing GATA6 expression.

Gov E, Kori M, Arga KY
Multiomics Analysis of Tumor Microenvironment Reveals Gata2 and miRNA-124-3p as Potential Novel Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer.
OMICS. 2017; 21(10):603-615 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a common and, yet, one of the most deadly human cancers due to its insidious onset and the current lack of robust early diagnostic tests. Tumors are complex tissues comprised of not only malignant cells but also genetically stable stromal cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind epithelial-stromal crosstalk in ovarian cancer is a great challenge in particular. In the present study, we performed comparative analyses of transcriptome data from laser microdissected epithelial, stromal, and ovarian tumor tissues, and identified common and tissue-specific reporter biomolecules-genes, receptors, membrane proteins, transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and metabolites-by integration of transcriptome data with genome-scale biomolecular networks. Tissue-specific response maps included common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and reporter biomolecules were reconstructed and topological analyses were performed. We found that CDK2, EP300, and SRC as receptor-related functions or membrane proteins; Ets1, Ar, Gata2, and Foxp3 as TFs; and miR-16-5p and miR-124-3p as putative biomarkers and warrant further validation research. In addition, we report in this study that Gata2 and miR-124-3p are potential novel reporter biomolecules for ovarian cancer. The study of tissue-specific reporter biomolecules in epithelial cells, stroma, and tumor tissues as exemplified in the present study offers promise in biomarker discovery and diagnostics innovation for common complex human diseases such as ovarian cancer.

de Noronha TR, Mitne-Neto M, Chauffaille ML
Mutational profiling of acute myeloid leukemia with normal cytogenetics in Brazilian patients: the value of next-generation sequencing for genomic classification.
J Investig Med. 2017; 65(8):1155-1158 [PubMed] Related Publications
Karyotype (KT) aberrations are important prognostic factors for acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, around 50% of cases present normal results. Single nucleotide polymorphism array can detect chromosomal gains, losses or uniparental disomy that are invisible to KT, thus improving patients' risk assessment. However, when both tests are normal, important driver mutations can be detected by the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Fourteen adult patients with AML with normal cytogenetics were investigated by NGS for 19 AML-related genes. Every patient presented at least one mutation:

Han Q, Xu X, Li J, et al.
GATA4 is highly expressed in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by activating BCL2 and MDM2.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):6290-6298 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the GATA‑binding factor protein family, including GATA1, GATA2 and GATA3, serve an inhibiting role in leukemia. The present study demonstrated that GATA4 was upregulated in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Results from a number of functional experiments, including cell proliferation analysis, cell cycle analysis, cell apoptosis assay and Transwell migration and invasion analyses, have suggested that high expression of GATA4 may facilitate proliferation and metastasis, and suppress apoptosis in ALL cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and luciferase reporter assay revealed that GATA4 was a transcription factor that activated mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression in ALL cells. BCL2 is a key anti‑apoptosis protein that was demonstrated to suppress cell apoptosis. In addition, GATA4 was revealed to regulate p53 through the transcriptional activation of MDM2, subsequently influencing cell cycle and apoptosis. Results from the present study suggested that GATA4 may be a key marker in ALL diagnosis and a potential target of molecular therapy.

