Gene Summary

Gene:JAK2; Janus kinase 2
Aliases: JTK10, THCYT3
Summary:This gene product is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a specific subset of cytokine receptor signaling pathways. It has been found to be constituitively associated with the prolactin receptor and is required for responses to gamma interferon. Mice that do not express an active protein for this gene exhibit embryonic lethality associated with the absence of definitive erythropoiesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Survival Rate
  • Ubiquitination
  • JAK2
  • World Health Organization
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl
  • Mutation
  • Skin Cancer
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Pyrimidines
  • Spiro Compounds
  • Proteins
  • Valine
  • Leukaemia
  • Polycythemia Vera
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptors
  • Stomach Cancer
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Pyrazoles
  • ETV6
  • Receptors, Thrombopoietin
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Remission Induction
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • BCR
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Prevalence
  • Transfection
  • Xenograft Models
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
  • Up-Regulation
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Thrombosis
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
  • Chromosome 9
  • U937 Cells
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor
  • Stem Cell Niche
  • Recurrence
  • Sex Factors
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: JAK2 (cancer-related)

Huang L, Huang Z, Lin W, et al.
Salidroside suppresses the growth and invasion of human osteosarcoma cell lines MG63 and U2OS in vitro by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):1969-1980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous research has reported that salidroside exerts antitumor properties on numerous types of tumor cells; however, its effect on osteosarcoma cells remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of salidroside on the viability, apoptosis and invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro, and determine the underlying mechanism of action. The results of an MTT revealed that salidroside suppressed the viability of osteosarcoma cells (MG63 and U2OS cells) in a time‑ and concentration‑dependent manner. The results of cell morphological analysis (profile observations and Hoechst 33258 staining) and the detection of apoptosis by flow cytometry further indicated that the decrease in osteosarcoma cell viability induced by salidroside was associated with cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis not only confirmed these results but also suggested that salidroside induced the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells by activating the caspase‑9‑dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, we reported that salidroside induced G0/G1 phase arrest and suppressed the invasion of osteosarcoma cells, as measured by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and a Transwell invasion assay, respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed the aforementioned results. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that salidroside induced the apoptosis, G0/G1 phase arrest and suppressed the invasion of osteosarcoma cells by inhibiting the janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, as determined by western blot analysis. In summary, the findings of the present study suggested that salidroside may inhibit the progression of osteosarcoma by suppressing the growth and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, the investigations into the underlying mechanism demonstrated that salidroside exerted notable antitumor activity in osteosarcoma cells by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Cai G, Yu W, Song D, et al.
Discovery of fluorescent coumarin-benzo[b]thiophene 1, 1-dioxide conjugates as mitochondria-targeting antitumor STAT3 inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 174:236-251 [PubMed] Related Publications
STAT3 has been extensively studied as a potential antitumor target. Though studies on regulating STAT3 mainly focus on the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr705 residue, the phosphorylation at Ser727 residue of STAT3 protein is also closely associated with the mitochondrial import of STAT3 protein. N, N-diethyl-7-aminocoumarin is a fluorescent mitochondria-targeting probe. In this study, a series of STAT3 inhibitors were developed by connecting N, N-diethyl-7-aminocoumarin fluorophore with benzo [b]thiophene 1, 1-dioxide moiety. All designed compounds displayed potent anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells. The representative compound 7a was mainly accumulated in mitochondria visualized by its fluorescence. STAT3 phosphorylation was inhibited by compound 7a at both Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. Compound 7a inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation whereas had no influence on the phosphorylation levels of STAT1, JAK2, Src and Erk1/2, indicating good selectivity of compound 7a. Moreover, compound 7a down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1, increased ROS production and remarkably reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential to induce mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, compound 7ain vivo suppressed breast cancer 4T1 implanted tumor growth. Taken together, these results highlighted that compound 7a might be a promising mitochondria-targeting STAT3 inhibitor for cancer therapy.

Hua L, Wang G, Wang Z, et al.
Activation of STAT1 by the FRK tyrosine kinase is associated with human glioma growth.
J Neurooncol. 2019; 143(1):35-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glioma is a highly aggressive and lethal brain tumor. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway are widely implicated in glioma carcinogenesis. Our previous study found that the Fynrelated kinase (FRK) gene, plays as a tumor suppressor in the development and progression of glioma. This study aimed to investigate the role of FRK in the activation pathway of STATs and its effect on the growth of glioma.
METHODS: The U251 and U87 cells with stable FRK overexpression were generated by lentivirus technique. The effects of FRK on the related proteins of STAT signaling pathway were detected by western blotting. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to detect the association of FRK and STAT1. The effects of STAT1 on the proliferation of glioma cells were detected by CCK8 or Edu cell proliferation assays. The expressions and correlation of FRK and p-STAT1 in glioma tissues were detectd by western blotting or immunohistochemistry. The effect of FRK on the growth of glioma was investigated in vivo mouse model.
RESULTS: The level of p-JAK2 and p-STAT1 increased after FRK overexpression, while they decreased after FRK downregulation both in U251 and U87 cells. However, FRK had no effect on STAT3 phosphorylation. FRK-induced STAT1 activation was not dependent on JAK2. FRK associated with STAT1, induced STAT1 nuclear translocation and regulated the expressions of STAT1-related target genes. STAT1 overexpression suppressed the proliferation of glioma cells. In contrast, STAT1 knockdown by siRNA promoted glioma cell growth. Importantly, down-regulation of STAT1 partially attenuated FRK-induced growth suppression. The clinical sample-based study indicated that the expression of FRK was significantly correlated with the expression of p-STAT1. FRK significantly inhibited glioma tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted a critical role of FRK in tumor suppression ability through promoting STAT1 activation, and provided a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

