WAGR Syndrome

Overview

Wilms Tumor, Aniridia, Genitourinary Anomalies, and Mental Retardation Syndrome (WAGR). WAGR Syndrome is associated with contiguous deletions of the 11p13 area of Chromosome 11, including the PAX6 and WT1 genes. See also: Wilms Tumor.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Transcription
  • Eye Proteins
  • Newborns
  • beta Catenin
  • Autistic Disorder
  • Pedigree
  • Adolescents
  • Infant
  • FISH
  • Young Adult
  • Phenotype
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Aniridia
  • WT1
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • CGH
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Karyotyping
  • Gene Deletion
  • Repressor Proteins
  • WAGR Syndrome
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast
  • Gene Library
  • Obesity
  • Exons
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • PAX6
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Chromosome 11
  • Brain
Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (3)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

GeneLocationAliasesNotesTopicPapers
WT1 11p13 GUD, AWT1, WAGR, WT33, NPHS4, WIT-2, EWS-WT1 -WT1 deletions in WAGR Syndrome
30
PAX6 11p13 AN, AN2, FVH1, MGDA, WAGR, D11S812E -PAX6 deletions in WAGR Syndrome
23
BDNF 11p13 ANON2, BULN2 -BDNF deletion in WAGR Syndrome
9

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Useful Links (7 links)

Latest Publications

Adams DJ, Clark DA
Common genetic and epigenetic syndromes.
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015; 62(2):411-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic anomalies should be considered in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies. DNA methylation analysis is the most sensitive initial test in evaluating for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The timely identification of cytogenetic anomalies allows for prompt initiation of early intervention services to maximize the potential of every individual as they grow older. Although many of these conditions are rare, keeping them in mind can have a profound impact on the clinical course of affected individuals. This article reviews some of the more common genetic syndromes.

Hutson JM, Grover SR, O'Connell M, Pennell SD
Malformation syndromes associated with disorders of sex development.
Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014; 10(8):476-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
When embryological development of the internal and/or external genitalia is disrupted, the patient presents with a disorder of sex development (DSD) in the neonatal period or sometime later in life. Some of these patients have other, nongenital malformations, which makes their overall management more complex than if they just had a DSD. This Review summarises these malformation syndromes and discusses the recent research into their aetiology. The genetic causes of these malformation syndromes, when they are known, will also be described. Many specific genetic mutations are now known in malformation syndromes with a defect in hormonal function. By contrast, the genetic causes remain unknown in many nonhormonal morphological anomalies that affect the genitalia.

Yi T, Weng J, Siwko S, et al.
LGR4/GPR48 inactivation leads to aniridia-genitourinary anomalies-mental retardation syndrome defects.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(13):8767-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AGR syndrome (the clinical triad of aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation, a subgroup of WAGR syndrome for Wilm's tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation) is a rare syndrome caused by a contiguous gene deletion in the 11p13-14 region. However, the mechanisms of WAGR syndrome pathogenesis are elusive. In this study we provide evidence that LGR4 (also named GPR48), the only G-protein-coupled receptor gene in the human chromosome 11p12-11p14.4 fragment, is the key gene responsible for the diseases of AGR syndrome. Deletion of Lgr4 in mouse led to aniridia, polycystic kidney disease, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation, similar to the pathological defects of AGR syndrome. Furthermore, Lgr4 inactivation significantly increased cell apoptosis and decreased the expression of multiple important genes involved in the development of WAGR syndrome related organs. Specifically, deletion of Lgr4 down-regulated the expression of histone demethylases Jmjd2a and Fbxl10 through cAMP-CREB signaling pathways both in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and in urinary and reproductive system mouse tissues. Our data suggest that Lgr4, which regulates eye, kidney, testis, ovary, and uterine organ development as well as mental development through genetic and epigenetic surveillance, is a novel candidate gene for the pathogenesis of AGR syndrome.