Zhu YM, Wang PP, Huang JY, et al.
Gene mutational pattern and expression level in 560 acute myeloid leukemia patients and their clinical relevance.
J Transl Med. 2017; 15(1):178 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytogenetic aberrations and gene mutations have long been regarded as independent prognostic markers in AML, both of which can lead to misexpression of some key genes related to hematopoiesis. It is believed that the expression level of the key genes is associated with the treatment outcome of AML.
METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the clinical features and molecular aberrations of 560 newly diagnosed non-M3 AML patients, including mutational status of CEBPA, NPM1, FLT3, C-KIT, NRAS, WT1, DNMT3A, MLL-PTD and IDH1/2, as well as expression levels of MECOM, ERG, GATA2, WT1, BAALC, MEIS1 and SPI1.
RESULTS: Certain gene expression levels were associated with the cytogenetic aberration of the disease, especially for MECOM, MEIS1 and BAALC. FLT3, C-KIT and NRAS mutations contained conversed expression profile regarding MEIS1, WT1, GATA2 and BAALC expression, respectively. FLT3, DNMT3A, NPM1 and biallelic CEBPA represented the mutations associated with the prognosis of AML in our group. Higher MECOM and MEIS1 gene expression levels showed a significant impact on complete remission (CR) rate, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) both in univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively; and an additive effect could be observed. By systematically integrating gene mutational status results and gene expression profile, we could establish a more refined system to precisely subdivide AML patients into distinct prognostic groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression abnormalities contained important biological and clinical informations, and could be integrated into current AML stratification system.

Yannakou CK, Jones K, Ryland GL, et al.
Incidental detection of germline variants of potential clinical significance by massively parallel sequencing in haematological malignancies.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(1):84-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology has become routinely available for diagnosis, prognostication and therapeutic decision-making in haematological malignancies. However, increased throughput and wider coverage of genes can have unintended consequences. Germline variants of potential clinical significance (GVPCSs) detected during cancer testing may have implications for patients and families beyond the biological evaluation of a specific tumour. 721 reports generated from MPS panels used in the routine testing of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies were reviewed and variants within genes of potential germline relevance (

Hamadou WS, Mani R, Besbes S, et al.
GATA2 gene analysis in several forms of hematological malignancies including familial aggregations.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(10):1635-1639 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic predisposition to familial hematological malignancies has been previously reported highlighting inherited gene mutations. Several genes have been reported but genetic basis remains not well defined. In this study, we extended our investigation to a potential candidate GATA2 gene which was analyzed by direct sequencing in 119 cases including familial aggregations with a variety of hematological malignancies and sporadic acute leukemia belonging to Tunisian and French populations. We reported a deleterious p.Arg396Gln GATA2 mutation in one patient diagnosed with both sporadic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and breast cancer. We also reported several GATA2 variations in familial cases. The absence of deleterious mutations in this large cohort of familial aggregations of hematological malignancies may strengthen the hypothesis that GATA2 mutations are an important predisposing factor, although as a secondary genetic event, required for the development of overt malignant disease.

Slattery ML, Herrick JS, Mullany LE, et al.
The co-regulatory networks of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and miRNAs in colorectal cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(11):769-787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes (OG) are involved in carcinogenesis. MiRNAs also contribute to cellular pathways leading to cancer. We use data from 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases to evaluate differences in TSGs and OGs expression between paired CRC and normal mucosa and evaluate how TSGs and OGs are associated with miRNAs. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were used. We focus on genes most strongly associated with CRC (fold change (FC) of ≥1.5 or ≤0.67) that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 74 TSGs evaluated, 22 were associated with carcinoma/normal mucosa differential expression. Ten TSGs were up-regulated (FAM123B, RB1, TP53, RUNX1, MSH2, BRCA1, BRCA2, SOX9, NPM1, and RNF43); six TSGs were down-regulated (PAX5, IZKF1, GATA3, PRDM1, TET2, and CYLD); four were associated with MSI tumors (MLH1, PTCH1, and CEBPA down-regulated and MSH6 up-regulated); and two were associated with MSS tumors (PHF6 and ASXL1 up-regulated). Thirteen of these TSGs were associated with 44 miRNAs. Twenty-seven of the 59 OGs evaluated were dysregulated: 14 down-regulated (KLF4, BCL2, SSETBP1, FGFR2, TSHR, MPL, KIT, PDGFRA, GNA11, GATA2, FGFR3, AR, CSF1R, and JAK3), seven up-regulated (DNMT1, EZH2, PTPN11, SKP2, CCND1, MET, and MYC); three down-regulated for MSI (FLT3, CARD11, and ALK); two up-regulated for MSI (IDH2 and HRAS); and one up-regulated with MSS tumors (CTNNB1). These findings suggest possible co-regulatory function between TSGs, OGs, and miRNAs, involving both direct and indirect associations that operate through feedback and feedforward loops.

