Gene Summary

Gene:TRIM27; tripartite motif containing 27
Aliases: RFP, RNF76
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. This protein localizes to the nuclear matrix. It interacts with the enhancer of polycomb protein and represses gene transcription. It is also thought to be involved in the differentiation of male germ cells. Fusion of the N-terminus of this protein with the truncated C-terminus of the RET gene product has been shown to result in production of the ret transforming protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:zinc finger protein RFP
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (27)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TRIM27 (cancer-related)

Suetsugu A, Jiang P, Yang M, et al.
The Use of Living Cancer Cells Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein in the Nucleus and Red Fluorescence Protein in the Cytoplasm for Real-time Confocal Imaging of Chromosome and Cytoplasmic Dynamics During Mitosis.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2553-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: A library of dual-color fluorescent cancer cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP), linked to histone H2B, expressed in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed in the cytoplasm was previously genetically engineered. The aim of the current study was to use the dual-color cancer cells to visualize chromosome and cytoplasmic dynamics during mitosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, a library of dual-color cells from the major cancer types was cultured on plastic. The cells were imaged by confocal microscopy to demonstrate chromosome and cytoplasmic dynamics during mitosis.
RESULTS: Nuclear GFP expression enabled visualization of chromosomes behavior, whereas simultaneous cytoplasmic RFP expression enabled visualization of cytoplasmic behavior during mitosis. Thus, total cellular dynamics can be visualized at high resolution, including individual chromosomes in some cases, in living dual-color cells in real time.
CONCLUSION: Dual-color cancer cells expressing H2B-GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm provide unique tools for visualizing subcellular nuclear and cytoplasm dynamics, including the behavior of individual chromosomes during mitosis. The dual-color cells can be used to evaluate chromosomal loss or gain in real time during treatment with a variety of agents or as the cells are selected for increased or decreased malignancy in culture or in vivo. The dual color cells will be a useful tool to discover and evaluate novel strategies for killing cancer cells.

Yang M, Jiang P, Hoffman RM
Early Reporting of Apoptosis by Real-time Imaging of Cancer Cells Labeled with Green Fluorescent Protein in the Nucleus and Red Fluorescent Protein in the Cytoplasm.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2539-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: We previously developed PC-3 human prostate cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B expressed in the nucleus. We demonstrate in the present report the use of these dual-color cells for early detection of apoptosis in the presence of cancer chemotherapy agents.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Induction of apoptosis was observed by real-time imaging of cytoplasmic and nuclear size and shape changes and nuclear fragmentation using fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis was also detected by measuring DNA fragmentation. The cancer chemotherapy agents paclitaxel and vinblastine were used for induction of apoptosis.
RESULTS: When the PC-3 dual-color cells were treated with paclitaxel or vinblastine, cytoplasmic and nuclear size and shape changes and nuclear fragmentation were observed by 24 hours. The paclitaxel-treated PC-3 dual-color cells exhibited ring-like structures formed by the fragmented nuclei, which could be brightly visualized by H2B-GFP fluorescence. Apoptosis was also detected by the dual-color PC-3 cells by 24 hours when treated with vinblastine. However, no nuclear ring-like structures were formed in the PC-3 cells by vinblastine treatment. In contrast, DNA fragmentation could not be observed in PC-3 cells until 48 hours after exposure to paclitaxel.
CONCLUSION: Dual-color PC-3 cells can serve as a simple real-time early reporter of apoptosis and as a screen for novel cancer therapeutics or genotoxic agents. The dual-color cell real-time imaging assay is a more sensitive and earlier reporter for apoptosis than the DNA fragmentation assay.

Tan Q, Joshua AM, Saggar JK, et al.
Effect of pantoprazole to enhance activity of docetaxel against human tumour xenografts by inhibiting autophagy.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(5):832-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Autophagy allows recycling of cellular components and may facilitate cell survival after chemotherapy. Pantoprazole inhibits proton pumps and is reported to inhibit autophagy. Here we evaluate the effects of pantoprazole to modify cytotoxicity of the anticancer drug docetaxel, and underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Effects of docetaxel±pantoprazole were studied against wild-type and autophagy-deficient PC3 cells and against four human xenografts. Effects of pantoprazole on autophagy were evaluated by quantifying LC3-I, LC3-II and p62 proteins in western blots, and by fluorescent microscopy of cells transfected with RFP-GFP-LC3. The distribution of drug effects and of autophagy was quantified in tumour sections in relation to blood vessels and hypoxia by immunohistochemistry using γH2AX, cleaved caspase-3, Ki67 and LC3/ p62.
RESULTS: Pantoprazole increased the toxicity of docetaxel in vitro, increased docetaxel-induced expression of γH2AX and cleaved caspase-3, and decreased Ki67 in tumour sections. Pantoprazole increased growth delay of four human xenografts of low, moderate and high sensitivity to docetaxel, with minimal increase in toxicity. Docetaxel led to increased autophagy throughout tumour sections. Pantoprazole inhibited autophagy, and effects of pantoprazole were reduced against genetically modified cells with decreased ability to undergo autophagy.
CONCLUSIONS: Autophagy is a mechanism of resistance to docetaxel chemotherapy that may be modified by pantoprazole to improve therapeutic index.

Hsu FT, Liu YC, Chiang IT, et al.
Sorafenib increases efficacy of vorinostat against human hepatocellular carcinoma through transduction inhibition of vorinostat-induced ERK/NF-κB signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(1):177-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sorafenib is effective for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and particularly for those who are unsuitable to receive life-prolonging transarterial chemo-embolization. The survival benefit of sorafenib, however, is unsatisfactory. Vorinostat also known as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with anti-HCC efficacy in preclinical studies. SAHA induces nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in vitro, which may lead to cancer cell progression and jeopardize cytotoxic effect of SAHA in HCC. The goal of this study was to investigate whether sorafenib enhances SAHA cytotoxicity against HCC through inhibition of SAHA-induced NF-κB activity. The human HCC cell line Huh7 transfected with dual reporter genes, luciferase (luc) and thymidine kinase (tk) with NF-κB response elements, was co-transfected with red fluorescent protein (rfp) gene for non-invasive molecular imaging to assess NF-κB activity and living cells simultaneously. Cell viability assay, DNA fragmentation, western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and multiple modalities of molecular imaging were used to assess the combination efficacy and mechanism of sorafenib and SAHA. The administration of high-dose SAHA (10 µM) with long treatment time (48 h) in vitro, and 25 mg/kg/day by gavage in HCC-bearing nude mice to induce NF-κB activity were performed. Sorafenib inhibited SAHA-induced NF-κB activity and the expression of NF-κB-regulated effector proteins while it increased the efficacy of SAHA against HCC both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of sorafenib to enhance SAHA efficacy on HCC is through the suppression of ERK/NF-κB pathway, which induces extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. Combination of sorafenib and SAHA may have the potential as new strategy against HCC.

