Multiple Hereditary Exostoses


Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Heterozygote
  • Mutation
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Chromosome 8
  • Genotype
  • Infant
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bone Cancer
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA Primers
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Karyotyping
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Exons
  • Translocation
  • Gene Deletion
  • Chromosome 11
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • exostosin-1
  • Multiple Abnormalities
  • Bone and Bones
  • Adolescents
  • Genetic Markers
  • Thyroglobulin
  • Phenotype
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Pedigree
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Base Sequence
  • exostosin-2
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary
  • N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • China
  • Genetic Predisposition
Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (5)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

EXT1 8q24.11 EXT, LGS, TTV, LGCR, TRPS2 Germline
-EXT1 and Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
EXT2 11p12-p11 SOTV Germline
-EXT2 and Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
EXT3 19p EXT2 -EXT3 and Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
EXTL1 1p36.1 EXTL -EXTL1 and Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary
PTH1R 3p22-p21.1 PFE, PTHR, PTHR1 -PTH1R and Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications (1 links)

    Goud AL, Wuyts W, Bessems J, et al.
    Intraosseous atypical chondroid tumor or chondrosarcoma grade 1 in patients with multiple osteochondromas.
    J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015; 97(1):24-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
    BACKGROUND: The autosomal dominant condition multiple osteochondromas, formerly called multiple hereditary exostoses, is associated with a risk of malignant progression of osteochondroma into secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Most patients with multiple osteochondromas have exostosin-1 or exostosin-2 gene mutations. To our knowledge, it has not been previously reported that patients may also harbor intraosseous (central) chondroid neoplasms, enchondromas, or atypical chondroid tumors or central chondrosarcomas. The combination of osteochondroma and enchondromas also exists in patients with metachondromatosis, a disorder associated with a protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11 gene mutation. This study aims to establish any correlation between multiple osteochondromas and intraosseous cartilaginous neoplasms.
    METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all histologically proven intraosseous atypical chondroid tumors or chondrosarcomas in our prospective nationwide Dutch tertiary referral multiple osteochondromas database. Demographic, clinical, radiographic, histological, and genetic data were recorded. The institutional medical ethics review board approved the study.
    RESULTS: From 195 adult patients, seven (3.6%) were identified with intraosseous atypical chondroid tumor or chondrosarcoma World Health Organization grade 1 and had a mean age of forty-two years; five of these patients were male. In all cases, radiographic and genetic findings were consistent with multiple osteochondromas, not metachondromatosis; three patients had an exostosin-1 mutation, four patients had an exostosin-2 mutation, and no patients had a protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 mutation. Six patients underwent successful operative treatment without complications or recurrences after a mean follow-up duration of forty-eight months (range, twelve to 144 months). One patient was scheduled for surgery after biopsy and histologic confirmation. Of the seven patients, five (71%) also developed a peripheral chondrosarcoma in a known osteochondroma during the study period.
    CONCLUSIONS: Apart from osteochondromas or peripheral chondrosarcomas, multiple osteochondromas are also associated with intraosseous chondroid neoplasms, potentially resulting in central chondrosarcoma. Therefore, intraosseous lesions should not automatically be regarded as innocuous in this patient population.

    Li L, Li X, Liu Y, et al.
    [Mutation analysis of EXT2 gene in a family with hereditary multiple exostosis].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2014; 31(6):743-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate EXT1 and EXT2 genes mutations in a family with hereditary multiple osteochondromas (HME).
    METHODS: A four-generation family with HME from Linyi city of Shandong Province was studied. There were 6 affected individuals among the 17 family members. Physical examination and radiographical evaluations were carried out for all family members. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood and the samples were subjected to mutation screening by PCR of the coding regions of EXT1 and EXT2 genes.
    RESULTS: The family has featured an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Sequencing of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes suggested the causative gene in this family was in linkage with the second exon of EXT2. A c.244delG mutation was detected, which has resulted in a frameshift mutation p.Asp81IlefsX30. The mutation was found in all of the 6 affected individuals but not in normal family members. And the mutation has co-segregated with the phenotype.
    CONCLUSION: The mutation c.244delG in the EXT2 gene is the probably the cause of the disease in this family.

    Mitsui T, Kim OH, Hall CM, et al.
    Acroscyphodysplasia as a phenotypic variation of pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis type 2.
    Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164A(10):2529-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Acroscyphodysplasia (OMIM250215) is a distinctive form of metaphyseal dysplasia characterized by the distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped, large metaphyses known as metaphyseal scypho ("scypho" = cup) deformity. It is also associated with severe growth retardation and brachydactyly. The underlying molecular mechanism of acroscyphodysplasia has not yet been elucidated, although scypho-deformity of the knee has been reported in three patients with acrodysostosis due to a mutation in the PDE4D gene. We report on the clinical, radiological, and molecular findings of five female patients with acroscyphodysplasia; two were diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) or Albright hereditary osteodystropy, and the other three as acrodysostosis. They all had radiological findings consistent with severe metaphyseal scypho-deformity and brachydactyly. Heterozygous mutations were identified in the PHP patients consisting of one novel (p.Q19X) and one recurrent (p.R231C) mutation of the GNAS gene, as well as, in the acrodysostosis patients consisting of two novel mutations (p.T224I and p.I333T) of the PDE4D gene. We conclude that metaphyseal acroscyphodysplasia is a phenotypic variation of PHP or acrodysostosis caused by either a GNAS or PDE4D mutation, respectively.