Wei C, Yang C, Wang S, et al.
Crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor associated macrophages is required for mesenchymal circulating tumor cell-mediated colorectal cancer metastasis.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of tumor microenvironment that frequently associated with tumor metastasis in human cancers. Circulating tumor cell (CTC), originating from primary tumor sites, is considered to be the precursors of tumor metastasis. However, the regulatory mechanism of TAMs in CTC-mediated tumor metastasis still remains unclear.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the macrophages infiltration (CD68 and CD163), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (E-cadherin and Vimentin) expression in serial sections of human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Then, the correlations between macrophages infiltration and clinicopathologic features, mesenchymal CTC ratio, and patients' prognosis were analyzed. A co-culture assay in vitro was used to evaluate the role of TAMs on CRC EMT, migration and invasion, and ELISA, luciferase reporter assay and CHIP were performed to uncover the underlying mechanism. Furthermore, an in vivo model was carried out to confirm the effect of TAMs on mesenchymal CTC-mediated metastasis.
RESULTS: Clinically, CD163
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that TAMs induce EMT program to enhance CRC migration, invasion, and CTC-mediated metastasis by regulating the JAK2/STAT3/miR-506-3p/FoxQ1 axis, which in turn leads to the production of CCL2 that promote macrophage recruitment, revealing a new cross-talk between immune cells and tumor cells in CRC microenvironment.

Jin S, Yang X, Li J, et al.
p53-targeted lincRNA-p21 acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long intergenic noncoding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) is considered a target of wild-type p53, but little is known about its regulation by mutant p53 and its functions during the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
METHODS: RNAscope was used to detect the expression and distribution of lincRNA-p21. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to analyze the transcriptional regulation of lincRNA-p21 in HNSCC cells. The biological functions of lincRNA-p21 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RNA immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays were used to detect the direct binding of lincRNA-p21.
RESULTS: Lower lincRNA-p21 expression was observed in HNSCC tissues and indicated worse prognosis. Both wild and mutant type p53 transcriptionally regulated lincRNA-p21, but nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) was essential for mutant p53 in the regulation of lincRNA-p21. Ectopic expression of lincRNA-p21 significantly inhibited cell proliferation capacity in vitro and in vivo and vice versa. Moreover, the overexpression of lincRNA-p21 induced G1 arrest and apoptosis. Knockdown NF-YA expression reversed tumor suppressor activation of lincRNA-p21 in mutant p53 cells, not wild-type p53 cells. A negative correlation was observed between lincRNA-p21 and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in HNSCC tissues. High lincRNA-p21 expression inhibited Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signal activation and vice versa. Further, we observed direct binding to STAT3 by lincRNA-p21 in HNSCC cells, which suppressed STAT3-induced oncogenic potential.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the transcriptional regulation of lincRNA-p21 by the mutant p53/NF-YA complex in HNSCC. LincRNA-p21 acted as a tumor suppressor in HNSCC progression, which was attributed to direct binding to STAT3 and blocking of JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

Cioccio J, Claxton D
Therapy of acute myeloid leukemia: therapeutic targeting of tyrosine kinases.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2019; 28(4):337-349 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinases (TKs) drive cell survival and proliferation in many normal and malignant cell types. TKs are frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and hence are increasingly targeted. The management of AML has dramatically improved because of TKI-targeted treatment.
AREAS COVERED: This review provides a biological background for TK inhibitors (TKIs) in AML and reviews their use in the clinic. TK expression and mutation in AML are explored with a focus on TKs associated with specific AML subsets and treatment outcomes. TKIs that specifically target FLT3, c-Kit, and Jak2 are discussed. TKI targeting of specific genes mutated in individual cases and general 'untargeted' use of these agents are highlighted. Lastly, the mechanisms TKI drug resistance in AML are explored
EXPERT OPINION: The use of TKIs in the clinic is improving outcomes for many patients. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology and the expanding use of TKIs are likely to dramatically improve outcomes in the coming decade. TKIs and other targeted agents could gradually supplant the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy for AML.

