Gene Summary

Gene:WT2; Wilms tumor 2
Aliases: ADCR, MTACR1
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Cancer Overview

Wilms' tumors frequently have a maternal-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on human chromosome 11p15.5 There has been a longstanding search to identify a gene, refered to as WT2, in this region that plays a role in Wilms' tumorigenesis.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: WT2 (cancer-related)

Al-Hussain T, Ali A, Akhtar M
Wilms tumor: an update.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2014; 21(3):166-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common neoplasm of the kidney in children. It is an embryologic tumor that histologically mimics renal embryogenesis and is composed of a variable mixture of stromal, blastemal, and epithelial elements. Nephrogenic rests, generally considered to be precursor lesions of the WT, are foci of the embryonic metanephric tissue that persist after the completion of renal embryogenesis. These are classified as perilobar and intralobar based on their location and maybe present as single or multiple foci. Intralobar and perilobar rests and the tumors arising from these rests differ morphologically and are characterized by 2 different sets of genetic abnormalities involving 2 adjacent foci, WT1 and WT2, on the short arm of chromosome 11. WTs arising in the intralobar rests tend to be stromal predominant and have a mutation or deletion of WT1. Germline mutation in WT1 may be associated with syndromic conditions such as WAGR and Denys-Drash syndromes. Perilobar rests and their corresponding tumors usually have loss of imprinting/loss of heterozygosity involving WT2, which contains several parentally imprinted genes. Loss of function of these genes, if present constitutionally, may be associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or may result in isolated hypertrophy. Abnormalities in several other genes may also be seen in WT. These include WTX, (on chromosome X), CTNNB1 (chromosome 3), and TP53 (chromosome 17) among others. WT with loss of heterozygosity at 1p and 16q may have poor prognosis, requiring aggressive therapy. Treatment modalities for WT have evolved over many decades, primarily through the efforts of Dr J Bruce Beckwith at National WT study. This work is now being carried out by Children Oncology Group in North America and International Society of Pediatric Oncology in Europe. Although their therapeutic approaches are somewhat different, both have reported excellent results with equally high cure rates.

Onyango P, Feinberg AP
A nucleolar protein, H19 opposite tumor suppressor (HOTS), is a tumor growth inhibitor encoded by a human imprinted H19 antisense transcript.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(40):16759-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The H19 gene, which localizes within a chromosomal region on human chromosome 11p15 that is commonly lost in Wilms tumor (WT), encodes an imprinted untranslated RNA. However, the biological significance of the H19 noncoding transcript remains unresolved because replacement of the RNA transcript with a neocassette has no obvious phenotypic effect. Here we show that the human H19 locus also encodes a maternally expressed, translated gene, antisense to the known H19 transcript, which is conserved in primates. This gene, termed HOTS for H19 opposite tumor suppressor, encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus and nucleolus and that interacts with the human enhancer of rudimentary homolog (ERH) protein. WTs that show loss of heterozygosity of 11p15 or loss of imprinting of IGF2 also silence HOTS (7/7 and 10/10, respectively). Overexpression of HOTS inhibits Wilms, rhabdoid, rhabdomyosarcoma, and choriocarcinoma tumor cell growth, and silencing HOTS by RNAi increases in vitro colony formation and in vivo tumor growth. These results demonstrate that the human H19 locus harbors an imprinted gene encoding a tumor suppressor protein within the long-sought WT2 locus.

Satoh Y, Nakadate H, Nakagawachi T, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic alterations on the short arm of chromosome 11 are involved in a majority of sporadic Wilms' tumours.
Br J Cancer. 2006; 95(4):541-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wilms' tumour is one of the most common solid tumours of childhood. 11p13 (WT1 locus) and 11p15.5 (WT2 locus) are known to have genetic or epigenetic aberrations in these tumours. In Wilms' tumours, mutation of the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene at the WT1 locus has been reported, and the WT2 locus, comprising the two independent imprinted domains IGF2/H19 and KIP2/LIT1, can undergo maternal deletion or alterations associated with imprinting. Although these alterations have been identified in many studies, it is still not clear how frequently combined genetic and epigenetic alterations of these loci are involved in Wilms' tumours or how these alterations occur. To answer both questions, we performed genetic and epigenetic analyses of these loci, together with an additional gene, CTNNB1, in 35 sporadic Wilms' tumours. Loss of heterozygosity of 11p15.5 and loss of imprinting of IGF2 were the most frequent genetic (29%) and epigenetic (40%) alterations in Wilms' tumours, respectively. In total, 83% of the tumours had at least one alteration at 11p15.5 and/or 11p13. One-third of the tumours had alterations at multiple loci. Our results suggest that chromosome 11p is not only genetically but also epigenetically critical for the majority of Wilms' tumours.

Khoury JD
Nephroblastic neoplasms.
Clin Lab Med. 2005; 25(2):341-61, vi-vii [PubMed] Related Publications
Nephroblastoma, or Wilms tumor, is a malignant embryonal neoplasm that is derived from nephrogenic blastemal cells, with variable recapitulation of renal embryogenesis. The pathogenesis of nephroblastoma is complex and has been linked to alterations of several genomic loci, including WT1, WT2, FWT1, and FWT2. Generally, nephroblastoma is composed of variable proportions of blastema, epithelium, and stroma, each of which may exhibit a wide spectrum of morphologic variations. Distinguishing nephroblastoma with favorable histology from tumors that exhibit anaplasia is an integral component of histologic assessment because of its prognostic and therapeutic implications. Nephrogenic rests and a special variant of nephroblastoma, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, also are discussed.