    Yeşil G, Lebre AS, Santos SD, et al.
    Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome: is it underrecognized?
    Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164A(9):2200-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Stuve-Wiedemann Syndrome (SWS) (OMIM #601559) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal changes, bowing of the lower limb, severe osteoporosis and joint contractures, episodic hyperthermia, frequent respiratory infections, feeding problems and high mortality in early life. It is caused by mutation in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR; 151443) on chromosome 5p13. We provide the clinical follow-up and molecular aspects of six new patients who carried the same novel mutation in the LIFR gene (p.Arg692X) and three patients carried a common haplotype at the LIFR locus supporting a founder effect in the Turkish population. The probable pathogenesis of the features is also discussed. Osseous findings in the presence of other above-mentioned morbid conditions should raise the suspicion of SWS in neonates especially in Arabic and Eastern Mediterranean countries with high rate of consanguineous marriages like in Turkey. Severe osteoporosis, bone deformities, milias, leukocoria, inflammatory lesions on distal extremities, tongue biting behavior and oral ulcers could be more prominent features of the survivors beyond the neonatal period while respiratory and feeding problems are remitting. It is of crucial importance to diagnose such babies earlier in order to prevent extensive laboratory workup and to provide proper genetic counseling.

    Bowen ME, Ayturk UM, Kurek KC, et al.
    SHP2 regulates chondrocyte terminal differentiation, growth plate architecture and skeletal cell fates.
    PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(5):e1004364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    Loss of PTPN11/SHP2 in mice or in human metachondromatosis (MC) patients causes benign cartilage tumors on the bone surface (exostoses) and within bones (enchondromas). To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cartilage tumor formation, we investigated the role of SHP2 in the specification, maturation and organization of chondrocytes. Firstly, we studied chondrocyte maturation by performing RNA-seq on primary chondrocyte pellet cultures. We found that SHP2 depletion, or inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway, delays the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes from the early-hypertrophic to the late-hypertrophic stage. Secondly, we studied chondrocyte maturation and organization in mice with a mosaic postnatal inactivation of Ptpn11 in chondrocytes. We found that the vertebral growth plates of these mice have expanded domains of early-hypertrophic chondrocytes that have not yet terminally differentiated, and their enchondroma-like lesions arise from chondrocytes displaced from the growth plate due to a disruption in the organization of maturation and ossification zones. Furthermore, we observed that lesions from human MC patients also display disorganized chondrocyte maturation zones. Next, we found that inactivation of Ptpn11 in Fsp1-Cre-expressing fibroblasts induces exostosis-like outgrowths, suggesting that loss of SHP2 in cells on the bone surface and at bone-ligament attachment sites induces ectopic chondrogenesis. Finally, we performed lineage tracing to show that exostoses and enchondromas in mice likely contain mixtures of wild-type and SHP2-deficient chondrocytes. Together, these data indicate that in patients with MC, who are heterozygous for inherited PTPN11 loss-of-function mutations, second-hit mutations in PTPN11 can induce enchondromas by disrupting the organization and delaying the terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes, and can induce exostoses by causing ectopic chondrogenesis of cells on the bone surface. Furthermore, the data are consistent with paracrine signaling from SHP2-deficient cells causing SHP2-sufficient cells to be incorporated into the lesions.

    Romeike BF, Shen Y, Nishimoto HK, et al.
    Spectrum of genes involved in a unique case of Potocki Schaffer syndrome with a large chromosome 11 deletion.
    Clin Neuropathol. 2014 May-Jun; 33(3):238-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