Yamamoto T, Togawa M, Shimada S, et al.
Narrowing of the responsible region for severe developmental delay and autistic behaviors in WAGR syndrome down to 1.6 Mb including PAX6, WT1, and PRRG4.
Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164A(3):634-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interstitial deletions of the 11p13 region are known to cause WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformation, and "mental retardation") syndrome, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome due to haploinsufficiencies of the genes in this region, including WT1 and PAX6. Developmental delay and autistic features are major complications of this syndrome. Previously, some genes located in this region have been suggested as responsible for autistic features. In this study, we identified two patients who showed the chromosomal deletions involving 11p13. Patient 1, having an 8.6 Mb deletion of chr11p14.1p12:29,676,434-38,237,948, exhibited a phenotype typical of WAGR syndrome and had severe developmental delay and autistic behaviors. On the other hand, Patient 2 had a larger aberration region in 11p14.1-p12 which was split into two regions, that is, a 2.2-Mb region of chr11p14.1: 29,195,161-31,349,732 and a 10.5-Mb region of chr11p13p12: 32,990,627-43,492,580. As a consequence, 1.6 Mb region of the WAGR syndrome critical region was intact between the two deletions. This patient showed no symptom of WAGR syndrome and no autistic behaviors. Therefore, the region responsible for severe developmental delay and autistic features on WAGR syndrome can be narrowed down to the region remaining intact in Patient 2. Thus, the unique genotype identified in this study suggested that haploinsufficiencies of PAX6 or PRRG4 included in this region are candidate genes for severe developmental delay and autistic features characteristic of WAGR syndrome.

Trainor PA, Andrews BT
Facial dysostoses: Etiology, pathogenesis and management.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2013; 163C(4):283-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis.

Han JC, Thurm A, Golden Williams C, et al.
Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) haploinsufficiency with lower adaptive behaviour and reduced cognitive functioning in WAGR/11p13 deletion syndrome.
Cortex. 2013 Nov-Dec; 49(10):2700-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In animal studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity. WAGR (Wilms tumour, Aniridia, Genitourinary anomalies, and mental Retardation) syndrome is caused by 11p13 deletions of variable size near the BDNF locus and can serve as a model for studying human BDNF haploinsufficiency (+/-). We hypothesized that BDNF+/- would be associated with more severe cognitive impairment in subjects with WAGR syndrome. Twenty-eight subjects with WAGR syndrome (6-28 years), 12 subjects with isolated aniridia due to PAX6 mutations/microdeletions (7-54 years), and 20 healthy controls (4-32 years) received neurocognitive assessments. Deletion boundaries for the subjects in the WAGR group were determined by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Within the WAGR group, BDNF+/- subjects (n = 15), compared with BDNF intact (+/+) subjects (n = 13), had lower adaptive behaviour (p = .02), reduced cognitive functioning (p = .04), higher levels of reported historical (p = .02) and current (p = .02) social impairment, and higher percentage meeting cut-off score for autism (p = .047) on Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. These differences remained nominally significant after adjusting for visual acuity. Using diagnostic measures and clinical judgement, 3 subjects (2 BDNF+/- and 1 BDNF+/+) in the WAGR group (10.7%) were classified with autism spectrum disorder. A comparison group of visually impaired subjects with isolated aniridia had cognitive functioning comparable to that of healthy controls. In summary, among subjects with WAGR syndrome, BDNF+/- subjects had a mean Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Compose score that was 14-points lower and a mean intelligence quotient (IQ) that was 20-points lower than BDNF+/+ subjects. Our findings support the hypothesis that BDNF plays an important role in human neurocognitive development.