Melikyan AL, Subortseva IN, Gilyazitdinova EA, et al.
Cepeginterferon alfa-2b in the treatment of chronic myeloproliferative diseases.
Ter Arkh. 2018; 90(7):23-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of different therapeutic strategies in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with PV or ET, diagnosed according to the criteria WHO 2016 were included in the study. The primary endpoint - 6 months of therapy (clinical-hematological and molecular responses). The secondary endpoint - 12 months of therapy (clinico-hematologic, molecular, histological responses). Sixty three patients were included in the analysis: the first group consisted of 33 patients who received the therapy with ce-pegiterferone alpha-2b (ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b), 10 of them received previous treatment; the second group - 23 patients btained hydroxycarbamide; the third group - 7 patients were treated with recombinant interferon alpha therapy (rINFα). In comparison groups, differences in age were revealed: patients receiving hydroxycarbamide therapy were older. Phlebotomy occurred in 36% of patients in the first group, 9% in the second group, and 14% in the third group.
RESULTS: By the 6th month of therapy, 43% of the patients receiving the ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b had complete clinical-hematologic response, 36% had partial clinical-hematologic remission and stabilization of the disease was established in 21% cases. No disease progression occured. By the 12th month of therapy, statistically significant differences in terms of efficacy between the different therapeutic groups (p = 0.2462, Fisher's exact test). In all three groups, the allelic load of JAK2V617F decreased: from 50 to 19%, from 22.3 to 15.8%, from 50 to 7.19%, respectively. The lower the allele load positively correlated with better response to therapy, which was observed in all analyzed groups. Hematologic adverse events (AEs) were more frequently observed in patients receiving ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b therapy. Local reactions developed on 3-7 days of therapy as a hyperemic macula at the injection site. Both these reactions and hair loss did not influence on patient's condition. In the second group (patients with hydroxycarbamide therapy) there were changes in the skin and mucous membranes: dry skin, stomatitis, and in older patients new keratomas appeared. The flu-like syndrome was the most common adverse event associated with the therapy of ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b, which fully relived during the first month of therapy. There was only one case with the flu-like syndrome we observed at the 11th month of therapy. As a rule, the biochemical blood test changes did not influence on patient's condition, were mostly associated with dietary violations, had a tendency to self-resolution and did not require medical interventions. Serious AEs were reported in one case - pulmonary embolism in a patient treated with rINFα. The reasons for the therapy discontinue in group 1: toxic hepatitis, intolerance, by the request of the patient, inadequate efficacy of therapy; in group 2: skin toxicity, in group 3: thromboses.
CONCLUSION: Treatment of ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b in patients with PV and ET is highly effective - the most patients pbtained clinical and hematological responses. There were no statistically significant differences in these parameters in comparison with hydroxycarbamide and rINFα. The use of the ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b had an acceptable safety profile. The estimated therapeutic dose should be calculated according to body weight. To reduce the frequency of hematologic AE, titration of the drug dose is required.

Mumin NH, Drobnitzky N, Patel A, et al.
Overcoming acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibition by targeting JAK-STAT signalling in triple-negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of effective therapies and poor prognosis in TNBC (triple-negative breast cancer) patients, there is a strong need to develop effective novel targeted therapies for this subtype of breast cancer. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a conserved molecular chaperone that is involved in the regulation of oncogenic client proteins, has shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for TNBC. However, both intrinsic and acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitors (HSP90i) limits their effectiveness in cancer patients.
METHODS: We developed models of acquired resistance to HSP90i by prolonged exposure of TNBC cells to HSP90i (ganetespib) in vitro. Whole transcriptome profiling and a 328-compound bioactive small molecule screen were performed on these cells to identify the molecular basis of acquired resistance to HSP90i and potential therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance.
RESULTS: Among a panel of seven TNBC cell lines, the most sensitive cell line (Hs578T) to HSP90i was selected as an in vitro model to investigate acquired resistance to HSP90i. Two independent HSP90i-resistant clones were successfully isolated which both showed absence of client proteins degradation, apoptosis induction and G2/M cell cycle arrest after treatment with HSP90i. Gene expression profiling and pathway enrichment analysis demonstrate significant activation of the survival JAK-STAT signalling pathway in both HSP90i-resistant clones, possibly through IL6 autocrine signalling. A bioactive small molecule screen also demonstrated that the HSP90i-resistant clones showed selective sensitivity to JAK2 inhibition. Inhibition of JAK and HSP90 caused higher induction of apoptosis, despite prior acquired resistance to HSP90i.
CONCLUSIONS: Acquired resistance to HSP90i in TNBC cells is associated with an upregulated JAK-STAT signalling pathway. A combined inhibition of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway and HSP90 could overcome this resistance. The benefits of the combined therapy could be explored further for the development of effective targeted therapy in TNBC patients.

Ibrahim IK, Hassan R, Ali EW, Omer A
Polycythaemia Vera among Sudanese Patients with Special Emphasis on JAK2 Mutations
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(1):41-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: In recent years, a somatic point mutation in the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) gene (1849 G→T, V617F) has been reported to occur in over 90% of patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Another JAK2 mutation in exon 12 had been described and shown capable of activating erythropoietin signaling pathways. Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of Jak2 mutations (JAK2V617F and JAK2 exon 12) as well as their relationships with hematological parameters in Sudanese patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). A comparison with findings of published studies from other geographic regions was included. Materials and Methods: From each of a total of 83 polycythaemia patients, six milliliters (ml) of venous blood were collected and processed for molecular analysis and measurement of serum erythropoietin level by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The JAK2 V617F mutation was determined using an allele-specific competitive blocker (ACB) -PCR assay and High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was applied for the JAK2 exon 12 mutation. Results: According to patients’ history and the results for EPO levels, nine (10.7 %) out of 83 patients were found to have secondary polycythaemia and 74 (89.3%) PV. The overall frequency of the 2 JAK2 mutations was 94.6% in our Sudanese PV patients, JAK2V617F being found in 91% and JAK2 exon 12 mutations in 8.1%.Conclusion: In summary JAK2 V617F and JAK2 exon 12 mutations are very common in Sudanese PC cases.

