Gene Summary

Gene:MUC2; mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming
Aliases: MLP, SMUC, MUC-2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the mucin protein family. Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins produced by many epithelial tissues. The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and forms an insoluble mucous barrier that protects the gut lumen. The protein polymerizes into a gel of which 80% is composed of oligosaccharide side chains by weight. The protein features a central domain containing tandem repeats rich in threonine and proline that varies between 50 and 115 copies in different individuals. Downregulation of this gene has been observed in patients with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Phenotype
  • Gene Expression
  • CDX2 Transcription Factor
  • Mucin 5AC
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • MUC1
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Mucinous Adenocarcinoma
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Cancer RNA
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • p53 Protein
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription
  • Messenger RNA
  • Mutation
  • Chromosome 11
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Survival Rate
  • Young Adult
  • Pancreatitis
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Receptors, Interleukin-4
  • Protein Binding
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Promoter Regions
  • MUC2
  • Mucins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Mucin-2
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Sialomucins
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cell Differentiation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MUC2 (cancer-related)

Luo C, Cen S, Ding G, Wu W
Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma: clinical pathology and treatment options.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2019; 39(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) characterized by the presence of abundant extracellular mucin which accounts for at least 50% of the tumor volume. Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is found in 10%-20% of CRC patients and occurs more commonly in female and younger patients. Moreover, mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is more frequently located in the proximal colon and diagnosed at an advanced stage. Based on its molecular context, mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is associated with the overexpression of mucin 2 (MUC2) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) proteins. At the same time, it shows higher mutation rates in the fundamental genes of the RAS/MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma also shows higher rates of microsatellite instability (MSI) than non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma which might correlate it with Lynch syndrome and the CpG island methylator phenotype. The prognosis of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma as to non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is debatable. Further, the impaired responses of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma to palliative or adjuvant chemotherapy warrant more studies to be performed for a specialized treatment for these patients. In this review, we discuss the molecular background and histopathology of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma, and provide an update on its prognosis and therapeutics from recent literatures.

Kasprzak A, Adamek A
Mucins: the Old, the New and the Promising Factors in Hepatobiliary Carcinogenesis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mucins are large

Pyman B, Sedghi A, Azizi S, et al.
Exploring microRNA Regulation of Cancer with Context-Aware Deep Cancer Classifier.
Pac Symp Biocomput. 2019; 24:160-171 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional silencing. Differential expression observed in miRNAs, combined with advancements in deep learning (DL), have the potential to improve cancer classification by modelling non-linear miRNA-phenotype associations. We propose a novel miRNA-based deep cancer classifier (DCC) incorporating genomic and hierarchical tissue annotation, capable of accurately predicting the presence of cancer in wide range of human tissues.
METHODS: miRNA expression profiles were analyzed for 1746 neoplastic and 3871 normal samples, across 26 types of cancer involving six organ sub-structures and 68 cell types. miRNAs were ranked and filtered using a specificity score representing their information content in relation to neoplasticity, incorporating 3 levels of hierarchical biological annotation. A DL architecture composed of stacked autoencoders (AE) and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was trained to predict neoplasticity using 497 abundant and informative miRNAs. Additional DCCs were trained using expression of miRNA cistrons and sequence families, and combined as a diagnostic ensemble. Important miRNAs were identified using backpropagation, and analyzed in Cytoscape using iCTNet and BiNGO.
RESULTS: Nested four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the DL model. The model achieved an accuracy, AUC/ROC, sensitivity, and specificity of 94.73%, 98.6%, 95.1%, and 94.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Deep autoencoder networks are a powerful tool for modelling complex miRNA-phenotype associations in cancer. The proposed DCC improves classification accuracy by learning from the biological context of both samples and miRNAs, using anatomical and genomic annotation. Analyzing the deep structure of DCCs with backpropagation can also facilitate biological discovery, by performing gene ontology searches on the most highly significant features.

Tian W, Jiang C, Huang Z, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of dysregulated lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs with associated ceRNA network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 696:206-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mounting evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in tumor biology. To date, some lncRNAs have been found to be involved in competitive binding of miRNAs, a major group of competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), through participation in a regulatory network of protein-coding gene expression. However, the functional roles of lncRNA-mediated ceRNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have rarely been reported. Here, we construct a hypothetical ceRNA network by analyzing differential expression of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs obtained from 96 ESCC tissues and 13 normal tissues in the Cancer Genome Atlas. Ultimately, 95 lncRNAs, 9 miRNAs, and 40 mRNAs were identified (fold change >1.5, P < .05) and included in the ceRNA network for ESCC. Moreover, three lncRNAs (IGF2-AS, MUC2 and SOX2-OT) were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (log-rank test, P < .05), and further experiments revealed that lncRNA DLX6-AS1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and invasion of esophageal cancer cells by enhancing the endogenous function of mTOR. We believe that the identified ceRNA network can facilitate a better understanding of lncRNA-related mechanisms in ESCC.

