Gene Summary

Gene:JAK1; Janus kinase 1
Aliases: JTK3, JAK1A, JAK1B
Summary:This gene encodes a membrane protein that is a member of a class of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) characterized by the presence of a second phosphotransferase-related domain immediately N-terminal to the PTK domain. The encoded kinase phosphorylates STAT proteins (signal transducers and activators of transcription) and plays a key role in interferon-alpha/beta and interferon-gamma signal transduction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase JAK1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • VHL
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
  • Tumor Burden
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Mutation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Thrombocythemia, Essential
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • JAK2
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Phosphorylation
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Recurrence
  • Whole Exome Sequencing
  • Sequence Homology
  • Point Mutation
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders
  • Chromosome 1
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta2
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Messenger RNA
  • STAT1 Transcription Factor
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein
  • fas Receptor
  • beta Catenin
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • JAK1
  • TWEAK Receptor
  • Transduction
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: JAK1 (cancer-related)

Vakili Saatloo M, Aghbali AA, Koohsoltani M, Yari Khosroushahi A
Akt1 and Jak1 siRNA based silencing effects on the proliferation and apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 714:143997 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on Akt1 and Jak1 key roles in apoptosis and proliferation of many cancers, the aim of this study was to find a new gene therapy strategy by silencing of these main anti-apoptotic genes for HNSCC treatment. Cancerous HN5 and normal HUVEC cell lines were treated with Akt1 and Jak1 siRNAs alone or with each other combined with/without cisplatin. The MTS, flow cytometry, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, real-time PCR and ELISA methods were utilized in this study. The highest percentage of apoptosis was observed in the treatment of Jak1 siRNA/cisplatin group in cancerous HN5 cells (96.5%) where this treatment showed 12.84% apoptosis in normal HUVEC cell line. Cell viability reduced significantly to 64.57% after treatment with Akt1 siRNA in HN5 treated group. Knocking down Akt1 and Jak1 genes using siRNAs could increase levels of apoptosis and reduce proliferation rate in HNSCC indicating the powerful effects of these genes siRNAs with or without chemotherapeutic agents in HNSCC treatment. In conclusion, the combination of siRNA-mediated gene-silencing strategy can be considered as a valuable and safe approach for sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents thus proposed further studies regarding this issue to approve some siRNA based therapeutics for using in clinic.

Rui QH, Ma JB, Liao YF, et al.
Effect of lncRNA HULC knockdown on rat secreting pituitary adenoma GH3 cells.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2019; 52(4):e7728 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pituitary adenoma is one of the most common tumors in the neuroendocrine system. This study investigated the effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) on rat secreting pituitary adenoma GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and hormone secretion, as well as the underlying potential mechanisms. Cell transfection and qRT-PCR were used to change and measure the expression levels of HULC, miR-130b, and FOXM1. Cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were assessed using trypan blue staining assay, MTT assay, two-chamber transwell assay, Guava Nexin assay, and western blotting. The concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) in culture supernatant of GH3 cells were assessed using ELISA. The targeting relationship between miR-130b and FOXM1 was verified using dual luciferase activity. Finally, the expression levels of key factors involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways were evaluated using western blotting. We found that HULC was highly expressed in GH3 cells. Overexpression of HULC promoted GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, PRL and GH secretion, as well as activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways. Knockdown of HULC had opposite effects and induced cell apoptosis. HULC negatively regulated the expression of miR-130b, and miR-130b participated in the effects of HULC on GH3 cells. FOXM1 was a target gene of miR-130b, which was involved in the regulation of GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis, as well as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways. In conclusion, HULC tumor-promoting roles in secreting pituitary adenoma might be via down-regulating miR-130b, up-regulating FOXM1, and activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways.

Hwang ST, Kim C, Lee JH, et al.
Cycloastragenol can negate constitutive STAT3 activation and promote paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 59:152907 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cycloastragenol (CAG), a triterpene aglycone is commonly prescribed for treating hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, viral hepatitis, and various inflammatory-linked diseases.
HYPOTHESIS: We investigated CAG for its action on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation cascades, and its potential to sensitize gastric cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.
METHODS: The effect of CAG on STAT3 phosphorylation and other hallmarks of cancer was deciphered using diverse assays in both SNU-1 and SNU-16 cells.
RESULTS: We observed that CAG exhibited cytotoxic activity against SNU-1 and SNU-16 cells to a greater extent as compared to normal GES-1 cells. CAG predominantly caused negative regulation of STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 through the abrogation of Src and Janus-activated kinases (JAK1/2) activation. We noted that CAG impaired translocation of STAT3 protein as well as its DNA binding activity. It further decreased cellular proliferation and mediated its anticancer effects predominantly by causing substantial apoptosis rather than autophagy. In addition, CAG potentiated paclitaxel-induced anti-oncogenic effects in gastric tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that CAG can function to impede STAT3 activation in human gastric tumor cells and therefore it may be a suitable candidate agent for therapy of gastric cancer.