Almeida TA, Quispe-Ricalde A, Montes de Oca F, et al.
A high-throughput open-array qPCR gene panel to identify housekeeping genes suitable for myometrium and leiomyoma expression analysis.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 134(1):138-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 51 different housekeeping genes for their use as internal standards in myometrial and matched leiomyoma samples in proliferative and secretory phases.
METHODS: RNA from 6 myometrium and matched leiomyoma samples was obtained from pre-menopausal women who underwent hysterectomy. Reverse-transcription and real-time quantitative PCR were achieved using TaqMan high-density open-array human endogenous control panel.
RESULTS: Expression stability of 51 candidate genes was determined by GeNorm and NormFinder softwares. We identified 10 housekeeping genes, ARF1, MRPL19, FBXW2, PUM1, UBE2D2, EIF2B1, HPRT1, GUSB, ALAS1, and TRIM27, as the best set of normalization genes for comparing relative expression between leiomyoma and myometrium samples in proliferative and secretory phases.
CONCLUSIONS: Adequate reference genes for accurate normalization are essential to compare gene expression between leiomyoma and myometrial samples. Ideal housekeeping genes must have stable expression patterns regardless of the sample type and menstrual cycle phase. In this study, we propose a set of 10 candidate genes with greater expression stability than those housekeeping genes commonly used in leiomyoma and myometrium tissues. Their use will improve the sensitivity and specificity of the gene expression analysis in these tissues.

de Kruijf EM, Bastiaannet E, Rubertá F, et al.
Comparison of frequencies and prognostic effect of molecular subtypes between young and elderly breast cancer patients.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(5):1014-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare the distribution and prognostic effect of the breast cancer molecular subtypes in young and elderly breast cancer patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our study population (n = 822) consisted of all early breast cancer patients primarily treated with surgery in our center between 1985 and 1996. A total of 142/822 fresh frozen tissues were available with good quality RNA and analyzed by gene expression microarray. Gene expression molecular subtypes were determined by correlation to the expression centroids of 534 "intrinsic" genes. Sections of a tissue micro array containing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue of 714/822 patients were immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for Ki67, EGFR, CK5/6. Tumor expression of ER, PR, HER2 was previously determined. IHC molecular subtypes were defined based on expression of these markers: Luminal A: ER+ and/or PR+, HER2- and Ki67-; Luminal B: ER+ and/or PR+ and ki67+; ERBB2: ER-, PR- and HER2+; Basal-like: ER-, PR-, HER2- and EGFR+ and/or CK5/6+; Unclassified: ER-, PR-, HER2-, EGFR- and CK5/6-. IHC molecular subtypes were validated against gene expression defined molecular subtypes. Assessment of distribution and prognostic effect of molecular subtypes was stratified to age (<65 versus ≥65 years).
RESULTS: Validation of molecular subtypes determined by IHC against gene expression revealed a substantial agreement in classification (Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.75). A statistically significant association (p = 0.02) was found between molecular subtypes and age, where Luminal tumors were more often found in elderly patients, while ERBB2, basal-like and unclassified subtypes were more often found in young patients. Molecular subtypes showed a prognostic association with outcome in young patients concerning relapse-free period (RFP) (p = 0.01) and relative survival (RS) (p < 0.001). No statistically significant prognostic effect was found for molecular subtypes in elderly patients (RFP p = 0.5; RS p = 0.1). Additional analyses showed that no molecular subtypes showed a statistically significant difference in outcome for elderly compare to young patients.
CONCLUSION: We have shown that molecular subtypes have a different distribution and prognostic effect in elderly compared to young breast cancer patients, emphasizing the fact that biomarkers may have different distributions and prognostic effects and therefore different implications in elderly compared to their younger counterparts. Our results support the premise that breast cancer clinical behavior is significantly affected by patient age. We suggest that competing risks of death in elderly patients, ER-driven differences and micro-environmental changes in biology are underlying these age-dependent variations in patient prognosis.

Leng L, Wang Y, He N, et al.
Molecular imaging for assessment of mesenchymal stem cells mediated breast cancer therapy.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(19):5162-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
The tumor tropism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) makes them an excellent delivery vehicle used in anticancer therapy. However, the exact mechanisms of MSCs involved in tumor microenvironment are still not well defined. Molecular imaging technologies with the versatility in monitoring the therapeutic effects, as well as basic molecular and cellular processes in real time, offer tangible options to better guide MSCs mediated cancer therapy. In this study, an in situ breast cancer model was developed with MDA-MB-231 cells carrying a reporter system encoding a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase (Fluc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). In mice breast cancer model, we injected human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) armed with a triple fusion (TF) gene containing the herpes simplex virus truncated thymidine kinase (HSV-ttk), renilla luciferase (Rluc) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) into tumor on day 13, 18, 23 after MDA-MB-231 cells injection. Bioluminescence imaging of Fluc and Rluc provided the real time monitor of tumor cells and hUC-MSCs simultaneously. We found that tumors were significantly inhibited by hUC-MSCs administration, and this effect was enhanced by ganciclovir (GCV) application. To further demonstrate the effect of hUC-MSCs on tumor cells in vivo, we employed the near infrared (NIR) imaging and the results showed that hUC-MSCs could inhibit tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis to a certain degree. In conclusion, hUC-MSCs can inhibit breast cancer progression by inducing tumor cell death and suppressing angiogenesis. Moreover, molecular imaging is an invaluable tool in tracking cell delivery and tumor response to hUC-MSCs therapies as well as cellular and molecular processes in tumor.