Wlodarski MW, Collin M, Horwitz MS
GATA2 deficiency and related myeloid neoplasms.
Semin Hematol. 2017; 54(2):81-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The GATA2 gene codes for a hematopoietic transcription factor that through its two zinc fingers (ZF) can occupy GATA-DNA motifs in a countless number of genes. It is crucial for the proliferation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. During the past 5 years, germline heterozygous mutations in GATA2 were reported in several hundred patients with various phenotypes ranging from mild cytopenia to severe immunodeficiency involving B cells, natural killer cells, CD4

Casciello F, Al-Ejeh F, Kelly G, et al.
G9a drives hypoxia-mediated gene repression for breast cancer cell survival and tumorigenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(27):7077-7082 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
G9a is an epigenetic regulator that methylates H3K9, generally causing repression of gene expression, and participates in diverse cellular functions. G9a is genetically deregulated in a variety of tumor types and can silence tumor suppressor genes and, therefore, is important for carcinogenesis. Although hypoxia is recognized to be an adverse factor in tumor growth and metastasis, the role of G9a in regulating gene expression in hypoxia has not been described extensively. Here, we show that G9a protein stability is increased in hypoxia via reduced proline hydroxylation and, hence, inefficient degradation by the proteasome. This inefficiency leads to an increase in H3K9me2 at its target promoters. Blocking the methyltransferase activity of G9a inhibited cellular proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, an increased level of G9a is a crucial factor in mediating the hypoxic response by down-regulating the expression of specific genes, including

Loke J, Assi SA, Imperato MR, et al.
RUNX1-ETO and RUNX1-EVI1 Differentially Reprogram the Chromatin Landscape in t(8;21) and t(3;21) AML.
Cell Rep. 2017; 19(8):1654-1668 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease caused by mutations in transcriptional regulator genes, but how different mutant regulators shape the chromatin landscape is unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptional networks of two types of AML with chromosomal translocations of the RUNX1 locus that fuse the RUNX1 DNA-binding domain to different regulators, the t(8;21) expressing RUNX1-ETO and the t(3;21) expressing RUNX1-EVI1. Despite containing the same DNA-binding domain, the two fusion proteins display distinct binding patterns, show differences in gene expression and chromatin landscape, and are dependent on different transcription factors. RUNX1-EVI1 directs a stem cell-like transcriptional network reliant on GATA2, whereas that of RUNX1-ETO-expressing cells is more mature and depends on RUNX1. However, both types of AML are dependent on the continuous expression of the fusion proteins. Our data provide a molecular explanation for the differences in clinical prognosis for these types of AML.

Király AP, Kállay K, Gángó A, et al.
Familial Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplasia in Hungary.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(1):83-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although genetic predisposition to haematological malignancies has long been known, genetic testing is not yet the part of the routine diagnostics. In the last ten years, next generation sequencing based studies identified novel germline mutations in the background of familial aggregation of certain haematologic disorders including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This is supported by the fact that the myeloid neoplasms with genetic predisposition represent a new category in the revised 2016 World Health Organization classification. According to the new classification, these disorders are subdivided based on the clinical and genetic features, including myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition alone, or with pre-existing platelet disorder, cytopaenias or other organ failures. The predisposing genetic factors include mutations in the RUNX1, CEBPA, GATA2, ANKRD26, ETV6, DDX41, TERC or TERT and SRP72 genes. The genes affected in these syndromes are important regulators of haemopoiesis and are frequently implicated in leukaemogenesis, providing deeper insight into the understanding of normal and malignant haemopoiesis. Despite the growing knowledge of germline predisposing events in the background of familial myeloid malignancies, the germline genetic component is still unknown in a subset of these pedigrees. Here, we present the first study of inherited myeloid malignancies in Hungary. We identified three families with apparent clustering of myeloid malignancies with nine affected individuals across these pedigrees. All tested individuals were negative for CEBPA, GATA2, RUNX1, ANKRD26, ETV6, DDX41, TERC or TERT and SRP72 mutations, suggesting the presence of so far unidentified predisposing mutations.