Rodríguez-López R, Pérez JM, Balsera AM, et al.
The modifier effect of the BDNF gene in the phenotype of the WAGRO syndrome.
Gene. 2013; 516(2):285-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Individuals who are carriers of deletions of various sizes that cause haploinsufficiency in the contiguous WT1 and PAX6 genes, located on chromosome 11p13 approximately 4 Mb centromeric to the BDNF gene, are susceptible to Wilms tumor, aniridia, mental retardation, genitourinary anomalies and obesity (WAGRO syndrome). The molecular characterization of the wide deletion 11p15.1p12 arr (18676926-36576388) x1 dn in a child with 3 years and 4 months of age only affected by aniridia, predicts not only other serious associated diseases, but also allows us to hypothesize a specific phenotype of mental impairment, conduct alterations and childhood obesity, possibly added to the onset of metabolic alterations. The variable appearance and/or description of haploinsufficiency for obesity susceptibility in the WAGR syndrome mainly depends on the critical region located within 80 kb of exon 1 of BDNF. The relationship between genetic variation based on the genotype combinations of the 4 gene SNPs tagging the BDNF gene and the body mass index (BMI) was studied. The polymorphic variability was similarly distributed in 218 children suffering a severe and non-syndromic obesity from families at high risk for obesity, as compared with 198 controls. The corroborated role of the BDNF gene as highly susceptible to severe syndromic obesity has not already been evidenced in the molecular basis of overweight attributed to the common polygenic principles. Its potential role as risk modifier variant to provoke more severe phenotype has not yet been demonstrated. Some genetic variants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have resulted in important disorders of energy balance, but it is essential to know exactly their deleterious human capacity because they play a fundamental role in the development and plasticity of the central nervous system in regulating food intake. The existence of polymorphic amino acid changes of unknown functional significance in patients carrying the haploinsufficiency of the BDNF gene could constitute an adequate model to study in depth their effects.

Cho EH, Kim SY, Kim JK
A case of 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including OA1 locus associated with contiguous gene syndrome.
J Korean Med Sci. 2012; 27(10):1273-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2→Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea.

Gucev Z, Muratovska O, Laban N, et al.
Billateral polycystic kidneys in a girl with WAGR syndrome.
Indian J Pediatr. 2011; 78(10):1290-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
The WAGR contiguous gene deletion syndrome is a combination of Wilms tumor, aniridia, genito-urinary abnormalities, and mental retardation. An 8.5-year-old girl was initially investigated at the age of 18 months for congenital bilateral aniridia, cataracts, glaucoma and epicantus. The ultrasound (US) scan showed polycystic kidney disease. FISH study revealed deletion of the WT1 and PAX6 gene in the 11p13 WAGR region. Forty days after the first kidney US, the second US revealed a 3 cm tumor in the right kidney: a Wilms tumour, treated successfully with the Wilm's tumor protocol. The authors conclude that the identification of the deletions in the WAGR region in patients with aniridia should definitely be done. In addition, Wilms tumor can have a very rapid growth, which, per se requires frequent and careful ultrasound kidney controls. Polycystic kidneys can be part of the WAGR presentation.

Demir HA, Varan A, Utine EG, et al.
WAGR syndrome with tetralogy of Fallot and hydrocephalus.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011; 33(4):e174-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome occurs sporadically due to deletion of chromosome 11p13. A variety of other abnormalities involving different systems have been reported in patients with WAGR syndrome. We report on a patient with WAGR syndrome with accompanying tetralogy of Fallot and hydrocephalus.

Li PC, Yao Q, Ren X, et al.
[Analysis of PAX6 gene in a Chinese family with congenital aniridia].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2009; 45(10):931-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the pathogenic mutation in a Chinese family with congenital aniridia.
METHODS: It is a case-control study. All 21 members of the family underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and family line investigation. Mononuclear cell was isolated from peripheral blood and genomic DNA was prepared by genomic DNA purification kit. All fourteen exons of the PAX6 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from proband's genomic DNA. PCR products of each exon were analyzed by direct sequencing.
RESULTS: A nonsense mutation (Q310X) in exon 11 of PAX6 gene was detected by sequencing analysis in the proband III2. This mutation cause the 301st amino acids codon switch from CAA to TAA and the codogenic amino acids altered from glutamine glutaminic acid to strong terminal codon. This mutation is also detected in all 11 patients of this family, but not present in the unaffected members in this family.
CONCLUSION: The premature translation termination of PAX6 gene caused by a nonsense mutation of Q310X should be responsible for congenital aniridia in this Chinese family.