    Tian C, Yan R, Wen S, et al.
    A splice mutation and mRNA decay of EXT2 provoke hereditary multiple exostoses.
    PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94848 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    BACKGROUND: Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant disease. The classical paradigm of mutation screening seeks to relate alterations in the exostosin glycosyltransferase genes, EXT1 and EXT2, which are responsible for over 70% of HME cases. However, the pathological significance of the majority of these mutations is often unclear.
    METHODS: In a Chinese family with HME, EXT1 and EXT2 genes were screened by direct sequencing. The consequence of a detected mutant was predicted by in silico analysis and confirmed by mRNA analysis. The EXT1 and EXT2 mRNA and protein levels and the HS patterns in the HME patients were compared with those in healthy controls.
    RESULTS: A heterozygous transition (c.743+1G>A) in the EXT2 gene, which co-segregated with the HME phenotype in this family, was identified. The G residue at position +1 in intron 4 of EXT2 was predicted to be a 5' donor splice site. The mRNA analysis revealed an alternative transcript with a cryptic splice site 5 bp downstream of the wild-type site, which harbored a premature stop codon. However, the predicted truncated protein was not detected by western blot analysis. Decay of the mutant mRNA was shown by clone sequencing and quantification analysis. The corresponding downregulation of the EXT2 mRNA will contribute to the abnormal EXT1/EXT2 ratio and HS pattern that were detected in the patients with HME.
    CONCLUSION: The heterozygous mutation c.743+1G>A in the EXT2 gene causes HME as a result of abnormal splicing, mRNA decay, and the resulting haploinsufficiency of EXT2.

    Mikelonis D, Jorcyk CL, Tawara K, Oxford JT
    Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome: LIFR and associated cytokines in clinical course and etiology.
    Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014; 9:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome (STWS; OMIM #610559) is a rare bent-bone dysplasia that includes radiologic bone anomalies, respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and hyperthermic episodes. STWS usually results in infant mortality, yet some STWS patients survive into and, in some cases, beyond adolescence. STWS is caused by a mutation in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene, which is inherited in an autosomally recessive pattern. Most LIFR mutations resulting in STWS are null mutations which cause instability of the mRNA and prevent the formation of LIFR, impairing the signaling pathway. LIFR signaling usually follows the JAK/STAT3 pathway, and is initiated by several interleukin-6-type cytokines. STWS is managed on a symptomatic basis since there is no treatment currently available.

    Wang W, Qiu ZQ, Song HM
    [A splicing mutation of EXT1 in a Chinese pedigree with hereditary multiple exostoses].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2014; 16(2):174-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
    OBJECTIVE: Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant monogenic disorder of paraplasia ossium. Mutations in EXT1 and EXT2 have been suggested to be responsible for over 70% of HME cases. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features and pathogenic mutations in a Chinese family with HME (6 patients in 24 members of 3 generations) and to review the relative literature regarding mutations in EXT1 and EXT2 in the Chinese population.
    METHODS: Clinical pedigree dada from a Chinese family of HME were collected and analysed. EXT gene mutations in this pedigree assessed by PCR and sequencing. Pubmed and Wanfang (a Chinese database) were searched for the literature related to gene mutations in Chinese HME patients.
    RESULTS: In the pedigree analyzed, the age of onset of HME was becoming younger, the disease was becoming more severe, and the number of osteochondromas was increasing, in successive generations. A splicing mutation IVS5+1G>A, first identified in Chinese population, was found in all diseased members of this pedigree. According the currently available literature, EXT1 and EXT2 mutations have been detected in 29% (26/90) and 43% (39/90) Chinese families with HME.
    CONCLUSIONS: HME starts earlier and becomes more severe and extensive with each successive generation in members of the pedigree analyzed. A splicing mutation, IVS5+1G>A, of EXT1, first identified in Chinese population, may be responsible for HME in the studied pedigree. EXT1 and EXT2 mutation rates may be different between the Chinese and Western populations.

    Ryckx A, Somers JF, Allaert L
    Hereditary multiple exostosis.
    Acta Orthop Belg. 2013; 79(6):597-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Hereditary multiple exostosis is an intriguing genetic condition with a clinical impact in the field of orthopaedics, paediatrics and oncology. In this review we highlight the current knowledge about this condition from a clinical and scientific point of view. This gives us more insight into the molecular mechanisms and current models on which therapeutic agents are based. It allows for a multidisciplinary approach to the management of this complex condition. There is currently no exact pathological model that can accurately describe all the findings in the research on Hereditary Multiple Exostosis. Promising treatments with blocking agents are currently under investigation.

    Jamsheer A, Socha M, Sowińska-Seidler A, et al.
    Mutational screening of EXT1 and EXT2 genes in Polish patients with hereditary multiple exostoses.
    J Appl Genet. 2014; 55(2):183-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) also known as multiple osteochondromas represent one of the most frequent bone tumor disorder in humans. Its clinical presentation is characterized by the presence of multiple benign cartilage-capped tumors located most commonly in the juxta-epiphyseal portions of long bones. HME are usually inherited in autosomal dominant manner, however de novo mutations can also occur. In most patients, the disease is caused by alterations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes. In this study we investigated 33 unrelated Polish probands with the clinical and radiological diagnosis of HME by means of Sanger sequencing and MLPA for all coding exons of EXT1 and EXT2. We demonstrated EXT1 and EXT2 heterozygous mutations in 18 (54.6 %) and ten (30.3 %) probands respectively, which represents a total of 28 (84.9 %) index cases. Sequencing allowed for the detection of causative changes in 26 (78.8 %) probands, whereas MLPA showed intragenic deletions in two (6.1 %) further cases (15 mutations represented novel changes). Our paper is the first report on the results of exhaustive mutational screening of both EXT1/EXT2 genes in Polish patients. The proportion of EXT1/EXT2 mutations in our group was similar to other Caucasian cohorts. However, we found that EXT1 lesions in Polish patients cluster in exons 1 and 2 (55.6 % of all EXT1 mutations). This important finding should lead to the optimization of cost-effectiveness rate of HME diagnostic testing. Therefore, the diagnostic algorithm for HME should include EXT1 sequencing (starting with exons 1-2), followed by EXT2 sequencing, and MLPA/qPCR for intragenic copy number changes.