Giordano G, Parcesepe P, D'Andrea MR, et al.
JAK/Stat5-mediated subtype-specific lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6D (LY6G6D) expression drives mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancers (CRCs) are immunologically "cold" tumour subtypes characterized by reduced immune cytotoxicity. The molecular linkages between immune-resistance and human MSS CRC is not clear.
METHODS: We used transcriptome profiling, in silico analysis, immunohistochemistry, western blot, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining to characterize novel CRC immune biomarkers. The effects of selective antagonists were tested by in vitro assays of long term viability and analysis of kinase active forms using anti-phospho antibodies.
RESULTS: We identified the lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6D (LY6G6D) as significantly overexpressed (around 15-fold) in CRC when compared with its relatively low expression in other human solid tumours. LY6G6D up-regulation was predominant in MSS CRCs characterized by an enrichment of immune suppressive regulatory T-cells and a limited repertoire of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint receptors. Coexpression of LY6G6D and CD15 increases the risk of metastatic relapse in response to therapy. Both JAK-STAT5 and RAS-MEK-ERK cascades act in concert as key regulators of LY6G6D and Fucosyltransferase 4 (FUT4), which direct CD15-mediated immune-resistance. Momelotinib, an inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2, consistently abrogated the STAT5/LY6G6D axis in vitro, sensitizing MSS cancer cells with an intact JAK-STAT signaling, to efficiently respond to trametinib, a MEK inhibitor used in clinical setting. Notably, colon cancer cells can evade JAK2/JAK1-targeted therapy by a reversible shift of the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway activity, which explains the treatment failure of JAK1/2 inhibitors in refractory CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined targeting of STAT5 and MAPK pathways has superior therapeutic effects on immune resistance. In addition, the new identified LY6G6D antigen is a promising molecular target for human MSS CRC.

Zhao ZM, Yost SE, Hutchinson KE, et al.
CCNE1 amplification is associated with poor prognosis in patients with triple negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is aggressive with limited treatment options upon recurrence. Molecular discordance between primary and metastatic TNBC has been observed, but the degree of biological heterogeneity has not been fully explored. Furthermore, genomic evolution through treatment is poorly understood. In this study, we aim to characterize the genomic changes between paired primary and metastatic TNBCs through transcriptomic and genomic profiling, and to identify genomic alterations which may contribute to chemotherapy resistance.
METHODS: Genomic alterations and mRNA expression of 10 paired primary and metastatic TNBCs were determined through targeted sequencing, microarray analysis, and RNA sequencing. Commonly mutated genes, as well as differentially expressed and co-expressed genes were identified. We further explored the clinical relevance of differentially expressed genes between primary and metastatic tumors to patient survival using large public datasets.
RESULTS: Through gene expression profiling, we observed a shift in TNBC subtype classifications between primary and metastatic TNBCs. A panel of eight cancer driver genes (CCNE1, TPX2, ELF3, FANCL, JAK2, GSK3B, CEP76, and SYK) were differentially expressed in recurrent TNBCs, and were also overexpressed in TCGA and METABRIC. CCNE1 and TPX2 were co-overexpressed in TNBCs. DNA mutation profiling showed that multiple mutations occurred in genes comprising a number of potentially targetable pathways including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS/MAPK, cell cycle, and growth factor receptor signaling, reaffirming the wide heterogeneity of mechanisms driving TNBC. CCNE1 amplification was associated with poor overall survival in patients with metastatic TNBC.
CONCLUSIONS: CCNE1 amplification may confer resistance to chemotherapy and is associated with poor overall survival in TNBC.

Yadav AK, Kumar V, Bailey DB, Jang BC
AZD1208, a Pan-Pim Kinase Inhibitor, Has Anti-Growth Effect on 93T449 Human Liposarcoma Cells via Control of the Expression and Phosphorylation of Pim-3, mTOR, 4EBP-1, S6, STAT-3 and AMPK.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of Pim kinases has an oncogenic/pro-survival role in many hematological and solid cancers. AZD1208 is a pan-Pim kinase inhibitor that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic actions. Here, we investigated the effects of AZD1208 on the growth of 93T449 cells, a differentiated human liposarcoma cell line. At 20 µM, AZD1208 was cytotoxic (cytostatic) but not apoptotic, reducing cell survival without DNA fragmentation, caspase activation or increasing cells in the sub G1 phase; known apoptotic parameters. Notably, AZD1208 reduced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) in 93T449 cells. STAT-3 inhibition by AG490, a JAK2/STAT-3 inhibitor similarly reduced cell survival. AZD1208 down-regulated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 while up-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α). In addition, AZD1208 induced a LKB-1-independent AMPK activation, which was crucial for its cytostatic effect, as knock-down of AMPK greatly blocked AZD1208s ability to reduce cell survival. AZD1208 had no effect on expression of two members of Pim kinase family (Pim-1 and Pim-3) but inhibited phosphorylation of 4EBP-1, a downstream effector of Pim kinases. Importantly, a central role for Pim-3 in the actions of AZD1208 was confirmed by knock-down, which not only reduced 93T449 cell survival but also led to the inhibition of 4EBP-1, mTOR, eIF-2α and STAT-3, along with the activation of AMPK. In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that AZD1208 inhibits growth of liposarcoma cells and that this activity is mediated through Pim-3 kinase, STAT-3, mTOR, S6 and AMPK expression and phosphorylation pathways.