Liau WS, Ngoc PC, Sanda T
Roles of the RUNX1 Enhancer in Normal Hematopoiesis and Leukemogenesis.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 962:139-147 [PubMed] Related Publications
Enhancers are regulatory elements in genomic DNA that contain specific sequence motifs that are bound by DNA-binding transcription factors. The activity of enhancers is tightly regulated in an integrated and combinatorial manner, thus yielding complex patterns of transcription in different tissues. Identifying enhancers is crucial to understanding the physiological and pathogenic roles of their target genes. The RUNX1 intronic enhancer, eR1, acts in cis to regulate RUNX1 gene expression in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hemogenic endothelial cells. RUNX1 and other hematopoietic transcription factors TAL1/SCL, GATA2, PU.1, LMO2 and LDB1 bind at this region. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed that this region is involved in a large cluster of enhancers termed a super-enhancer. The RUNX1 super-enhancer is observed in normal HSCs and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. In this review, we describe the discovery of eR1 and its roles in normal development and leukemogenesis, as well as its potential applications in stem cell research.

Dang J, Nance S, Ma J, et al.
AMKL chimeric transcription factors are potent inducers of leukemia.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(10):2228-2234 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in patients without Down syndrome is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. RNA sequencing of fourteen pediatric cases previously identified novel fusion transcripts that are predicted to be pathological including CBFA2T3-GLIS2, GATA2-HOXA9, MN1-FLI and NIPBL-HOXB9. In contrast to CBFA2T3-GLIS2, which is insufficient to induce leukemia, we demonstrate that the introduction of GATA2-HOXA9, MN1-FLI1 or NIPBL-HOXB9 into murine bone marrow induces overt disease in syngeneic transplant models. With the exception of MN1, full penetrance was not achieved through the introduction of fusion partner genes alone, suggesting that the chimeric transcripts possess a unique gain-of-function phenotype. Leukemias were found to exhibit elements of the megakaryocyte erythroid progenitor gene expression program, as well as unique leukemia-specific signatures that contribute to transformation. Comprehensive genomic analyses of resultant murine tumors revealed few cooperating mutations confirming the strength of the fusion genes and their role as pathological drivers. These models are critical for both the understanding of the biology of disease as well as providing a tool for the identification of effective therapeutic agents in preclinical studies.

Litzenburger UM, Buenrostro JD, Wu B, et al.
Single-cell epigenomic variability reveals functional cancer heterogeneity.
Genome Biol. 2017; 18(1):15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell heterogeneity is a major driver of cancer evolution, progression, and emergence of drug resistance. Epigenomic variation at the single-cell level can rapidly create cancer heterogeneity but is difficult to detect and assess functionally.
RESULTS: We develop a strategy to bridge the gap between measurement and function in single-cell epigenomics. Using single-cell chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq data in K562 leukemic cells, we identify the cell surface marker CD24 as co-varying with chromatin accessibility changes linked to GATA transcription factors in single cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of CD24 high versus low cells prospectively isolated GATA1 and GATA2 high versus low cells. GATA high versus low cells express differential gene regulatory networks, differential sensitivity to the drug imatinib mesylate, and differential self-renewal capacity. Lineage tracing experiments show that GATA/CD24hi cells have the capability to rapidly reconstitute the heterogeneity within the entire starting population, suggesting that GATA expression levels drive a phenotypically relevant source of epigenomic plasticity.
CONCLUSION: Single-cell chromatin accessibility can guide prospective characterization of cancer heterogeneity. Epigenomic subpopulations in cancer impact drug sensitivity and the clonal dynamics of cancer evolution.

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