    Guo XL, Deng Y, Liu HG
    Clinical characteristics of hereditary multiple exostoses: a retrospective study of mainland chinese cases in recent 23 years.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014; 34(1):42-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) are an autosomal dominant skeletal disease with wide variations in clinical manifestations among different ethnic groups. This study investigated the epidemiology, clinical presentations, pathogenetic features and treatment strategies of HME in mainland China. We searched and reviewed the related cases published since 1990 by searching electronic databases, namely SinoMed database, Wanfang database, CNKI, Web of Science and PubMed as well as Google search engines. A total of 1051 cases of HME (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1) were investigated and the diagnosis was made in 83% before the age of 10 years. Approximately 96% patients had a family history. Long bones, ribs, scapula and pelvis were the frequently affected sites. Most patients were asymptomatic with multiple palpable masses. Common complications included angular deformities, impingement on neighbouring tissues and impaired articular function. Chondrosarcomas transformation occurred in 2% Chinese cases. Among the cases examined, about 18% had mutations in EXT1 and 28% in EXT2. Frameshift, nonsense and missense mutations represented the majority of HME-causing mutations. Diagnosis of HME was made based on the clinical presentations and radiological documentations. Most patients needed no treatment. Surgical treatment was often directed to remove symptomatic exostoses, particularly those of suspected malignancy degeneration, and correction of skeletal deformities. This study shows some variance from current literature regarding other ethnic populations and may provide valuable baseline assessment of the natural history of HME in mainland China.

    Buonuomo PS, Macchiaiolo M, Cambiaso P, et al.
    Long-term follow-up in Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome: a case report with articular involvement.
    Clin Dysmorphol. 2014; 23(2):45-6 [PubMed] Related Publications

    Mizuhashi K, Kanamoto T, Moriishi T, et al.
    Filamin-interacting proteins, Cfm1 and Cfm2, are essential for the formation of cartilaginous skeletal elements.
    Hum Mol Genet. 2014; 23(11):2953-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Mutations of Filamin genes, which encode actin-binding proteins, cause a wide range of congenital developmental malformations in humans, mainly skeletal abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Filamin functions in skeletal system formation remain elusive. In our screen to identify skeletal development molecules, we found that Cfm (Fam101) genes, Cfm1 (Fam101b) and Cfm2 (Fam101a), are predominantly co-expressed in developing cartilage and intervertebral discs (IVDs). To investigate the functional role of Cfm genes in skeletal development, we generated single knockout mice for Cfm1 and Cfm2, as well as Cfm1/Cfm2 double-knockout (Cfm DKO) mice, by targeted gene disruption. Mice with loss of a single Cfm gene displayed no overt phenotype, whereas Cfm DKO mice showed skeletal malformations including spinal curvatures, vertebral fusions and impairment of bone growth, showing that the phenotypes of Cfm DKO mice resemble those of Filamin B (Flnb)-deficient mice. The number of cartilaginous cells in IVDs is remarkably reduced, and chondrocytes are moderately reduced in Cfm DKO mice. We observed increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation in Cfm DKO cartilaginous cells. In addition to direct interaction between Cfm and Filamin proteins in developing chondrocytes, we showed that Cfm is required for the interaction between Flnb and Smad3, which was reported to regulate Runx2 expression. Furthermore, we found that Cfm DKO primary chondrocytes showed decreased cellular size and fewer actin bundles compared with those of wild-type chondrocytes. These results suggest that Cfms are essential partner molecules of Flnb in regulating differentiation and proliferation of chondryocytes and actin dynamics.

    Clement ND, Porter DE
    Hereditary multiple exostoses: anatomical distribution and burden of exostoses is dependent upon genotype and gender.
    Scott Med J. 2014; 59(1):35-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We describe the novel anatomical distribution of exostoses in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses according to their gender and genotype.
    METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective database of 143 patients from 65 families with hereditary multiple exostoses was compiled. Patient demographics, genotype and number of exostoses according to anatomical site were recorded. The hand was affected by the greatest proportion of exostoses for both EXT1 (19%) and EXT2 (14%) genotypes and was the most prevalent site for exostoses in patients with an EXT1 genotype (92%). Patients with an EXT1 genotype had a significantly greater number of exostoses compared to those with an EXT2 genotype (2680 vs. 1828, p = 0.006); however, this was only significantly different for 10 of the 19 anatomical regions examined. Male patients with an EXT1 genotype had a significantly (p < 0.05) greater number of exostoses affecting their hands, distal radius, proximal humerus, scapular and ribs compared to female patients with the same genotype and males with an EXT2 genotype.
    CONCLUSION: The anatomical distribution of exostoses varies according to genotype and gender; however, the reason for this difference is not clear and may relate to different biochemical pathways.

