Gene Summary

Gene:TFF3; trefoil factor 3
Aliases: ITF, P1B, TFI
Summary:Members of the trefoil family are characterized by having at least one copy of the trefoil motif, a 40-amino acid domain that contains three conserved disulfides. They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer and affect healing of the epithelium. This gene is expressed in goblet cells of the intestines and colon. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a cluster on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:trefoil factor 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • DNA Methylation
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • RT-PCR
  • Gene Expression
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Trefoil Factor-1
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Breast Cancer
  • TFF3
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Proteins
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Promoter Regions
  • Stomach Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Down-Regulation
  • Follicular Adenocarcinoma
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Mucins
  • Cancer RNA
  • Transcription
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neuropeptides
  • Peptides
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Upstream Stimulatory Factors
  • p53 Protein
  • Chromosome 21
  • Growth Substances
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Trefoil Factor-2
  • Estrogen Receptors
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TFF3 (cancer-related)

Jahan R, Ganguly K, Smith LM, et al.
Trefoil factor(s) and CA19.9: A promising panel for early detection of pancreatic cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 42:375-385 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) are small secretory molecules that recently have gained significant attention in multiple studies as an integral component of pancreatic cancer (PC) subtype-specific gene signature. Here, we comprehensively investigated the diagnostic potential of all the member of trefoil family, i.e., TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in combination with CA19.9 for detection of PC.
METHODS: Trefoil factors (TFFs) gene expression was analyzed in publicly available cancer genome datasets, followed by assessment of their expression in genetically engineered spontaneous mouse model (GEM) of PC (KrasG12D; Pdx1-Cre (KC)) and in human tissue microarray consisting of normal pancreas adjacent to tumor (NAT), precursor lesions (PanIN), and various pathological grades of PC by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Serum TFFs and CA19.9 levels were evaluated via ELISA in comprehensive sample set (n = 362) comprised of independent training and validation sets each containing benign controls (BC), chronic pancreatitis (CP), and various stages of PC. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to examine their diagnostic potential both alone and in combination with CA19.9.
FINDINGS: The publicly available datasets and expression analysis revealed significant increased expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in human PanINs and PC tissues. Assessment of KC mouse model also suggested upregulated expression of TFFs in PanIN lesions and early stage of PC. In serum analyses studies, TFF1 and TFF2 were significantly elevated in early stages of PC in comparison to benign and CP control group while significant elevation in TFF3 levels were observed in CP group with no further elevation in its level in early stage PC group. In receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses, combination of TFFs with CA19.9 emerged as promising panel for discriminating early stage of PC (EPC) from BC (AUC
INTERPRETATION: In silico, tissue and serum analyses validated significantly increased level of all TFFs in precursor lesions and early stages of PC. The combination of TFFs enhanced sensitivity and specificity of CA19.9 to discriminate early stage of PC from benign control and chronic pancreatitis groups.

Thutkawkorapin J, Lindblom A, Tham E
Exome sequencing in 51 early onset non-familial CRC cases.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(5):e605 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cases with an age of onset <40 years suggests a germline genetic cause. In total, 51 simplex cases were included to test the hypothesis of CRC as a mendelian trait caused by either heterozygous autosomal dominant or bi-allelic autosomal recessive pathogenic variants.
METHODS: The cohort was whole exome sequenced (WES) at 100× coverage. Both a dominant- and recessive model were used for searching predisposing genetic factors. In addition, we assayed recessive variants of potential moderate risk that were enriched in our young-onset CRC cohort. Variants were filtered using a candidate cancer gene list or by selecting variants more likely to be pathogenic based on variant type (e.g., loss-of-function) or allele frequency.
RESULTS: We identified one pathogenic variant in PTEN in a patient subsequently confirmed to have a hereditary hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden syndrome) and one patient with a pathogenic heterozygous variant in PMS2 that was originally not identified by WES due to low quality reads resulting from pseudogenes. In addition, we identified three heterozygous candidate missense variants in known cancer susceptibility genes (BMPR1A, BRIP1, and SRC), three truncating variants in possibly novel cancer genes (CLSPN, SEC24B, SSH2) and four candidate missense variants in ACACA, NR2C2, INPP4A, and DIDO1. We also identify five possible autosomal recessive candidate genes: ATP10B, PKHD1, UGGT2, MYH13, TFF3.
CONCLUSION: Two clear pathogenic variants were identified in patients that had not been identified clinically. Thus, the chance of detecting a hereditary cancer syndrome in patients with CRC at young age but without family history is 2/51 (4%) and therefore the clinical benefit of genetic testing in this patient group is low. Of note, using stringent filtering, we have identified a total of ten candidate heterozygous variants and five possibly biallelic autosomal recessive candidate genes that warrant further study.