Shen M, Xu Z, Xu W, et al.
Inhibition of ATM reverses EMT and decreases metastatic potential of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through JAK/STAT3/PD-L1 pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):149 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cisplatin-resistance is still a main course for chemotherapy failure of lung cancer patients. Cisplatin-resistant cancer cells own higher malignance and exhibited increased metastatic ability, but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) on lung cancer metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cisplatin-resistant A549CisR and H157CisR cell line were generated by long-term treating parental A549 and H157 cells (A549P and H157P) with cisplatin. Cell growth, cell migration and cell invasion were determined. Gene expressions were determined by Western Blot and qPCR. Tumor metastasis was investigated using a xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: The IC50 of the cisplatin-resistant cells (A549CisR and H157CisR cells) to cisplatin was 6-8 higher than parental cells. The A549CisR and H157CisR cells expressed lower level of E-cadherin and higher levels of N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail compared to the parental A549P and H157P cells, and exhibited stronger capabilities of metastatic potential compared to the parental cells. The ATM expression was upregulated in A549CisR and H157CisR cells and cisplatin treatment also upregulated expression of ATM in parental cells, The inhibition of ATM by using specific ATM inhibitor CP466722 or knock-down ATM by siRNA suppressed Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic potential of A549CisR and H157CisR cells. These data suggest that ATM mediates the cisplatin-resistance in lung cancer cells. Expressions of JAK
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that ATM regulates PD-L1 expression through activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling in cisplatin-resistant cells. Overexpression of ATM contributes to cisplatin-resistance in lung cancer cells. Inhibition of ATM reversed EMT and inhibited cell invasion and tumor metastasis. Thus, ATM may be a potential target for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer.

Giordano G, Parcesepe P, D'Andrea MR, et al.
JAK/Stat5-mediated subtype-specific lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6D (LY6G6D) expression drives mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancers (CRCs) are immunologically "cold" tumour subtypes characterized by reduced immune cytotoxicity. The molecular linkages between immune-resistance and human MSS CRC is not clear.
METHODS: We used transcriptome profiling, in silico analysis, immunohistochemistry, western blot, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining to characterize novel CRC immune biomarkers. The effects of selective antagonists were tested by in vitro assays of long term viability and analysis of kinase active forms using anti-phospho antibodies.
RESULTS: We identified the lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6D (LY6G6D) as significantly overexpressed (around 15-fold) in CRC when compared with its relatively low expression in other human solid tumours. LY6G6D up-regulation was predominant in MSS CRCs characterized by an enrichment of immune suppressive regulatory T-cells and a limited repertoire of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint receptors. Coexpression of LY6G6D and CD15 increases the risk of metastatic relapse in response to therapy. Both JAK-STAT5 and RAS-MEK-ERK cascades act in concert as key regulators of LY6G6D and Fucosyltransferase 4 (FUT4), which direct CD15-mediated immune-resistance. Momelotinib, an inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2, consistently abrogated the STAT5/LY6G6D axis in vitro, sensitizing MSS cancer cells with an intact JAK-STAT signaling, to efficiently respond to trametinib, a MEK inhibitor used in clinical setting. Notably, colon cancer cells can evade JAK2/JAK1-targeted therapy by a reversible shift of the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway activity, which explains the treatment failure of JAK1/2 inhibitors in refractory CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined targeting of STAT5 and MAPK pathways has superior therapeutic effects on immune resistance. In addition, the new identified LY6G6D antigen is a promising molecular target for human MSS CRC.

Dulíček P
Treatment of polycythemia vera.
Vnitr Lek. Fall 2018; 64(10):955-960 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycythemia vera is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by hematopoietic stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation resulting in erythrocytosis, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. Survival is reduced compared with general population. Main reasons of death include thrombohemorrhagic complications, fibrotic progression and leuk-aemic transformation. Presence of Janus kinase (JAK2) gene mutations is a diagnostic marker and standard dia-gnostic criterion. World Health Organization 2016 diagnostic criteria focusing on hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, red cell mass and bone marrow morphology are mandatory. Therapeutic approach depends on stratification of patients according age and personal risk of thrombosis. Low-risk patients are treated first line with low-dose aspirin and phlebo-tomy. Cytoreduction is indicated in high-risk patients. Interferon-α has demonstrated efficacy in many clinical trials. Its pegylated form is well tolerated, enabling less frequent administration than standard interferon. Therefore it is therapy of choice based on Central European Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Organisation recommendation. Ropeginterferon α-2b has been shown to be more efficacious than hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea is suspected of leukemogenic potential. JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib is approved for hydroxyurea resistant/intolerant patients. Key words: diagnosis - polycythemia vera - therapy.