Lee HK, Kwon MJ, Seo J, et al.
Expression of mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6) in ALK-positive lung cancer: Comparison with EGFR-mutated lung cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(3):459-465 [PubMed] Related Publications
ALK-positive (ALK+) lung adenocarcinoma usually shows a more advanced-staged disease with frequent nodal metastasis and highly aggressive outcomes compared with EGFR-mutated lung cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of several mucins in ALK + lung cancers to gain insight into the relationship between the more aggressive biological nature of ALK + lung cancers and the role of mucins. We examined the immunohistochemical profiles of mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 in 19 ALK + lung cancers compared with 42 EGFR-mutated lung cancers. ALK + cancers were found to occur in younger patients and were characterized by a solid-predominant histologic subtype with frequent signet ring cells and peritumoral muciphages. By contrast, EGFR-mutated cancers lacked ALK-specific histological patterns. Although all MUC1 and MUC5AC were expressed in both subtypes, MUC1 expression in ALK + cancers was visualized exclusively through cytoplasmic staining, whereas those in EGFR-mutated cancers were predominantly membranous staining in apical area (92.9%) and focally in cytoplasmic staining (7.1%). MUC5AC expression in ALK + cancers was exclusively visualized through cytoplasmic staining (100%), whereas EGFR-mutated cancers showed predominantly perinuclear dot-like patterns (90.5%) and focal cytoplasmic staining (9.5%). MUC2 and MUC6 expression was not detected in either type of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of both MUC1 and MUC5AC cytoplasmic expression, coupled with a lack of MUC2 and MUC6 expression in ALK + lung cancer may contribute to the biologically aggressive behavior of ALK + cancer. Inhibitors to these types of mucins may thus act as a barrier to cancerous extension reducing their aggressive behavior.

Xie X, Zhang X, Chen J, et al.
Fe3O4-solamargine induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):905-915 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fe3O4-magnetic liposome (MLP) can deliver drugs to target tissues and can increase drug efficacy. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of solamargine (SM) and Fe3O4-SM in pancreatic cancer (PC). Cell viability was detected using a Cell Counting kit‑8 assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression was tested using a flow cytometry assay. A scratch assay was used to examine cell metastasis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis or immunohistochemical analysis were performed to determine the expression of target factors. Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling were conducted to detect tumor growth and apoptosis in vivo, respectively. It was demonstrated that Fe3O4-SM inhibited cancer cell growth via a slow release of SM over an extended period of time. SM was revealed to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, SM decreased the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, Survivin, Ki‑67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1, but increased the activity of caspase-3. It was also observed that SM inhibited tumor cell metastasis by modulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor-2. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and mechanistic target of rapamycin was suppressed by SM. Notably, the effect of SM was enhanced by Fe3O4-SM. The malignant growth of PC was decreased by SM in vivo. Furthermore, the expression of Ki‑67 was decreased by SM and Fe3O4-SM. Additionally, cell apoptosis was increased in the Fe3O4-SM group, compared with the SM group. The present study illustrated the antitumor effect and action mec-hanism produced by SM. Additionally, it was demonstrated that Fe3O4-SM was more effective than SM in protecting against PC.

Murakami T, Akazawa Y, Yatagai N, et al.
Molecular characterization of sessile serrated adenoma/polyps with dysplasia/carcinoma based on immunohistochemistry, next-generation sequencing, and microsatellite instability testing: a case series study.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are considered early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway. Recent studies have shown associations of SSA/Ps with lost MLH1 expression, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations. However, the molecular biological features of SSA/Ps with early neoplastic progression have not yet been fully elucidated, owing to the rarity of cases of SSA/P with advanced histology such as cytologic dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular biological features of SSA/Ps with dysplasia/carcinoma, representing relatively early stages of the serrated neoplasia pathway.
METHODS: We performed immunostaining for β-catenin, MLH1, and mucins (e.g., MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and CD10); targeted next-generation sequencing; and microsatellite instability (MSI) testing in 8 SSA/P lesions comprised of 4 SSA/Ps with high-grade dysplasia and 4 SSA/Ps with submucosal carcinoma.
RESULTS: Lost MLH1 expression was found in 5 cases. All lesions studied were positive for nuclear β-catenin expression. Regarding phenotypic mucin expression, all lesions were positive for MUC2, but negative for CD10. MUC5AC and MUC6 positivity was observed in 7 cases. Genetically, the most frequently mutated gene was BRAF (7 cases), and other mutations were detected in FBXW7 (3 cases); TP53 (2 cases), and KIT, PTEN, SMAD4, and SMARCB1 (1 case each). Furthermore, 4 of 8 lesions were MSI-high and the remaining 4 lesions were microsatellite-stable (MSS). Interestingly, all 4 MSI-high lesions displayed MLH1 loss, 3 of which harbored a FBXW7 mutation, but not a TP53 mutation. However, 2 MSS lesions harbored a TP53 mutation, although none harbored a FBXW7 mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: SSA/Ps with dysplasia/carcinoma frequently harbored BRAF mutations. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway may facilitate the development of dysplasia in SSA/Ps and progression to carcinoma. Furthermore, our results suggested that these lesions might be associated with both MSI-high and MSS colorectal cancer, which might be distinguished by distinct molecular biological features such as lost MLH1 expression, FBXW7 mutations, and TP53 mutations.