Xu S, Han JC, Morales A, et al.
Characterization of 11p14-p12 deletion in WAGR syndrome by array CGH for identifying genes contributing to mental retardation and autism.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2008; 122(2):181-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
WAGR (Wilms tumor, Aniridia, Genitourinary malformations and mental Retardation) syndrome is a rare genomic disorder caused by deletion of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region. The majority of WAGR patients have mental retardation and behavioral problems, and more than 20% of the patients also have features of autism. While the Wilms tumor/genitourinary anomalies and aniridia are caused by deletion of WT1 and PAX6 respectively, the genomic cause of mental retardation and autism in WAGR syndrome remains unknown. Using oligonucleotide arrays, we have characterized the 11p14-p12 deletions in 31 patients and identified all the genes involved in each deletion. The deletions had sizes ranging from 4.9 to 23 Mb that encompass 18-62 genes (40 on average). In addition to WT1 and PAX6, all the patients had deletion of PRRG4 (transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4). The majority of them had deletion of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and SLC1A2 [solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter) member 2]. Deletion of BDNF and SLC1A2 occurred in patients with autism more frequently than in those without autism. Literature review on the functions of the genes suggests that haploinsufficiency of SLC1A2, PRRG4, and BDNF may contribute to mental retardation and behavioral problems. In particular, BDNF may modulate the risk of autism in WAGR patients as suggested by its link with Rett syndrome as a target of MECP2. We observed that all the de novo deletions occurred in the chromosome 11 inherited from the father in the families genotyped, implying a predisposition for de novo mutations occurring in spermatogenesis and possible involvement of imprinting in cognitive impairment in WAGR patients.

Tyagi R, Shenoy AR, Visweswariah SS
Characterization of an evolutionarily conserved metallophosphoesterase that is expressed in the fetal brain and associated with the WAGR syndrome.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(8):5217-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among the human diseases that result from chromosomal aberrations, a de novo deletion in chromosome 11p13 is clinically associated with a syndrome characterized by Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR). Not all genes in the deleted region have been characterized biochemically or functionally. We have recently identified the first Class III cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, Rv0805, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which biochemically and structurally belongs to the superfamily of metallophosphoesterases. We performed a large scale bioinformatic analysis to identify orthologs of the Rv0805 protein and identified many eukaryotic genes that included the human 239FB gene present in the region deleted in the WAGR syndrome. We report here the first detailed biochemical characterization of the rat 239FB protein and show that it possesses metallophosphodiesterase activity. Extensive mutational analysis identified residues that are involved in metal interaction at the binuclear metal center. Generation of a rat 239FB protein with a mutation corresponding to a single nucleotide polymorphism seen in human 239FB led to complete inactivation of the protein. A close ortholog of 239FB is found in adult tissues, and biochemical characterization of the 239AB protein demonstrated significant hydrolytic activity against 2',3'-cAMP, thus representing the first evidence for a Class III cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in mammals. Highly conserved orthologs of the 239FB protein are found in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila and, coupled with available evidence suggesting that 239FB is a tumor suppressor, indicate the important role this protein must play in diverse cellular events.

Han JC, Liu QR, Jones M, et al.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and obesity in the WAGR syndrome.
N Engl J Med. 2008; 359(9):918-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to be important in energy homeostasis in animal models, but little is known about its role in energy balance in humans. Heterozygous, variably sized, contiguous gene deletions causing haploinsufficiency of the WT1 and PAX6 genes on chromosome 11p13, approximately 4 Mb centromeric to BDNF (11p14.1), result in the Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome. Hyperphagia and obesity were observed in a subgroup of patients with the WAGR syndrome. We hypothesized that the subphenotype of obesity in the WAGR syndrome is attributable to deletions that induce haploinsufficiency of BDNF.
METHODS: We studied the relationship between genotype and body-mass index (BMI) in 33 patients with the WAGR syndrome who were recruited through the International WAGR Syndrome Association. The extent of each deletion was determined with the use of oligonucleotide comparative genomic hybridization.
RESULTS: Deletions of chromosome 11p in the patients studied ranged from 1.0 to 26.5 Mb; 58% of the patients had heterozygous BDNF deletions. These patients had significantly higher BMI z scores throughout childhood than did patients with intact BDNF (mean [+/-SD] z score at 8 to 10 years of age, 2.08+/-0.45 in patients with heterozygous BDNF deletions vs. 0.88+/-1.28 in patients without BDNF deletions; P=0.03). By 10 years of age, 100% of the patients with heterozygous BDNF deletions (95% confidence interval [CI], 77 to 100) were obese (BMI > or = 95th percentile for age and sex) as compared with 20% of persons without BDNF deletions (95% CI, 3 to 56; P<0.001). The critical region for childhood-onset obesity in the WAGR syndrome was located within 80 kb of exon 1 of BDNF. Serum BDNF concentrations were approximately 50% lower among the patients with heterozygous BDNF deletions (P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Among persons with the WAGR syndrome, BDNF haploinsufficiency is associated with lower levels of serum BDNF and with childhood-onset obesity; thus, BDNF may be important for energy homeostasis in humans.

