Gene Summary

Gene:IGF2; insulin like growth factor 2
Aliases: GRDF, IGF-II, PP9974, C11orf43
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the insulin family of polypeptide growth factors, which are involved in development and growth. It is an imprinted gene, expressed only from the paternal allele, and epigenetic changes at this locus are associated with Wilms tumour, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Silver-Russell syndrome. A read-through INS-IGF2 gene exists, whose 5' region overlaps the INS gene and the 3' region overlaps this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:insulin-like growth factor II
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

The loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and an overexpression of this growth factor gene have been reported in a wide range of cancers, particularly in Wilms' tumour.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IGF2 (cancer-related)

Gao S, Lin Z, Li C, et al.
lncINS-IGF2 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Migration by Promoting G1/S Transition in Lung Cancer.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 18:1533033818823029 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs are capable of regulating gene expression at multiple levels. These RNA molecules are also involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Emerging data demonstrate that a series of differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs are implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to identify long noncoding RNAs that are dysregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer when compared to normal lung tissues. Accordingly, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to analyze the levels of long noncoding RNA and the cis target gene. We further found the oncogene property of long noncoding RNA that long noncoding RNA downexpression inhibits non-small-cell lung cancer cells proliferation and migration based on 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide and colony formation assays and wound healing as well as transwell assays. The influence of long noncoding RNA on cell cycle of non-small-cell lung cancer cells is also analyzed by flow cytometry. Among the dysregulated long noncoding RNAs, we identified INS-IGF2 readthrough, transcript variant 1, noncoding RNA (NR_003512.3) is upregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues, the cis gene of which is insulin-like growth factor 2 gene hinted by bioinformatics analysis. We also observed that downregulation of INS-IGF2 readthrough, transcript variant 1, noncoding RNA reduces insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA expression. Furthermore, INS-IGF2 readthrough, transcript variant 1, noncoding RNA downregulation suppresses non-small-cell lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. This downregulation results in a concomitant inhibition of the G1/S transition in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Our findings suggest that INS-IGF2 readthrough, transcript variant 1, noncoding RNA may be an oncogene involved in the development of lung cancer. Therefore, we speculate that INS-IGF2 readthrough, transcript variant 1, noncoding RNA represents a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer.

Tian W, Jiang C, Huang Z, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of dysregulated lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs with associated ceRNA network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 696:206-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mounting evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in tumor biology. To date, some lncRNAs have been found to be involved in competitive binding of miRNAs, a major group of competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), through participation in a regulatory network of protein-coding gene expression. However, the functional roles of lncRNA-mediated ceRNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have rarely been reported. Here, we construct a hypothetical ceRNA network by analyzing differential expression of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs obtained from 96 ESCC tissues and 13 normal tissues in the Cancer Genome Atlas. Ultimately, 95 lncRNAs, 9 miRNAs, and 40 mRNAs were identified (fold change >1.5, P < .05) and included in the ceRNA network for ESCC. Moreover, three lncRNAs (IGF2-AS, MUC2 and SOX2-OT) were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (log-rank test, P < .05), and further experiments revealed that lncRNA DLX6-AS1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and invasion of esophageal cancer cells by enhancing the endogenous function of mTOR. We believe that the identified ceRNA network can facilitate a better understanding of lncRNA-related mechanisms in ESCC.

De Giovanni C, Nanni P, Landuzzi L, et al.
Immune targeting of autocrine IGF2 hampers rhabdomyosarcoma growth and metastasis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-1 (IGF1R) system sustains the genesis of rhabdomyosarcoma through IGF2 autocrine overexpression. While several IGF1R-targeted strategies have been investigated to interphere with rhabdomyosarcoma growth, no attempt to neutralize IGF2 has been reported. We therefore studied the possibility to hamper rhabdomyosarcoma growth with passive and active immune approaches targeting IGF2.
METHODS: A murine model developing IGF2-overexpressing pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, along with IGF2-independent salivary carcinoma, was used to investigate the efficacy and specificity of passive anti-IGFs antibody treatment. Active vaccinations with electroporated DNA plasmids encoding murine or human IGF2 were performed to elicit autochthonous anti-IGF2 antibodies. Vaccinated mice received the intravenous injection of rhabdomyosarcoma cells to study the effects of anti-IGF2 antibodies against developing metastases.
RESULTS: Passive administration of antibodies neutralizing IGFs delayed the onset of IGF2-overexpressing rhabdomyosarcoma but not of IGF2-independent salivary carcinoma. A DNA vaccine against murine IGF2 did not elicit antibodies, even when combined with Treg-depletion, while a DNA vaccine encoding the human IGF2 gene elicited antibodies crossreacting with murine IGF2. Mice with anti-IGF2 antibodies were partially protected against the metastatic growth of IGF2-addicted rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Immune targeting of autocrine IGF2 inhibited rhabdomyosarcoma genesis and metastatic growth.