Shen FF, Yue WB, Zhou FY, et al.
Variations in the MHC region confer risk to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma on the subjects from high-incidence area in northern China.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90438 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most important region in vertebrate genome, and is crucial in innate immunity. Recent studies have demonstrated the possible role of polymorphisms in the MHC region to high risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) has indicated that the MHC region may confer important risk loci for ESCC, but without further fine mapping. The aim of this study is to further identify the risk loci in the MHC region for ESCC in Chinese population.
METHODS: Conditional logistic regression analysis (CLRA) was performed on 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC region, which were obtained from the genetically matched 937 cases and 692 controls of Chinese Han population. The identified promising SNPs were further correlated with clinical and clinicopathology characteristics. Immunohistochemistry was performed to explore the protein expression pattern of the related genes in ESCC and neighboring normal tissues.
RESULTS: Of the 24 promising SNPs analyzed, we identified three independent SNPs in the MHC region associated with ESCC: rs35399661 (P = 6.07E-06, OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.36-2.17), rs3763338 (P = 1.62E-05, OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.50-0.78) and rs2844695 (P = 7.60E-05, OR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.64-0.86). These three SNPs were located at the genes of HLA-DQA1, TRIM27, and DPCR1, respectively. Further analyses showed that rs2844695 was preferentially associated with younger ESCC cases (P = 0.009). The positive immunostaining rates both for HLA-DQA1 and TRIM27 were much higher in ESCC tissues than in neighboring normal tissues (69.4% vs. 26.8% for HLA-DQA1 and 77.6% vs. 47.8% for TRIM27, P<0.001). Furthermore, the overexpression of HLA-DQA1 is correlated significantly with age (P = 0.001) and family history (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: This study for the first time provides evidence that multiple genetic factors within the MHC region confer risk to ESCC on the subjects from high-risk area in northern China.

Rowan BG, Gimble JM, Sheng M, et al.
Human adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells promote migration and early metastasis of triple negative breast cancer xenografts.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89595 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting is used to restore breast defects after surgical resection of breast tumors. Supplementing fat grafts with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve the regenerative/restorative ability of the graft and retention. However, long term safety for ASC grafting in proximity of residual breast cancer cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of three donors, on a human breast cancer model that exhibits early metastasis.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells represents "triple negative" breast cancer that exhibits early micrometastasis to multiple mouse organs [1]. Human ASCs were derived from abdominal adipose tissue from three healthy female donors. Indirect co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells with ASCs, as well as direct co-culture demonstrated that ASCs had no effect on MDA-MB-231 growth. Indirect co-culture, and ASC conditioned medium (CM) stimulated migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. ASC/RFP cells from two donors co-injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells exhibited a donor effect for stimulation of primary tumor xenografts. Both ASC donors stimulated metastasis. ASC/RFP cells were viable, and integrated with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells in the tumor. Tumors from the co-injection group of one ASC donor exhibited elevated vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), IL-8, VEGF and microvessel density. The co-injection group exhibited visible metastases to the lung/liver and enlarged spleen not evident in mice injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP alone. Quantitation of the total area of GFP fluorescence and human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs, H&E stained paraffin sections and fluorescent microscopy confirmed multi-focal metastases to lung/liver/spleen in the co-injection group without evidence of ASC/RFP cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of two donors stimulated metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast tumor xenografts to multiple mouse organs. MDA-MB-231 tumors co-injected with ASCs from one donor exhibited partial EMT, expression of MMP-9, and increased angiogenesis.

Hoffman RM
Fluorescent angiogenesis models using gelfoam® implanted in transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins.
Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1135:213-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fidler's group described an in vivo angiogenesis assay utilizing Gelfoam(®) sponges impregnated with agarose and proangiogenic factors. Vessels were detected by staining with fluorescent antibodies against CD31. We showed that Gelfoam(®) implanted in transgenic mice expressing the nestin promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice) was rapidly vascularized with ND-GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels. Angiogenesis in the Gelfoam(®) was quantified by measuring the total length of ND-GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels in a skin flap by in vivo fluorescence microscopy imaging. The ND-GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels formed a network on the surface of the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-treated Gelfoam(®). We then developed a color-coded imaging model that can visualize the interaction between αv integrin linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in osteosarcoma cells and blood vessels in Gelfoam(®) vascularized after implantation in red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic nude mice. The implanted Gelfoam(®) became highly vascularized with RFP-expressing vessels in 14 days. 143B osteosarcoma cells expressing αv integrin-GFP were injected into the Gelfoam(®) after transplantation of Gelfoam(®). After cancer cell injection, cancer cells interacting with blood vessels were observed in the Gelfoam(®) by color-coded confocal microscopy through the skin flap window. We developed another color-coded Gelfoam(®)-based imaging model that can visualize the anastomosis between blood vessels. RFP-expressing vessels in vascularized Gelfoam(®), previously transplanted into RFP transgenic mice, were re-transplanted into ND-GFP mice. Skin flaps were made and anastomosis between the GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels of ND-GFP transgenic nude mice and RFP blood vessels in the transplanted Gelfoam(®) could be imaged. Our results demonstrate that the Gelfoam(®) in vivo angiogenesis model in combination with fluorescent protein labeling of blood vessels is a powerful system for use in the discovery and evaluation of agents influencing vascularization.

Kwon SY, Jiang SN, Zheng JH, et al.
Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a novel tumor-targeting bacteria that emits natural near-infrared fluorescence.
Microbiol Immunol. 2014; 58(3):172-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several optical imaging techniques have been used to monitor bacterial tropisms for cancer. Most such techniques require genetic engineering of the bacteria to express optical reporter genes. This study investigated a novel tumor-targeting strain of bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 (R. sphaeroides), which naturally emits near-infrared fluorescence, thereby facilitating the visualization of bacterial tropisms for cancer. To determine the penetration depth of bacterial fluorescence, various numbers of cells (from 10(8) to 10(10)  CFU) of R. sphaeroides and two types of Escherichia coli, which stably express green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP), were injected s.c. or i.m. into mice. Bacterial tropism for cancer was determined after i.v. injection of R. sphaeroides (10(8)  CFU) into mice implanted s.c. with eight types of tumors. The intensity of the fluorescence signal in deep tissue (muscle) from R. sphaeroides was much stronger than from E. coli-expressing GFP or RFP. The near-infrared fluorescence signal from R. sphaeroides was visualized clearly in all types of human or murine tumors via accumulation of bacteria. Analyses of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin concentrations and body weights indicated that i.v. injection of R. sphaeroides does not induce serious systemic immune reactions. This study suggests that R. sphaeroides could be used as a tumor-targeting microorganism for the selective delivery of drugs to tumor tissues without eliciting a systemic immune reaction and for visualizing tumors.