Al-Salam S, Sudhadevi M, Awwad A, Al Bashir M
Trefoil factors peptide-3 is associated with residual invasive breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma is the commonest cancer among UAE population and the most common cancer among females. Examination of the 5' promoter regions of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) gene has identified putative estrogen and progesterone receptor-DNA binding domains as direct response elements to estrogen and progesterone that are linked to breast functions or steroid regulation. The study was designed to determine the role of TFF3 in breast cancer chemoresistance with the aim of establishing TFF3 expression as a biomarker for drug resistance.
METHODS: In total, 133 cases of breast carcinoma treated with neo-adjuvant therapy were collected. Tissue samples from pre-neoadjuvant therapy as well as tissues from post-neo-adjuvant therapy of those cases were collected and stained with immunohistochemistry for TFF3, Bcl2, BAX, cleaved caspase-3, AKT-1, NF kappa B and Ki-67.
RESULTS: There was increased expression of TFF3 in residual invasive carcinoma cells. There was a significant correlation between the expression of TFF3 in breast carcinoma cells and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0165). There was significant co-expression of TFF3 with AKT1 (p = 0.0365), BCl2 (p = 0.0152), and NF Kappa-B (p = 0.0243) in breast carcinoma cases with residual carcinoma following neoadjuvant therapy which support the role of TFF3 in chemoresistance.
CONCLUSION: The expression of TFF3 is significantly associated with residual breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy suggesting its expression is associated with increased resistance to chemotherapy. This is supported by its co-expression with antiapoptotic proteins; BCl2, AKT1 and NF Kappa-B in residual breast carcinoma cells and very low proliferating index and apoptotic bodies in residual tumors.

Pezelj I, Tomašković I, Bolanča Čulo K, et al.
Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Introduction of Mp-Mri Guided Biopsies in Croatia.
Acta Clin Croat. 2018; 57(Suppl 1):46-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 genes and proteins in breast tumor subtypes. In addition, we investigated the correlation between TFF genes within tumor subgroups, and TFF genes with clinical and pathologic characteristics of the tumor. Study group included 122 patients with surgically removed breast tumors. Samples were investigated using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. TFF1 and TFF3 genes and proteins were expressed in breast tumors, while the levels of TFF2 gene and protein expression were very low or undetectable. TFF1 was significantly more expressed in benign tumors, while TFF3 was more expressed in malignant tumors. Gene and protein expression of both TFF1 and TFF3 was greater in lymph node-negative tumors, hormone positive tumors, tumors with moderate levels of Ki67 expression, and in grade II tumors. A strong positive correlation was found between TFF1 and TFF3 genes, and the expression of both negatively correlated with Ki67 and the level of tumor histologic differentiation. Our results suggest that TFF1 and TFF3, but not TFF2, may have a role in breast tumor pathogenesis and could be used in the assessment of tumor differentiation and malignancy.

Tolušić Levak M, Mihalj M, Koprivčić I, et al.
Differential Expression of TFF Genes and Proteins in Breast Tumors.
Acta Clin Croat. 2018; 57(2):264-277 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 genes and proteins in breast tumor subtypes. In addition, we investigated the correlation between TFF genes within tumor subgroups, and TFF genes with clinical and pathologic characteristics of the tumor. Study group included 122 patients with surgically removed breast tumors. Samples were investigated using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. TFF1 and TFF3 genes and proteins were expressed in breast tumors, while the levels of TFF2 gene and protein expression were very low or undetectable. TFF1 was significantly more expressed in benign tumors, while TFF3 was more expressed in malignant tumors. Gene and protein expression of both TFF1 and TFF3 was greater in lymph node-negative tumors, hormone positive tumors, tumors with moderate levels of Ki67 expression, and in grade II tumors. A strong positive correlation was found between TFF1 and TFF3 genes, and the expression of both negatively correlated with Ki67 and the level of tumor histologic differentiation. Our results suggest that TFF1 and TFF3, but not TFF2, may have a role in breast tumor pathogenesis and could be used in the assessment of tumor differentiation and malignancy.