Celik N, Aydin S, Ugur K, et al.
Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3-gene (adiponutrin), preptin, kisspeptin and amylin regulates oocyte developmental capacity in PCOS.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(15):7-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was planned to test whether follicular fluid (FF) levels of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3-gene (PNPLA3:adiponutrin), preptin, kisspeptin, and amylin change in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A total of 40 infertile volunteers undergoing IVF/ICSI were included in the study. They were divided into two groups as PCOS (n=20) and control group without PCOS (n=20). The controls were recruited from subjects with a poor ovarian response. The PCOS and control participants were matched according to their body mass index (BMI). Each group of participants underwent ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol. Blood and FF samples of one dominant follicle were obtained from each subject during the oocyte pick-up. FF and serum levels of PNPLA3, preptin, kisspeptin and amylin were measured through ELISA. Amylin and adiponutrin median values were not different according to study groups (p>0.05). FF-preptin median values in the control group were similar to the serum preptin values of control and PCOS groups (Z=0.970, p=1.000 and Z=2.631, p=0.051, respectively). Medians of the serum preptin in control and PCOS groups were the same (Z=1.649; p=0.595). FF-preptin median values of PCOS group were significantly lower than the preptin median values of the control group. Serum preptin levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR, but not with pregnancy rates and the number of retrieved oocytes. Serum kisspeptin levels were negatively correlated with the number of retrieved oocytes and pregnancy rates. While amylin and adiponutrin have no role in the folliculogenesis, kisspeptin and preptin work together for regulating follicle developmental capacity in PCOS.

Kalledsøe L, Dragsted LO, Hansen L, et al.
The insulin-like growth factor family and breast cancer prognosis: A prospective cohort study among postmenopausal women in Denmark.
Growth Horm IGF Res. 2019; 44:33-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. The evidence in relation to BC prognosis is limited. We aimed to evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and BC prognosis (i.e. recurrence, BC specific mortality and all-cause mortality) among women diagnosed with BC. We hypothesized that higher serum levels of IGFs and IGFBPs were associated with poor BC prognosis and that the associations were modified by estrogen receptor (ER) status.
DESIGN: From the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, 412 postmenopausal women diagnosed with incident BC within 5 years of cohort baseline (1993-1997) were identified. Baseline serum samples were analyzed for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Follow-up was carried out through 2014 by linkage to national Danish registries. Exposures were related to BC prognosis by Cox Proportional Hazard models; effect modification by ER status was investigated and sensitivity analyses by follow-up time were made.
RESULTS: During a median of 15 years, 106 women experienced recurrence and 172 died (118 due to BC). Overall, no associations were observed between IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and BC prognosis and no effect modification by ER status was observed. However, higher levels of IGF-II were associated with higher BC specific mortality [Hazard Ratio (HR) (95% Confidence Intervals (CI)): 1.43 (1.01-2.04)] within 10 years of follow-up. Likewise, higher levels of IGFBP-2 were associated with higher BC specific mortality [HR (95% CI): 1.87 (1.19-2.94)] within 5 years of follow-up. In contrast, higher levels of IGFBP-3 were associated with lower risk of recurrence [HR (95% CI): 0.76 (0.60-0.97)] at 5 years of follow-up and BC specific mortality [HR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.65-0.98)] within 10 years of follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not support an association between higher serum levels of IGFs, IGFBPs and adverse BC prognosis. However, it is possible that the role of the IGF family in the etiology of the 5-10 year BC prognosis is different from that of longer-term BC prognosis.

Liang Y, Zhang C, Ma MH, Dai DQ
Identification and prediction of novel non-coding and coding RNA-associated competing endogenous RNA networks in colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(46):5259-5270 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To identify and predict the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks in colorectal cancer (CRC) by bioinformatics analysis.
METHODS: In the present study, we obtained CRC tissue and normal tissue gene expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. Differentially expressed (DE) genes (DEGs) were identified. Then, upregulated and downregulated miRNA-centered ceRNA networks were constructed by analyzing the DEGs using multiple bioinformatics approaches. DEmRNAs in the ceRNA networks were identified in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways using KEGG Orthology Based Annotation System 3.0. The interactions between proteins were analyzed using the STRING database. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted for DEGs and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was also performed to validate the prognosis-associated lncRNAs in CRC cell lines.
RESULTS: Eighty-one DElncRNAs, 20 DEmiRNAs, and 54 DEmRNAs were identified to construct the ceRNA networks of CRC. The KEGG pathway analysis indicated that nine out of top ten pathways were related with cancer and the most significant pathway was "colorectal cancer". Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the overall survival was positively associated with five DEGs (IGF2-AS, POU6F2-AS2, hsa-miR-32, hsa-miR-141, and SERPINE1) and it was negatively related to three DEGs (LINC00488, hsa-miR-375, and PHLPP2). Based on the STRING protein database, it was found that SERPINE1 and PHLPP2 interact with AKT1. Besides, SERPINE1 can interact with VEGFA, VTN, TGFB1, PLAU, PLAUR, PLG, and PLAT. PHLPP2 can interact with AKT2 and AKT3. RT-qPCR revealed that the expression of IGF2-AS, POU6F2-AS2, and LINC00488 in CRC cell lines was consistent with the
CONCLUSION: CeRNA networks play an important role in CRC. Multiple DEGs are related with clinical prognosis, suggesting that they may be potential targets in tumor diagnosis and treatment.