Park GB, Kim D
MicroRNA-503-5p Inhibits the CD97-Mediated JAK2/STAT3 Pathway in Metastatic or Paclitaxel-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(2):206-215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD97 shows a strong relationship with metastasis and poor clinical outcome in various tumors, including ovarian cancer. The expression of CD97 in metastatic ovarian cancer cells was higher than that in primary ovarian cancer cells. Mature miRNAs are frequently de-regulated in cancer and incorporated into a specific mRNA, leading to post-transcriptional silencing. In this study, we investigated whether the miR-503-5p targeting of the CD97 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) contributes to ovarian cancer metastasis as well as the underlying mechanism regulating cancer progression. In LPS-stimulated or paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells, stimulation with recombinant human CD55 (rhCD55) of CD97 in ovarian cancer cells activated NF-κB-dependent miR-503-5p down-regulation and the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, consequently promoting the migratory and invasive capacity. Furthermore, restoration of miR-503-5p by transfection with mimics or NF-κB inhibitor efficiently blocked CD97 expression and the downstream JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Target inhibition of JAK with siRNA also impaired colony formation and metastasis of LPS-stimulated and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that high CD97 expression, which is controlled through the NF-κB/miR-503-5p signaling pathway, plays an important role in the invasive activity of metastatic and drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells by activating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

Arumugam A, Subramani R, Nandy SB, et al.
Silencing growth hormone receptor inhibits estrogen receptor negative breast cancer through ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2.
Exp Mol Med. 2019; 51(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Growth hormone receptor (GHR) plays a vital role in breast cancer chemoresistance and metastasis but the mechanism is not fully understood. We determined if GHR could be a potential therapeutic target for estrogen receptor negative (ER-ve) breast cancer, which are highly chemoresistant and metastatic. GHR was stably knocked down in ER-ve breast cancer cells and its effect on cell proliferation, metastatic behavior, and chemosensitivity to docetaxel (DT) was assessed. Microarray analysis was performed to identify potential GHR downstream targets involved in chemoresistance. GHR and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) overexpression and knockdown studies were performed to investigate the mechanism of GHR-induced chemoresistance. Patient-derived xenografts was used to study the effect of GHR and ABCG2. Immunohistochemical data was used to determine the correlation between GHR, pAKT, pmTOR, and ABCG2 expressions. GHR silencing drastically reduced the chemoresistant and metastatic behavior of ER-ve breast cancer cells and also inhibited AKT/mTOR pathway. In contrast, activation, or overexpression of GHR increased chemoresistance and metastasis by increasing the expression and promoter activity, of ABCG2. Inhibition of JAK2/STAT5 signaling repressed GHR-induced ABCG2 promoter activity and expression. Further, ABCG2 knockdown significantly increased the chemosensitivity. Finally, patient-derived xenograft studies revealed the role of GHR in chemoresistance. Overall, these findings demonstrate that targeting GHR could be a novel therapeutic approach to overcome chemoresistance and associated metastasis in aggressive ER-ve breast cancers.

Cottin L, Riou J, Boyer F, et al.
WT1 gene is overexpressed in myeloproliferative neoplasms, especially in myelofibrosis.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2019; 75:35-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Classical Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms include Polycythemia Vera (PV), Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) and Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF). They are characterized by the presence of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR or MPL genes. Overexpression of WT1 is used as a marker of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia, especially after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We investigated WT1 expression at diagnosis in 152 MPN patients and showed that the WT1 transcript was overexpressed in PMFs and PVs compared to controls. In particular, WT1 transcript levels were higher in PMF than in ET and PV. WT1 transcript levels were significantly increased during myelofibrotic transformation of ET or PV. Using multivariate linear regression, high WT1 transcript levels in PMF were associated with age over 65, splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia. The ROC curve analysis showed that a level of WT1 transcript >10 WT1 copies/10

Hassankrishnamurthy S, Mody MD, Kota VK
A Case of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Occurring in a Patient Treated for Essential Thrombocythemia.
Am J Case Rep. 2019; 20:10-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is one of the BCR-ABL gene fusion negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), which also include polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis. Few clinical cases have reported the progression of ET to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with the expression of the BCR-ABL gene. This report describes such a case and includes a review of other reported cases of CML co-occurring with BCR-ABL-negative chronic MPDs. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old woman was diagnosed with ET in 2007. Cytogenetic testing was negative for expression of the JAK2 or BCR-ABL1 genes. Eight years later, in January 2015, she presented with excessive fatigue, poor appetite, unintentional weight loss, a white blood cell (WBC) count of 24,700 per mL, hemoglobin of 9.9 g/dl, and a platelet count of 557,000 per mL, with blasts and basophils in the blood film. Cytogenetic analysis with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed a 9: 22 chromosomal translocation (Philadelphia chromosome), and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) detected the expression of the BCR-ABL gene, confirming a diagnosis of CML. In February 2015, first-line therapy commenced with nilotinib, which was changed to imatinib after three months. During the following nine months, qRT-PCR confirmed a trend to deep molecular remission (MR5). However, she developed early myelofibrosis, and myelosuppressive therapy was resumed. CONCLUSIONS This rare case highlights the importance of cytogenetic testing in cases of CMPD that transform to CML, not only to confirm the diagnosis but to plan treatment, as Philadelphia chromosome-positive and -negative cases differ in their management.