Guertl B, Ratschek M, Harms D, et al.
Clonality and loss of heterozygosity of WT genes are early events in the pathogenesis of nephroblastomas.
Hum Pathol. 2003; 34(3):278-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nephrogenic rests (NRs), putative precursor lesions of nephroblastomas (Wilms' tumors), are found in 25% to 40% of kidneys presenting with nephroblastomas. Nephroblastomas are clonal tumors that, according to a genetic multistep model, are thought to arise as subclonal proliferations from NRs by accumulating genetic alterations. Different candidate genes for the pathogenesis of nephroblastomas have been identified, including those at chromosomes 11p13 (WT1 gene), 11p15 (WT2 gene), and 16q (WT3 gene). We investigated clonality and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at these loci in different subtypes of NR. After microdissection under microscopic control, we analyzed a highly polymorphic locus of the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) for nonrandom X-inactivation of genomic DNA using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme to investigate clonality. Out of 14 patients, we found that 1 case each of adenomatous and hyperplastic NR and 2 of 7 cases of sclerosing NR were monoclonal. Five patients were noninformative. We assessed LOH at chromosomes 11p13, 11p15, and 16q by analyzing polymorphic gene loci at these regions. One hyperplastic NR and the corresponding tumor showed LOH at 11p13 and 11p15; 1 sclerosing NR and the corresponding tumor exhibited LOH at chromosome 16q. We demonstrate for the first time that sclerosing NRs can exhibit genetic alterations found in nephroblastomas, namely monoclonality and LOH at the WT gene loci. The histological morphology is no different between NRs with these genetic alterations and NRs without them. We conclude that these genetic changes are early events in the multistep genetic pathogenesis of nephroblastomas; however, they do not seem to fully determine a malignant potential of NR.

Dome JS, Coppes MJ
Recent advances in Wilms tumor genetics.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002; 14(1):5-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The past decade has witnessed substantial growth in our knowledge of the genes and loci that are altered in Wilms tumor. Although Wilms tumor was one of the original paradigms of Knudson's two-hit model of cancer formation, it has become apparent that several genetic events contribute to Wilms tumorigenesis. Recent research has identified targets and regulators of the first Wilms tumor gene, WT1, has uncovered several candidate genes at the second Wilms tumor locus, WT2, and has identified two familial Wilms tumor loci, FWT1 and FWT2. The recent discovery of activating beta-catenin mutations in some Wilms tumors has also implicated the Wnt signaling pathway in this neoplasm. Recurrent abnormalities of other loci, including 16q, 1p, and 7p, have indicated that these sites may harbor Wilms tumor genes. An enhanced understanding of these and other genetic lesions will provide the foundation for novel targeted Wilms tumor therapies.

Xin Z, Soejima H, Higashimoto K, et al.
A novel imprinted gene, KCNQ1DN, within the WT2 critical region of human chromosome 11p15.5 and its reduced expression in Wilms' tumors.
J Biochem. 2000; 128(5):847-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
WT2 is defined by a maternal-specific loss of heterozygosity on human chromosome 11p15.5 in Wilms' and other embryonal tumors. Therefore, the imprinted genes in this region are candidates for involvement in Wilms' tumorigenesis. We now report a novel imprinted gene, KCNQ1DN (KCNQ1 downstream neighbor). This gene is located between p57(KIP2) and KvLQT1 (KCNQ1) of 11p15.5 within the WT2 critical region. KCNQ1DN is imprinted and expressed from the maternal allele. We examined the expression of KCNQ1DN in Wilms' tumors. Seven of eighteen (39%) samples showed no expression. In contrast, other maternal imprinted genes in this region, including p57(KIP2), IMPT1, and IPL exhibited almost normal expression in these samples, although some samples expressed IGF2 biallelically. These results suggest that KCNQ1DN existing far from the H19/IGF2 region may play some role in Wilms' tumorigenesis along with IGF2.

Coppes MJ, Wolff JE, Ritchey ML
Wilms tumour: diagnosis and treatment.
Paediatr Drugs. 1999 Oct-Dec; 1(4):251-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumour is the most common intra-abdominal solid tumour of childhood. Treatment includes surgical resection and chemotherapy for virtually all affected children and additional radiotherapy for those with advanced disease or adverse prognostic features. This approach leads to cure rates exceeding 80%. During the last decade there have been a number of advances which have increased our understanding of the biology of Wilms tumour. The development of Wilms tumour, for example, involves several genes, including WT1, the Wilms tumour suppressor gene at 11p13, and WT2, the putative Wilms tumour suppressor gene at 11p15. In addition, certain chromosomal regions, most notably 16q and 1p, might predict outcome and hence serve as a prognostic factor, useful for determining the intensity of therapy. This novel information is now being incorporated into current therapeutic protocols. We reviewed the medical literature and present a summary of the advances made, outlining the current treatment of Wilms tumour. Future protocols will continue incorporating biological markers. The goal is to identify patients at low risk for relapse, which will allow a reduction in treatment intensity and subsequent toxicity. Children at an increased risk for relapse can be selected for more intensive treatment.

Hirose M
The role of Wilms' tumor genes.
J Med Invest. 1999; 46(3-4):130-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
The constitutional chromosomal deletion within the short arm of one copy of chromosome 11, at band p13, which often correlated with WAGR syndrome consisting of Wilms' tumor with aniridia, genitourinary malformation, and mental retardation, provided the first clue to the genetic events in the development of Wilms' tumor. WT1 gene is encoded by 10 exons, resulting in messenger RNA subject to a complex pattern of alternative splicing. WT1 gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, which binds to GC-rich sequences and functions as a transcriptional activator or repressor for many growth factor genes. WT 1 protein is mainly expressed in developing kidney, testis, and ovary, indicating that it is involved in the differentiation of genitourinary tissues, all thought to be the sites of origin of Wilms' tumor. The point mutation of WT1 results in Denys-Drash syndrome. The other Wilms' tumor gene, WT2 at 11p15.5, is linked to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The possibility that WT1 is involved in the etiology of rhabdoid tumor of the kidney was discussed. WT1 is expressed in immortalized hematologic cells such as EBV-LCL and hematologic malignancies, but not in PBL or IL-2L. High level WT1 expression in leukemia cells and a poor prognosis are linked in patients with leukemia, making the gene a novel marker for leukemia cells. A correlated expression between WT1 and mdr-1 in vincristine resistant cells indicates a close relation with multi-drug resistance and is a promising diagnostic marker for chemoresistance in hematologic malignancies.