Mäki-Nevala S, Valo S, Ristimäki A, et al.
DNA methylation changes and somatic mutations as tumorigenic events in Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas retaining mismatch repair protein expression.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 39:280-291 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA mismatch repair (MMR) defects are a major factor in colorectal tumorigenesis in Lynch syndrome (LS) and 15% of sporadic cases. Some adenomas from carriers of inherited MMR gene mutations have intact MMR protein expression implying other mechanisms accelerating tumorigenesis. We determined roles of DNA methylation changes and somatic mutations in cancer-associated genes as tumorigenic events in LS-associated colorectal adenomas with intact MMR.
METHODS: We investigated 122 archival colorectal specimens of normal mucosae, adenomas and carcinomas from 57 LS patients. MMR-deficient (MMR-D, n = 49) and MMR-proficient (MMR-P, n = 18) adenomas were of particular interest and were interrogated by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and Ion Torrent sequencing.
FINDINGS: Promoter methylation of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-associated marker genes and selected colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) increased and LINE-1 methylation decreased from normal mucosa to MMR-P adenomas to MMR-D adenomas. Methylation differences were statistically significant when either adenoma group was compared with normal mucosa, but not between MMR-P and MMR-D adenomas. Significantly increased methylation was found in multiple CIMP marker genes (IGF2, NEUROG1, CRABP1, and CDKN2A) and TSGs (SFRP1 and SFRP2) in MMR-P adenomas already. Furthermore, certain CRC-associated somatic mutations, such as KRAS, were prevalent in MMR-P adenomas.
INTERPRETATION: We conclude that DNA methylation changes and somatic mutations of cancer-associated genes might serve as an alternative pathway accelerating LS-associated tumorigenesis in the presence of proficient MMR. FUND: Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Academy of Finland, Cancer Foundation Finland, Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and HiLIFE.

Cha Y, Kim SY, Yeo HY, et al.
Association of CHFR Promoter Methylation with Treatment Outcomes of Irinotecan-Based Chemotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(1):146-155 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant promoter methylation plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, its role in treatment responses is unclear, especially for metastatic disease. Here, we investigated the association between promoter methylation and treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in 102 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Promoter methylation was examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction for three loci (CHFR, WRN, and SULF2) associated with chemotherapy response and five CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). Association between CHFR methylation and in vitro sensitivity to irinotecan was also evaluated. Promoter methylation of CHFR, WRN, and SULF2 was identified in 16 (15.7%), 24 (23.5%), and 33 (32.4%) patients, respectively. CIMP status was positive in 22 (21.6%) patients. CHFR methylation was associated with a significantly longer time to progression (TTP) (median: 8.77 vs. 4.43 months, P = .019), with trends favoring higher overall survival (OS) (median: 22.83 vs. 20.17 months, P = .300) and response rates (31.3% vs. 17.4%, P = .300). For patients with unmethylated CHFR, TTP (median: 5.60 vs. 3.53, P = .020) and OS (median: 20.57 vs. 9.23, P = .006) were significantly different according to CIMP status. Colorectal cancer cell lines with CHFR methylation demonstrated increased sensitivity to irinotecan. Both CHFR overexpression and combination with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed irinotecan sensitivity in CHFR-methylated cell lines, whereas CHFR knockdown in unmethylated cells restored sensitivity to irinotecan. These data suggest that CHFR methylation may be associated with favorable treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Valdmanis PN, Kim HK, Chu K, et al.
miR-122 removal in the liver activates imprinted microRNAs and enables more effective microRNA-mediated gene repression.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5321 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
miR-122 is a highly expressed liver microRNA that is activated perinatally and aids in regulating cholesterol metabolism and promoting terminal differentiation of hepatocytes. Disrupting expression of miR-122 can re-activate embryo-expressed adult-silenced genes, ultimately leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we interrogate the liver transcriptome at various time points after genomic excision of miR-122 to determine the cellular consequences leading to oncogenesis. Loss of miR-122 leads to specific and progressive increases in expression of imprinted clusters of microRNAs and mRNA transcripts at the Igf2 and Dlk1-Dio3 loci that could be curbed by re-introduction of exogenous miR-122. mRNA targets of other abundant hepatic microRNAs are functionally repressed leading to widespread hepatic transcriptional de-regulation. Together, this reveals a transcriptomic framework for the hepatic response to loss of miR-122 and the outcome on other microRNAs and their cognate gene targets.

Zhang T, Guo J, Gu J, et al.
Identifying the key genes and microRNAs in colorectal cancer liver metastasis by bioinformatics analysis and in vitro experiments.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):279-291 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the principal causes of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. The high incidence of liver metastasis is the leading risk factor of mortality in patients with CRC, and the mechanisms of CRC liver metastasis are poorly understood. In the present study, 7 datasets, including 3 gene expression profile datasets and 4 microRNA (miRNA) expression profile datasets were downloaded from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify potential key genes and miRNAs, which may be candidate biomarkers for CRC liver metastasis. Differentially expressed (DE) genes (DEGs) and DE miRNAs of primary CRC tumor tissues and liver metastatic CRC tumor tissues were selected using the GEO2R tool. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome pathway enrichment analyses were conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online database. Furthermore, Cytoscape with cytoHubba and the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug‑in were used to visualize a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network for these DEGs, and to screen hub genes and gene modules in the PPI network. In addition, the online databases, TargetScan, miRanda, PITA, miRWalk and miRDB, were used to identify the target genes of the DE miRNAs. In the present study, 141 DEGs (97 upregulated and 44 downregulated) and 3 DE miRNAs (2 upregulated and 1 downregulated) were screened from the 3 gene expression microarray datasets and 4 miRNA expression microarray datasets, respectively. In total, 10 hub genes with a high degree of connectivity were selected from the PPI network, including albumin (ALB), coagulation factor II (F2), thrombin, apolipoprotein H (APOH), serpin family C member 1 (SERPINC1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), α‑1‑microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP), apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3), plasminogen (PLG), α‑2 HS glycoprotein (AHSG) and apolipoprotein B (APOB). The most important module was detected in the PPI network using the MCODE plug‑in. A total of 20 DEGs were identified to be potential target genes of these DE miRNAs, and novel miRNA‑DEGs regulatory axes were constructed. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate that miR‑885 promoted CRC cell migration by, at least partially, decreasing the expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and insulin‑like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5). In conclusion, by using integrated bioinformatics analysis and in vitro experiments, key candidate genes were identified and novel miRNA‑mRNA regulatory axes in CRC liver metastasis were constructed, which may improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC liver metastasis.