Oh HN, Oh KB, Lee MH, et al.
JAK2 regulation by licochalcone H inhibits the cell growth and induces apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 52:60-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Licochalconce (LC) H is an artificial compound in the course of synthesizing LCC in 2013. So far, few studies on the effects of LCH have been found in the literature. Despite progress in treatment modalities for oral cancer, the cure from cancer has still limitations.
PURPOSE: The effects of LCH were investigated on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells to elucidate its mechanisms.
STUDY DESIGN: We explored the mechanism of action of LCH by which it could have effects on JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
METHODS: To confirm LCH anti-cancer effect, analyzed were MTT assay, DAPI staining, soft agar, kinase assay, molecular docking simulation, flow cytometry and Western blotting analysis.
RESULTS: According to docking and molecular dynamics simulations, the predicted pose of the complex LCH and JAK2 seems reasonable and LCH is strongly bound to active JAK2 with opened activation loop. The LCH inhibitor is surrounded by specific ATP-binding pocket in which it is stabilized by forming hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. It is shown that LCH plays as a competitive inhibitor in an active state of JAK2. LCH caused a dose-dependent decrease in phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. More interestingly, LCH suppressed JAK2 kinase activity in vitro by its direct binding to the JAK2. LCH significantly inhibited the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, causing the down-regulation of target genes such as Bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, p21 and p27. In addition, LCH inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as well as induction of cell apoptosis through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. The induction of apoptosis in OSCC cells by LCH was evident in the increased production of ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cyto c, variation of apoptotic proteins and activation of caspase cascade.
CONCLUSION: LCH not only induces apoptosis in OSCC cells through the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway but also inhibits cell growth. It is proposed that LCH has a promising use for the chemotherapeutic agent of oral cancer.

Dulíček P
Treatment of polycythemia vera.
Vnitr Lek. Fall 2018; 64(10):955-960 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycythemia vera is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by hematopoietic stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation resulting in erythrocytosis, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. Survival is reduced compared with general population. Main reasons of death include thrombohemorrhagic complications, fibrotic progression and leuk-aemic transformation. Presence of Janus kinase (JAK2) gene mutations is a diagnostic marker and standard dia-gnostic criterion. World Health Organization 2016 diagnostic criteria focusing on hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, red cell mass and bone marrow morphology are mandatory. Therapeutic approach depends on stratification of patients according age and personal risk of thrombosis. Low-risk patients are treated first line with low-dose aspirin and phlebo-tomy. Cytoreduction is indicated in high-risk patients. Interferon-α has demonstrated efficacy in many clinical trials. Its pegylated form is well tolerated, enabling less frequent administration than standard interferon. Therefore it is therapy of choice based on Central European Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Organisation recommendation. Ropeginterferon α-2b has been shown to be more efficacious than hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea is suspected of leukemogenic potential. JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib is approved for hydroxyurea resistant/intolerant patients. Key words: diagnosis - polycythemia vera - therapy.

Tan ZB, Fan HJ, Wu YT, et al.
Rheum palmatum extract exerts anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019; 232:62-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common malignancies. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with abnormal expression and constitutive activation, has been reported to promote proliferation, metastasis, survival and angiogenesis of HCC cells. Rheum palmatum (RP), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, exhibited tumor-suppressing effects in multiple human cancers, but its potential functions in HCC remain unexplored.
AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to examine the involvement of STAT3 signaling in the anti-HCC effects of RP extract.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SMMC-7721 and HepG2 HCC cell lines were treated with RP extract for 24 h, and then viability, migration, and invasion of HCC cells and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were analyzed using MTS, wound-healing, Transwell invasion and tube formation assays, respectively. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to examine the activation of key molecules in STAT3 signaling, including STAT3, JAK2, and Src. Additionally, we explored the in vivo antitumor effects of RP extract in a xenograft tumor nude mouse model of HCC.
RESULTS: The result showed that RP extract reduced viability, migration, and invasion of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells and angiogenesis of HUVECs. It suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its upstream kinases including JAK2 and Src. In addition, RP extract treatment downregulated STAT3 target genes, including survivin, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, Cyclin D1, CDK4, c-Myc, and VEGF-C. Furthermore, RP extract suppressed the xenograft tumor growth and activation of STAT3 in xenograft tumor mice.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, the results showed that RP extract prevented HCC progression by inhibiting STAT3, and might be useful for the treatment of HCC.

Chen Z, Hu X, Wu Y, et al.
Long non-coding RNA XIST promotes the development of esophageal cancer by sponging miR-494 to regulate CDK6 expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:2228-2236 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide occurring at upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to explore the possible role of long non-coding RNA X Inactive Specific Transcript (XIST) in the development of esophageal cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The lncRNA XIST expressions both in esophageal cancer tissues and in cells were investigated. The TE-1 and SKGT-4 cells were transfected with LV-sh-XIST and LV-scramble for the further detection of the effects of XIST expression on cell biological processes, including proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, migration, invasion and the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. Additionally, the regulatory relationships between lncRNA XIST and miR-494, between miR-494 and CDK6, between miR-494/CDK6 and JAK2/STAT3 pathway were investigated.
RESULTS: LncRNA XIST was overespressed in esophageal cancer tissues and cells. Suppression of XIST significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion, but induced apoptosis of two kinds of cells, TE-1 and SKGT-4. Moreover, miR-494 was down-regulated in esophageal cancer tissues and cells. XIST could sponge miR-494 and inhibition of miR-494 reversed the effects of XIST suppression on the malignant behaviors of TE-1 cells. Also, CDK6 was a target of miR-494 and CDK6 knockdown reversed the effects of miR-494 inhibition on the malignant behaviors of TE-1 cells. Besides, the expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 was increased after miR-494 inhibition, which was reversed after inhibition of miR-494 and CDK6 at the same time.
CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study revealed that XIST abnormal expression may play an oncogenic role in the development of esophageal cancer via miR-494/CDK6 axis through JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway. This study may provide theoretical basis for the molecular mechanism investigation of esophageal cancer.