Prawitt D, Enklaar T, Klemm G, et al.
Identification and characterization of MTR1, a novel gene with homology to melastatin (MLSN1) and the trp gene family located in the BWS-WT2 critical region on chromosome 11p15.5 and showing allele-specific expression.
Hum Mol Genet. 2000; 9(2):203-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations within human chromosomal region 11p15.5 are associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and predisposition to a variety of neoplasias, including Wilms' tumors (WTs), rhabdoid tumors and rhabdomyosarcomas. To identify candidate genes for 11p15. 5-related diseases we compared human genomic sequence with expressed sequence tag and protein databases from different organisms to discover evolutionarily conserved sequences. Herein we describe the identification and characterization of a novel human transcript related to a putative Caenorhabditis elegans protein and the trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The highest homologies are observed with the human TRPC7 and with melastatin 1 ( MLSN1 ), whose transcript is downregulated in metastatic melanomas. Other genes related to and interacting with the trp family include the Grc gene, which codes for a growth factor-regulated channel protein, and PKD1/PKD2, involved in polycystic kidney disease. The novel gene presented here (named MTR1 for MLSN1 - and TRP -related gene 1) resides between TSSC4 and KvLQT1. MTR1 is expressed as a 4.5 kb transcript in a variety of fetal and adult tissues. The putative open reading frame is encoded in 24 exons, one of which is alternatively spliced leading to two possible proteins of 872 or 1165 amino acids with several predicted membrane-spanning domains in both versions. MTR1 transcripts are present in a large proportion of WTs and rhabdomyosarcomas. RT-PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids harboring a single human chromosome 11 demonstrated exclusive expression of MTR1 in cell lines carrying a paternal chromosome 11, indicating allele-specific inactivation of the maternal copy by genomic imprinting.

Dao D, Walsh CP, Yuan L, et al.
Multipoint analysis of human chromosome 11p15/mouse distal chromosome 7: inclusion of H19/IGF2 in the minimal WT2 region, gene specificity of H19 silencing in Wilms' tumorigenesis and methylation hyper-dependence of H19 imprinting.
Hum Mol Genet. 1999; 8(7):1337-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
WT2 is defined by maternal-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 11p15.5 in Wilms' tumors (WTs). The imprinted H19 gene, in this region, is silenced and hypermethylated in most WTs, and this is linked to pathological biallelic expression of IGF2. However, H19 and IGF2 lie within a larger imprinted domain, and the gene specificity of H19 epimutation has been a persistent question. To address this, we assessed LOH, gene expression and DNA methylation at multiple sites in and around the imprinted domain. LOH mapping showed that the entire domain, including IGF2/H19, is within the minimal WT2 region. Genes within the domain, including IPL/TSSC3/BWR1C, IMPT1/ORCTL2/BWR1A/TSSC5, KvLQT1/KCNA9 and TAPA1/CD81, as well as the zinc finger gene ZNF195/ZNFP104 near the centromeric border, were expressed persistently in many WTs. DNA hypermethylation was not detected with 5" upstream probes for IPL, IMPT1, KvLQT1 and ZNF195 in WTs or WT-associated kidneys. Fully developed WTs showed variable hypomethylation at an imprinted CpG island in a KvLQT1 intron, but this was only complete in the cases with LOH and was not observed in pre-neoplastic WT-associated kidneys with H19 epimutation. Analysis of the corresponding region of mouse chromosome 7 using methyltransferase-hypomorphic mice showed that the H19 imprint was fully erased, but that the allelic bias at Ipl, Impt1, p57 Kip2 and, to a lesser extent, Kvlqt1, persisted. Pre-existing massive allelic asymmetry for DNA methylation and hyper-dependence of transcription on methylation status may underlie the mechanism of gene-specific silencing of H19 in Wilms' tumorigenesis.

Coppes MJ, Egeler RM
Genetics of Wilms' tumor.
Semin Urol Oncol. 1999; 17(1):2-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular genetic characterization of Wilms' tumor has played a prominent role in advancing our knowledge of the genetic aspects underlying the development of cancer in general. Unlike the genetic mechanism leading to the development of retinoblastoma, an embryonal tumor of childhood affecting the retina, which only requires the inactivation of one single gene, the biological pathways leading to the development of Wilms' tumor are complex and likely involve several genetic loci. These include two genes on chromosome 11p; one on chromosome 11p13 (the Wilms' tumor suppressor gene WT1) and the other on chromosome 11p15 (the putative Wilms' tumor suppressor gene WT2). In addition to these two genes, loci at 1p, 7p, 16q, 17p (the p53 tumor suppressor gene), and 19q (the putative familial Wilms' tumor gene FWT2) are also believed to harbor genes involved in the biology of Wilms' tumor. Herein these loci are reviewed and their clinical significance is summarized.