Hidaka H, Higashimoto K, Aoki S, et al.
Comprehensive methylation analysis of imprinting-associated differentially methylated regions in colorectal cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Imprinted genes are regulated by DNA methylation at imprinting-associated differentially methylated regions (iDMRs). Abnormal expression of imprinted genes is implicated in imprinting disorders and tumors. In colorectal cancer (CRC), methylation and imprinting status of the IGF2/H19 domain have been studied. However, no comprehensive methylation analysis of iDMRs in CRC has been reported. Furthermore, the relationship between iDMR methylation status and other methylation-related issues, such as CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, remains unclear.
RESULTS: We analyzed the methylation status of 38 iDMRs in 106 CRC patients. We also investigated CIMP, LINE-1 methylation, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations, and loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2. We further examined the relationship between these factors and clinicopathological factors. The overall trend in iDMR methylation was towards hypermethylation, and iDMRs could be grouped into three categories: susceptible, resistant, and intermediate-to-aberrant methylation. The susceptible and resistant iDMRs consisted of all types of iDMR (gametic and somatic, maternally and paternally methylated). Hypermethylation of multiple iDMRs (HyMiD)-positive status was statistically associated with CIMP-positive status, but not associated with mutations in the BRAF and KRAS genes. HyMiD-positive status was inversely associated with LINE-1 methylation. Among four iDMRs within the IGF2/H19 domain, IGF2-DMR0 hypomethylation occurred most frequently, but was not associated with IGF2 LOI. Finally, we statistically calculated predictive prognostic scores based on aberrant methylation status of three iDMRs.
CONCLUSION: In CRC tissues, some iDMRs were susceptible to hypermethylation independent of the type of iDMR and genomic sequence. Although HyMiD-positive status was associated with CIMP-positive status, this was independent of the BRAF and KRAS pathways, which are responsible for CIMP. Since IGF2-DMR0 hypomethylation and aberrant methylation of other iDMRs within the IGF2/H19 domain were not associated with IGF2 LOI, dysfunction of any of the molecular components related to imprinting regulation may be involved in IGF2 LOI. The prognostic score calculated based on aberrant methylation of three iDMRs has potential clinical applications as a prognostic predictor in patients. Further study is required to understand the biological significance of, and mechanisms behind, aberrant methylation of iDMRs and IGF2 LOI in CRCs.

Chen Q, Sun T, Wang F, et al.
Long Noncoding RNA IGF2AS is Acting as an Epigenetic Tumor Suppressor in Human Prostate Cancer.
Urology. 2019; 124:310.e1-310.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression profile and functional mechanism of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) insulin growth factor 2 antisense (IGF2AS) in human prostate cancer (PCa).
METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was applied to assess IGF2AS expression in immortal PCa cell lines and in situ human PCa tumors. IGF2AS was overexpressed in VCaP and PC3 cells to assess its effect on PCa cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and xenograft in vivo. The effect of IGF2AS overexpression on IGF2 was also assessed in PCa cells. Then, IGF2 was upregulated in IGF2AS-overexpressed PCa cells to assess the functional involvement of IGF2 in IGF2AS-mediated PCa cell development.
RESULTS: IGF2AS was downregulated in both PCa cell lines and human PCa tumors. In VCaP and PC3 cells, lentivirus-induced IGF2AS overexpression suppressed cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and xenograft development in vivo. IGF2 was downregulated by IGF2AS overexpression. Conversely, IGF2 upregulation revered the suppressing function of IGF2AS on PCa proliferation and invasion.
CONCLUSION: LncRNA IGF2AS is acting as an epigenetic tumor suppressor in human PCa, likely through inverse regulation on IGF2. IGF2AS/IGF2 axis may be a future therapeutic target for PCa treatment.

Wang L, Yao M, Zheng W, et al.
Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor: A Novel Target for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Gene Therapy.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2019; 19(4):272-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis affects the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in the abnormality of hepatic IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) or IGF-II expression as a key molecule in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the over-expression of hepatic IGFIR is associated with HCC progression with largely unknown mechanisms. The IGF-IR as one key molecule of the IGF signal pathway plays an important role in the hepatocyte malignant transformation. Attaching importance to IGF-IR might improve the prognostic or the therapeutic technique of HCC. This article reviews IGF-IR alteration during HCC development, and the effects of silencing IGF-IR gene by specific short hairpin RNA on the inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro or HCC xenograft growth in vivo to elucidate it as a novel molecular-targeted therapy for HCC.

Li CW, Chiu YK, Chen BS
Investigating Pathogenic and Hepatocarcinogenic Mechanisms from Normal Liver to HCC by Constructing Genetic and Epigenetic Networks via Big Genetic and Epigenetic Data Mining and Genome-Wide NGS Data Identification.
Dis Markers. 2018; 2018:8635329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still high worldwide because liver diseases could develop into HCC. Recent reports indicate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD&NASH) and primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PBC&PSC) are significant of HCC. Therefore, understanding the cellular mechanisms of the pathogenesis and hepatocarcinogenesis from normal liver cells to HCC through NAFLD&NASH or PBC&PSC is a priority to prevent the progression of liver damage and reduce the risk of further complications. By the genetic and epigenetic data mining and the system identification through next-generation sequencing data and its corresponding DNA methylation profiles of liver cells in normal, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC patients, we identified the genome-wide real genetic and epigenetic networks (GENs) of normal, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC patients. In order to get valuable insight into these identified genome-wide GENs, we then applied a principal network projection method to extract the corresponding core GENs for normal liver cells, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC. By comparing the signal transduction pathways involved in the identified core GENs, we found that the hepatocarcinogenesis through NAFLD&NASH was induced through DNA methylation of