Urayama KY, Chokkalingam AP, Metayer C, et al.
SNP association mapping across the extended major histocompatibility complex and risk of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72557 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
The extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC) is the most gene-dense region of the genome and harbors a disproportionately large number of genes involved in immune function. The postulated role of infection in the causation of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) suggests that the xMHC may make an important contribution to the risk of this disease. We conducted association mapping across an approximately 4 megabase region of the xMHC using a validated panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in childhood BCP-ALL cases (n=567) enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) compared with population controls (n=892). Logistic regression analyses of 1,145 SNPs, adjusted for age, sex, and Hispanic ethnicity indicated potential associations between several SNPs and childhood BCP-ALL. After accounting for multiple comparisons, one of these included a statistically significant increased risk associated with rs9296068 (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.19-1.66, corrected p=0.036), located in proximity to HLA-DOA. Sliding window haplotype analysis identified an additional locus located in the extended class I region in proximity to TRIM27 tagged by a haplotype comprising rs1237485, rs3118361, and rs2032502 (corrected global p=0.046). Our findings suggest that susceptibility to childhood BCP-ALL is influenced by genetic variation within the xMHC and indicate at least two important regions for future evaluation.

Dhruv HD, McDonough Winslow WS, Armstrong B, et al.
Reciprocal activation of transcription factors underlies the dichotomy between proliferation and invasion of glioma cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72134 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Histology of malignant glioma depicts dense proliferative areas rich in angiogenesis as well as dissemination of neoplastic cells into adjacent brain tissue. Although the mechanisms that trigger transition from proliferative to invasive phenotypes are complex, the dichotomy of cell proliferation and migration, the "Go or Grow" hypothesis, argues for specific and coordinated regulation of these phenotypes. We investigated transcriptional elements that accompany the phenotypes of migration and proliferation, and consider the therapeutic significance of the "Go or Grow" hypothesis. Interrogation of matched core and rim regions from human glioblastoma biopsy specimens in situ (n = 44) revealed higher proliferation (Ki67 labeling index) in cells residing at the core compared to the rim. Profiling activated transcription factors in a panel of migration-activated versus migration-restricted GBM cells portrayed strong NF-κB activity in the migratory cell population. In contrast, increased c-Myc activity was found in migration-restricted proliferative cells. Validation of transcriptional activity by NF-κB- or c-Myc-driven GFP or RFP, respectively, showed an increased NF-κB activity in the active migrating cells, whereas the proliferative, migration restricted cells displayed increased c-Myc activity. Immunohistochemistry on clinical specimens validated a robust phosphorylated c-Myc staining in tumor cells at the core, whereas increased phosphorylated NF-κB staining was detected in the invasive tumor cells at the rim. Functional genomics revealed that depletion of c-Myc expression by siRNA oligonucleotides reduced cell proliferation in vitro, but surprisingly, cell migration was enhanced significantly. Conversely, inhibition of NF-κB by pharmacological inhibitors, SN50 or BAY-11, decreased both cell migration in vitro and invasion ex vivo. Notably, inhibition of NF-κB was found to have no effect on the proliferation rate of glioma cells. These findings suggest that the reciprocal and coordinated suppression/activation of transcription factors, such as c-Myc and NF-κB may underlie the shift of glioma cells from a "growing-to-going" phenotype.

Ke CC, Liu RS, Suetsugu A, et al.
In vivo fluorescence imaging reveals the promotion of mammary tumorigenesis by mesenchymal stromal cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69658 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which are recruited to the tumor microenvironment (TME) and influence tumor progression through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we examined the effects of MSCs on the tunmorigenic capacity of 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells. It was found that MSC-conditioned medium increased the proliferation, migration, and efficiency of mammosphere formation of 4T1 cells in vitro. When co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, 4T1 cells showed enhanced tumor growth and generated increased spontaneous lung metastasis. Using in vivo fluorescence color-coded imaging, the interaction between GFP-expressing MSCs and RFP-expressing 4T1 cells was monitored. As few as five 4T1 cells could give rise to tumor formation when co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, but no tumor was formed when five or ten 4T1 cells were implanted alone. The elevation of tumorigenic potential was further supported by gene expression analysis, which showed that when 4T1 cells were in contact with MSCs, several oncogenes, cancer markers, and tumor promoters were upregulated. Moreover, in vivo longitudinal fluorescence imaging of tumorigenesis revealed that MSCs created a vascularized environment which enhances the ability of 4T1 cells to colonize and proliferate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the promotion of mammary cancer progression by MSCs was achieved through the generation of a cancer-enhancing microenvironment to increase tumorigenic potential. These findings also suggest the potential risk of enhancing tumor progression in clinical cell therapy using MSCs. Attention has to be paid to patients with high risk of breast cancer when considering cell therapy with MSCs.

Kuang Y, An S, Guo Y, et al.
T7 peptide-functionalized nanoparticles utilizing RNA interference for glioma dual targeting.
Int J Pharm. 2013; 454(1):11-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among all the malignant brain tumors, glioma is the deadliest and most common form with poor prognosis. Gene therapy is regarded as a promising way to halt the progress of the disease or even cure the tumor and RNA interference (RNAi) stands out. However, the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood tumor barrier (BTB) limits the delivery of these therapeutic genes. In this work, the delivery system targeting to the transferrin (Tf) receptor highly expressed on both BBB and glioma was successfully synthesized and would not compete with endogenous Tf. U87 cells stably express luciferase were employed here to simulate tumor and the RNAi experiments in vitro and in vivo validated that the gene silencing activity was 2.17-fold higher with the targeting ligand modification. The dual-targeting gene delivery system exhibits a series of advantages, such as high efficiency, low toxicity, stability and high transaction efficiency, which may provide new opportunities in RNAi therapeutics and nanomedicine of brain tumors.