Karnik P, Chen P, Paris M, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 11p15 in Wilms tumors: identification of two independent regions.
Oncogene. 1998; 17(2):237-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on the short arm of chromosome 11 is the most frequent genetic alteration in Wilms tumors, indicating that one or more tumor suppressor genes that map to this chromosomal region are involved in the development of the disease. The WT1 gene located on 11p13 has been characterized but mutations in this gene occur in only about 10% of Wilms tumors. A second locus (WT2) at chromosome 11p15 has also been described in Wilms tumors but thus far efforts to clone the WT2 gene(s) have been frustrated by the large size (approximately 10 Mb) of this region. Using a high-density marker LOH analysis of 11p15.5-15.4, we have refined the location of a Wilms tumor suppressor gene between the markers D11S1318-D11S1288 (approximately 800 kb) within 11p15.5. We have also identified a second, novel region of LOH that spans the markers D11S1338-D11S1323 (approximately 336 kb) at 11p15.5-p115.4. Thus a second distinct locus, in addition to the previously defined WT2, on chromosome 11p15.5, appears to play a role in the development of Wilms tumors.

Fleming S
Genetics of kidney tumours.
Forum (Genova). 1998 Apr-Jun; 8(2):176-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years major research findings have revealed a strong correlation between the genes involved in the pathogenesis of renal tumours and the histopathological and clinical behavioural features. This new genetic information has provided the basis for the recent Heidelberg and Mayo Clinical Classifications for renal tumours. WilmsO tumour has been shown to arise from abnormalities in one of at least three genes. The first WilmsO tumour gene identified WT1, located on chromosome 11p13, encodes a zinc finger binding protein which is important in regulating the formation of the early nephron. Although the second WilmsO tumour gene, WT2, has not been formally identified it is known to be involved in the Beckwith Weideman Syndrome and in the WilmsO tumours which arise from that disease. Other WilmsO tumour genes have been implied from cytogenetic and familial data but their precise location and identification remains. In adult renal tumours there have also been considerable advances. The majority of conventional or clear cell renal carcinomas are associated with losses of chromosome 3p and mutation in the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene which is located on that portion of the genome. These mutations affect familial renal cancers arising as part of the VHL syndrome and the majority of sporadic renal carcinomas. There has been an energetic search for genetic abnormalities which may be involved in the progression of these tumours and data revealing the importance of chromosome 14q and other chromosomal sites have been generated. Papillary renal cancer is associated with different genetic abnormalities, in particular mutations of the c-met proto-oncogene and abnormalities of chromosome 7 with a small subgroup of familial papillary renal carcinomas showing evidence of abnormalities of the X chromosome. The less common renal carcinomas have shown cytogenetic abnormalities although the precise genes involved in their formation remain to be identified. These genetic advances have allowed a more accurate classification of renal carcinoma and WilmsO tumour and it is envisaged that they will lead to a better understanding of the biological behaviour with opportunities for therapeutic intervention in this large group of important human neoplasms.

Dorkin TJ, Robson CN, Neal DE
The molecular pathology of urological malignancies.
J Pathol. 1997; 183(4):380-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urological malignancies kill over 16,000 people annually in England and Wales. There have been exciting recent developments in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases, although many questions remain unanswered. Three separate genes (WT1, WT2, and WT3) have been implicated in Wilms' tumour development. Patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome develop renal cell carcinoma and it has been shown that VHL protein inhibits elongin, a cellular transcription factor which controls RNA elongation. Use of molecular markers to identify superficial bladder tumours likely to progress to muscle invasive disease has met with some success. Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p53 expression, and decreased E-cadherin expression all correlate with tumour progression. Tumours in patients with carcinoma in situ have distinct molecular features. Androgen ablation delays disease progression in men with prostate cancer, but relapse is inevitable. Research has been directed towards elucidating the mechanisms by which prostate cancer 'escapes' hormonal control. Mutations in the androgen receptor have been identified. It is apparent that locally produced growth factors mediate androgen-dependent processes and these too have been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis.

Crider-Miller SJ, Reid LH, Higgins MJ, et al.
Novel transcribed sequences within the BWS/WT2 region in 11p15.5: tissue-specific expression correlates with cancer type.
Genomics. 1997; 46(3):355-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome band 11p15.5 has proven to be an intriguing area of the human genome. Various studies have linked alterations in this region to growth-related disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and a variety of human cancers. Furthermore, functional assays in G401 Wilms tumor cells and RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells support the existence of a tumor suppressor gene on 11p15.5, sometimes called WT2. In addition, several genes mapping to this region show imprinted expression, suggesting that 11p15.5 contains an imprinted domain. We have employed solution hybrid capture in combination with sequence analysis to identify 16 genes within the approximately 700-kb critical region of 11p15.5 between D11S601 and D11S1318. Two of these genes, NAP1L4 and KCNA9, had been previously reported. Ten novel transcripts were identified with partial cDNA sequences selected by solution hybrid capture. Sequence homology to known ESTs was used to identify the remaining gene transcripts. Interestingly, the tissue-specific mRNA expression of these genes correlates with the tumor types linked to this region. This work can be compiled into a transcript map, important in the elucidation of tumor suppressor activity on chromosome 11p15.5.

Visser M, Sijmons C, Bras J, et al.
Allelotype of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma.
Oncogene. 1997; 15(11):1309-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
An allelotype covering all autosomes was constructed for the embryonal form of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) in order to identify regions encompassing tumorsuppressor genes (TSG) involved in ERMS. Thusfar most studies were focussed on chromosome 11p15.5, which frequently shows loss of heterozygozity (LOH) in embryonal tumors like RMS and Wilms' tumor (WT). In this study we show that, besides LOH of chromosome 11p15.5 (72%), LOH of chromosome 16q was present in 54% of the tumors analysed. Delineation of these two regions shows that the smallest region of overlap (SRO) for chromosome 11 was between D11S988 and D11S922. This region, estimated to be 7 cM and 3-5 Mb, is also the location of the putative Wilms' tumor WT2 TSG. It contains several genes including IGF2 and potential tumorsuppressor genes like H19 and p57kip2, which might contribute to the carcinogenesis of RMS. Analysis of chromosome 16q LOH defined the SRO between D16S752 and D16S413. LOH of chromosome 16 is also found in other tumors, including WT. Our data suggest that genes involved in the development of RMS and WT may not only be similar for chromosome 11 but also for chromosome 16.