Redeker EJ, de Visser AS, Bergen AA, Mannens MM
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) enhances the molecular diagnosis of aniridia and related disorders.
Mol Vis. 2008; 14:836-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in the PAX6 gene have been implicated in aniridia, a congenital malformation of the eye with severe hypoplasia of the iris. However, not all aniridia cases can be explained by mutations in the PAX6 gene. The purpose of this study was to enhance the molecular diagnosis of aniridia using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Total genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 70 unrelated probands affected with aniridia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed followed by automated bidirectional sequencing. Additionally, MLPA was performed. We identified 24 different point mutations in the PAX6 gene in 34 patients after sequencing. In eight additional patients, we identified a deletion of one or more exons of the PAX6 gene or in the 3' regulatory region of the PAX6 gene using MLPA. This work demonstrates the necessity to screen for larger deletions in the region of the PAX6 gene in addition to the sequencing of exons in the PAX6 gene. The mutation detection rate will increase from 49% to 60%. This shows that MLPA substantially enhances the molecular diagnosis of aniridia.

Uccini S, Perotti D, Colarossi C, et al.
Molecular evidence of the independent origin of multiple Wilms tumors in a case of WAGR syndrome.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008; 51(3):344-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the genetic events leading to tumorigenesis in a patient affected with WAGR syndrome who developed multiple distinct Wilms tumors (WTs).
PROCEDURE AND RESULTS: At 1 year of age, the child developed two synchronous bilateral WTs that were resected by partial nephrectomy. Histologically, these tumors were fetal rhabdomyomatous nephroblastomas. Immunohistochemical study revealed the absence of nuclear expression of WT1 protein, while beta-catenin protein was expressed at nuclear level by the large majority of tumor cells. Molecular investigations of WT1 gene and exon 3 of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) gene detected no mutations. At 4 years of age, 28 months after the chemotherapy completion, a third WT was diagnosed in the left kidney, and surgically removed before any further chemotherapy. Nine months after surgery, a metastasis was detected in the left lung. Both the third renal tumor and the lung metastasis showed a blastema-predominant morphology. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the lack of expression of WT1 protein, while beta-catenin protein was expressed at nuclear level by the large majority of tumor cells. Molecular analysis of the third renal tumor and the lung metastasis revealed a 4 bp deletion in exon 7 of WT1 gene, leading to a frameshift of the reading frame and to a premature stop of the translation (c.925_928delACTC, p.T309LfsX71); no mutations in the exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene were documented.
CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that multiple WTs can arise as a consequence of different genetic events in a patient with genetic predisposition, such as WAGR syndrome.

Dahan K, Kamal M, Noël LH, et al.
Small glomeruli in WAGR (Wilms Tumor, Aniridia, Genitourinary Anomalies and Mental Retardation) syndrome.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2007; 49(6):793-800 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of band 11p13, which results in the loss of 1 allele of the Wilms tumor suppressor gene (WT1). It is not classically associated with nephropathies, but increased rates of renal failure are reported. Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), caused by mutations in the WT1 gene affecting the third or second zinc finger, is characterized by a triad of glomerulopathy progressing rapidly to end-stage renal disease, male hermaphroditism, and Wilms tumor. In patients with DDS, small glomeruli were observed.
METHODS: We reviewed histological findings of nontumoral kidney samples of 7 patients with WAGR syndrome at the time of tumor surgery.
RESULTS: Median glomerular diameter was 110 +/- 37 microm in patients with WAGR syndrome versus 125 +/- 18.5 microm in controls (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: The presence of small glomeruli in patients with WAGR syndrome, as in those with DDS, suggests a specific defect of WT1 function in development and a specific role of WT1 allele loss in the development of renal failure in these patients.