Guo Y, Wei X, Das J, et al.
Dissecting disease inheritance modes in a three-dimensional protein network challenges the "guilt-by-association" principle.
Am J Hum Genet. 2013; 93(1):78-89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
To better understand different molecular mechanisms by which mutations lead to various human diseases, we classified 82,833 disease-associated mutations according to their inheritance modes (recessive versus dominant) and molecular types (in-frame [missense point mutations and in-frame indels] versus truncating [nonsense mutations and frameshift indels]) and systematically examined the effects of different classes of disease mutations in a three-dimensional protein interactome network with the atomic-resolution interface resolved for each interaction. We found that although recessive mutations affecting the interaction interface of two interacting proteins tend to cause the same disease, this widely accepted "guilt-by-association" principle does not apply to dominant mutations. Furthermore, recessive truncating mutations in regions encoding the same interface are much more likely to cause the same disease, even for interfaces close to the N terminus of the protein. Conversely, dominant truncating mutations tend to be enriched in regions encoding areas between interfaces. These results suggest that a significant fraction of truncating mutations can generate functional protein products. For example, TRIM27, a known cancer-associated protein, interacts with three proteins (MID2, TRIM42, and SIRPA) through two different interfaces. A dominant truncating mutation (c.1024delT [p.Tyr342Thrfs*30]) associated with ovarian carcinoma is located between the regions encoding the two interfaces; the altered protein retains its interaction with MID2 and TRIM42 through the first interface but loses its interaction with SIRPA through the second interface. Our findings will help clarify the molecular mechanisms of thousands of disease-associated genes and their tens of thousands of mutations, especially for those carrying truncating mutations, often erroneously considered "knockout" alleles.

Frierson HF, Moskaluk CA
Mutation signature of adenoid cystic carcinoma: evidence for transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(7):2783-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a relatively rare malignancy usually of salivary gland origin, has a signature v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-nuclear factor I/B (MYB-NFIB) gene fusion that activates MYB transcriptional regulatory activity. A new study in this issue by Stephens et al. is a comprehensive genomic mutation profiling analysis of this neoplasm and documents a common theme of alteration in chromatin regulatory genes. Also, mutations in SPEN (split ends, homolog of Drosophila), which encodes an RNA-binding coregulatory protein, suggest that other changes in transcriptional regulation may involve the NOTCH, FGFR, or other signaling pathways in which SPEN participates. Since there is a low prevalence of mutations in common oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, it is likely that alterations primarily in specific transcriptional regulatory genes, augmented by changes in chromatin structure, drive the neoplastic process in ACC.

Wang WH, Chiang IT, Liu YC, et al.
Simultaneous imaging of temporal changes of NF-κB activity and viable tumor cells in Huh7/NF-κB-tk-luc2/rfp tumor-bearing mice.
In Vivo. 2013 May-Jun; 27(3):339-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Few studies have reported that the effect of sorafenib on advanced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is taking place via the inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction. Here we constructed a human HCC Huh7 stable clone with NF-κB-responsive element to drive dual reporter genes, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) and firefly luciferase (luc2), and co-transfected with a third red fluorescent protein (rfp) gene, renamed as Huh7/NF-κB-tk-luc2/rfp cells, and combined with bioluminescent imaging (BLI) and red fluorescent protein imaging (RFPI) to monitor the effect of sorafenib on NF-κB activation and tumor inhibition. The results show that sorafenib could suppress the NF-κB-DNA binding activity, and the expression of downstream effector proteins. Notably, the relative photon fluxes obtained from RFPI and BLI, which represent the viable tumor cells and cells with NF-κB activation, decreased after sorafenib treatment by 50 to 65%, and 87.5 to >90%, respectively, suggesting that NF-κB activation is suppressed in viable HCC cells by sorafenib. Simultaneous molecular imaging of the temporal change of NF-κB activity and of viable cells in the same Huh7/NF-κB-tk-luc2/rfp tumors of the animal may reflect the real status of NF-κB activity and the viable tumor cells at the time of imaging.

Horio M, Kato T, Mii S, et al.
Expression of RET finger protein predicts chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Cancer Med. 2012; 1(2):218-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Resistance to platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. Thus, it is necessary to develop a predictive marker and molecular target for overcoming drug resistance in ovarian cancer treatment. In a previous report, using an in vitro model, we found that the RET finger protein (RFP) (also known as tripartite motif-containing protein 27, TRIM27) confers cancer cell resistance to anticancer drugs. However, the significance of RFP expression in cancer patients remains elusive. In this study, we showed that RFP was expressed in 62% of ovarian cancer patients and its positivity significantly correlated with drug resistance. Consistent with clinical data, depletion of RFP by RNA interference (RNAi) in ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and HEY, significantly increased carboplatin- or paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and resulted in reduced anticancer drug resistance. In a nude mouse tumor xenograft model, inoculated RFP-knockdown ovarian cancer cells exhibited lower carboplatin resistance than control cells. These findings suggest that RFP could be a predictive marker for chemoresistance in ovarian cancer patients and also a candidate for a molecular-targeted agent.

Dong J, Dai XL, Lu ZH, et al.
Incubation and application of transgenic green fluorescent nude mice in visualization studies on glioma tissue remodeling.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012; 125(24):4349-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The primary reasons for local recurrence and therapeutic failure in the treatment of malignant gliomas are the invasion and interactions of tumor cells with surrounding normal brain cells. However, these tumor cells are hard to be visualized directly in histopathological preparations, or in experimental glioma models. Therefore, we developed an experimental human dual-color in vivo glioma model, which made tracking solitary invasive glioma cells possible, for the purpose of visualizing the interactions between red fluorescence labeled human glioma cells and host brain cells. This may offer references for further studying the roles of tumor microenvironment during glioma tissue remodeling.
METHODS: Transgenic female C57BL/6 mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were crossed with male Balb/c nude mice. Then sib mating was allowed to occur continuously in order to establish an inbred nude mice strain with 50% of their offspring that are EGFP positive. Human glioma cell lines U87-MG and SU3 were transfected with red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene, and a rat C6 glioma cell line was stained directly with CM-DiI, to establish three glioma cell lines emitting red fluorescence (SU3-RFP, U87-RFP, and C6-CM-DiI). Red fluorescence tumor cells were inoculated via intra-cerebral injection into caudate nucleus of the EGFP nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed when their clinical symptoms appeared, and the whole brain was harvested and snap frozen for further analysis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed to monitor the mutual interactions between tumor cells and host brain cells.
RESULTS: Almost all the essential tissues of the established EGFP athymic Balb/c nude mice, except hair and erythrocytes, fluoresced green under excitation using a blue light-emitting flashlight with a central peak of 470 nm, approximately 50% of the offsprings were nu/nu EGFP+. SU3-RFP, U87-RFP, and C6-CM-DiI almost 100% expressed red fluorescence under the fluorescence microscope. Under fluorescence microscopic view, RFP+ cells were observed growing wherever they arrived at, locating in the brain parenchyma, ventricles, and para-vascular region. The interactions between the transplanted tumor cells and host adjacent cells could be classified into three types: (1) interweaving; (2) mergence; and (3) fusion. Interweaving was observed in the early stage of tumor remodeling, in which both transplantable tumor cells and host cells were observed scattered in the tumor invading and spreading area without organic connections. Mergence was defined as mutual interactions between tumor cells and host stroma during tumorigenesis. Direct cell fusion between transplantable tumor cells and host cells could be observed occasionally.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that self-established EGFP athymic nude mice offered the possibility of visualizing tumorigenesis of human xenograft tumor, and the dual-color xenograft glioma model was of considerable utility in studying the process of tumor remodeling. Based on this platform, mutual interactions between glioma cells and host tissues could be observed directly to further elucidate the development of tumor microenvironment.