Ding N, Miller SA, Savant SS, O'Hagan HM
JAK2 regulates mismatch repair protein-mediated epigenetic alterations in response to oxidative damage.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2019; 60(4):308-319 [PubMed] Related Publications
At sites of chronic inflammation epithelial cells undergo aberrant DNA methylation that contributes to tumorigenesis. Inflammation is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative DNA damage, which has also been linked to epigenetic alterations. We previously demonstrated that in response to ROS, mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH6 recruit epigenetic silencing proteins DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) members to sites of DNA damage, resulting in transcriptional repression of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). However, it was unclear what signal is unique to ROS that results in the chromatin binding of MSH2 and MSH6. Herein, we demonstrate that in response to hydrogen peroxide (H

Deng R, Zhang P, Liu W, et al.
HDAC is indispensable for IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression in gastric cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):153 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) overexpression on tumor cells is an important mechanism of immune evasion in gastric cancer (GC). Elucidation of the regulation of B7-H1 expression is urgently required to guide B7-H1-targeted cancer therapy. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is thought to be the main driving force behind B7-H1 expression, and epigenetic factors including histone acetylation are recently linked to the process. Here, we investigated the potential role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression in GC. The effect of Vorinostat (SAHA), a small molecular inhibitor of HDAC, on tumor growth and B7-H1 expression in a mouse GC model was also evaluated.
RESULTS: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of B7-H1, HDAC1-3, 6-8, and 10 and SIRT1, 3, 5, and 6 was higher, and expression of HDAC5 and SIRT4 was lower in GC compared to that in normal gastric tissues; that HDAC3 and HDAC1 expression level significantly correlated with B7-H1 in GC with a respective r value of 0.42 (p < 0.001) and 0.21 (p < 0.001). HDAC inhibitor (Trichostatin A, SAHA, and sodium butyrate) pretreatment suppressed IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression on HGC-27 cells. HDAC1 and HDAC3 gene knockdown had the same effect. SAHA pretreatment or HDAC knockdown resulted in impaired IFN-γ signaling, demonstrated by the reduction of JAK2, p-JAK1, p-JAK2, and p-STAT1 expression and inefficient STAT1 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, SAHA pretreatment compromised IFN-γ-induced upregulation of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation level in B7-H1 gene promoter. In the grafted mouse GC model, SAHA treatment suppressed tumor growth, inhibited B7-H1 expression, and elevated the percentage of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells.
CONCLUSION: HDAC is indispensable for IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 in GC. The study suggests the possibility of targeting B7-H1 using small molecular HDAC inhibitors for cancer treatment.

Ciboddo M, Mullally A
JAK2 (and other genes) be nimble with MPN diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2018; 2018(1):110-117 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/11/2019 Related Publications
Now that the spectrum of somatic mutations that initiate, propagate, and drive the progression of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) has largely been defined, recent efforts have focused on integrating this information into clinical decision making. In this regard, the greatest progress has been made in myelofibrosis, in which high-molecular-risk mutations have been identified and incorporated into prognostic models to help guide treatment decisions. In this chapter, we focus on advances in 4 main areas: (1) What are the MPN phenotypic driver mutations? (2) What constitutes high molecular risk in MPN (focusing on

Wang R, Xu J, Xu J, et al.
MiR-326/Sp1/KLF3: A novel regulatory axis in lung cancer progression.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(2):e12551 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) in lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: KLF3 expression was analysed by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays. The proliferation, migration, invasion, cycle and apoptosis were measured by CCK-8 and EdU, wound-healing and Transwell, and flow cytometry assays. The tumour growth was detected by nude mouse tumorigenesis assay. In addition, the interaction between KLF3 and Sp1 was accessed by luciferase reporter, EMSA and ChIP assay. JAK2, STAT3, PI3K and p-AKT levels were evaluated by Western blot and IHC assays.
RESULTS: The results indicated that KLF3 expression was elevated in lung cancer tissues. Knockdown of KLF3 inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, the downregulation of KLF3 suppressed tumour growth in vivo. KLF3 was transcriptionally activated by Sp1. miR-326 could bind to 3'UTR of Sp1 but not KLF3 and decreased the accumulation of Sp1, which further indirectly reduced KLF3 expression and inactivated JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that miR-326/Sp1/KLF3 regulatory axis is involved in the development of lung cancer, which hints the potential target for the further therapeutic strategy against lung cancer.

Zhou Y, Lv L, Liu Q, Song J
Total flavonoids extracted from
Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/11/2019 Related Publications
Large doses of flavonoids could cure many diseases with no serious side effects. However, the role of flavonoids in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has not been reported. Therefore, total flavonoids extracted from

Li Y, Zhang XY, Han J, Wang L
Analysis of clinical characteristics of bone marrow proliferative tumor progression to acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(4):469-472 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze Chinese patients who developed acute leukemia after being diagnosed and treated for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), and compare the findings of this series with similar studies from literature.
METHODS: Nine patients who progressed to leukemia after being diagnosed with MPN were included into the present study. Clinical data including age, treatment modalities and duration of use in the myeloproliferative phase, latency to leukemic transformation (LT), characteristics of leukemia, chemotherapy administration, and survival after LT were examined. Furthermore, factors associated with leukemia transformation were analyzed.
RESULTS: Over a 13-year period, nine patients had LT in 192 Ph-negative MPNs. Among these patients, two patients had polycythemia vera (PV), three patients had essential thrombocythemia (ET), and four patients had myelofibrosis (MF). The median age at MPN diagnosis was 51 years old (range: 42-69 years old), and the median age upon reaching LT was 57 years old (range: 46-72 years old). Furthermore, the median latency to LT was 72.8 months (range: 7-144 months). Five patients had cytogenetic abnormalities (62.5%), with abnormalities in chromosomes -5, +8 and -7 being common. Eight patients underwent the JAK2 V617F gene test when diagnosed with MPN. The prognosis of patients with LT was poor, and the average survival time was 6.7 months. This was not correlated with the treatment.
CONCLUSION: LT in Ph-negative MPNs is rare, and has poor prognosis, which has been consistently reported in a number of studies, However, this needs to be further confirmed through larger studies.