Bruno C, Blagoskonov O, Barberet J, et al.
Sperm imprinting integrity in seminoma patients?
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumor such as seminoma is strongly associated with male reproductive problems commonly associated with the alteration of sperm parameters as described in testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Interestingly, numerous studies have reported that the precursor of germ cell cancer, germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS), present similarities to fetal gonocytes, specifically characterized by global DNA hypomethylation particularly on imprinting sequences. These disorders may have a common origin derived from perturbations of embryonal programming during fetal development. Presently, there is no available information concerning the sperm DNA methylation patterns of testicular cancer patients. For the first time, we evaluated the sperm imprinting of seminoma patients. A total of 92 cryopreserved sperm samples were included, 31 before seminoma treatment (S): 23 normozoospermic (SN) and 8 oligozoospermic (SO) and 61 sperm controls samples: 31 normozoospermic (N) and 30 oligozoospermic (O). DNA methylation levels of seven differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes [H19/IGF2: IG-DMR (CTCF3 and CTCF6 of H19 gene); IGF2-DMRs (DMR0 and DMR2); MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR; SNURF:TSS-DMR; KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR] were assessed by pyrosequencing. All comparative analyses were adjusted for age.
RESULTS: Comparisons of sperm DNA methylation levels between seminoma (S) and normozoospermic (N) samples showed a significant difference for the SNURF sequence (p = 0.017), but after taking into account the sperm parameters, no difference was observed. However, we confirmed a significant association between oligozoospermia (O) and imprinting defects for H19/IGF2-CTCF6 (p = 0.001), MEG3/DLK1 (p = 0.017), IGF2-DMR2 (p = 0.022), and SNURF (p = 0.032) in comparison with control groups (N).
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the high risk of sperm imprinting defects in cases of oligozoospermia and shows for the first time that seminoma patients with normal spermatogenesis present sperm imprinting integrity. These data suggest a low probability of the involvement of a common imprinting defect in fetal cells leading to both TGCT and subfertility.

Luo J, Chimge NO, Zhou B, et al.
CLDN18.1 attenuates malignancy and related signaling pathways of lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(12):3169-3180 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Claudins are a family of transmembrane proteins integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJ). Disruption of TJ and alterations in claudin expression are important features of invasive and metastatic cancer cells. Expression of CLDN18.1, the lung-specific isoform of CLDN18, is markedly decreased in lung adenocarcinoma (LuAd). Furthermore, we recently observed that aged Cldn18

Wang T, Liu Y, Lv M, et al.
miR-323-3p regulates the steroidogenesis and cell apoptosis in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by targeting IGF-1.
Gene. 2019; 683:87-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine and metabolic heterogeneous disorder. The incidence of which reaches 5% to 10% among reproductive-age women. Abnormal folliculogenesis is considered to be a common characteristic of PCOS, but the cause of this disorder and its pathogenesis still remain uncertain. Previous studies had proved that dysregulation of microRNAs is related to the pathogenesis of PCOS. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-323-3p on the human cumulus cells (CCs). We also investigated the underlying mechanisms of miR-323-3p on human granulosa-like tumor cell line (KGN) or primary human CCs by stimulating with Dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Our findings suggested that the level of miR-323-3p in human CCs of women with PCOS was down-regulated, compared with that of the control group. Moreover, the inhibition of the level of miR-323-3p could up-regulate of the steroidogenesis and promote the apoptosis in KGN cells. In addition, our data confirmed that the Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene was the direct target of miR-323-3p. Furthermore, the mimic of miR-323-3p inhibited the expression of IGF-1, which down-regulated the levels of AR, AMHR-II, CYP19A, EGFR, and GATA-4. In conclusion, miR-323-3p targeting IGF-1 regulates the steroidogenesis and the activity of CCs, which plays an important role in the occurrence and development of PCOS. Our results have shown that miR-323-3p is a novel and promising molecular target for the improvement of the dysfunction of CCs in PCOS.

Dong Y, Huo X, Sun R, et al.
lncRNA Gm15290 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in lung cancer through directly interacting with and suppressing the tumor suppressor
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been involved in occurrence and progression of multiple cancers. In the present study, we investigated the role of lncRNA Gm15290 in the proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. First, we found that lncRNA Gm15290 was markedly up-regulated in tumor tissues from NSCLC patients and NSCLC cell lines, compared with adjacent normal tissues and normal lung cell line HBE respectively. Then, different concentrations of pcDNA-Gm15290 expression vector and Gm15290 siRNA were respectively transfected into A549 NSCLC cells. Our results showed that overexpression of Gm15290 significantly increased the proliferation and invasion of A549 cells and suppressed cell apoptosis. Knockdown of Gm15290 suppressed A549 cell proliferation and invasion and promoted cell apoptosis. Subsequently, we explored the underlying mechanism through which Gm15290 promoted cell proliferation and invasion. The output of RNA hybrid bioinformatic tool revealed that Gm15290 potentially interacted with tumor suppressor