Wiktorowicz M, Mlynarski D, Pach R, et al.
Rationale and feasibility of mucin expression profiling by qRT-PCR as diagnostic biomarkers in cytology specimens of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatology. 2018; 18(8):977-982 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrantly expressed mucin glycoproteins (MUC) play important roles in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), yet their use as a diagnostic aid in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is poorly documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the rationale and feasibility of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6) expression profiling by RT-PCR for diagnostic applications in cytology.
METHODS: Mucin expression was examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in specimens resected from patients with pancreatic (n = 101), ampullary (n = 23), and common bile duct (n = 10) cancers and 33 with chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, mucin profiling by RT-PCR was prospectively compared in surgical and biopsy specimens of 40 patients with pancreatic solid tumours qualified for FNAB prior to surgery.
RESULTS: A logistic regression model to distinguish PDAC from chronic pancreatitis using RT-PCR profiling included MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6. The same set of mucins differentiated ampullary and bile duct cancers from chronic pancreatitis. AUCs for the ROC curves derived from the two models were 0.95 (95%CI 0.87-0.99) and 0.92 (95%CI 0.81-0.98), respectively. The corresponding positive likelihood ratios were 6.02 and 5.97, while the negative likelihood ratios were 0.10 and 0.12. AUCs of ROC curves obtained by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that both analytical methods were comparable. Surgical and cytological samples showed significantly correlated values of ΔCt for individual mucins with the overall Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.841 (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Mucin expression profiling of pancreatic cancer with RT-PCR is feasible and may be a valuable help in discriminating malignant lesions from chronic pancreatitis in FNAB cytology.

Yang X, Zhang L, Song X, et al.
MicroRNA-613 promotes colon cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration by targeting ATOH1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 504(4):827-833 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression and function of miR-613 in colon cancer (CC) and illuminate the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-613-regulated CC progression. Our data demonstrated that miR-613 was upregulated in CC tissue samples (P = 0.009) and human CC cell lines (HCT-116 and Lovo; P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively), which also promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of CC cells (P < 0.05). The dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Atonal homolog1 (ATOH1) was the target mRNA of miR-613. Rescue experiments showed that ATOH1 overexpression vector significantly reversed the stimulative effects of miR-613 mimic on the progression of HCT-116 and Lovo cells (P < 0.001). Positive ATOH1 expression in CC tissues was significantly associated with lower grade (χ

Companioni O, Bonet C, García N, et al.
Genetic variation analysis in a follow-up study of gastric cancer precursor lesions confirms the association of MUC2 variants with the evolution of the lesions and identifies a significant association with NFKB1 and CD14.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(11):2777-2786 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric carcinogenesis proceeds through a series of gastric cancer precursor lesions (GCPLs) leading to gastric cancer (GC) development. Although Helicobacter pylori infection initiates this process, genetic factors also play a role. We previously reported that genetic variability in MUC2 is associated with the evolution of GCPLs. In order to replicate previous results in an independent sample series and to explore whether genetic variability in other candidate genes plays a role in the evolution of GCPL, genomic DNA from 559 patients with GCPLs, recruited from 9 Spanish hospitals and followed for a mean of 12 years, was genotyped for 141 SNPs in 29 genes. After follow-up, 45.5% of the lesions remained stable, 37% regressed and 17.5% progressed to a more severe lesion. Genetic association with the evolution of the lesions (progression or regression) was analyzed by multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After correction for multiple comparisons, the results obtained confirmed the inverse association between MUC2 variants and the regression of the lesions. A significant association was also observed between NFKB1 and CD14 variants and the evolution of the lesions; interestingly, this association was with both progression and regression in the same direction, which could reflect the dual role of inflammation in cancer. Stratified analyses according to H. pylori virulence factors indicated some significant and differential effects but none of them passed the FDR test. These results confirm that genetic variability in MUC2, NFKB1 and CD14 may have a role in the evolution of the GCPLs along time and in gastric carcinogenesis.

Saarinen L, Nummela P, Leinonen H, et al.
Glycomic Profiling Highlights Increased Fucosylation in Pseudomyxoma Peritonei.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(11):2107-2118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma that most often originates from the appendix, and grows in the peritoneal cavity filling it with mucinous ascites.

Ghosh M, Adhikary S, Ghosh KK, et al.
Genetic algorithm based cancerous gene identification from microarray data using ensemble of filter methods.
Med Biol Eng Comput. 2019; 57(1):159-176 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microarray datasets play a crucial role in cancer detection. But the high dimension of these datasets makes the classification challenging due to the presence of many irrelevant and redundant features. Hence, feature selection becomes irreplaceable in this field because of its ability to remove the unrequired features from the system. As the task of selecting the optimal number of features is an NP-hard problem, hence, some meta-heuristic search technique helps to cope up with this problem. In this paper, we propose a 2-stage model for feature selection in microarray datasets. The ranking of the genes for the different filter methods are quite diverse and effectiveness of rankings is datasets dependent. First, we develop an ensemble of filter methods by considering the union and intersection of the top-n features of ReliefF, chi-square, and symmetrical uncertainty. This ensemble allows us to combine all the information of the three rankings together in a subset. In the next stage, we use genetic algorithm (GA) on the union and intersection to get the fine-tuned results, and union performs better than the latter. Our model has been shown to be classifier independent through the use of three classifiers-multi-layer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), and K-nearest neighbor (K-NN). We have tested our model on five cancer datasets-colon, lung, leukemia, SRBCT, and prostate. Experimental results illustrate the superiority of our model in comparison to state-of-the-art methods. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

Tranchevent LC, Nazarov PV, Kaoma T, et al.
Predicting clinical outcome of neuroblastoma patients using an integrative network-based approach.
Biol Direct. 2018; 13(1):12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: One of the main current challenges in computational biology is to make sense of the huge amounts of multidimensional experimental data that are being produced. For instance, large cohorts of patients are often screened using different high-throughput technologies, effectively producing multiple patient-specific molecular profiles for hundreds or thousands of patients.
RESULTS: We propose and implement a network-based method that integrates such patient omics data into Patient Similarity Networks. Topological features derived from these networks were then used to predict relevant clinical features. As part of the 2017 CAMDA challenge, we have successfully applied this strategy to a neuroblastoma dataset, consisting of genomic and transcriptomic data. In particular, we observe that models built on our network-based approach perform at least as well as state of the art models. We furthermore explore the effectiveness of various topological features and observe, for instance, that redundant centrality metrics can be combined to build more powerful models.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that the networks inferred from omics data contain clinically relevant information and that patient clinical outcomes can be predicted using only network topological data.
REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Yang-Yu Liu, Tomislav Smuc and Isabel Nepomuceno.