O'Keefe D, Dao D, Zhao L, et al.
Coding mutations in p57KIP2 are present in some cases of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome but are rare or absent in Wilms tumors.
Am J Hum Genet. 1997; 61(2):295-303 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is marked by fetal organ overgrowth and conveys a predisposition to certain childhood tumors, including Wilms tumor (WT). The genetics of BWS have implicated a gene that maps to chromosome 11p15 and is paternally imprinted, and the gene encoding the cyclin-cdk inhibitor p57KIP2 has been a strong candidate. By complete sequencing of the coding exons and intron/exon junctions, we found a maternally transmitted coding mutation in the cdk-inhibitor domain of the KIP2 gene in one of five cases of BWS. The BWS mutation was an in-frame three-amino-acid deletion that significantly reduced but did not fully abrogate growth-suppressive activity in a transfection assay. In contrast, no somatic coding mutations in KIP2 were found in a set of 12 primary WTs enriched for cases that expressed KIP2 mRNA, including cases with and without 11p15.5 loss of heterozygosity. Two other 11p15.5 loci, the linked and oppositely imprinted H19 and IGF2 genes, have been previously implicated in WT pathogenesis, and several of the tumors with persistent KIP2 mRNA expression and absence of KIP2 coding mutations showed full inactivation of H19. These data suggest that KIP2 is a BWS gene but that it is not uniquely equivalent to the 11p15.5 "WT2" tumor-suppressor locus.

Wen JG, van Steenbrugge GJ, Egeler RM, Nijman RM
Progress of fundamental research in Wilms' tumor.
Urol Res. 1997; 25(4):223-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The progress of fundamental research on the histopathological and molecular genetic properties, model systems, growth factor involvement, and tumor markers of clinical nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) are reviewed. Histologically, Wilms' tumor (WT) has been found to reveal a disorganized renal developmental process in which blastema and epithelia are randomly interspersed in varying amounts of stroma. Anaplasia is the only criterion for assigning a WT as having an "unfavorable histology." Cytogenetic analysis identified WT genes at chromosome 11p13 (WT1), 11p15 region (WT2), and 16q (WT3). Permanent in vitro WT cell lines and in vivo WT models, such as human xenografts, have been established which provide indefinite sources of tumor material for fundamental, as well as therapy-directed, research. Abnormalities of growth factor (GF) expression in WT indicate that GF may play an important role in WT pathogenesis. A series of monoclonal antibodies was tested in WT by immunohistochemical techniques to identify specific diagnostic and prognostic markers. p53 expression in anaplastic WT is significantly higher than in differentiated WTs, indicating p53 may be a prognostic marker. Although significant progress has been made in the fundamental research, our basic knowledge of this malignancy is still limited. The availability of suitable experimental models, particularly the human xenograft system, offers the opportunity for further study of the cell biological and molecular aspects of WT and its clinical progression.

Grundy P, Telzerow P, Moksness J, Breslow NE
Clinicopathologic correlates of loss of heterozygosity in Wilm's tumor: a preliminary analysis.
Med Pediatr Oncol. 1996; 27(5):429-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms' tumor-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for DNA markers located at chromosomes 11p13, 11p15, 16q, and 1p has been reported to occur in a minority of Wilms' tumors. We hypothesized that tumors classified by region of LOH would exhibit specific clinicopathologic patterns. We have therefore determined the constitutional and tumor genotypes for markers at 11p13, 11p15, 16q, and 1p in a large series of Wilms' tumor patients who were registered on a Pediatric Oncology Group study and on the National Wilms' Tumor Study, to determine whether tumor-specific LOH for any of these regions was associated with any specific phenotype. Of 286 cases, 27% had LOH at both 11p13 and p15 (BOTH), 3% at 11p13 only, 8% at 11p15 only, and 62% at neither. Significant associations were found between younger age at diagnosis and LOH for BOTH, but not for 11p15 only, and between the presence of intralobar nephrogenic rests and LOH for BOTH. The incidence of nephrogenic rests (all types combined) and of bilateral tumors was the same in tumors with or without LOH. There was a negative association between anaplastic histology and LOH for 11p. There was no association between LOH on 11p and outcome as assessed by relapse-free and overall survival. The associations between age at diagnosis and LOH are interpreted as suggesting the existence of a Wilms' tumor locus on 11p in addition to WT1 at 11p13 and the putative WT2 at 11p15. LOH for chromosome 16q was identified in 17% of 204 tumors and was associated with a significantly worse outcome. Outcome for patients with LOH for 1p was also worse but not significantly so.