    Jones KB, Pacifici M, Hilton MJ
    Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE): elucidating the pathogenesis of a rare skeletal disorder through interdisciplinary research.
    Connect Tissue Res. 2014; 55(2):80-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Abstract An interdisciplinary and international group of clinicians and scientists gathered in Philadelphia, PA, to attend the fourth International Research Conference on Multiple Hereditary Exostoses (MHE), a rare and severe skeletal disorder. MHE is largely caused by autosomal dominant mutations in EXT1 or EXT2, genes encoding Golgi-associated glycosyltransferases responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. HS chains are key constituents of cell surface- and extracellular matrix-associated proteoglycans, which are known regulators of skeletal development. MHE affected individuals are HS-deficient, can display skeletal growth retardation and deformities, and consistently develop benign, cartilage-capped bony outgrowths (termed exostoses or osteochondromas) near the growth plates of many skeletal elements. Nearly 2% of patients will have their exostoses progress to malignancy, becoming peripheral chondrosarcomas. Current treatments are limited to the surgical removal of symptomatic exostoses. No definitive treatments have been established to inhibit further formation and growth of exostoses, prevent transition to malignancy, or address other medical problems experienced by MHE patients, including chronic pain. Thus, the goals of the Conference were to assess our current understanding of MHE pathogenesis, identify key gaps in information, envision future therapeutic strategies and discuss ways to test and implement them. This report provides an assessment of the exciting and promising findings in MHE and related fields presented at the Conference and a discussion of the future MHE research directions. The Conference underlined the critical usefulness of gathering experts in several research fields to forge new alliances and identify cross-fertilization areas to benefit both basic and translational biomedical research on the skeleton.

    Ferrarini A, Gaillard M, Guerry F, et al.
    Potocki-Shaffer deletion encompassing ALX4 in a patient with frontonasal dysplasia phenotype.
    Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164A(2):346-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Frontonasal dysplasia (FND) is a genetically heterogeneous malformation spectrum with marked hypertelorism, broad nasal tip and bifid nose. Only a small number of genes have been associated with FND phenotypes until now, the first gene being EFNB1, related to craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) with craniosynostosis in addition, and more recently the aristaless-like homeobox genes ALX3, ALX4, and ALX1, which have been related with distinct phenotypes named FND1, FND2, and FND3 respectively. We here report on a female patient presenting with severe FND features along with partial alopecia, hypogonadism and intellectual disability. While molecular investigations did not reveal mutations in any of the known genes, ALX4, ALX3, ALX1 and EFNB1, comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) techniques showed a large heterozygous de novo deletion at 11p11.12p12, encompassing the ALX4 gene. Deletions in this region have been described in patients with Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS), characterized by biparietal foramina, multiple exostoses, and intellectual disability. Although the patient reported herein manifests some overlapping features of FND and PPS, it is likely that the observed phenotype maybe due to a second unidentified mutation in the ALX4 gene. The phenotype will be discussed in view of the deleted region encompassing the ALX4 gene.

    Cardelli M, Zirngibl RA, Boetto JF, et al.
    Cartilage-specific overexpression of ERRγ results in Chondrodysplasia and reduced chondrocyte proliferation.
    PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81511 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    While the role of estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRα) in chondrogenesis has been investigated, the involvement of ERR gamma (ERRγ) has not been determined. To assess the effect of increased ERRγ activity on cartilage development in vivo, we generated two transgenic (Tg) lines overexpressing ERRγ2 via a chondrocyte-specific promoter; the two lines exhibited ∼3 and ∼5 fold increased ERRγ2 protein expression respectively in E14.5 Tg versus wild type (WT) limbs. On postnatal day seven (P7), we observed a 4-10% reduction in the size of the craniofacial, axial and appendicular skeletons in Tg versus WT mice. The reduction in bone length was already present at birth and did not appear to involve bones that are derived via intramembranous bone formation as the bones of the calvaria, clavicle, and the mandible developed normally. Histological analysis of P7 growth plates revealed a reduction in the length of the Tg versus WT growth plate, the majority of which was attributable to a reduced proliferative zone. The reduced proliferative zone paralleled a decrease in the number of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, with no significant change in apoptosis, and was accompanied by large cell-free swaths of cartilage matrix, which extended through multiple zones of the growth plate. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified known chondrogenesis-associated genes with at least one predicted ERR binding site in their proximal promoters, as well as cell cycle regulators known to be regulated by ERRγ. Of the genes identified, Col2al, Agg, Pth1r, and Cdkn1b (p27) were significantly upregulated, suggesting that ERRγ2 negatively regulates chondrocyte proliferation and positively regulates matrix synthesis to coordinate growth plate height and organization.