Deng R, Zhang P, Liu W, et al.
HDAC is indispensable for IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression in gastric cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):153 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) overexpression on tumor cells is an important mechanism of immune evasion in gastric cancer (GC). Elucidation of the regulation of B7-H1 expression is urgently required to guide B7-H1-targeted cancer therapy. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is thought to be the main driving force behind B7-H1 expression, and epigenetic factors including histone acetylation are recently linked to the process. Here, we investigated the potential role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression in GC. The effect of Vorinostat (SAHA), a small molecular inhibitor of HDAC, on tumor growth and B7-H1 expression in a mouse GC model was also evaluated.
RESULTS: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of B7-H1, HDAC1-3, 6-8, and 10 and SIRT1, 3, 5, and 6 was higher, and expression of HDAC5 and SIRT4 was lower in GC compared to that in normal gastric tissues; that HDAC3 and HDAC1 expression level significantly correlated with B7-H1 in GC with a respective r value of 0.42 (p < 0.001) and 0.21 (p < 0.001). HDAC inhibitor (Trichostatin A, SAHA, and sodium butyrate) pretreatment suppressed IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression on HGC-27 cells. HDAC1 and HDAC3 gene knockdown had the same effect. SAHA pretreatment or HDAC knockdown resulted in impaired IFN-γ signaling, demonstrated by the reduction of JAK2, p-JAK1, p-JAK2, and p-STAT1 expression and inefficient STAT1 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, SAHA pretreatment compromised IFN-γ-induced upregulation of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation level in B7-H1 gene promoter. In the grafted mouse GC model, SAHA treatment suppressed tumor growth, inhibited B7-H1 expression, and elevated the percentage of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells.
CONCLUSION: HDAC is indispensable for IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 in GC. The study suggests the possibility of targeting B7-H1 using small molecular HDAC inhibitors for cancer treatment.

Li Y, Sun W, Han N, et al.
Curcumin inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion and promotes apoptosis of retinoblastoma cell lines through modulation of miR-99a and JAK/STAT pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1230 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a primary active ingredient extracted from the Curcuma longa, has been recently identified as a potential anti-tumor agent in multiple kinds of cancers. However, the effect of curcumin on retinoblastoma (Rb) is still unclear. Therefore, we attempted to reveal the functional impacts and the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in Rb cells.
METHODS: Two Rb cell lines SO-Rb50 and Y79 were pre-treated with various doses of curcumin, and then cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were assessed, respectively. Further, regulatory effects of curcumin on miR-99a expression, as well as the activation of JAK/STAT pathway were studied.
RESULTS: Data showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the viability, colony formation capacity, migration and invasion, while induced apoptosis of SO-Rb50 and Y79 cells. Up-regulation of miR-99a was observed in curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin suppressed the phosphorylation levels of JAK1, STAT1, and STAT3, while curcumin did not inhibit the activation of JAK/STAT pathway when miR-99a was knocked down.
CONCLUSION: Curcumin inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion, but promoted apoptosis of Rb cells. The anti-tumor activities of curcumin on Rb cells appeared to be via up-regulation of miR-99a, and thereby inhibition of JAK/STAT pathway.

Fang Y, Ma X, Zeng J, et al.
The Profile of Genetic Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Detected by Whole Exome Sequencing.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(1):169-178 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of the study was to investigate the altered driver genes and signal pathways during progression of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) via next-generation sequencing technology.
METHODS: The DNA samples for whole exome sequencing (WES) analyses were extracted from 11 PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues samples. Direct Sanger sequencing was applied to validate the identified mutations.
RESULTS: Among the 11 pairs of tissues specimens, 299 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in 75 genes were identified. The most common pattern of base pair substitutions was T:A>C:G (49.83%), followed by C:G>T:A (18.06%) and C:G>G:C (15.05%). The altered genes were mainly implicated in MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), and p53 signaling pathways. In addition, 12 novel identified driver genes were validated by Sanger sequencing. The mutations of FAM133A, DPCR1, JAK1, C10orf10, EPB41L3, GPRASP1 and IWS1 exhibited in multiple PTC cases. Furthermore, the PTC cases exhibited individual mutational signature, even the same gene might present different mutational status in different cases.
CONCLUSION: Multiple PTC-related somatic mutations and signal pathways are identified via WES and Sanger sequencing methods. The novel identified mutations in genes such as FAM133A, DPCR1, and JAK1 may be potential therapeutic targets for PTC patients.

Abaza Y, Hidalgo-Lopez JE, Verstovsek S, et al.
Phase I study of ruxolitinib in previously treated patients with low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndrome with evidence of NF-kB activation.
Leuk Res. 2018; 73:78-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Therapeutic options for patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who have failed prior therapies are limited particularly after hypomethylating agent. Several studies have indicated that deregulation of innate immunity signaling is critical in the pathogenesis of MDS. This process involves Toll-like receptor stimulation, cytokine overexpression, and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activation. Since ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, suppresses NF-kB expression, we conducted a phase 1 dose-escalation study to determine the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in previously treated lower-risk MDS patients with evidence of NF-kB activation. Nineteen patients, 8 with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and 11 with MDS, were enrolled. No dose limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum tolerated dose was 20 mg twice daily. Responses were restricted to MDS patients with an overall response rate of 22% [hematological improvement in platelets (HI-P) = 2, hematological improvement in erythrocytes (HI-E) = 1, partial cytogenetic response (PCyR) = 1]. Of these patients, 2 relapsed (HI-P and PCyR) and 2 continue to be in HI-P and HI-E, respectively, with ongoing therapy. Meaningful improvement in bone marrow dysplasia was only seen in a patient who achieved HI-E. Phosphorylated p65 (pp65) decreased in 6 of 15 patients (40%) including the 2 patients with continued response to treatment and increased in a patient who relapsed after a short-lived HI-P. This suggests potential correlation between reduction in pp65 expression and response duration. In conclusion, ruxolitinib was well-tolerated in previously treated lower-risk MDS patients with evidence of NF-kB activation and resulted in low but significant frequency of responses. (NCT01895842).