Overall ML, Spencer J, Bakker M, et al.
p57K1P2 is expressed in Wilms' tumor with LOH of 11p15.5.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1996; 17(1):56-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
p57KIP2 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that maps to human chromosome band 11p15.5, placing it in a genomically imprinted region that has been implicated in the etiology of Wilms' tumor and in the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Recent analysis of p57KIP2 expression in the mouse has determined that this gene is exclusively expressed from the maternal allele. It has been suggested that p57KIP2 is the WT2 tumor suppressor gene in the 11p15.5 region. We have used reverse transcriptase PCR to determine whether loss of p57KIP2 expression occurs in Wilms' tumor samples that have undergone maternal loss of heterozygosity of 11p15.5. p57KIP2 mRNA was amplified in both the Wilms' tumor tissue and in normal kidney tissue of all five patients analyzed. Semi-quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that the relative level of p57KIP2 expression in tumor tissue is not markedly different from that in normal kidney. Our data indicate that if the p57KIP2 gene is imprinted in humans and expressed exclusively from the maternal allele, reactivation of the paternal allele has occurred in all five Wilms' tumor samples analyzed in this study. Sequence analysis of the p57KIP2 Cdk inhibitory domain in genomic DNA from primary and secondary tumors from two patients showed only a single base change in one secondary WT, resulting in a predicted methionine to isoleucine substitution at amino acid position 70. These studies suggest that p57KIP2 may not be the WT2 gene.

Priest JR, Watterson J, Strong L, et al.
Pleuropulmonary blastoma: a marker for familial disease.
J Pediatr. 1996; 128(2):220-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To catalog and evaluate patterns of disease in families of children with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB).
METHODS: Data have been collected since 1988 on 45 children with PPB and their families. All pathologic materials were centrally reviewed. Preliminary molecular genetic analyses were performed when possible.
RESULTS: In 12 of 45 patients, an association was found between PPB and other dysplasias, neoplasias, or malignancies in the patients with or in their young relatives. The diseases found to be associated with PPB include other cases of PPB, pulmonary cysts, cystic nephromas, sarcomas, medulloblastomas, thyroid dysplasias and neoplasias, malignant germ cell tumors, Hodgkin disease, leukemia, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Abnormalities of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, Wilms tumor suppressor gene (WT1), and the putative second genetic locus for Wilms tumor (WT2) were not found in preliminary investigations.
CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of PPB appears to herald a constitutional and heritable predisposition to dysplastic or neoplastic disease in approximately 25% of cases. All patients with PPB and their families should be investigated carefully. Further research of this new family cancer syndrome may provide insight into the genetic basis of these diseases.

Besnard-Guérin C, Newsham I, Winqvist R, Cavenee WK
A common region of loss of heterozygosity in Wilms' tumor and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma distal to the D11S988 locus on chromosome 11p15.5.
Hum Genet. 1996; 97(2):163-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of Wilms' tumor has been associated with two genetic loci on chromosome 11: WT1 in 11p13 and WT2 in 11p15.5. Here, we have used loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in Wilms' tumors to narrow the WT2 locus distal to the D11S988 locus. A similar region was apparent for the clinically associated tumor, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. We have also demonstrated that a constitutional chromosome translocation breakpoint associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and an acquired somatic chromosome translocation breakpoint in a rhabdoid tumor each occur in the same chromosomal interval as the smallest region of LOH in Wilms' tumors and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Finally, we report the first Wilms' tumor without a cytogenetic deletion that shows targeted LOH for 11p15 and 11p13 while maintaining germline status for 11p14.

Qing RQ, Schmitt S, Ruelicke T, et al.
Autocrine regulation of growth by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II mediated by type I IGF-receptor in Wilms tumor cells.
Pediatr Res. 1996; 39(1):160-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumor is a common embryonic tumor in childhood. Two Wilms tumor-suppressor genes, WT1 and WT2, are located on chromosome 11p, WT2 at 11p15.5 close to the IGF-II gene, which is highly expressed in some Wilms tumors. We established Wilms tumor cell lines to investigate the regulation of tumor cell growth by IGF-II. We demonstrated that Wilms tumor cells produce more IGF-II than normal kidney cells. Both types I and II IGF receptors reside on these cells. In serum-free culture medium, tumor cell growth is reversibly inhibited by suramin via interfering with IGF-II binding. Wilms tumor cell growth is also arrested by IGF binding protein-3, capturing the continuously produced IGF-II, and by alpha IR-3, a type I IGF receptor-blocking antibody. Thus, we demonstrated the whole loop of elevated synthesis, secretion, receptor binding, and autocrine growth stimulation of IGF-II through type I IGF receptor in Wilms tumor cell cultures. We concluded that IGF-II plays a crucial role in the regulation of growth of this embryonic tumor. Overproduction of IGF-II by the tumor cell is the limiting step for Wilms tumor growth, supporting its important role as an embryonic growth factor.

Schofield DE, Beckwith JB, Sklar J
Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome regions 22q11-12 and 11p15.5 in renal rhabdoid tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1996; 15(1):10-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdoid tumors of the kidney are highly malignant neoplasms that occur primarily within the first 3 years of life. Although they are regarded as distinct from Wilms' tumors, their pathogenesis remains unclear. Whereas most cytogenetic studies of these tumors have revealed normal karyotypes, a few reports have indicated abnormalities at chromosome regions 22q and 11p15.5. We analyzed 30 primary renal rhabdoid tumors for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at both regions and found that 24 of 30 tumors (80%) had LOH at chromosome arm 22q and that 5 of 30 (17%) had LOH at chromosome band 11p15.5. All of the five tumors with LOH at chromosome arm 11p also had LOH at chromosome arm 22q. The data suggest that there is a gene in chromosome 22, probably a tumor suppressor, inactivation of which may be involved in the genesis of renal rhabdoid tumors. A second gene in chromosome segment 11p15.5, in the region of the putative WT2 gene, may also be involved, in at least a subset of rhabdoid tumors. In addition, five tumors were characterized by microsatellite instability at three or more of 21 loci examined, suggesting a possible role for a replicative error in tumorigenesis or progression in some cases of renal rhabdoid tumors. Genes Chromosom Cancer 15:10-17 (1996).