    Tang Y, Zheng DZ, Guo XY, et al.
    [Molecular diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis in a hereditary multiple osteochondromas family].
    Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2013; 45(6):906-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the mutation in the disease gene and provide prenatal diagnosis for a hereditary multiple osteochondromas (HMO) family.
    METHODS: The exons of EXT1 gene in the proband with HMO and his family members were amplified by PCR. The products were analyzed by direct sequencing. Prenatal genetic diagnosis was performed by amniocentesis sampling after genotyping the proband.
    RESULTS: In the family, the affected proband was heterozygous of the mutation of 1476_1477delTC in the EXT1 gene, and the proband's father carried the same mutation in part of his somatic cells. No mutation was found in the EXT1 gene of the proband's mother and other 11 siblings of his father.
    CONCLUSION: METHODS for molecular diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of HMO were established and applied to a family of HMO.

    Huang XS, Liu JS, Jiang HO, et al.
    [Genetic diagnosis for a Chinese Han family with hereditary multiple osteochondromas].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 30(6):645-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic cause for a Chinese Han family affected with hereditary multiple osteochondromas.
    METHODS: Two patients, five unaffected relatives of the family and 100 unrelated healthy controls were collected. The coding sequences and intron/exon boundaries of EXT1 gene were amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced.
    RESULTS: A heterozygous c.600G>A (p.Trp200X) mutation in exon 1 of the EXT1 gene was detected in the patients. The same mutation was not found in unaffected family members and 100 healthy controls.
    CONCLUSION: The hereditary multiple osteochondromas in the family is caused by a nonsense mutation (p.Trp200X) in the EXT1 gene.

    Deng LB, Quan Y, Liu J, et al.
    [Mutation analysis of EXT genes in two pedigrees with hereditary multiple exostoses].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 30(6):641-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
    OBJECTIVE: To detect the underlying genetic defect in two Chinese families with hereditary multiple exostoses and provide genetic counseling.
    METHODS: Potential mutations in EXT1 and EXT2 genes in the probands were detected by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified exons. Suspected mutations were verified in all available family members and 200 unrelated healthy controls.
    RESULTS: A heterozygous frameshift mutation c.346_356delinsTAT in exon 1 of EXT1 and a heterozygous deletion mutation c.2009-2012del(TCAA) in exon 10 of EXT1 were respectively detected in affected members from the two families. The same mutations were not detected in unaffected members and 200 unrelated healthy controls. No mutations in EXT2 were detected in the two families.
    CONCLUSION: Two novel mutations of EXT1 have been detected in association with hereditary multiple exostoses in two Chinese families. Above results have provided a basis for genetic counseling for the two families and expanded the spectrum of EXT1 mutations.

    Cao L, Liu F, Kong M, et al.
    Novel EXT1 mutation identified in a pedigree with hereditary multiple exostoses.
    Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(2):713-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant bone disorder characterized by the presence of multiple benign cartilage-capped tumors. EXT1 located on chromosome 8q23-q24 and EXT2 located on 11p11-p12 are the main disease-causing genes which are responsible for ~90% of HME cases. Mutations of EXT1 or EXT2 result in insufficient heparan sulfate biosynthesis, which facilitates chondrocyte proliferation, boosts abnormal bone growth of neighboring regions, causes multiple exostoses, and ultimately leads to possible malignant transformation. A family who displayed typical features of HME was enrolled in the present study. Mutation screening by Sanger sequencing identified a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation c.1902C>A (p.Tyr634X) in the EXT1 gene exclusively in all 3 patients, which is located in the glycosyltransferase domain and results in the truncation of 112 amino acids at the C-terminus of the EXT1 protein. Thus, the present study identified a novel disease-causing EXT1 mutation in a pedigree with HME, which provides additional evidence for developing quick and accurate genetic tools for HME diagnosis.

    Busse-Wicher M, Wicher KB, Kusche-Gullberg M
    The exostosin family: proteins with many functions.
    Matrix Biol. 2014; 35:25-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Heparan sulfates are complex sulfated molecules found in abundance at cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. They bind to and influence the activity of a variety of molecules like growth factors, proteases and morphogens and are thus involved in various cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The mammalian EXT proteins have glycosyltransferase activities relevant for HS chain polymerization, however their exact role in this process is still confusing. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the biochemical activities and some proposed functions of the members of the EXT protein family and their roles in human disease.