Zhang X, Shi D, Liu YP, et al.
Effects of the Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factor CagA and Ammonium Ion on Mucins in AGS Cells.
Yonsei Med J. 2018; 59(5):633-642 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-CagA and the urease metabolite NH₄⁺ on mucin expression in AGS cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: AGS cells were transfected with CagA and/or treated with different concentrations of NH₄CL. Mucin gene and protein expression was assessed by qPCR and immunofluorescence assays, respectively.
RESULTS: CagA significantly upregulated MUC5AC, MUC2, and MUC5B expression in AGS cells, but did not affect E-cadherin and MUC6 expression. MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC2 expression in AGS cells increased with increasing NH₄⁺ concentrations until reaching a peak level at 15 mM. MUC5B mRNA expression in AGS cells (NH₄⁺ concentration of 15 mM) was significantly higher than that at 0, 5, and 10 mM NH₄⁺. No changes in E-cadherin expression in AGS cells treated with NH₄⁺ were noted, except at 20 mM. The expression of MUC5AC, MUC2, and MUC6 mRNA in CagA-transfected AGS cells at an NH₄⁺ concentration of 15 mM was significantly higher than that at 0 mM, and decreased at higher concentrations. The expression of MUC5B mRNA increased with increases in NH₄⁺ concentration, and was significantly higher compared to that in untreated cells. No significant change in the expression of E-cadherin mRNA in CagA-transfected AGS cells was observed. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed the observed changes.
CONCLUSION: H. pylori may affect the expression of MUC5AC, MUC2, MUC5B, and MUC6 in AGS cells via CagA and/or NH₄⁺, but not E-cadherin.

Wang YC, Wang ZQ, Yuan Y, et al.
Notch Signaling Pathway Is Inhibited in the Development of Barrett's Esophagus: An In Vivo and In Vitro Study.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 2018:4149317 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Objective: To explore the role of Notch signaling in the development of Barrett's esophagus.
Methods: Patients with esophagectomy and gastric interposition were recruited as a human model of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The expressions of Notch signaling genes in normal esophagus from surgical specimen and columnar metaplasia in the esophageal remnant after esophagectomy were evaluated by real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). For in vitro experiments, Het-1A cells were treated with hydrochloric acid, deoxycholic acid, mixture of hydrochloric acid and deoxycholic acid, or Notch1-siRNA, and expressions of Notch1, Hes1, MUC2, and K13 were evaluated via RT-qPCR and western blot.
Results: Samples were obtained from 36 patients with columnar metaplasia in the esophageal remnant. Both IHC and RT-qPCR indicated that Notch1 and Hes1 expressions were significantly higher in normal esophagus than that in metaplasia. Hydrochloric acid and deoxycholic acid suppressed Notch1, Hes1, and K13 expressions, in concert with increasing MUC2 expressions. Notch inhibition by Notch1-siRNA contributed to the downregulation of Notch1, Hes1, and K13 expressions, whereas MUC2 expression was enhanced.
Conclusions: Both hydrochloric acid and deoxycholic acid could suppress Notch signaling pathway in esophageal epithelial cells, and inhibited Notch signaling has important functions in the development of Barrett's esophagus.

Hang X, Li D, Wang J, Wang G
Prognostic significance of microsatellite instability‑associated pathways and genes in gastric cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(1):149-160 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to reveal the potential molecular mechanisms of microsatellite instability (MSI) on the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). The investigation was performed based on an RNAseq expression profiling dataset downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas, including 64 high‑level MSI (MSI‑H) GC samples, 44 low‑level MSI (MSI‑L) GC samples and 187 stable microsatellite (MSI‑S) GC samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the MSI‑H, MSI‑L and MSI‑S samples. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed for the identified DEGs and the pathway deviation scores of the significant enrichment pathways were calculated. A Multi‑Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier, based on the different pathways associated with the MSI statuses was constructed for predicting the outcome of patients with GC, which was validated in another independent dataset. A total of 190 DEGs were selected between the MSI‑H, MSI‑L and MSI‑S samples. The MLP classifier was established based on the deviation scores of 10 significant pathways, among which antigen processing and presentation, and inflammatory bowel disease pathways were significantly enriched with HLA‑DRB5, HLA‑DMA, HLA‑DQA1 and HLA‑DRA; the measles, toxoplasmosis and herpes simplex infection pathways were significantly enriched with Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), caspase‑8 (CASP8) and Fas. The classifier performed well on an independent validation set with 100 GC samples. Taken together, the results indicated that MSI status may affect GC prognosis, partly through the antigen processing and presentation, inflammatory bowel disease, measles, toxoplasmosis and herpes simplex infection pathways. HLA‑DRB5, HLA‑DMA, HLA‑DQA1, HLA‑DRA, JAK2, CASP8 and Fas may be predictive factors for prognosis in GC.