Cui XW, Qian ZL, Li C, Cui SC
Identification of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles by PCR microarray in hepatitis B virus‑associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):5123-5132 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs in hepatitis B virus‑associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of five HCC tissues and paired adjacent non‑tumor tissues were screened to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs and target mRNAs using polymerase chain reaction microarrays. The interaction between differential miRNA and mRNA expression was concurrently analyzed using bioinformatics methods. A total of 32 differentially expressed miRNAs (four upregulated miRNAs and 28 downregulated miRNAs) and 16 differentially expressed mRNAs (11 upregulated mRNAs and five downregulated mRNAs) were identified. Among these, upregulated hsa‑miRNA (miR)‑96‑5p and hsa‑miR‑18b‑5p suppressed their target mRNAs forkhead box O1 and MET transcriptional regulator MACC1 (MACC1). Downregulation of hsa‑miR‑199a‑5p led to upregulation of its target mRNAs, cyclin dependent kinase 4 and insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2). The high‑level expression of IGF2 mRNA and cyclin E1 mRNA was due to the low‑level expression of hsa‑miR‑145‑5p, hsa‑miR‑181a‑5p, hsa‑miR‑199a‑5p and hsa‑miR‑223a‑3p, and hsa‑miR‑26a‑5p and hsa‑miR‑26b‑5p, respectively. The low‑level expression of coronin 1A mRNA and MACC1 mRNA was due to overexpression of hsa‑miR‑517a‑3p and hsa‑miR‑18a‑5p, and hsa‑miR‑18b‑5p, respectively. Numerous gene ontology terms were associated with oncogenesis. The most enriched pathways targeted by the dysregulated miRNAs and mRNAs were associated with cancer and oncogenesis pathways. The present data suggested that differential miRNA and mRNA expression is present in HCC. Thus, interactions between certain miRNAs and mRNAs may be involved in the pathogenesis of HCC.

Wang Q, Shen Y, Ye B, et al.
Gene expression differences between thyroid carcinoma, thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissue.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3359-3369 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
To identify differences in gene expression profiles of infected cells between thyroid carcinoma (C), thyroid adenoma (A) and normal thyroid (N) epithelial cells, differentially expressed genes were identified using three pairwise comparisons with the GEO2R online tool. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to classify them at the functional level. The most significant cluster in the N vs. A pairwise comparison had four hub genes: Insulin-like growth factor 2, Von Willebrand factor (VWF), multimerin 1 (MMRN1) and complement factor D (CFD). In N vs. C, the most significant cluster had 19 genes: IGF2, early growth response 2, transcription factor 3, KIT proto‑oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase, SMAD family member 9, MLLT3 super elongation complex subunit, runt related transcription factor 1, CFD, actinin α 1, SWI/SNF related matrix associated actin dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily a member 4, JunD proto‑oncogene AP‑1 transcription factor subunit, serum response factor (SRF), FosB proto‑oncogene, AP‑1 transcription factor subunit, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), SRC proto‑oncogene, non‑receptor tyrosine kinase, MMRN1, SRY‑box 9, early growth response 3 and ETS variant 4. In A vs. C, the most significant cluster had 14 genes: BCL2-like 1, galectin 3, MCL1 BCL2 family apoptosis regulator, DNA damage inducible transcript 3, BCL2 apoptosis regulator, CTGF, matrix metallopeptidase 7, early growth response 1, kinase insert domain receptor, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, apolipoprotein E, VWF, cyclin D1 and placental growth factor. Histological evidence was presented to confirm the makeup of the hubs prior to logistic regression analysis to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms. The results of the present study may aid in the search for novel potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis, prognosis and development of drug targets of thyroid neoplasm.

Vanaja KG, Timp W, Feinberg AP, Levchenko A
A Loss of Epigenetic Control Can Promote Cell Death through Reversing the Balance of Pathways in a Signaling Network.
Mol Cell. 2018; 72(1):60-70.e3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/10/2019 Related Publications
Epigenetic control of regulatory networks is only partially understood. Expression of Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) is controlled by genomic imprinting, mediated by silencing of the maternal allele. Loss of imprinting of IGF2 (LOI) is linked to intestinal and colorectal cancers, causally in murine models and epidemiologically in humans. However, the molecular underpinnings of the LOI phenotype are not clear. Surprisingly, in LOI cells, we find a reversal of the relative activities of two canonical signaling pathways triggered by IGF2, causing further rebalancing between pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling. A predictive mathematical model shows that this network rebalancing quantitatively accounts for the effect of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in both WT and LOI cells. This mechanism also quantitatively explains both the stable LOI phenotype and the therapeutic window for selective killing of LOI cells, and thus prevention of epigenetically controlled cancers. These findings suggest a framework for understanding epigenetically modified cell signaling.

Oliva CR, Halloran B, Hjelmeland AB, et al.
IGFBP6 controls the expansion of chemoresistant glioblastoma through paracrine IGF2/IGF-1R signaling.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas (GBMs), the most common and most lethal of the primary brain tumors, are characterized by marked intra-tumor heterogeneity. Several studies have suggested that within these tumors a restricted population of chemoresistant glioma cells is responsible for recurrence. However, the gene expression patterns underlying chemoresistance are largely unknown. Numerous efforts have been made to block IGF-1R signaling pathway in GBM. However, those therapies have been repeatedly unsuccessful. This failure may not only be due to the complexity of IGF receptor signaling, but also due to complex cell-cell interactions in the tumor mass. We hypothesized that differential expression of proteins in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system underlie cell-specific differences in the resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) within GBM tumors.
METHODS: Expression of IGF-1R was analyzed in cell lines, patient-derived xenograft cell lines and human biopsies by cell surface proteomics, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, we dissected the molecular mechanism responsible for IGF-binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) tumor suppressor functions both in in vitro and in vivo. Site direct mutagenesis was used to study IGFBP6-IGF2 interactions.
RESULTS: We determined that in human glioma tissue, glioma cell lines, and patient-derived xenograft cell lines, treatment with TMZ enhances the expression of IGF1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF2 and decreases the expression of IGFBP6, which sequesters IGF2. Using chemoresistant and chemosensitive wild-type and transgenic glioma cells, we further found that a paracrine mechanism driven by IGFBP6 secreted from TMZ-sensitive cells abrogates the proliferation of IGF-1R-expressing TMZ-resistant cells in vitro and in vivo. In mice bearing intracranial human glioma xenografts, overexpression of IGFBP6 in TMZ-resistant cells increased survival. Finally, elevated expression of IGF-1R and IGF2 in gliomas associated with poor patient survival and tumor expression levels of IGFBP6 directly correlated with overall survival time in patients with GBM.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the view that proliferation of chemoresistant tumor cells is controlled within the tumor mass by IGFBP6-producing tumor cells; however, TMZ treatment eliminates this population and enriches the TMZ-resistant cell populationleading to accelerated growth of the entire tumor mass.