    Kang QL, Xu J, Zhang Z, et al.
    Mutation screening for the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in Chinese patients with multiple osteochondromas.
    Arch Med Res. 2013; 44(7):542-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple osteochondromas (MO), an autosomal dominant skeletal disease, is characterized by the presence of multiple cartilage-capped bone tumors (exostoses). Two genes with mutations that are most commonly associated with MO have been identified as EXT1 and EXT2, which are Exostosin-1 and Exostosin-2. In this study, a variety of EXT1 and EXT2 gene mutations were identified in ten Chinese families with MO.
    METHODS: We investigated ten unrelated Chinese families involving a total of 46 patients who exhibited typical features of MO. The coding exons of EXT1 and EXT2 were sequenced after PCR amplification in ten probands. Radiological investigation was conducted simultaneously.
    RESULTS: Nine mutations were identified, five in EXT1 and four in EXT2, of which three were de novo mutations and six were novel mutations. One proband carried mutations in both EXT1 and EXT2 simultaneously, and three probands, including one sporadic case and two familial cases, had no detectable mutations.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are useful for extending the mutational spectrum in EXT1 and EXT2 and understanding the genetic basis of MO in Chinese patients.

    Risom L, Christoffersen L, Daugaard-Jensen J, et al.
    Identification of six novel PTH1R mutations in families with a history of primary failure of tooth eruption.
    PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    Primary Failure of tooth Eruption (PFE) is a non-syndromic disorder which can be caused by mutations in the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 gene (PTH1R). Traditionally, the disorder has been identified clinically based on post-emergent failure of eruption of permanent molars. However, patients with PTH1R mutations will not benefit from surgical and/or orthodontic treatment and it is therefore clinically important to establish whether a given failure of tooth eruption is caused by a PTH1R defect or not. We analyzed the PTH1R gene in six patients clinically diagnosed with PFE, all of which had undergone surgical and/or orthodontic interventions, and identified novel PTH1R mutations in all. Four of the six mutations were predicted to abolish correct mRNA maturation either through introduction of premature stop codons (c.947C>A and c.1082G>A), or by altering correct mRNA splicing (c.544-26_544-23del and c.989G>T). The latter was validated by transfection of minigenes. The six novel mutations expand the mutation spectrum for PFE from eight to 14 pathogenic mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in PTH1R are also associated with recessively inherited Blomstrand chondrodysplasia. We compiled all published PTH1R mutations and identified a mutational overlap between Blomstrand chondrodysplasia and PFE. The results suggest that a genetic approach to preclinical diagnosis will have important implication for surgical and orthodontic treatment of patients with failure of tooth eruption.

    Zhang F, Liang J, Guo X, et al.
    Exome sequencing and functional analysis identifies a novel mutation in EXT1 gene that causes multiple osteochondromas.
    PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72316 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an inherited skeletal disorder, and the molecular mechanism of MO remains elusive. Exome sequencing has high chromosomal coverage and accuracy, and has recently been successfully used to identify pathogenic gene mutations. In this study, exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing validation was first used to screen gene mutations in two representative MO patients from a Chinese family. After filtering the data from the 1000 Genome Project and the dbSNP database (build 132), the detected candidate gene mutations were further validated via Sanger sequencing of four other members of the same MO family and 200 unrelated healthy subjects. Immunohistochemisty and multiple sequence alignment were performed to evaluate the importance of the identified causal mutation. A novel frameshift mutation, c.1457insG at codon 486 of exon 6 of EXT1 gene, was identified, which truncated the glycosyltransferase domain of EXT1 gene. Multiple sequence alignment showed that codon 486 of EXT1 gene was highly conserved across various vertebrates. Immunohistochemisty demonstrated that the chondrocytes with functional EXT1 in MO were less than those in extragenetic solitary chondromas. The novel c.1457insG deleterious mutation of EXT1 gene reported in this study expands the causal mutation spectrum of MO, and may be helpful for prenatal genetic screening and early diagnosis of MO.