Kim WG, Kim JY, Park DY
Simple classifiers for molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2017; 18(4):191-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease entity with a diverse biological pathogenesis. This study aims to validate the two studies published in 2013 which established a separate CRC molecular subtype classification by utilizing a rapidly accessible miniclassifier, and verify a simplified version thereof.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants diagnosed with CRC (n = 568) were subtyped in three classifications for characteristic, and prognostic purposes. Colorectal cancer subtypes (CCS) were classified as: i) CCS1 (CDX2+, microsatellite stable (MSS)/microsatellite instability (MSI)-low), ii) CCS2 (MSI-high), and iii) CCS3 (FRMD6/ZEB1/HTR2B +, CDX2-, MSS/MSI-low]. Simplified CCS (SiCCS) subtypes were grouped as: i) CDX2 (CDX2+, MSS/MSI-low, ZEB1 ≤ 2), ii) MSI-H (MSI-high, CDX2/FRMD6/ZEB1/HTR2B +/-), and iii) ZEB1 (ZEB1 ≥ 2, CDX2-, MSS/MSI-low). New molecular classification (NMC) subtypes were defined as: i) enterocyte (E-C) (MUC2 +), ii) goblet-like (G-L) (MUC2 + and TFF3 +), iii) transit-amplifying (T-A) (CFTR +), and iv) stem-like (S-L) (ZEB1 +).
RESULTS: In total, 53.5% (n = 304) CCS, 58.3% (n = 331) SiCCS, and 37.7% (n = 214) NMC tumours could be evaluated. CCS2 and MSI-H CRCs had the most favourable survival outcome, whereas the CCS3, ZEB1 and S-L subtypes showed the poorest prognosis. A significant overlap between CCS3, ZEB1, and S-L tumours was demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: There is still a need for a consensus gene expression-based subtyping classification system for CRCs, thereby allowing the categorization of most CRC tumours. This study reveals that a simple and rapidly accessible process could replace the complicated, costly and mostly inapproachable methods clinical practices that have been introduced in the majority of previous studies.

Matsui D, Omstead AN, Kosovec JE, et al.
High yield reproducible rat model recapitulating human Barrett's carcinogenesis.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(33):6077-6087 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
AIM: To efficiently replicate the biology and pathogenesis of human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) using the modified Levrat model of end-to-side esophagojejunostomy.
METHODS: End-to-side esophagojejunostomy was performed on rats to induce gastroduodenoesophageal reflux to develop EAC. Animals were randomly selected and serially euthanized at 10 (n = 6), 17 (n = 8), 24 (n = 9), 31 (n = 6), 38 (n = 6), and 40 (n = 6) wk postoperatively. The esophagi were harvested for downstream histopathology and gene expression. Histological evaluation was completed to determine respective rates of carcinogenic development. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine gene expression levels of
RESULTS: The overall study mortality was 15%. Causes of mortality included anastomotic leak, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, stomach ulcer perforation, respiratory infection secondary to aspiration, and obstruction due to tumor or late anastomotic stricture. 10 wk following surgery, 100% of animals presented with esophagitis. Barrett's esophagus (BE) was first observed at 10 wk, and was present in 100% of animals by 17 wk. Dysplasia was confirmed in 87.5% of animals at 17 wk, and increased to 100% by 31 wk. EAC was first observed in 44.4% of animals at 24 wk and increased to 100% by 40 wk. In addition, two animals at 38-40 wk post-surgery had confirmed macro-metastases in the lung/liver and small intestine, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Esophagojejunostomy was successfully replicated in rats with low mortality and a high tumor burden, which may facilitate broader adoption to study EAC development, progression, and therapeutics.

Basturk O, Berger MF, Yamaguchi H, et al.
Pancreatic intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm is genetically distinct from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and ductal adenocarcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(12):1760-1772 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm is a relatively recently described member of the pancreatic intraductal neoplasm family. The more common member of this family, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, often carries genetic alterations typical of pancreatic infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma (KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A) but additionally has mutations in GNAS and RNF43 genes. However, the genetic characteristics of intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm have not been well characterized. Twenty-two intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms were analyzed by either targeted next-generation sequencing, which enabled the identification of sequence mutations, copy number alterations, and selected structural rearrangements involving all targeted (≥300) genes, or whole-exome sequencing. Three of these intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms were also subjected to whole-genome sequencing. All intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms revealed the characteristic histologic (cellular intraductal nodules of back-to-back tubular glands lined by predominantly cuboidal cells with atypical nuclei and no obvious intracellular mucin) and immunohistochemical (immunolabeled with MUC1 and MUC6 but were negative for MUC2 and MUC5AC) features. By genomic analyses, there was loss of CDKN2A in 5/20 (25%) of these cases. However, the majority of the previously reported intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-related alterations were absent. Moreover, in contrast to most ductal neoplasms of the pancreas, MAP-kinase pathway was not involved. In fact, 2/22 (9%) of intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms did not reveal any mutations in the tested genes. However, certain chromatin remodeling genes (MLL1, MLL2, MLL3, BAP1, PBRM1, EED, and ATRX) were found to be mutated in 7/22 (32%) of intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms and 27% harbored phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3CB, INPP4A, and PTEN) mutations. In addition, 4/18 (18%) of intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms had FGFR2 fusions (FGFR2-CEP55, FGFR2-SASS6, DISP1-FGFR2, FGFR2-TXLNA, and FGFR2-VCL) and 1/18 (5.5%) had STRN-ALK fusion. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm is a distinct clinicopathologic entity in the pancreas. Although its intraductal nature and some clinicopathologic features resemble those of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, our results suggest that intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm has distinguishing genetic characteristics. Some of these mutated genes are potentially targetable. Future functional studies will be needed to determine the consequences of these gene alterations.