Zhang HX, Xu ZS, Lin H, et al.
TRIM27 mediates STAT3 activation at retromer-positive structures to promote colitis and colitis-associated carcinogenesis.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3441 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
STAT3 is a transcription factor that plays central roles in various physiological processes and its deregulation results in serious diseases including cancer. The mechanisms on how STAT3 activity is regulated remains enigmatic. Here we identify TRIM27 as a positive regulator of II-6-induced STAT3 activation and downstream gene expression. TRIM27 localizes to retromer-positive punctate structures and serves as a critical link for recruiting gp130, JAK1, and STAT3 to and subsequent phosphorylation of STAT3 at the retromer-positive structures. Overexpression of TRIM27 promotes cancer cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice, whereas knockdown of TRIM27 has opposite effects. Deficiency of TRIM27 significantly impairs dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced STAT3 activation, inflammatory cytokine expression and colitis as well as azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. These findings reveal a retromer-dependent mechanism for regulation of STAT3 activation, inflammation, and inflammation-associated cancer development.

Henrich IC, Young R, Quick L, et al.
USP6 Confers Sensitivity to IFN-Mediated Apoptosis through Modulation of TRAIL Signaling in Ewing Sarcoma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(12):1834-1843 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma is the second most common sarcoma of the bone, afflicting predominantly the pediatric population. Although patients with localized disease exhibit favorable survival rates, patients with metastatic disease suffer a dismal 5-year rate of approximately 25%. Thus, there is a great need to develop treatments to combat the disseminated disease. Ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6/TRE17) has been implicated as the key etiologic factor in several benign mesenchymal tumors, including nodular fasciitis and aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). However, the role of USP6 in the biology of malignant entities remains unexplored. Previously, it was observed that USP6 is sufficient to drive formation of tumors mimicking ABC and nodular fasciitis, and that it functions through JAK1/STAT3 signaling. However, in the context of Ewing sarcoma, USP6 does not enhance the transformation, but rather triggers an IFN response signature, both in cultured Ewing sarcoma cells

Song TL, Nairismägi ML, Laurensia Y, et al.
Oncogenic activation of the STAT3 pathway drives PD-L1 expression in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 132(11):1146-1158 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Mature T-cell lymphomas, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL), represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with dismal outcomes and limited treatment options. To determine the extent of involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway in this malignancy, we performed targeted capture sequencing of 188 genes in this pathway in 171 PTCL and NKTL cases. A total of 272 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in 101 genes were identified in 73% of the samples, including 258 single-nucleotide variants and 14 insertions or deletions. Recurrent mutations were most frequently located in

Cheng CC, Lin HC, Tsai KJ, et al.
Epidermal growth factor induces STAT1 expression to exacerbate the IFNr-mediated PD-L1 axis in epidermal growth factor receptor-positive cancers.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1588-1598 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in many cancers, including lung and head and neck cancers, and is involved in cancer cell progression and survival. PD-L1, increases in tumor cells to evade and inhibit CD8+ T cells, is a clinical immunotherapeutic target. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of EGF on regulating PD-L1 in EGFR-positive cancers and determined potential agents to reduce PD-L1 expression. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and bioinformatics analysis were performed to determine potential driver genes that regulate PD-L1 in tumor cells-derived tumorspheres which mimicking cancer stem cells. Then, the specific inhibitors targeting EGFR were applied to reduce the expression of PD-L1 in vitro and in vivo. We validated that EGF could induce PD-L1 expression in the selected EGFR-positive cancers. RNAseq results revealed that STAT1 increased as a driver gene in KOSC-3-derived tumorspheres; these data were analyzed using PANTHER followed by NetworkAnalyst. The blockade of EGFR by afatinib resulted in decreased STAT1 and IRF-1 levels, both are transcriptional factors of PD-L1, and disabled the IFNr-STAT1-mediated PD-L1 axis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, STAT1 knockdown significantly reduced EGF-mediated PD-L1 expression, and ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, significantly inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation to reduce the IFNr-mediated PD-L1 axis. These results indicate that EGF exacerbates PD-L1 by increasing the protein levels of STAT1 to enforce the IFNr-JAK1/2-mediated signaling axis in selected EGFR-positive cancers. The inhibition of EGFR by afatinib significantly reduced PD-L1 and may be a potential strategy for enhancing immunotherapeutic efficacy.

Knutti N, Huber O, Friedrich K
CD147 (EMMPRIN) controls malignant properties of breast cancer cells by interdependent signaling of Wnt and JAK/STAT pathways.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 451(1-2):197-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, EMN, CD147) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed in numerous cell types both as a soluble and a membrane-spanning glycoprotein. It is involved in many physiological processes, as well as in cancer. This study addresses mechanisms of crosstalk between EMN-driven cancer-related cellular responses and the canonical Wnt-pathway in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Genetic knockdown of EMN in MCF-7 resulted in characteristic changes in cellular shape, organization of the actin cytoskeleton and malignancy profile, indicating that EMN expression represses cell motility, but, in contrast, exerts a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation and invasive properties. Increased invasiveness coincided with elevated expression of Wnt-target genes and established invasion driver matrix metalloproteinase MMP14. Activation of the downstream Wnt-pathway by means of heterologous β-catenin and/or TCF-4 expression, through inhibition of GSK-3β by LiCl treatment, or by cell stimulation with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resulted in increased EMN expression. EMN over-expression raised the ratio of the two opposing Wnt pathway-driven transcription factors Sp1 and Sp5, leading to stimulation of the EMN promoter. Furthermore, the EMN promoter was activated by a feed-forward circuit involving an EMN-dependent drop in expression of the repressive signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Taken together, we show that the influence of EMMPRIN on malignancy-related properties of breast cancer cells is functionally connected to both Wnt- and JAK/STAT pathways.