He Z, Wang B, Chen L, et al.
MLL-PTD in a 13-year-old patient with blast phase myeloproliferative neoplasm: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(46):e13220 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/11/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: The risk of leukemic transformation in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) has been increasing with time. Partial Tandem Duplications of the MLL gene (MLL-PTD) has been reported in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but not in MPN blast phase. The post-MPN AML developed adverse clinical outcomes, which showed no noticeable improvement over the past 15 years. Therefore, the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches of post-MPN AML need to be deeply studied.
PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study, we present a JAK2V617F positive MPN patient who experienced fatigue and splenomegaly, transforming into JAK2V617F negative AML.
DIAGNOSES: A diagnosis of acute monocytic leukemia was made in MPN blast phase.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient received chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT).
OUTCOMES: The patient achieved complete remission twice, but relapsed twice. Relapse-free survival was only 3 months. She died about 24 months after her diagnosis.
LESSONS: MLL-PTD occurs in the progression of JAK2V617F positive MPN into JAK2V617F negative AML, which may be a novel mechanism of MPN blast phase and helpful for post-MPN AML diagnosis. Allo-SCT may be a good choice for post-MPN AML with MLL-PTD. More therapeutic strategies need to be explored for a better prognosis in these patients.

Hou J, Lv A, Deng Q, et al.
TROP2 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of glioblastoma cells by activating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):753-764 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/11/2019 Related Publications
Trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2), a single transmembrane domain protein, is often found to be highly expressed in various types of human cancers. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of TROP2 in glioblastoma have not been fully elucidated, particularly in regards to cell proliferation and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. In the present study, it was demonstrated that TROP2 expression was increased in glioblastoma tissues and glioblastoma cell lines by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot analysis. High TROP2 expression was significantly correlated with the poor survival of glioblastoma patients. MTT assay, BrdU incorporation assay, flow cytometry and Transwell assay were performed to demonstrate that knockdown of TROP2 in glioblastoma cells inhibited cell proliferation and metastasis. We found that the effects of TROP2‑knockdown on glioblastoma cells were associated with the inhibition of JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation and decreased transcription of STAT3 target genes. In addition, blocking the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling by WP1066 negated the effects of TROP2 overexpression. Furthermore, exogenous IL‑6, which functions as a potent activator of JAK2/STAT3 signaling, was able to rescue the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in TROP2‑silenced glioblastoma cells and regulate phenotypic changes in these cells. Therefore, we revealed a novel mechanism by which TROP2 activates the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to promote the growth and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. These data offer insight into the function of TROP2 in glioblastoma and indicate that TROP2 is a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for glioblastoma patients.

Ramezanpour M, Daei P, Tabarzad M, et al.
Preliminary study on the effect of nucleolin specific aptamer-miRNA let-7d chimera on Janus kinase-2 expression level and activity in gastric cancer (MKN-45) cells.
Mol Biol Rep. 2019; 46(1):207-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of miRNAs in cancer treatment. The role of proto-oncogene Janus kinase-2 (JAK-2) in proliferation and survival of gastric cancer has been previously documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a chimera consisted of nucleolin specific aptamer (NCL-Apt) and miRNA let-7d on JAK2 expression level and activity in gastric cancer cells. NCL-Apt-miRNA let-7d chimera was prepared by two methods. Gastric cancer (MKN-45) cell line and control cell line of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) were treated with the chimera and the changes in JAK2 expression and activity were determined using real-time PCR and ELISA techniques, respectively. In MKN-45 cells, the chimera caused significant decrease in JAK2 expression level and activity compared to the aptamer alone and miRNA mimic negative control. Nevertheless, transfected miRNA let-7d showed remarkable reduction in the expression level of JAK2 in comparison with control state in both MKN-45 and HDF, confirmed unspecific effect of let-7d on normal and cancerous cells. With regard to the synergic effect of this chimera on JAK2 activity, it might be viewed as a therapeutic candidate in gastric cancer. However, further studies are warranted to prove it.

Jacquelin S, Straube J, Cooper L, et al.
Jak2V617F and Dnmt3a loss cooperate to induce myelofibrosis through activated enhancer-driven inflammation.
Blood. 2018; 132(26):2707-2721 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of blood cancers that arise following the sequential acquisition of genetic lesions in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We identify mutational cooperation between Jak2V617F expression and Dnmt3a loss that drives progression from early-stage polycythemia vera to advanced myelofibrosis. Using in vivo, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) disruption of Dnmt3a in Jak2V617F knockin HSPC, we show that Dnmt3a loss blocks the accumulation of erythroid elements and causes fibrotic infiltration within the bone marrow and spleen. Transcriptional analysis and integration with human data sets identified a core DNMT3A-driven gene-expression program shared across multiple models and contexts of Dnmt3a loss. Aberrant self-renewal and inflammatory signaling were seen in Dnmt3a

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