Hsu HP, Lai MD, Lee JC, et al.
Mucin 2 silencing promotes colon cancer metastasis through interleukin-6 signaling.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):5823 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Downregulation of Mucin 2 (MUC2) expression is associated with early carcinogenesis events in colon cancer. MUC2 plays a role in the progression of colon cancer, and reduced MUC2 protein expression correlates with increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. However, the interaction between MUC2 and IL-6 in colorectal cancer metastasis remains unclear. We systematically analyzed MUC2 and IL-6 expression and determined the survival of cancer patients with high or low MUC2 and IL-6 expression using the Oncomine and PrognoScan databases, respectively. This analysis identified downregulation of MUC2 and overexpression of IL-6 in colon cancer but not in normal colon tissue, and this expression pattern was correlated with poor survival of colon cancer patients. We examined the effects of MUC2 on colon cancer metastasis and used vector-mediated application of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to suppress MUC2 expression. MUC2 suppressed the migration of colon cancer cells in vitro and dramatically diminished liver metastases in vivo. Treatment with IL-6 increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation, promoted checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) activation, attenuated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, and suppressed E-cadherin protein expression in MUC2-silenced HT-29 cancer cells. Most importantly, MUC2 is a potential prognostic indicator for colon cancer.

Niv Y, Ho SB, Fass R, Rokkas T
Mucin Expression in the Esophageal Malignant and Pre-malignant States: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018; 52(2):91-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mucins are heavily glycosylated glycoproteins, synthesized by mucosal surfaces and have an important role in healthy state and malignant diseases. Change in mucins synthesis or secretion may be primary event or secondary to inflammation or carcinogenesis.
AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the current knowledge about mucin expression in esophageal lesions, and to establish a role for different mucin expressions as prognostic markers.
METHOD: English Medical literature searches were conducted for "mucin" and "esophagus." Observational studies were included. Meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
RESULTS: In the random-effect model, mucin expression was significantly higher in esophageal lesions than in normal esophageal mucosa with OR=5.456 (95% CI, 1.883-15.807, P=0.002). Measure of heterogeneity, demonstrated in the included studies, was high: Q=287.501, df (Q)=44.00, P<0.0001, I=84.696%. There is a gradient of mucin expression and complexity in esophageal premalignant to malignant lesions, lower in Barrett's mucosa with low grade dysplasia (LGD), increased in high grade dysplasia (HGD), and highest in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6 expression was higher in EAC than HGD, and higher in HGD than in LGD mucosa. The opposite was found for MUC1 and MUC4.
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of certain mucin genes in esophageal mucosa may be further studied as a potential diagnostic tool, and this may add important information in the surveillance of Barrett's esophagus.

Kuracha MR, Thomas P, Loggie BW, Govindarajan V
Bilateral blockade of MEK- and PI3K-mediated pathways downstream of mutant KRAS as a treatment approach for peritoneal mucinous malignancies.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0179510 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas (MCAs) are clinically and morphologically distinct from nonmucinous colorectal cancers (CRCs), show a distinct spectrum of genetic alterations (higher KRAS mutations, lower p53, high MUC2), exhibit more aggressive behavior (more prone to peritoneal dissemination and lymph node involvement) and are associated with poorer response to chemotherapy with limited treatment options. Here, we report the effectiveness of combinatorial targeting of two KRAS-mediated parallel pathways in reducing MUC2 production and mucinous tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. By knockdown of mutant KRAS we show that, mutant KRAS (a) is necessary for MUC2 production in vitro and (b) synergistically engages PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways to maintain MUC2 expression in MCA cells. These results define a novel and a previously undescribed role for oncogenic KRAS in mucinous cancers. MCA cells were sensitive to MEK inhibition suggesting cellular dependence ('addiction') of KRAS-mutant MCA cells on hyperactivation of the MEK-driven pathway. Interestingly, MCA cells, though initially sensitive, were later resistant to PI3K single agent inhibition. Our studies suggest that this resistance involves dynamic rewiring of signaling circuits mediated through relief of RTK inhibition and MEK-ERK rebound activation. This resistance however, could be overcome by co-targeting of PI3K and MEK. Our studies thus provide a rational basis for MEK- and PI3K-targeted combination therapy for not only KRAS mutant MCA but also for other related mucinous neoplasms that overproduce MUC2 and have a high rate of KRAS mutations such as pseudomyxoma peritonei.