Zhang Z, Qian W, Wang S, et al.
Analysis of lncRNA-Associated ceRNA Network Reveals Potential lncRNA Biomarkers in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(5):1778-1791 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) play significant roles in the development of tumors, but the functions of specific lncRNAs and lncRNA-related ceRNA networks have not been fully elucidated for colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). In this study, we aimed to clarify the lncRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA ceRNA network and potential lncRNA biomarkers in COAD.
METHODS: We extracted data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and identified COAD-specific mRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs. The biological processes in Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were analyzed for COAD-specific mRNAs. We then constructed a ceRNA network of COAD-specific mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs and analyzed the correlation between expression patterns and clinical features of the lncRNAs involved. After identifying potential mRNA targets of 4 lncRNAs related to overall survival (OS), we conducted stepwise analysis of these targets through GO and KEGG. Using tissue samples from our own patients, we also verified certain analytical results using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: Data from 521 samples (480 tumor tissue and 41 adjacent non-tumor tissue samples) were extracted from TCGA. A total of 258 specific lncRNAs, 206 specific miRNAs, and 1467 specific mRNAs were identified (absolute log2 [fold change] > 2, false discovery rate < 0.01). Analysis of KEGG revealed that specific mRNAs were enriched in cancer-related pathways. The ceRNA network was constructed with 64 lncRNAs, 18 miRNAs, and 42 mRNAs. Among these lncRNAs involved in the network, 3 lncRNAs (LINC00355, HULC, and IGF2-AS) were confirmed to be associated with certain clinical features and 4 lncRNAs (HOTAIR, LINC00355, KCNQ1OT1, and TSSC1-IT1) were found to be negatively linked to OS (log-rank p < 0.05). KEGG showed that the potential mRNA targets of these 4 lncRNAs may be concentrated in the MAPK pathway. Certain results were validated by qRT-PCR.
CONCLUSION: This study providing novel insights into the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network and reveals potential lncRNA biomarkers in COAD.

Wang Q, Wu G, Zhang Z, et al.
Long non-coding RNA HOTTIP promotes renal cell carcinoma progression through the regulation of the miR-615/IGF-2 pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):2278-2288 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence has indicated that long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) HOXA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) regulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and cancer progression. However, the expression and function of HOTTIP in the progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the lncRNA HOTTIP in RCC. The expression levels of HOTTIP in RCC tissues and cell lines were determined by RT‑qPCR. The association between HOTTIP expression and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis was analyzed in patients with RCC from the TCGA database. Loss‑of‑ function assays were designed and conducted to verify the oncogenic function of HOTTIP in RCC progression. Luciferase assay was performed to explore the mechanisms of the miRNA‑lncRNA sponge. The results revealed that HOTTIP expression was upregulated in RCC. An increased HOTTIP expression in RCC was associated with a larger tumor size and a higher clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion. Additionally, patients RCC with a high HOTTIP expression had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS). HOTTIP knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased the apoptosis of RCC cells in vitro. Mechanistic analyses revealed that HOTTIP functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for hsa‑miR‑615‑3p, and led to the derepression of its endogenous target, insulin‑like growth factor-2 (IGF‑2), which is a protein hormone that exerts a stimulatory effect on tumor cell growth. miR‑615 inhibition reversed the suppressive effects of HOTTIP knockdown on RCC cell progression. HOTTIP regulated IGF‑2 expression in a miR‑615‑dependent manner in RCC cells. In addition, IGF‑2 expression was significantly upregulated in the RCC specimens and a positive association between the expression of HOTTIP and IGF‑2 in RCC tissues was detected. The effect of HOTTIP was abolished by the siRNA‑mediated silencing of IGF-2 in RCC cells. On the whole, this study demonstrates, for the first time, at least to the best of our knowledge, that the HOTTIP/miR‑615/IGF‑2 axis plays an important role in RCC progression and potentially contributes to the improvement of RCC diagnosis and therapy.

Phelps HM, Al-Jadiry MF, Corbitt NM, et al.
Molecular and epidemiologic characterization of Wilms tumor from Baghdad, Iraq.
World J Pediatr. 2018; 14(6):585-593 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide, yet its incidence and clinical behavior vary according to race and access to adequate healthcare resources. To guide and streamline therapy in the war-torn and resource-constrained city of Baghdad, Iraq, we conducted a first-ever molecular analysis of 20 WT specimens to characterize the biological features of this lethal disease within this challenged population.
METHODS: Next-generation sequencing of ten target genes associated with WT development and treatment resistance (WT1, CTNNB1, WTX, IGF2, CITED1, SIX2, p53, N-MYC, CRABP2, and TOP2A) was completed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 6 marker proteins of WT (WT1, CTNNB1, NCAM, CITED1, SIX2, and p53). Patient outcomes were compiled.
RESULTS: Mutations were detected in previously described WT "hot spots" (e.g., WT1 and CTNNB1) as well as novel loci that may be unique to the Iraqi population. Immunohistochemistry showed expression domains most typical of blastemal-predominant WT. Remarkably, despite the challenges facing families and care providers, only one child, with combined WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, was confirmed dead from disease. Median clinical follow-up was 40.5 months (range 6-78 months).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that WT biology within a population of Iraqi children manifests features both similar to and unique from disease variants in other regions of the world. These observations will help to risk stratify WT patients living in this difficult environment to more or less intensive therapies and to focus treatment on cell-specific targets.