Braun KP, May M, Erler T, Hoschke B
[Multicystic renal tumor in a patient with WAGR syndrome].
Urologe A. 2007; 46(6):671-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The WAGR syndrome is a combination of Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation. We report on a 2-year-old boy, who had a deletion of the aniridia gene PAX6 and the Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1 gene). At the age of 23 months, a 1.7 x 1.9 cm-sized intrarenal tumor was detected by ultrasound examination. According to the protocol of the SIOP study, a cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed followed by a left-sided nephrectomy. However, postsurgical histomorphology failed to confirm the suspected diagnosis of Wilms' tumor and instead revealed dysgenetic cysts of the kidney. Based on the image morphology in connection with the deletion of the WT1 gene, the tentative diagnosis of a nephroblastoma had to be made. The study protocol of the SIOP does not permit another therapy algorithm.

Termine C, Parigi G, Rossi M, et al.
WAGR syndrome: is the 'R' always justified?
Clin Dysmorphol. 2007; 16(1):69-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is usually considered part of WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumour (WT), Aniridia, Genital abnormalities, and metal Retardation, due to 11p13 deletion) the neuropsychological profile of the syndrome is little reported in the literature. We report about a 12-year-old boy presenting with WAGR syndrome (WT, right complete aniridia, bilateral cryptorchidism, interstitial deletion involving band 11p13) but with no mental retardation. An in-depth clinical evaluation revealed no behavioural or social problems and the child's neuropsychological profile was found to be within the normal range for all abilities and functions investigated (with the exception of an impulsive cognitive style and some difficulties in academic skills). This case underlines the importance of in-depth neuropsychological evaluation that includes not only IQ measurement, but also examination of attention and academic skills, in order to establish the complete phenotypical profile of WAGR patients, rather than labelling them as learning disabled (i.e. mental retardation).

Jung R, Rauch A, Salomons GS, et al.
Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a patient with combined succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency and incomplete WAGR syndrome with obesity.
Mol Genet Metab. 2006; 88(3):256-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe the clinical course, as well as cytogenetic and molecular findings, of a 3-year-old obese boy with psychomotor retardation who exhibited two rare conditions: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADH deficiency, MIM 271980), a disorder of gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism with a heterogeneous clinical spectrum, and partial Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genital abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome, an association between Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation due to mutations involving the short arm of chromosome 11, particularly deletions at the chromosomal region 11p13 (MIM 194072). Diagnosis of SSADH deficiency in our patient was established by demonstration of absent enzyme activity in isolated leucocytes, and was associated with a novel missense mutation (c.587G>A; p.Gly196Asp) in the SSADH coding sequence. We further confirmed an incomplete WAGR syndrome in this boy [karyotype 46, XY, del (11) (p13p14.2)] with a normal WT1 (Wilms' tumor) gene and an absence of pathology in the genitourinary tract, but with obesity (WAGR syndrome with obesity, WAGRO syndrome). The patient also exhibited distinctive cerebral anomalies such as increased signals of the globi pallidi, internal hydrocephalus and cerebellar vermian atrophy. However, treatment options for this patient are limited, including supportive treatment, physiotherapy, special educational training, and vigabatrin. In summary, we report the first patient with the exceptional rare findings of both SSADH deficiency and partial WAGR/WAGRO syndrome.