Duruisseaux M, Antoine M, Rabbe N, et al.
Lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung exhibit specific mucin expression in relation with oncogenic drivers.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 109:92-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate MUC1, MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 expression in invasive lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung, and the impact of oncogenic drivers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MUC1, MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC, MUC6, TTF1 and Hnf4α immunohistochemistry was performed on surgical samples from 52 patients with IMA (n=25) or LPA (n=27). We searched for EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and HER2 mutations and ALK, ROS1, and NRG1 rearrangements.
RESULTS: MUC1, MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 expression was detected in tumor cells in 77%, 2%, 63%, 36%, and 21% of cases, respectively. MUC1 was significantly more overexpressed in LPA. MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were typically detected in goblet cells and overexpressed in IMA. Hnf4α-positive IMA (n=11) were TTF1-negative and typically did not expressed MUC1 and expressed MUC5AC and MUC6. Hnf4α-negative IMA (n=14) showed a reverse profile of mucins expression, with MUC1 expression and a lack of MUC5AC and MUC6 expression. EGFR-positive status was significantly associated with LPA, MUC1 expression, and no MUC5B, MUC5AC, or MUC6 expression. KRAS-positive status was significantly associated with IMA and MUC5B and MUC5AC expression.
CONCLUSIONS: LPA and IMA exhibit specific mucin expression profiles, with MUC1 being associated with LPA, while MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were associated with IMA. Hnf4α expression and EGFR and KRAS mutations may play a role in mucin expression profiles of these lung adenocarcinoma subtypes.

Leblanc C, Langlois MJ, Coulombe G, et al.
Epithelial Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 restrains intestinal growth, secretory cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis.
FASEB J. 2017; 31(8):3512-3526 [PubMed] Related Publications
Shp-1 (Src homology region 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1) is a phosphatase that is highly expressed in hematopoietic and epithelial cells. Whereas its function is largely characterized in hematopoietic cells, its role in epithelial cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), is not well known. Here, we generated mice with an IEC-specific knockout of

Xiong ZF, Shi J, Fu ZH, et al.
Phenotypic classification of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma and its relationship with K-ras mutation.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to analyze gastric signet ring cell (SRC) carcinoma subtypes by investigating gastric and intestinal phenotypic marker expression, and explore the relationship between phenotype and K-ras mutation. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 163 SRC carcinoma patient specimens to detect gastric (MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6) and intestinal (MUC2 and CDX2) phenotypic markers, and tumors were classified into gastric (G), intestinal (I), and gastrointestinal (GI) phenotypes. DNA was extracted from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples, and K-ras mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 were identified using polymerase chain reaction-based direct DNA sequencing. G, GI, and I phenotypes were observed in 63 (38.6%), 71 (43.5%), and 29 cases (17.8%), respectively. Expression of MUC2 was significantly associated with invasion depth and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively), whereas that of CDX2 significantly corresponded to tumor size and submucosal invasion (P = 0.004 and 0.001, respectively). MUC5AC expression was inversely associated with gastric wall invasion (P = 0.001). Intestinal phenotypic marker expression was positively associated with gastric wall invasion and lymph node metastasis. K-ras mutations, all of which were in codon 12, were detected in 20 (12.27%) tumors, were significantly associated with the I phenotype, and exhibited an inverse relationship with MUC5AC and MUC6 expression. I-phenotype SRC carcinomas should be distinguished from those of the G phenotype because of their increased malignancy regarding invasion and metastasis, and higher K-ras aberration rate. The different K-ras mutation frequencies observed imply distinct genetic mechanisms in the carcinogenesis of I- and G-phenotype gastric SRC carcinomas.

Kannan A, Hertweck KL, Philley JV, et al.
Genetic Mutation and Exosome Signature of Human Papilloma Virus Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:46102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Human papilloma virus-16 (HPV-16) associated oropharyngeal cancer (HPVOPC) is increasing alarmingly in the United States. We performed whole genome sequencing of a 44 year old, male HPVOPC subject diagnosed with moderately differentiated tonsillar carcinoma. We identified new somatic mutation in MUC16 (A.k.a. CA-125), MUC12, MUC4, MUC6, MUC2, SIRPA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-A and HLA-B molecules. Increased protein expression of MUC16, SIRPA and decreased expression of HLA-DRB1 was further demonstrated in this HPVOPC subject and an additional set of 15 HPVOPC cases. Copy number gain (3 copies) was also observed for MUC2, MUC4, MUC6 and SIRPA. Enhanced expression of MUC16, SIRPA and HPV-16-E7 protein was detectable in the circulating exosomes of numerous HPVOPC subjects. Treatment of non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells with exosomes derived from aggressive HPVOPC cells harboring MUC16, SIRPA and HPV-16-E7 proteins augmented invasion and induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by an increased expression ratio of the EMT markers Vimentin/E-cadherin. Exosome based screening of key HPVOPC associated molecules could be beneficial for early cancer diagnosis, monitoring and surveillance.