Austruy E, Candon S, Henry I, et al.
Characterization of regions of chromosomes 12 and 16 involved in nephroblastoma tumorigenesis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1995; 14(4):285-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are at least three loci involved in Wilms' tumor (WT) tumorigenesis: WT1 in 11p13, WT2 in 11p15.5, and WT3, as yet unmapped. A compilation of cytogenetic data published for 107 WT revealed that deletion of chromosome 16 and duplication of chromosome 12 occur as frequently as the well-documented 11p deletions. Allelic imbalance for chromosomes 16 and 12 was investigated in a series of 28 WT. By use of a large panel of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and (CA)n probes, we demonstrated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for 16q in seven (25%) of the tumors. The whole length of 16q was involved in six of the tumors. Moreover, consistent with a previous report of 16q13 LOH in a sporadic WT and a constitutional breakpoint with a Beckwith-Wiedemann patient, we map a region of particular interest to between D16S308 and D16S320. The assumption that 16q LOH may be an early event was based on: 1) the detection of 16q LOH in one case of nephroblastomatosis; 2) the presence of a complete (clonal) 16q LOH in a tumor with partial (mosaic) 11p LOH; and 3) 16q LOH as the sole abnormality in one WT. By quantification of chromosome 12 allelic imbalance, we detected duplication in 18% of the total series and in 25% of the sporadic unilateral cases. The common region extended from the centromere to D12S7 in 12q21.1-q23. We also suggest that the various pathogenetically important loci are not equally involved in the different forms of WT and that their sequential involvement may differ.

Tay JS
Molecular genetics of Wilms' tumour.
J Paediatr Child Health. 1995; 31(5):379-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms' tumour, or nephroblastoma, is an embryonal malignancy of the kidney with an incidence of approximately 1 in 10,000 live births. It occurs in both sporadic and familial forms, but only 1% of Wilms' tumour patients have a positive family history. The molecular genetics of Wilms' tumour have been the subject of extensive research and at least three genes (WT1, WT2, WT3) have been implicated. WT1 has been mapped to 11p13, and it has been suggested that loss or inactivation of a tumour-suppressor gene at 11p13 might be a primary event in the development of Wilms' tumour. The WT2 gene maps to 11p15 in the region of the Beckwith-Wiedemann locus. The WT3 locus is likely to be located to chromosome 16q. The understanding of the molecular genetics of Wilms' tumour is reviewed briefly.

Radice P, Perotti D, De Benedetti V, et al.
Allelotyping in Wilms tumors identifies a putative third tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 11.
Genomics. 1995; 27(3):497-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
An analysis of loss of heterozygosity for markers on both the short and the long arm of chromosome 11 was performed in 24 sporadic Wilms tumors. Six cases (25%) showed allelic losses involving the entire chromosome. In one case (4%) the loss was restricted solely to the WT1 gene on band p13. Two cases (8%) displayed allelic losses for WT1 and for markers on band p15.5, where the putative tumor suppressor gene WT2 has been mapped, but retained heterozygosity for markers on the long arm. In three tumors (13%) the loss of heterozygosity involved markers mapped to chromosomal regions p15.5 and q23.3-qter, but did not affect WT1 and markers on q12-q13. Altogether, the proportion of cases showing allelic losses at the distal region of 11q (37%) was comparable to that of cases with LOH affecting the WT1 (37%) or the WT2 (46%) loci, thus suggesting the existence of a third chromosome 11 tumor suppressor gene involved in the pathogenesis of Wilms tumors.

Brodeur GM
Genetics of embryonal tumours of childhood: retinoblastoma, Wilms' tumour and neuroblastoma.
Cancer Surv. 1995; 25:67-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
There has been considerable progress in the past decade in elucidating the molecular basis of malignant transformation of retinoblastoma, Wilms' tumour and neuroblastoma. For retinoblastoma, the story is relatively simple and the laboratory focus should be on rapid detection of germline mutations, identifying additional genetic changes associated with tumour progression and the prevention of second primary cancers, if possible. In the case of Wilms' tumour, the locus (or loci) responsible for hereditary predisposition is still unknown. Furthermore, the WT2 locus has not been cloned and there is no consistent evidence of oncogene activation. Clearly, there is still much to be done before we fully understand the genetic basis of this disease. Finally, substantial insights have been gained from the molecular analysis of neuroblastomas, but this tumour is perhaps the least well understood. Two sites of allelic loss have been identified (1p36 and 14q32), but the presumptive suppressor genes that are the targets of these changes have yet to be identified. Furthermore, it is not clear if either of these loci is responsible for a genetic predisposition to develop this tumour. Although N-myc amplification is a powerful prognostic marker of aggressive tumours, no other oncogene has been shown to be activated in tumours lacking amplification. Finally, the NGFR pathway may have an important role in regulating differentiation and programmed cell death in these cells, but other NGFR family pathways or unrelated genes may be involved as well. Hopefully, the next decade will provide us with answers to many of these open questions.