Fischbach BV, Trout KL, Lewis J, et al.
WAGR syndrome: a clinical review of 54 cases.
Pediatrics. 2005; 116(4):984-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a de novo deletion of 11p13 and is clinically associated with Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (W-A-G-R). Although the genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established, the large variety of phenotypic manifestations of the syndrome has never been reported. We report on 54 cases of WAGR syndrome to demonstrate both the classical clinical signs and nonclassical manifestations found in a large population of individuals with this disorder. An understanding of WAGR syndrome and its clinical findings can provide important insight regarding the functions of the involved genetic region. Recommendations for diagnosis, evaluation, and surveillance of patients with WAGR syndrome are also presented.

Farooqi IS
Genetic and hereditary aspects of childhood obesity.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 19(3):359-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic factors are involved in the regulation of body weight and in determining individual responses to environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The identification and characterization of monogenic obesity syndromes have led to an improved understanding of the precise nature of the inherited component of severe obesity and has had undoubted medical benefits, whilst helping to dispel the notion that obesity represents an individual defect in behaviour with no biological basis. For individuals at highest risk of the complications of severe obesity, such findings provide a starting point for providing more rational mechanism-based therapies, as has successfully been achieved for one disorder, congenital leptin deficiency.

Brémond-Gignac D, Crolla JA, Copin H, et al.
Combination of WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer contiguous deletion syndromes in a patient with an 11p11.2-p14 deletion.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2005; 13(4):409-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aniridia, Wilms tumor, genitourinary abnormalities, growth and mental retardation are the cardinal features of the WAGR 11p13 deletion syndrome. The Potocki-Schaffer syndrome or proximal 11p deletion syndrome (previously DEFECT11 syndrome) is a contiguous gene syndrome associated with deletions in 11p11.2, principal features of which are multiple exostoses and enlarged parietal foramina. Mental handicap, facial dysmorphism and craniosynostosis may also be associated. We report a patient with combined WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes, and obesity. She presented with aniridia, cataract, nystagmus, corneal ulcers and bilateral congenital ptosis. A left nephroblastoma was detected at 15 months. Other features included moderate developmental delay, growth deficiency, facial dysmorphism, multiple exostoses and cranial lacunae. High-resolution and molecular cytogenetics confirmed a del(11)(p11.2p14.1) deletion with a proximal breakpoint between the cosmid DO8153 and the BAC RP11-104M24 to a distal breakpoint between cosmids CO8160 (D11S151) and F1238 (D11S1446). The deletion therefore includes EXT2, ALX4, WT1 and PAX6. This case appears to be the second patient reported with this combined deletion syndrome and confirms the association of obesity in the WAGR spectrum, a feature previously reported in four cases, and for which the acronym WAGRO has been suggested. Molecular and follow-up data on the original WAGRO case are briefly presented.

Wu M, Michaud EJ, Johnson DK
Cloning, functional study and comparative mapping of Luzp2 to mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 11p13-11p14.
Mamm Genome. 2003; 14(5):323-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
A novel leucine-zipper gene, leucine zipper protein 2 (Luzp2), has been cloned as part of an aberrant deletion-fusion transcript in the chromosomal interval between Gas2 and Herc2 on mouse Chromosome 7 (Chr 7). Luzp2 is normally expressed only in brain and spinal cord. The human homolog of Luzp2 maps to Chr 11p13-11p14 by radiation-hybrid mapping and is deleted in some patients with Wilms tumor-Aniridia-Genitourinary anomalies-mental Retardation (WAGR) syndrome. Disruption of Luzp2 by gene targeting in mice did not result in any obvious abnormal phenotypes.

Chao LY, Mishra R, Strong LC, Saunders GF
Missense mutations in the DNA-binding region and termination codon in PAX6.
Hum Mutat. 2003; 21(2):138-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have identified nine novel intragenic mutations of the PAX6 gene in 30 patients with aniridia. One patient with Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome) had deletion of 11p and had lost the paternal PAX6 allele. Two patients had small deletions: a frameshift that should result in early termination of the PAX6 protein, and a frameshift that leads to a termination-site change and run-on into the 3' untranslated region (UTR). The other 27 patients had single base-pair mutations. Four had splicing defects; three had IVS6+1G>A, which was at a mutation hotspot in the PAX6 gene; 10 had premature termination (four 1024C>T [R203X], also at a mutation hotspot); and six had missense mutations. Missense mutation A321T (1378G>A) was a polymorphic change; the other five missense mutations were L46R, C52R, I56T, G73D, and I87K. These five codons are in the PAX6 paired domain and are highly conserved throughout the entire paired family. Seven patients had a mutation in the normal stop codon (TAA). This change leads to run-on into the 3' UTR and is also at a mutation hotspot. All 30 mutations should result in PAX6 haploinsufficiency. No correlation was observed between mutation sites and phenotypes.