Rojas PA, May M, Sequeira GR, et al.
Progesterone Receptor Isoform Ratio: A Breast Cancer Prognostic and Predictive Factor for Antiprogestin Responsiveness.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017; 109(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Background: Compelling evidence shows that progestins regulate breast cancer growth. Using preclinical models, we demonstrated that antiprogestins are inhibitory when the level of progesterone receptor isoform A (PR-A) is higher than that of isoform B (PR-B) and that they might stimulate growth when PR-B is predominant. The aims of this study were to investigate ex vivo responses to mifepristone (MFP) in breast carcinomas with different PR isoform ratios and to examine their clinical and molecular characteristics.
Methods: We performed human breast cancer tissue culture assays (n = 36) to evaluate the effect of MFP on cell proliferation. PR isoform expression was determined by immunoblotting (n = 282). Tumors were categorized as PRA-H (PR-A/PR-B ≥ 1.2) or PRB-H (PR-A/PR-B ≤ 0.83). RNA was extracted for Ribo-Zero-Seq sequencing to evaluate differentially expressed genes. Subtypes and risk scores were predicted using the PAM50 gene set, the data analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA-seq gene analysis and other publicly available gene expression data. Tissue microarrays were performed using paraffin-embedded tissues (PRA-H n = 53, PRB-H n = 24), and protein expression analyzed by immunohistochemistry. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: One hundred sixteen out of 222 (52.3%) PR+ tumors were PRA-H, and 64 (28.8%) PRB-H. Cell proliferation was inhibited by MFP in 19 of 19 tissue cultures from PRA-H tumors. A total of 139 transcripts related to proliferative pathways were differentially expressed in nine PRA-H and seven PRB-H tumors. PRB-H and PRA-H tumors were either luminal B or A phenotypes, respectively ( P = .03). PRB-H cases were associated with shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.71 to 6.20, P = .02) and distant metastasis-free survival (HR = 4.17, 95% CI = 2.18 to 7.97, P <  .001). PRB-H tumors showed increased tumor size ( P <  .001), Ki-67 levels ( P <  .001), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression ( P =  .04), high grades ( P =  .03), and decreased total PR ( P =  .004) compared with PRA-H tumors. MUC-2 ( P <  .001) and KRT6A ( P =  .02) were also overexpressed in PRB-H tumors.
Conclusion: The PRA/PRB ratio is a prognostic and predictive factor for antiprogestin responsiveness in breast cancer.

Minacapelli CD, Bajpai M, Geng X, et al.
Barrett's metaplasia develops from cellular reprograming of esophageal squamous epithelium due to gastroesophageal reflux.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017; 312(6):G615-G622 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically predisposes to columnar Barrett's metaplasia (BM) in the distal esophagus. We demonstrate evidence supporting the cellular origin of BM from reprograming or transcommitment of resident normal esophageal squamous (NES) epithelial cells in response to acid and bile (A + B) exposure using an in vitro cell culture model. The hTERT-immortalized NES cell line NES-B10T was exposed 5 min/day to an A + B mixture for 30 wk. Morphological changes, mRNA, and protein expression levels for the inflammatory marker cyclooxygenase-2; the lineage-determining transcription factors TAp63 (squamous), CDX2, and SOX9 (both columnar); and the columnar lineage markers Villin, Muc-2, CK8, and mAb Das-1 (incomplete phenotype of intestinal metaplasia) were assessed every 10 wk. Markers of columnar lineage and inflammation increased progressively, while squamous lineage-determining transcriptional factors were significantly decreased both at the mRNA and/or protein level in the NES-B10T cells at/after A + B treatment for 30 wk. Distinct modifications in morphological features were only observed at/after 30 wk of A + B exposure. These changes acquired by the NES-B10T 30-wk cells were retained even after cessation of A + B exposure for at least 3 wk. This study provides evidence that chronic exposure to the physiological components of gastric refluxate leads to repression of the discernable squamous transcriptional factors and activation of latent columnar transcriptional factors. This reflects the alteration in lineage commitment of the precursor-like biphenotypic, NES-B10T cells in response to A + B exposure as the possible origin of BM from the resident NES cells.

Cangelosi D, Pelassa S, Morini M, et al.
Artificial neural network classifier predicts neuroblastoma patients' outcome.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2016; 17(Suppl 12):347 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: More than fifty percent of neuroblastoma (NB) patients with adverse prognosis do not benefit from treatment making the identification of new potential targets mandatory. Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension, occurring in poorly vascularized tissues, which activates specific genes and contributes to the acquisition of the tumor aggressive phenotype. We defined a gene expression signature (NB-hypo), which measures the hypoxic status of the neuroblastoma tumor. We aimed at developing a classifier predicting neuroblastoma patients' outcome based on the assessment of the adverse effects of tumor hypoxia on the progression of the disease.
METHODS: Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was trained on the expression values of the 62 probe sets constituting NB-hypo signature to develop a predictive model for neuroblastoma patients' outcome. We utilized the expression data of 100 tumors in a leave-one-out analysis to select and construct the classifier and the expression data of the remaining 82 tumors to test the classifier performance in an external dataset. We utilized the Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to evaluate the enrichment of hypoxia related gene sets in patients predicted with "Poor" or "Good" outcome.
RESULTS: We utilized the expression of the 62 probe sets of the NB-Hypo signature in 182 neuroblastoma tumors to develop a MLP classifier predicting patients' outcome (NB-hypo classifier). We trained and validated the classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis on 100 tumor gene expression profiles. We externally tested the resulting NB-hypo classifier on an independent 82 tumors' set. The NB-hypo classifier predicted the patients' outcome with the remarkable accuracy of 87 %. NB-hypo classifier prediction resulted in 2 % classification error when applied to clinically defined low-intermediate risk neuroblastoma patients. The prediction was 100 % accurate in assessing the death of five low/intermediated risk patients. GSEA of tumor gene expression profile demonstrated the hypoxic status of the tumor in patients with poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: We developed a robust classifier predicting neuroblastoma patients' outcome with a very low error rate and we provided independent evidence that the poor outcome patients had hypoxic tumors, supporting the potential of using hypoxia as target for neuroblastoma treatment.

Lebrero-Fernández C, Wenzel UA, Akeus P, et al.
Altered expression of Butyrophilin (
Immun Inflamm Dis. 2016; 4(2):191-200 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Several Butyrophilin (BTN) and Btn-like (BTNL) molecules control T lymphocyte responses, and are genetically associated with inflammatory disorders and cancer. In this study, we present a comprehensive expression analysis of human and murine

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