Mertens F, Mandahl N, Mitelman F, Heim S
Cytogenetic analysis in the examination of solid tumors in children.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1994 Jul-Aug; 11(4):361-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although pediatric solid tumors are cytogenetically less well characterized than childhood leukemias, an understanding of the role of chromosomal changes in the development of these neoplasms is emerging. The major clinical importance of chromosome analysis today is diagnostic. Especially in small cell round cell tumors of childhood, the unique karyotypic patterns that characterize some of the differential diagnostic entities make it possible to determine with a high degree of certainty which type of cancer the child has. Molecular studies have revealed that almost all retinoblastomas show homozygous loss of function of the RB1 gene in 13q14. At the cytogenetic level, however, aberrations of 13q are seen in less than 25% of retinoblastomas; instead, the presumably progression-related i(6p) and aberrations leading to gain of 1q predominate, each being present in one-third of the tumors. Twenty percent of cytogenetically aberrant Wilms' tumors show structural rearrangements, often deletions, of 11p13 and 11p15, where the WT1 and WT2 genes map. Other frequent changes are trisomy 12 and duplication of 1q. The most common (80%) cytogenetic abnormality in neuroblastoma is loss of distal 1p, a chromosome segment thought to harbor at least two tumor-suppressor genes of importance in tumorigenesis. Double minute chromosomes or homogeneously staining regions are present in one-third of all neuroblastomas and are associated with MYCN amplification. Loss of 1p material or MYCN amplification predicts a poor outcome. The most common (30%) chromosomal aberration in primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system is i(17q). The formation of this isochromosome may help inactivate a tumor-suppressor gene located distal to the TP53 locus on 17p. No specific chromosome abnormality has been detected in gliomas, but monosomy 22 and rearrangements leading to loss of 1p and gain of 1q are recurrent. Few hepatoblastomas with chromosomal changes have been reported, but several potential primary aberrations have been described, including +2, +20, and duplication 8q. In Ewing's sarcoma, t(11;22)(q24;q12) is the primary aberration, with trisomy 8 and gain of 1q being frequent secondary changes. Fibrosarcomas in children often carry only numeric aberrations, especially trisomy for chromosomes 11, 20, 17, and 8. Most osteosarcomas are cytogenetically complex, and no specific abnormality has been detected; the single most common change is loss of chromosome 13, which is observed in half the tumors. In contrast, the low-malignancy parosteal osteosarcomas often display supernumerary ring chromosomes as the sole karyotypic deviation. The cytogenetic profiles of rhabdomyosarcomas differ among the various morphologic subtypes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Further References

Dowdy SF, Fasching CL, Araujo D, et al.
Suppression of tumorigenicity in Wilms tumor by the p15.5-p14 region of chromosome 11.
Science. 1991; 254(5029):293-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumor has been associated with genomic alterations at both the 11p13 and 11p15 regions. To differentiate between the involvement of these two loci, a chromosome 11 was constructed that had one or the other region deleted, and this chromosome was introduced into the tumorigenic Wilms tumor cell line G401. When assayed for tumor-forming activity in nude mice, the 11p13-deleted, but not the 11p15.5-p14.1-deleted chromosome, retained its ability to suppress tumor formation. These results provide in vivo functional evidence for the existence of a second genetic locus (WT2) involved in suppressing the tumorigenic phenotype of Wilms tumor.

Wadey RB, Pal N, Buckle B, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity in Wilms' tumour involves two distinct regions of chromosome 11.
Oncogene. 1990; 5(6):901-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pairs of tumour and normal DNA samples from 38 Wilms' tumour patients have been investigated for loss of heterozygosity using 12 probes from chromosome 11. Allele loss was detected in only 11 cases (31%). Densitometric analysis showed that allele loss was not due to non-disjunction or hemizygous deletion, but rather to mitotic recombination or non-disjunction plus reduplication. Although the development of homozygosity sometimes involved the whole of the short arm of chromosome 11, in a few tumours allele loss was restricted to band 11p15 or 11p13 and distal sequences. This suggests mutations in two distinct regions play an important role in Wilms' tumorigenesis. There was no apparent correlation between loss of heterozygosity and tumour stage, age of presentation, or prior exposure to chemotherapy.

Reeve AE, Sih SA, Raizis AM, Feinberg AP
Loss of allelic heterozygosity at a second locus on chromosome 11 in sporadic Wilms' tumor cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 1989; 9(4):1799-803 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Children with associated Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome) frequently have a cytogenetically visible germ line deletion of chromosomal band 11p13. In accordance with the Knudson hypothesis of two-hit carcinogenesis, the absence of this chromosomal band suggests that loss of both alleles of a gene at 11p13 causes Wilms' tumor. Consistent with this model, chromosomes from sporadically occurring Wilms' tumor cells frequently show loss of allelic heterozygosity at polymorphic 11p15 loci, and therefore it has been assumed that allelic loss extends proximally to include 11p13. We report here that in samples from five sporadic Wilms' tumors, allelic loss occurred distal to the WAGR locus on 11p13. In cells from one tumor, mitotic recombination occurred distal to the gamma-globin gene on 11p15.5. Thus, allelic loss in sporadic Wilms' tumor cells may involve a second locus on 11p.

Koufos A, Grundy P, Morgan K, et al.
Familial Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome and a second Wilms tumor locus both map to 11p15.5.
Am J Hum Genet. 1989; 44(5):711-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wilms tumor of the kidney occurs with increased frequency in association with two clinically and cytogenetically distinct congenital syndromes, the Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) and the triad of aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR). Constitutional deletions in the latter situation and similar alterations in sporadic Wilms tumors have implicated the chromosomal 11p13 region in neoplastic development. In contrast, some sporadic cases of WBS have been reported to have a constitutional duplication of chromosome 11p15. In order to resolve this seeming paradox, we have analyzed a family segregating WBS for linkage to DNA markers mapped to chromosome 11p. Consonant with the cytogenetic alterations in sporadic WBS cases, we obtained evidence for tight linkage of the mutation causing the syndrome to markers located at 11p15.5. Also consistent with this localization, we identified a subset of Wilms tumors, not associated with WBS, which have attained somatic homozygosity through mitotic recombination, with the smallest shared region of overlap being distal to the beta-globin complex at 11p15.5. These data provide evidence that familial WBS likely results from a defect at the same genetic locus as does its sporadic counterpart. Further, the data suggest there is another locus, distinct from that involved in the WAGR syndrome, which plays a role in the association of Wilms tumor with WBS.

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