Ogura K, Hosoda F, Arai Y, et al.
Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis of myxofibrosarcoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2765 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a common adult soft tissue sarcoma characterized by an infiltrative growth pattern and a high local recurrence rate. Here we report the genetic and epigenetic landscape of MFS based on the results of whole-exome sequencing (N = 41), RNA sequencing (N = 29), and methylation analysis (N = 41), using 41 MFSs as a discovery set, and subsequent targeted sequencing of 140 genes in the entire cohort of 99 MFSs and 17 MFSs' data from TCGA. Fourteen driver genes are identified, including potentially actionable therapeutic targets seen in 37% of cases. There are frequent alterations in p53 signaling (51%) and cell cycle checkpoint genes (43%). Other conceivably actionable driver genes including ATRX, JAK1, NF1, NTRK1, and novel oncogenic BRAF fusion gene are identified. Methylation patterns cluster into three subtypes associated with unique combinations of driver mutations, clinical outcomes, and immune cell compositions. Our results provide a valuable genomic resource to enable the design of precision medicine for MFS.

Chen M, Pockaj B, Andreozzi M, et al.
JAK2 and PD-L1 Amplification Enhance the Dynamic Expression of PD-L1 in Triple-negative Breast Cancer.
Clin Breast Cancer. 2018; 18(5):e1205-e1215 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is common in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and affects the expression of genes controlling immune signaling. A subset of TNBC cases will have somatic amplification of chromosome 9p24.1, encoding PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2, which has been associated with decreased survival.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven TNBC cell lines were evaluated using array comparative genomic hybridization. A copy number gain was defined as an array comparative genomic hybridization log
RESULTS: The cell line HCC70 had 9p24.1 copy number amplification that was associated with both increased JAK2 and pSTAT3; however, knockdown of JAK2 inhibited cell growth independently of 9p24.1 copy number status. In TNBC cell lines with 9p24.1 gain or amplification, PD-L1 expression rapidly and strikingly increased 5- to 38-fold with interferon-γ (P < .05), and inducible PD-L1 expression was completely blocked by JAK2 knockdown and the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. In tumor tissue, expression of interferon-γ-related genes correlated with 9p24.1 copy number status.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the JAK2/STAT1 pathway in TNBC might regulate the dynamic expression of PD-L1 that is induced in the setting of an inflammatory response. Inhibition of JAK2 might provide a synergistic therapy when combined with other immunotherapies in the subset of TNBC with 9p24.1 amplification.

Peng M, Wang J, Zhang D, et al.
PHLPP2 stabilization by p27 mediates its inhibition of bladder cancer invasion by promoting autophagic degradation of MMP2 protein.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(43):5735-5748 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) is a tumor suppressor that catalyzes the de-phosphorylation of the AGC kinases, while p27 acts as a tumor suppressor that regulates cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell motility. Our previous studies have identified that PHLPP2 participates in inhibition of transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells following lung carcinogen B[a]P/B[a]PDE exposure. However, nothing was known about the association of p27 with regulation of PHLPP2 expression and the role of PHLPP2 in bladder cancer (BC) invasion. In our current studies, we demonstrated that PHLPP2 inhibited BC invasion through promoting MMP2 degradation via p62-mediated autophagy; and p27 expression was able to stabilize PHLPP2 protein by inhibiting protein degradation of Hsp90, which could directly bind to PHLPP2 and protect it from degradation. More in-depth studies discovered that stabilization of Hsp90 by p27 was mediated by calpain1 proteolysis system, whereas p27 inhibited calpain1 gene transcription by attenuating Jak1/Stat1 cascade in human invasive BC cells. Collectively, we for the first time revealed PHLPP2 downregulation in BCs and its participating in promotion of BC invasion, as well as novel role of p27 and mechanisms underlying its regulation of PHLPP2 protein degradation through Hsp90-dependent manner. Our findings improve our understanding of p27 and PHLPP2 roles and their crosstalk in regulation of BC invasion, which further contributes to improve the current strategy for invasive bladder cancer therapy.