Bharathavikru R, Hastie ND
Overgrowth syndromes and pediatric cancers: how many roads lead to
Genes Dev. 2018; 32(15-16):993-995 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Overgrowth syndromes such as Perlman syndrome and associated pediatric cancers, including Wilms tumor, arise through genetic and, in certain instances, also epigenetic changes. In the case of the Beckwith-Wiedemann overgrowth syndrome and in Wilms tumor, increased levels of

Chen KS, Stroup EK, Budhipramono A, et al.
Mutations in microRNA processing genes in Wilms tumors derepress the
Genes Dev. 2018; 32(15-16):996-1007 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Many childhood Wilms tumors are driven by mutations in the microRNA biogenesis machinery, but the mechanism by which these mutations drive tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that the transcription factor

Knutti N, Huber O, Friedrich K
CD147 (EMMPRIN) controls malignant properties of breast cancer cells by interdependent signaling of Wnt and JAK/STAT pathways.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 451(1-2):197-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, EMN, CD147) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed in numerous cell types both as a soluble and a membrane-spanning glycoprotein. It is involved in many physiological processes, as well as in cancer. This study addresses mechanisms of crosstalk between EMN-driven cancer-related cellular responses and the canonical Wnt-pathway in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Genetic knockdown of EMN in MCF-7 resulted in characteristic changes in cellular shape, organization of the actin cytoskeleton and malignancy profile, indicating that EMN expression represses cell motility, but, in contrast, exerts a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation and invasive properties. Increased invasiveness coincided with elevated expression of Wnt-target genes and established invasion driver matrix metalloproteinase MMP14. Activation of the downstream Wnt-pathway by means of heterologous β-catenin and/or TCF-4 expression, through inhibition of GSK-3β by LiCl treatment, or by cell stimulation with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resulted in increased EMN expression. EMN over-expression raised the ratio of the two opposing Wnt pathway-driven transcription factors Sp1 and Sp5, leading to stimulation of the EMN promoter. Furthermore, the EMN promoter was activated by a feed-forward circuit involving an EMN-dependent drop in expression of the repressive signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Taken together, we show that the influence of EMMPRIN on malignancy-related properties of breast cancer cells is functionally connected to both Wnt- and JAK/STAT pathways.

Tu C, Fiandalo MV, Pop E, et al.
Proteomic Analysis of Charcoal-Stripped Fetal Bovine Serum Reveals Changes in the Insulin-like Growth Factor Signaling Pathway.
J Proteome Res. 2018; 17(9):2963-2977 [PubMed] Related Publications
Charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (CS-FBS) is commonly used to study androgen responsiveness and androgen metabolism in cultured prostate cancer (CaP) cells. Switching CaP cells from FBS to CS-FBS may reduce the activity of androgen receptor (AR), inhibit cell proliferation, or modulate intracellular androgen metabolism. The removal of proteins by charcoal stripping may cause changes in biological functions and has not yet been investigated. Here we profiled proteins in FBS and CS-FBS using an ion-current-based quantitative platform consisting of reproducible surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet digestion, long-column nanoliquid chromatography separation, and ion-current-based analysis. A total of 143 proteins were identified in FBS, among which 14 proteins including insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and -6 were reduced in CS-FBS. IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) and insulin receptor were sensitized to IGFs in CS-FBS. IGF-1 and IGF-2 stimulation fully compensated for the loss of AR activity to maintain cell growth in CS-FBS. Endogenous production of IGF and IGFBPs was verified in CaP cells and clinical CaP specimens. This study provided the most comprehensive protein profiles of FBS and CS-FBS and offered an opportunity to identify new protein regulators and signaling pathways that regulate AR activity, androgen metabolism, and proliferation of CaP cells.

Afshar S, Najafi R, Sedighi Pashaki A, et al.
MiR-185 enhances radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells by targeting IGF1R and IGF2.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 106:763-769 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Radioresistance is a significant obstacle for effective treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have indicated that miR-185 inhibits proliferation, survival, and invasion of CRC; however, the role of this miRNA in radioresistance of CRC has not been identified yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-185 in radiosensitivity of CRC.
METHODS: After transfecting the cells with mimic miR-185, expressions of IGF1R and IGF2 were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blot. The radiation response of transfected cells was also examined by colony forming assay. Sub-G1 fraction analysis through flow cytometry and caspase 3 activity was used to evaluate apoptosis.
RESULTS: The results of real-time PCR and western blot indicated that IGF1R and IGF2 are downregulated in the transfected cells. Colony forming assay revealed that transfected cells were more radiosensitive than other cells. On the other hand,following irradiation the rate of apoptosis was significantly higher in the transfected cells than in the other cells.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our study is the first to show that upregulation of miR-185 enhances the sensitivity of CRC cells to ionizing radiation. miR-185 may act as a novel biomarker of radioresistance and may clinically enhance the radiation response of CRC.

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