    Yang W, Wang J, Moore DC, et al.
    Ptpn11 deletion in a novel progenitor causes metachondromatosis by inducing hedgehog signalling.
    Nature. 2013; 499(7459):491-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    The tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, is required for the survival, proliferation and differentiation of various cell types. Germline activating mutations in PTPN11 cause Noonan syndrome, whereas somatic PTPN11 mutations cause childhood myeloproliferative disease and contribute to some solid tumours. Recently, heterozygous inactivating mutations in PTPN11 were found in metachondromatosis, a rare inherited disorder featuring multiple exostoses, enchondromas, joint destruction and bony deformities. The detailed pathogenesis of this disorder has remained unclear. Here we use a conditional knockout (floxed) Ptpn11 allele (Ptpn11(fl)) and Cre recombinase transgenic mice to delete Ptpn11 specifically in monocytes, macrophages and osteoclasts (lysozyme M-Cre; LysMCre) or in cathepsin K (Ctsk)-expressing cells, previously thought to be osteoclasts. LysMCre;Ptpn11(fl/fl) mice had mild osteopetrosis. Notably, however, CtskCre;Ptpn11(fl/fl) mice developed features very similar to metachondromatosis. Lineage tracing revealed a novel population of CtskCre-expressing cells in the perichondrial groove of Ranvier that display markers and functional properties consistent with mesenchymal progenitors. Chondroid neoplasms arise from these cells and show decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, increased Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (Pthrp, also known as Pthlh) expression and excessive proliferation. Shp2-deficient chondroprogenitors had decreased fibroblast growth factor-evoked ERK activation and enhanced Ihh and Pthrp expression, whereas fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor treatment of chondroid cells increased Ihh and Pthrp expression. Importantly, smoothened inhibitor treatment ameliorated metachondromatosis features in CtskCre;Ptpn11(fl/fl) mice. Thus, in contrast to its pro-oncogenic role in haematopoietic and epithelial cells, Ptpn11 is a tumour suppressor in cartilage, acting through a FGFR/MEK/ERK-dependent pathway in a novel progenitor cell population to prevent excessive Ihh production.

    Huegel J, Sgariglia F, Enomoto-Iwamoto M, et al.
    Heparan sulfate in skeletal development, growth, and pathology: the case of hereditary multiple exostoses.
    Dev Dyn. 2013; 242(9):1021-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of cell surface and matrix-associated proteoglycans. Due to their sulfation patterns, the HS chains interact with numerous signaling proteins and regulate their distribution and activity on target cells. Many of these proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein family members, are expressed in the growth plate of developing skeletal elements, and several skeletal phenotypes are caused by mutations in those proteins as well as in HS-synthesizing and modifying enzymes. The disease we discuss here is hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), a disorder caused by mutations in HS synthesizing enzymes EXT1 and EXT2, leading to HS deficiency. The exostoses are benign cartilaginous-bony outgrowths, form next to growth plates, can cause growth retardation and deformities, chronic pain and impaired motion, and progress to malignancy in 2-5% of patients. We describe recent advancements on HME pathogenesis and exostosis formation deriving from studies that have determined distribution, activities and roles of signaling proteins in wild-type and HS-deficient cells and tissues. Aberrant distribution of signaling factors combined with aberrant responsiveness of target cells to those same factors appear to be a major culprit in exostosis formation. Insights from these studies suggest plausible and cogent ideas about how HME could be treated in the future.

    Wu Y, Xing X, Xu S, et al.
    Novel and recurrent mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in Chinese kindreds with multiple osteochondromas.
    J Orthop Res. 2013; 31(9):1492-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the exostonsin-1 (EXT1) or exostosin-2 (EXT2) genes. In this study, we screened mutations in the EXT1/EXT2 genes in four Chinese MO kindreds by direct sequencing. Three point mutations were detected, including a nonsense mutation in the EXT2 gene (c.544C > T) and two splice site mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes, respectively (EXT1: c.1883 + 1G > A and EXT2: c.1173 + 1G > T). Although splice site mutations constitute at least 10% of all mutations that cause MO, there has been limited research on their pathogenic effect on RNA processing due to poor availability of patient RNA samples. In this study, ex vivo and in vivo splicing assays were used to investigate the effect of EXT1 and EXT2 mutations on aberrant splicing at the mRNA level. Our results indicate that identified splice site mutations can cause either cryptic splice site usage or exon skipping.

    Anower-E-Khuda MF, Matsumoto K, Habuchi H, et al.
    Glycosaminoglycans in the blood of hereditary multiple exostoses patients: Half reduction of heparan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate ratio and the possible diagnostic application.
    Glycobiology. 2013; 23(7):865-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder with wide variation in clinical phenotype and is caused by heterogeneous germline mutations in two of the Ext genes, EXT-1 and EXT-2, which encode ubiquitously expressed glycosyltransferases involved in the polymerization of heparan sulfate (HS) chains. To examine whether the Ext mutation could affect HS structures and amounts in HME patients being heterozygous for the Ext genes, we collected blood from patients and healthy individuals, separated it into plasma and cellular fractions and then isolated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from those fractions. A newly established method consisting of a combination of selective ethanol precipitation of GAGs, digestion of GAGs recovered on the filter-cup by direct addition of heparitinase or chondroitinase reaction solution and subsequent high-performance liquid chromatography of the unsaturated disaccharide products enabled the analysis using the least amount of blood (200 µL). We found that HS structures of HME patients were almost similar to those of controls in both plasma and cellular fractions. However, interestingly, although both the amounts of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS) varied depending on the different individuals, the amounts of HS in both the plasma and cellular fractions of HME patient samples were decreased and the ratios of HS to CS (HS/CS) of HME patient samples were almost half those of healthy individuals. The results suggest that HME patients' blood exhibited reduced HS amounts and HS/CS ratios, which could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for HME.

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