Porpaczy E, Tripolt S, Hoelbl-Kovacic A, et al.
Aggressive B-cell lymphomas in patients with myelofibrosis receiving JAK1/2 inhibitor therapy.
Blood. 2018; 132(7):694-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibition of Janus-kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) is a mainstay to treat myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Sporadic observations reported the co-incidence of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas during treatment of MPN with JAK1/2 inhibitors. We assessed 626 patients with MPN, including 69 with myelofibrosis receiving JAK1/2 inhibitors for lymphoma development. B-cell lymphomas evolved in 4 (5.8%) of 69 patients receiving JAK1/2 inhibition compared with 2 (0.36%) of 557 with conventional treatment (16-fold increased risk). A similar 15-fold increase was observed in an independent cohort of 929 patients with MPN. Considering primary myelofibrosis only (N = 216), 3 lymphomas were observed in 31 inhibitor-treated patients (9.7%) vs 1 (0.54%) of 185 control patients. Lymphomas were of aggressive B-cell type, extranodal, or leukemic with high MYC expression in the absence of

Intlekofer AM, Joffe E, Batlevi CL, et al.
Integrated DNA/RNA targeted genomic profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using a clinical assay.
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(6):60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
We sought to define the genomic landscape of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy specimens. We used targeted sequencing of genes altered in hematologic malignancies, including DNA coding sequence for 405 genes, noncoding sequence for 31 genes, and RNA coding sequence for 265 genes (FoundationOne-Heme). Short variants, rearrangements, and copy number alterations were determined. We studied 198 samples (114 de novo, 58 previously treated, and 26 large-cell transformation from follicular lymphoma). Median number of GAs per case was 6, with 97% of patients harboring at least one alteration. Recurrent GAs were detected in genes with established roles in DLBCL pathogenesis (e.g. MYD88, CREBBP, CD79B, EZH2), as well as notable differences compared to prior studies such as inactivating mutations in TET2 (5%). Less common GAs identified potential targets for approved or investigational therapies, including BRAF, CD274 (PD-L1), IDH2, and JAK1/2. TP53 mutations were more frequently observed in relapsed/refractory DLBCL, and predicted for lack of response to first-line chemotherapy, identifying a subset of patients that could be prioritized for novel therapies. Overall, 90% (n = 169) of the patients harbored a GA which could be explored for therapeutic intervention, with 54% (n = 107) harboring more than one putative target.

Johnston AN, Bu W, Hein S, et al.
Hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk by activating JAK-STAT5 in precancerous lesions.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric medications are widely prescribed in the USA. Many antipsychotics cause serum hyperprolactinemia as an adverse side effect; prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling both induces cell differentiation and suppresses apoptosis. It is controversial whether these antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk.
METHODS: We investigated the impact of several antipsychotics on mammary tumorigenesis initiated by retrovirus-mediated delivery of either ErbB2 or HRas or by transgenic expression of Wnt-1.
RESULTS: We found that the two hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics, risperidone and pimozide, prompted precancerous lesions to progress to cancer while aripiprazole, which did not cause hyperprolactinemia, did not. We observed that risperidone and pimozide (but not aripiprazole) caused precancerous cells to activate STAT5 and suppress apoptosis while exerting no impact on proliferation. Importantly, we demonstrated that these effects of antipsychotics on early lesions required the STAT5 gene function. Furthermore, we showed that only two-week treatment of mice with ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, blocked STAT5 activation, restored apoptosis, and prevented early lesion progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics instigate precancerous cells to progress to cancer via JAK/STAT5 to suppress the apoptosis anticancer barrier, and these cancer-promoting effects can be prevented by prophylactic anti-JAK/STAT5 treatment. This preclinical work exposes a potential breast cancer risk from hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics in certain patients and suggests a chemoprevention regime that is relatively easy to implement compared to the standard 5-year anti-estrogenic treatment in women who have or likely have already developed precancerous lesions while also requiring hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics.

Cao Y, Luo X, Ding X, et al.
LncRNA ATB promotes proliferation and metastasis in A549 cells by down-regulation of microRNA-494.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(8):6935-6942 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is a commonly diagnosed disease with poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic targets and deep understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in lung cancer are of great importance. We aimed to figure out the functional roles of lncRNA-activated by transforming growth factor-β (ATB) in A549 cells as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. ATB was non-physiologically expressed in A549 cells after cell transfection. Then, cell proliferation, expressions of proteins related to proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and invasion were measured by BrdU incorporation assay, Western blot analysis, and Transwell assay, respectively. Afterwards, miR-494 expression in transfected A549 cells was determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Meanwhile, effects of miR-494 overexpression on ATB-overexpressed cells were assessed. Finally, the phosphorylation levels of AKT and key kinases in the Janus-activated kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway were detected by Western blot analysis. ATB overexpression promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 cells. Meanwhile, EMT of A549 cells was also enhanced. ATB silence showed the opposite influence. Expression of miR-494 was negatively regulated by ATB. Following experiments showed ATB-induced alterations of proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT were all reversed by miR-494 overexpression. Finally, we proved that ATB increased phosphorylated levels of AKT, JAK1, and STAT3, and those increases were all reversed by miR-494 overexpression. We interestingly figured out that ATB promoted proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT through down-regulating miR-494 in A549 cells. Moreover, ATB might activate AKT and the JAK/STAT3 pathway via down-regulating miR-494.