Lorda-Sanchez I, Sanz R, Diaz-Guillen MA, et al.
Aniridia as part of a WAGR syndrome in a girl whose brother presented hypospadias.
Genet Couns. 2002; 13(2):171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aniridia can arise as part of the WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumour. aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation), due to a deletion or chromosomal region 11p13. We report a girl with a complete WAGR syndrome, whose brother presented hypospadias. Cytogenetic, FISH and molecular studies showed a deletion in one chromosome 11 of the patient. No cytogenetic rearrangement or deletion affecting the genes included in this region (PAX6 and WT1) were observed in her brother and parents. This excludes a higher risk than that of the general population for developing Wilms tumour in the brother and supports that the presence of WAGR syndrome in the patient and hypospadias in her brother is a chance association. We conclude that the identification and definition of the deletions in the WAGR region, which include the WT1 locus are important in order to identify a high tumour risk in infant patients with aniridia including those without other WAGR anomalies.

Dome JS, Coppes MJ
Recent advances in Wilms tumor genetics.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002; 14(1):5-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The past decade has witnessed substantial growth in our knowledge of the genes and loci that are altered in Wilms tumor. Although Wilms tumor was one of the original paradigms of Knudson's two-hit model of cancer formation, it has become apparent that several genetic events contribute to Wilms tumorigenesis. Recent research has identified targets and regulators of the first Wilms tumor gene, WT1, has uncovered several candidate genes at the second Wilms tumor locus, WT2, and has identified two familial Wilms tumor loci, FWT1 and FWT2. The recent discovery of activating beta-catenin mutations in some Wilms tumors has also implicated the Wnt signaling pathway in this neoplasm. Recurrent abnormalities of other loci, including 16q, 1p, and 7p, have indicated that these sites may harbor Wilms tumor genes. An enhanced understanding of these and other genetic lesions will provide the foundation for novel targeted Wilms tumor therapies.

Amor DJ
Morbid obesity and hyperphagia in the WAGR syndrome.
Clin Dysmorphol. 2002; 11(1):73-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 33-year-old man with WAGR syndrome is described with morbid obesity associated with hyperphagia and an apparent lack of satiety. It is possible that a gene associated with satiety is present at 11p13 although it is premature to conclude that obesity is a specific feature of WAGR syndrome.

Tiberio G, Digilio MC, Giannotti A
Obesity and WAGR syndrome.
Clin Dysmorphol. 2000; 9(1):63-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a 15-year-old boy with WAGR syndrome and obesity and suggest that obesity should be added to the WAGR spectrum. It is also suggested that a putative gene for obesity might be located within the 11p13 band.

Guillemot F, Auffray C, Devignes MD
Detailed transcript map of a 810-kb region at 11p14 involving identification of 10 novel human 3' exons.
Eur J Hum Genet. 1999 May-Jun; 7(4):487-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
A limited number of genes, including the human brain-derived neutrotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, have been identified in the human chromosome 11p14 region. Since this area is involved in a genetic disorder (WAGR syndrome) and because of interest in studying the regulation of the human BDNF gene, we have established a detailed transcript map of a 810-kb region clone in a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), corresponding to a portion of this genomic locus. A set of nested deletion mutants has been generated to map genes at a mean resolution of 75kb. Four genic markers from available mapping databases have been mapped on the YAC. Ten potential novel human exons have been isolated by a 3' terminal exon trapping procedure directly applied to purified YAC DNA. Most of these exons display polyadenylation signals and they all yield positive signals in RT-PCR experiments, confirming their status of transcribed sequences. The BDNF gene is now co-localised with three other genes on a 120 kb DNA fragment.

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