Zhang C, Xia R, Zhang B, Wang H
The predictive powers of plasma trefoil factor 3 or its related micro RNAs for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Earlier diagnosis is beneficial for the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker for HCC, but its sensitivity and specificity are only 60 and 90%, respectively. Therefore, it is of great clinical significance to identify early prognostic biomarkers for HCC, especially a blood-based biomarker as it offers several advantages over tissue-based biomarkers. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a novel secretory protein, was over-expressed in HCC tissues, indicating it might be a blood-based biomarker for HCC. In addition, circulating microRNAs have been investigated as biomarkers for HCC, indicating that miR-7-5p and miR-203a-3p, which are reported or predicted to target TFF3, also hold promise as blood-based biomarkers for HCC.
METHODS: We enrolled 43 patients who were firstly diagnosed HCC and matched 47 control subjects without HCC. The levels of TFF3, miR-7-5p and miR-203a-3p were tested in the plasma of HCC patients. Moreover, we assayed the correlation of TFF3 with its related micro RNAs, miR-7-5p and miR-203a-3p, and evaluated their predictive powers for HCC.
RESULTS: Decrease of TFF3 was associated with increase of miR-203a-3p in the plasma of HCC patients and they displayed potent predictive powers for HCC diagnosis. However, there was no significant change of plasma miR-7-5p between HCC and control group.
CONCLUSION: Decrease of TFF3 correlated with increase of miR-203a-3p in the plasma of HCC patients and they could be additional biomarkers to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of HCC.

Jinesh GG, Flores ER, Brohl AS
Chromosome 19 miRNA cluster and CEBPB expression specifically mark and potentially drive triple negative breast cancers.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0206008 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are known to express low PGR, ESR1, and ERBB2, and high KRT5, KRT14, and KRT17. However, the reasons behind the increased expressions of KRT5, KRT14, KRT17 and decreased expressions of PGR, ESR1, and ERBB2 in TNBCs are not fully understood. Here we show that, expression of chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) specifically marks human TNBCs. Low REST and high CEBPB correlate with expression of C19MC, KRT5, KRT14, and KRT17 and enhancers of these genes/cluster are regulated by CEBPB and REST binding sites. The C19MC miRNAs in turn can potentially target REST to offer a positive feedback loop, and might target PGR, ESR1, ERBB2, GATA3, SCUBE2, TFF3 mRNAs to contribute towards TNBC phenotype. Thus our study demonstrates that C19MC miRNA expression marks TNBCs and that C19MC miRNAs and CEBPB might together determine the TNBC marker expression pattern.

Liu J, Kim SY, Shin S, et al.
Overexpression of TFF3 is involved in prostate carcinogenesis via blocking mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
Exp Mol Med. 2018; 50(8):110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The overexpression of trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) is observed in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa), and its potential role in carcinogenesis, such as activating the PI3K/AKT pathway, is suggested. However, its role and its related mechanisms in prostate tumorigenesis remain unknown. To elucidate the role of TFF3 overexpression in PCa, we silenced TFF3 in two PCa cell lines that overexpressed TFF3 and explored the molecular mechanism behind its antiapoptotic role. We also examined TFF3 expression in 108 Korean PCa specimens and 106 normal prostate tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The mean TFF3 IHC score in the tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in the normal tissues (4.702 vs. 0.311, P = 2.52 × 10