Xu LJ, Ma Q, Zhu J, et al.
Combined inhibition of JAK1,2/Stat3‑PD‑L1 signaling pathway suppresses the immune escape of castration‑resistant prostate cancer to NK cells in hypoxia.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(6):8111-8120 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Castration‑resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is difficult to treat in current clinical practice. Hypoxia is an important feature of the CRPC microenvironment and is closely associated with the progress of CRPC invasion. However, no research has been performed on the immune escape of CRPC from NK cells. The present study focused on this subject. Firstly, when the CRPC cell lines C4‑2 and CWR22Rv1 were induced by hypoxia, the expression of the UL16 binding protein (ULBP) ligand family of natural killer (NK) group 2D (NKG2D; ULBP‑1, ULBP‑2 and ULBP‑3) and MHC class I chain‑related proteins A and B (MICA/MICB) decreased. NKG2D is the main activating receptor of NK cells. Tumor cells were then co‑cultured with NK cells to conduct NK cell‑mediated cytotoxicity experiments, which revealed the decreased immune cytolytic activity of NK cells on hypoxia‑induced CRPC cells. In exploring the mechanism behind this observation, an increase in programmed death‑ligand 1 (PD‑L1) expression in CRPC cells induced by hypoxia was observed, while the addition of PD‑L1 antibody effectively reversed the expression of NKG2D ligand and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on CRPC cells. In the process of exploring the upstream regulatory factors of PD‑L1, inhibition of the Janus kinase (JAK)1,2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway decreased the expression of PD‑L1 in CRPC cells. Finally, it was observed that combined inhibition of JAK1,2/PD‑L1 or Stat3/PD‑L1 was more effective than inhibition of a single pathway in enhancing the immune cytolytic activity of NK cells. Taking these results together, it is thought that combined inhibition of the JAK1,2/PD‑L1 and Stat3/PD‑L1 signaling pathways may enhance the immune cytolytic activity of NK cells toward hypoxia‑induced CRPC cells, which is expected to provide novel ideas and targets for the immunotherapy of CRPC.

Tiacci E, Ladewig E, Schiavoni G, et al.
Pervasive mutations of JAK-STAT pathway genes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 131(22):2454-2465 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Dissecting the pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), a common cancer in young adults, remains challenging because of the rarity of tumor cells in involved tissues (usually <5%). Here, we analyzed the coding genome of cHL by microdissecting tumor and normal cells from 34 patient biopsies for a total of ∼50 000 singly isolated lymphoma cells. We uncovered several recurrently mutated genes, namely,

Zacharaki D, Ghazanfari R, Li H, et al.
Effects of JAK1/2 inhibition on bone marrow stromal cells of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients and healthy individuals.
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(1):57-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) commonly share hyperactive JAK-STAT signaling affecting hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their progeny. The JAK1/2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib has remarkable clinical efficacy, including spleen reduction, improvement of constitutional symptoms, and bone marrow (BM) fibrosis reversal. Whether this is due to inhibition of JAK2-mutated HSC only, or whether Ruxolitinib also affects BM stroma is not known.
METHODS: This study investigated potential effects of Ruxolitinib on BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), which are not only major regulators of hematopoiesis but also contribute to fibrosis, from 10 healthy donors and 7 JAK2
RESULTS: Ruxolitinib moderately inhibited the growth of healthy donor MSC (HD-MSC) and MSC from JAK2
CONCLUSION: Ruxolitinib affected JAK2 signaling in MSC at clinically relevant doses, which is likely to contribute to the normalization of the inflammatory milieu in MPNs. Thus, combined HSC and stroma-directed interventions have the potential to improve constitutional symptoms and reduce stromal proliferation in MPNs.

Pritchard AL, Johansson PA, Nathan V, et al.
Germline mutations in candidate predisposition genes in individuals with cutaneous melanoma and at least two independent additional primary cancers.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0194098 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While a number of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive cancer syndromes have an associated spectrum of cancers, the prevalence and variety of cancer predisposition mutations in patients with multiple primary cancers have not been extensively investigated. An understanding of the variants predisposing to more than one cancer type could improve patient care, including screening and genetic counselling, as well as advancing the understanding of tumour development.
METHODS: A cohort of 57 patients ascertained due to their cutaneous melanoma (CM) diagnosis and with a history of two or more additional non-cutaneous independent primary cancer types were recruited for this study. Patient blood samples were assessed by whole exome or whole genome sequencing. We focussed on variants in 525 pre-selected genes, including 65 autosomal dominant and 31 autosomal recessive cancer predisposition genes, 116 genes involved in the DNA repair pathway, and 313 commonly somatically mutated in cancer. The same genes were analysed in exome sequence data from 1358 control individuals collected as part of non-cancer studies (UK10K). The identified variants were classified for pathogenicity using online databases, literature and in silico prediction tools.
RESULTS: No known pathogenic autosomal dominant or previously described compound heterozygous mutations in autosomal recessive genes were observed in the multiple cancer cohort. Variants typically found somatically in haematological malignancies (in JAK1, JAK2, SF3B1, SRSF2, TET2 and TYK2) were present in lymphocyte DNA of patients with multiple primary cancers, all of whom had a history of haematological malignancy and cutaneous melanoma, as well as colorectal cancer and/or prostate cancer. Other potentially pathogenic variants were discovered in BUB1B, POLE2, ROS1 and DNMT3A. Compared to controls, multiple cancer cases had significantly more likely damaging mutations (nonsense, frameshift ins/del) in tumour suppressor and tyrosine kinase genes and higher overall burden of mutations in all cancer genes.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified several pathogenic variants that likely predispose to at least one of the tumours in patients with multiple cancers. We additionally present evidence that there may be a higher burden of variants of unknown significance in 'cancer genes' in patients with multiple cancer types. Further screens of this nature need to be carried out to build evidence to show if the cancers observed in these patients form part of a cancer spectrum associated with single germline variants in these genes, whether multiple layers of susceptibility exist (oligogenic or polygenic), or if the occurrence of multiple different cancers is due to random chance.