Shaikhibrahim Z, Lindstrot A, Ochsenfahrt J, et al.
Epigenetics-related genes in prostate cancer: expression profile in prostate cancer tissues, androgen-sensitive and -insensitive cell lines.
Int J Mol Med. 2013; 31(1):21-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Epigenetic changes have been suggested to drive prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify novel epigenetics-related genes in PCa tissues, and to examine their expression in metastatic PCa cell lines. We analyzed the expression of epigenetics-related genes via a clustering analysis based on gene function in moderately and poorly differentiated PCa glands compared to normal glands of the peripheral zone (prostate proper) from PCa patients using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarrays. Our analysis identified 12 epigenetics-related genes with a more than 2-fold increase or decrease in expression and a p-value <0.01. In modera-tely differentiated tumors compared to normal glands of the peripheral zone, we found the genes, TDRD1, IGF2, DICER1, ADARB1, HILS1, GLMN and TRIM27, to be upregulated, whereas TNRC6A and DGCR8 were found to be downregulated. In poorly differentiated tumors, we found TDRD1, ADARB and RBM3 to be upregulated, whereas DGCR8, PIWIL2 and BC069781 were downregulated. Our analysis of the expression level for each gene in the metastatic androgen-sensitive VCaP and LNCaP, and -insensitive PC3 and DU-145 PCa cell lines revealed differences in expression among the cell lines which may reflect the different biological properties of each cell line, and the potential role of each gene at different metastatic sites. The novel epigenetics-related genes that we identified in primary PCa tissues may provide further insight into the role that epigenetic changes play in PCa. Moreover, some of the genes that we identified may play important roles in primary PCa and metastasis, in primary PCa only, or in metastasis only. Follow-up studies are required to investigate the functional role and the role that the expression of these genes play in the outcome and progression of PCa using tissue microarrays.

McCann TE, Kosaka N, Choyke PL, Kobayashi H
The use of fluorescent proteins for developing cancer-specific target imaging probes.
Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 872:191-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
Target-specific imaging probes represent a promising tool in the molecular imaging of human cancer. Fluorescently-labeled target-specific probes are useful in imaging cancers because of their ability to bind a target receptor with high sensitivity and specificity. The development of probes relies upon preclinical testing to validate the sensitivity and specificity of these agents in animal models. However, this process involves both conventional histology and immunohistochemistry, which require large numbers of animals and samples with costly handling. In this chapter, we describe a novel validation tool that takes advantage of genetic engineering technology, whereby cell lines are transfected with genes that induce the target cell to produce fluorescent proteins with characteristic emission spectra, thus enabling their easy identification as cancer cells in vivo. Combined with multicolor fluorescence imaging, this can provide rapid validation of newly-developed exogenous probes that fluoresce at different wavelengths. For example, the plasmid containing the gene encoding red fluorescent protein (RFP) was transfected into cell lines previously developed to either express or not express specific cell surface receptors. Various antibody-based or ligand-based optical-contrast agents, with green fluorophores were developed to concurrently target cancer cells and validate their positive and negative controls, such as the β-D: -galactose receptor, HER1, and HER2 in a single animal/organ. Spectrally-resolved multicolor fluorescence imaging was used to detect separate fluorescence emission spectra from the exogenous green fluorophore and RFP. Here, we describe the use of "co-staining" (matching the exogenous fluorophore and the endogenous fluorescent protein to the positive control cell line) and "counter-staining" (matching the exogenous fluorophore to the positive control and the endogenous fluorescent protein to the negative control cell line) to validate the sensitivity and specificity of target-specific probes. Using these in vivo imaging techniques, we are able to determine the sensitivity and specificity of target-specific optical contrast agents in several distinct animal models of cancer in vivo, thus exemplifying the versatility of our technique, while reducing the number of animals needed to conduct these experiments.