Labgaa I, Villacorta-Martin C, D'Avola D, et al.
A pilot study of ultra-deep targeted sequencing of plasma DNA identifies driver mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(27):3740-3752 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Cellular components of solid tumors including DNA are released into the bloodstream, but data on circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still scarce. This study aimed at analyzing mutations in cfDNA and their correlation with tissue mutations in patients with HCC. We included 8 HCC patients treated with surgical resection for whom we collected paired tissue and plasma/serum samples. We analyzed 45 specimens, including multiregional tumor tissue sampling (n = 24), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC, n = 8), plasma (n = 8) and serum (n = 5). Ultra-deep sequencing (5500× coverage) of all exons was performed in a targeted panel of 58 genes, including frequent HCC driver genes and druggable mutations. Mutations detected in plasma included known HCC oncogenes and tumor suppressors (e.g., TERT promoter, TP53, and NTRK3) as well as a candidate druggable mutation (JAK1). This approach increased the detection rates previously reported for mutations in plasma of HCC patients. A thorough characterization of cis mutations found in plasma confirmed their tumoral origin, which provides definitive evidence of the release of HCC-derived DNA fragments into the bloodstream. This study demonstrates that ultra-deep sequencing of cfDNA is feasible and can confidently detect somatic mutations found in tissue; these data reinforce the role of plasma DNA as a promising minimally invasive tool to interrogate HCC genetics.

Wingelhofer B, Maurer B, Heyes EC, et al.
Pharmacologic inhibition of STAT5 in acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(5):1135-1146 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The transcription factor STAT5 is an essential downstream mediator of many tyrosine kinases (TKs), particularly in hematopoietic cancers. STAT5 is activated by FLT3-ITD, which is a constitutively active TK driving the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since STAT5 is a critical mediator of diverse malignant properties of AML cells, direct targeting of STAT5 is of significant clinical value. Here, we describe the development and preclinical evaluation of a novel, potent STAT5 SH2 domain inhibitor, AC-4-130, which can efficiently block pathological levels of STAT5 activity in AML. AC-4-130 directly binds to STAT5 and disrupts STAT5 activation, dimerization, nuclear translocation, and STAT5-dependent gene transcription. Notably, AC-4-130 substantially impaired the proliferation and clonogenic growth of human AML cell lines and primary FLT3-ITD

Danziger O, Pupko T, Bacharach E, Ehrlich M
Interleukin-6 and Interferon-α Signaling
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Malignancy-induced alterations to cytokine signaling in tumor cells differentially regulate their interactions with the immune system and oncolytic viruses. The abundance of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment suggests that such signaling plays key roles in tumor development and therapy efficacy. The JAK-STAT axis transduces signals of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferons (IFNs), mediates antiviral responses, and is frequently altered in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, how activation of JAK-STAT signaling with different cytokines regulates interactions between oncolytic viruses and PCa cells is not known. Here, we employ LNCaP PCa cells, expressing (or not) JAK1, activated (or not) with IFNs (α or γ) or IL-6, and infected with RNA viruses of different oncolytic potential (EHDV-TAU, hMPV-GFP, or HIV-GFP) to address this matter. We show that in JAK1-expressing cells, IL-6 sensitized PCa cells to viral cell death in the presence or absence of productive infection, with dependence on virus employed. Contrastingly, IFNα induced a cytoprotective antiviral state. Biochemical and genetic (knockout) analyses revealed dependency of antiviral state or cytoprotection on STAT1 or STAT2 activation, respectively. In IL-6-treated cells, STAT3 expression was required for anti-proliferative signaling. Quantitative proteomics (SILAC) revealed a core repertoire of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes, induced by IL-6 or IFNs. Oncolysis in the absence of productive infection, induced by IL-6, correlated with reduction in regulators of cell cycle and metabolism. These results call for matching the viral features of the oncolytic agent, the malignancy-induced genetic-epigenetic alterations to JAK/STAT signaling and the cytokine composition of the tumor microenvironment for efficient oncolytic virotherapy.

Kim B, Park B
Saffron carotenoids inhibit STAT3 activation and promote apoptotic progression in IL-6-stimulated liver cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(4):1883-1891 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in the survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. In addition, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be closely related to STAT3 activity. In the present study, we investigated whether crocin, a major glycosylated carotenoid derived from saffron, can modulate the IL-6/STAT3 pathway to induce growth inhibition and sensitivity to cancer cell apoptosis. We determined that crocin inhibited STAT3 activation induced by IL-6 in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inactivation of Janus kinase 1/2(JAK1, JAK2) and Src kinase in both liver cancer cell lines. Furthermore, crocin induced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SHP-1, which led to STAT3 dephosphorylation. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by siRNA recovered the inhibitory effects of crocin, suggesting an important role for SHP-1. Moreover, crocin downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, survivin), proliferative (cyclin D1), invasive (CXCR4) and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins. Conversely, crocin increased the pro-apoptotic (BAX) protein, which was correlated with the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Overall, these results provide evidence that crocin has the potential for anticancer activity through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, especially in liver cancer.

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