Zoumpoulidou G, Broceño C, Li H, et al.
Role of the tripartite motif protein 27 in cancer development.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012; 104(12):941-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tripartite motif family protein 27 (TRIM27) is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with, and attenuates senescence induction by, the retinoblastoma-associated protein (RB1). High expression of TRIM27 was noted in several human cancer types including breast and endometrial cancer, where elevated TRIM27 expression predicts poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the role of TRIM27 expression in cancer development.
METHODS: We assessed TRIM27 expression in human cancer using cancer profiling arrays containing paired tumor and normal cRNA (n = 261) as well as in murine skin cancer induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). We generated mice with disrupted expression of murine TRIM27 (Trim27(-/-)) and assessed their susceptibility to DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor development compared with isogenic littermates (n = 26 mice per group). We assessed the effect of Trim27 loss on senescence propensity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by quantifying cell proliferation alongside senescence markers (senescence-associated β-galactosidase [SA-β-gal] activity and hypertrophic cell morphology). The contribution of RB1 on senescence and cancer susceptibility (n > 20 mice per group) in Trim27(-/-) backgrounds was also assessed. Data were analyzed using the Student's t, χ(2), or log-rank test as indicated. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: TRIM27 transcript levels are statistically significantly increased in common human cancers, including colon and lung, vs normal tissues (TRIM27 expression relative to ubiquitin: cancers vs normal tissues, mean = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.63 vs mean = 0.46, 95% CI =0.43 to 0.49, P < .001) as well as in chemically induced mouse skin cancer compared with matched normal tissue (Trim27 expression relative to Gapdh control: tumor vs normal skin, mean = 4.2, 95% CI = 3.97 to 4.43 vs mean = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.2, P < .001). Trim27(-/-) mice (n = 14) were resistant to chemically induced skin cancer development (eight [57.2%] of 14 mice were tumor free) compared with Trim27(+/+) wild-type littermates (n = 13) (one [7.7%] of 13 mice was tumor free). Trim27(-/-) MEFs show enhanced senescence propensity in response to replicative (percentage of SA-β-gal-positive cells: Trim27(+/+) MEFs vs Trim27(-/-) MEFs, mean = 14.2%, 95% CI = 11.1% to 17.4% vs mean = 53.3%, 95% CI = 48.7% to 57.9%, P < .001) or oncogenic stress (percentage of SA-β-gal-positive cells: Trim27(+/+) MEFs + Ras vs Trim27(-/-) MEFs + Ras, mean = 24.0%, 95% CI = 19.9% to 28.1% vs mean = 37.3%, 95% CI = 32.2% to 42.4%, P < .05) compared with Trim27(+/+) MEFs. These responses were alleviated following inactivation of murine RB1 (Rb1). Furthermore, Trim27(-/-) mice are not protected from cancers arising as a consequence of Rb1 deletion (median survival: Trim27(-/-)Rb(+/-) vs Trim27(+/+)Rb(+/-), 14 vs 13 months; difference = 1.0 month, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.6 months, P = .14).
CONCLUSION: TRIM27 expression is a modifier of disease incidence and progression relevant to the development of common human cancers and is a potential target for intervention in cancer.

Xu Z, Joshi N, Agarwal A, et al.
Knocking down nucleolin expression in gliomas inhibits tumor growth and induces cell cycle arrest.
J Neurooncol. 2012; 108(1):59-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein whose expression often correlates with increased cellular proliferation. While the expression of nucleolin is often elevated in numerous cancers, its expression in normal human brain and in astrocytomas has not been previously reported. Using paraffin-embedded sections from normal adult autopsy specimens and glioma resection specimens, we demonstrate that nucleolin expression is limited in the normal human brain specifically to mature neurons, ependymal cells, and granular cells of the dentate gyrus. While astrocytes in the normal human brain do not express nucleolin at significant levels, glioblastoma cell lines and primary human astrocytoma cells exhibit considerable nucleolin expression. Reduction of nucleolin expression through siRNA-mediated knockdown in the U87MG glioblastoma cell line caused a dramatic decrease in cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in vitro. Moreover, conditional siRNA knockdown of nucleolin expression in U87MG intracranial xenografts in nude mice caused dramatic reduction in tumor size. Taken together, these results implicate nucleolin in the regulation of human astrocytoma proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo and suggest that nucleolin may represent a potential novel therapeutic target for astrocytomas.

Wilson EN, Bristol ML, Di X, et al.
A switch between cytoprotective and cytotoxic autophagy in the radiosensitization of breast tumor cells by chloroquine and vitamin D.
Horm Cancer. 2011; 2(5):272-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, as well as vitamin D analogs, has been shown to increase sensitivity to ionizing radiation in breast tumor cells. The current studies indicate that the combination of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with radiation appears to kill p53 wild-type, estrogen receptor-positive ZR-75-1 breast tumor cells through autophagy. Minimal apoptosis was observed based on cell morphology by DAPI and TUNEL staining, annexin/PI analysis, caspase-3, and PARP cleavage as well as cell cycle analysis. Induction of autophagy was indicated by increased acridine orange staining, RFP-LC3 redistribution, and detection of autophagic vesicles by electron microscopy, while autophagic flux was monitored based on p62 degradation. The autophagy inhibitors, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1, as well as genetic suppression of the autophagic signaling proteins Atg5 or Atg 7 attenuated the impact of the combination treatment of 1,25 D3 with radiation. In contrast to autophagy mediating the effects of the combination treatment, the autophagy induced by radiation alone was apparently cytoprotective in that either pharmacological or genetic inhibition increased sensitivity to radiation. These studies support the potential utility of vitamin D for improving the impact of radiation for breast cancer therapy, support the feasibility of combining chloroquine with radiation for the treatment of breast cancer, and demonstrate the existence of an "autophagic switch" from cytoprotective autophagy with radiation alone to cytotoxic autophagy with the 1,25 D3-radiation combination.

Xiao CL, Tao ZH, Guo L, et al.
Isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice.
BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually has a dismal prognosis because of its limited response to current pharmacotherapy and high metastatic rate. Sulfated oligosaccharide has been confirmed as having potent antitumor activities against solid tumors. Here, we explored the preclinical effects and molecular mechanisms of isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate (IMOS), another novel sulfated oligosaccharide, in HCC cell lines and a xenograft model.
METHODS: The effects of IMOS on HCC proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, and invasiveness in vitro were assessed by cell counting, flow cytometry, adhesion, wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. The roles of IMOS on HCC growth and metastasis in xenograft models were evaluated by tumor volumes and fluorescent signals. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of AKT, ERK, and JNK as well as total levels of c-MET were detected by Western blotting. IMOS-regulated genes were screened by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) array in HCCLM3-red fluorescent protein (RFP) xenograft tissues and then confirmed by qRT-PCR in HepG2 and Hep3B cells.
RESULTS: IMOS markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis of HCCLM3, HepG2, and Bel-7402 cells and also significantly suppressed cell adhesion, migration, and invasion of HCCLM3 in vitro. At doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg/d, IMOS displayed robust inhibitory effects on HCC growth and metastasis without obvious side effects in vivo. The levels of pERK, tERK, and pJNK as well as c-MET were significantly down-regulated after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS. No obvious changes were found in the levels of pAkt, tAkt, and tJNK. Ten differentially expressed genes were screened from HCCLM3-RFP xenograft tissues after treatment with IMOS at a dose of 90 mg/kg/d. Similar gene expression profiles were confirmed in HepG2 and Hep3B cells after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS.
CONCLUSIONS: IMOS is a potential anti-HCC candidate through inhibition of ERK and JNK signaling independent of p53 and worth studying further in patients with HCC, especially at advanced stages.

Grzesiak JJ, Tran Cao HS, Burton DW, et al.
Knockdown of the β(1) integrin subunit reduces primary tumor growth and inhibits pancreatic cancer metastasis.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(12):2905-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
To address the role of β(1) integrins in pancreatic cancer progression, we stably knocked down β(1) integrin subunit expression in human FG-RFP pancreatic cancer cells using lentiviral-based RNA interference. We then examined the effects of β(1) integrin subunit knockdown on pancreatic cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on tumor microenvironment-specific extracellular matrix proteins in vitro and on tumor progression in vivo using a clinically relevant fluorescent orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of the β(1) integrin subunit inhibited cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on types I and IV collagen, fibronectin and laminin in vitro. In vivo, knockdown of the β(1) integrin subunit reduced primary tumor growth by 50% and completely inhibited spontaneously occurring metastasis. These observations indicate a critical role for the β(1) integrin subunit in pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis in particular. Our results suggest the β(1) integrin subunit as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, especially in the adjuvant setting to prevent metastasis of this highly aggressive cancer.

Ingersoll SB, Ahmad S, Stoltzfus GP, et al.
Functional characterization of a fluorescent highly tumorigenic ovarian cancer line to test cellular therapy in experimental models.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011; 21(3):457-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to functionally characterize a fluorescent highly tumorigenic ovarian cancer line to test cellular therapy in combination with cytokines or chemotherapies in experimental models.
METHODS: A fluorescent highly tumorigenic subline (SKOV3-AF2) was derived from the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-mediated cytotoxicity of SKOV3-AF2 in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon α-2b (IFNα-2b) was assayed by lactate dehydrogenase release. Sensitivity of SKOV3-AF2 cells to polyethylene glycol-IFNα-2b and IL-2 was assayed in a xenograph nude mouse model. Histopathology was performed to determine necrosis and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the solid tumors. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used for gene expression analyses of E-cadherin and cysteine-rich 61 (CCN1).
RESULTS: The SKOV3-AF2 subline exhibits increased cytotoxicity (up to 70%), mediated by PBMCs, IL-2, and IFNα-2b, compared with parental SKOV3-red fluorescent protein (RFP) cells. SKOV3-AF2 cells are more tumorigenic in vivo as indicated by tumor incidence, time to sacrifice, tumor weight, and ascitic fluid production. SKOV3-AF2 tumor growth was inhibited by polyethylene glycol-IFNα-2b but not low-dose IL-2. Histopathology revealed that the tumors consisted of poorly differentiated surface epithelial carcinoma. SKOV3-RFP, and -AF2 cell lines as well as -AF2 tumors expressed E-cadherin. SKOV3-AF2 derived tumors expressed CCN1; however, the SKOV3-RFP and SKOV3-AF2 cell lines did not.
CONCLUSIONS: Characterization of SKOV3-AF2 cells revealed that it is more susceptible to PBMC-mediated cytotoxicity than SKOV3-RFP and highly tumorigenic in a xenograph model, and AF-2 tumors express genes that promote aggressive behavior. Collectively, our data suggest that the SKOV3-AF2 subline will be a useful tool to test cellular therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer utilizing experimental models.

Qin Y, Xu J, Aysola K, et al.
Ubc9 mediates nuclear localization and growth suppression of BRCA1 and BRCA1a proteins.
J Cell Physiol. 2011; 226(12):3355-67 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/03/2016 Related Publications
BRCA1 gene mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In sporadic breast tumors, BRCA1 dysfunction or aberrant subcellular localization is thought to be common. BRCA1 is a nuclear-cytoplasm shuttling protein and the reason for cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 in young breast cancer patients is not yet known. We have previously reported BRCA1 proteins unlike K109R and cancer-predisposing mutant C61G to bind Ubc9 and modulate ER-α turnover. In the present study, we have examined the consequences of altered Ubc9 binding and knockdown on the subcellular localization and growth inhibitory function of BRCA1 proteins. Our results using live imaging of YFP, GFP, RFP-tagged BRCA1, BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins show enhanced cytoplasmic localization of K109 R and C61G mutant BRCA1 proteins in normal and cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of Ubc9 in MCF-7 cells using Ubc9 siRNA resulted in enhanced cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 protein and exclusive cytoplasmic retention of BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins. These mutant BRCA1 proteins were transforming and impaired in their capacity to inhibit growth of MCF-7 and CAL51 breast cancer cells. Interestingly, cytoplasmic BRCA1a mutants showed more clonogenicity in soft agar and higher levels of expression of Ubc9 than parental MCF7 cells. This is the first report demonstrating the physiological link between cytoplasmic mislocalization of mutant BRCA1 proteins, loss of ER-α repression, loss of ubiquitin ligase activity and loss of growth suppression of BRCA1 proteins. Thus, binding of BRCA1 proteins to nuclear chaperone Ubc9 provides a novel mechanism for nuclear import and control of tumor growth.

Na DC, Lee JE, Yoo JE, et al.
Invasion and EMT-associated genes are up-regulated in B viral hepatocellular carcinoma with high expression of CD133-human and cell culture study.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2011; 90(1):66-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with expression of stem/progenitor cell markers including CD133 have been reported to have more aggressive biological behavior, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), closely related invasion, has been suggested to generate cancer stem cells. To elucidate biological characteristics of HCCs expressing CD133, we evaluated migration assay and the mRNA expression levels of CD133, invasion-associated genes [urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), villin 2 (VIL2), and MMP1 and MMP2], and EMT regulators (Snail, Slug, Twist, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin) by real-time PCR in HCC cell lines including HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, PLC/RFP/6, SNU423, SNU449, and SNU475. Same genes and pathological features were also investigated in 49 samples of hepatitis B virus-related human HCCs. In all HCC cell lines studied, CD133-positive cells showed higher cell migration activity and up-regulated invasion- and EMT-associated genes with increased N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin expressions compared to CD133-negative cells. The human HCCs were divided into the CD133-high group (top 40%) and the CD133-low group (bottom 40%) according to the level of CD133 mRNA. The CD133-high group showed relatively frequent vascular invasion and significantly higher expression of invasion-associated genes [uPAR (p=0.002), MMP1 (p=0.01), and MMP2 (p=0.003)] and EMT regulators [Snail (p=0.002) and Twist (p=0.0003)] compared to the CD133-low group. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is a subtype of HCC with high expression of CD133, which might have more invasive characteristics by up-regulation of invasion-associated genes and EMT-associated genes.

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