Hass HG, Vogel U, Scheurlen M, Jobst J
Use of Gene Expression Analysis for Discrimination of Primary and Secondary Adenocarcinoma of the Liver.
Oncology. 2018; 95(4):211-219 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Due to late diagnosis and resistance to chemotherapy, most patients with cholangiocarcinoma have an unfavorable prognosis. Despite the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in clinical routine, differentiation between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and secondary adenocarcinomas of the liver is frequently not clear, leading to false diagnosis and treatment decisions.
METHODS: Oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix Hu133A©) were used for gene expression analysis of ICC (n = 11) and secondary adenocarcinomas (colorectal metastases; n = 6). By two-dimensional cluster analysis a specific gene expression profile of these tumors was established and confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and IHC.
RESULTS: A total of 338 genes were significantly dysregulated (gene expression/fc ≥2; dysregulation in ≥60%) in both tumor groups. Using two-dimensional cluster analysis a fast, clear, and reproducible differentiation between ICC and colorectal metastases was possible in all cases. As potential biomarkers for differentiation, twelve genes (ICC: KRT7, DBN1, LCTB, LIF, STK17A, PIGF; metastases: TDGF1, HOXA9, TFF3, MYB, ABP1, BCL11A) were detected and will be used for further investigations.
CONCLUSIONS: A specific gene expression profile for discrimination of primary and secondary adenocarcinoma of the liver could be established. In addition, marker genes for both cancers and their potential use as discrimination markers in clinical routine were also described partially for the first time.

Oh JH, Rhyu MG, Kim SI, et al.
Gastric Mucosal Atrophy Impedes Housekeeping Gene Methylation in Gastric Cancer Patients.
Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 51(1):267-279 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori infection induces phenotype-stabilizing methylation and promotes gastric mucosal atrophy that can inhibit CpG-island methylation. Relationship between the progression of gastric mucosal atrophy and the initiation of CpG-island methylation was analyzed to delineate epigenetic period for neoplastic transformation.
Materials and Methods: Normal-appearing gastric mucosa was biopsied from 110 H. pylori-positive controls, 95 H. pylori-negative controls, 99 gastric cancer patients, and 118 gastric dysplasia patients. Gastric atrophy was assessed using endoscopic-atrophic-border score. Methylation-variable sites of eight CpG-island genes adjacent to Alu (CDH1, ARRDC4, PPARG, and TRAPPC2L) or LTR (MMP2, CDKN2A, RUNX2, and RUNX3) retroelements and stomach-specific TFF3 gene were analyzed using radioisotope-labeled methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Mean ages of H. pylori-positive controls with mild, moderate, and severe atrophy were 51, 54, and 65 years and those of H. pylori-associated TFF3 overmethylation at the three atrophic levels (51, 58, and 63 years) tended to be periodic. Alu-adjacent overmethylation (50 years) was earlier than TFF3 overmethylation (58 years) in H. pylori-positive controls with moderate atrophy. Cancer patients with moderate atrophy showed late Alu-adjacent (58 years) overmethylation and frequent LTR-adjacent overmethylation. LTR-adjacent overmethylation was frequent in cancer (66 years) and dysplasia (68 years) patients with severe atrophy.
CONCLUSION: Atrophic progression is associated with gastric cancer at moderate level by impeding the initiation of Alu-adjacent methylation. LTR-adjacent methylation is increased in cancer patients and subsequently in dysplasia patients.

Yu R, Xuan W, Zhou L, et al.
Detection of HER2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma tissue with digital PCR using two TFF3 sequences as internal reference.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2018; 104(3):235-238 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a highly accurate method to determine DNA concentration and detect copy number variations. We developed an approach to assess HER2 gene amplification status using ddPCR with two sequences of TFF3 as reference probes.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 76 templates of carcinoma DNA were prepared from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Digital PCR assay of the copy number of HER2 and TFF3 DNA was performed on the samples. The results were compared to prior fluorescent in-situ hybridation (FISH) assays performed on the same samples.
RESULTS: The ddPCR assay had high concordance with the conventionally used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH methods. The ddPCR method returned fewer indeterminate results than IHC. Concordance between a ddPCR plus FISH method and IHC plus FISH can rise to 98.7% (75/76) after validation is carried out.
CONCLUSION: It's potentially possible to improve the sensitivity and specifity of HER2 ddPCR assays using reference sequences not co-localized with HER2 on chromosome 17, and combining results from multiple sequences. Adopting an approach based on ddPCR HER2 assays plus FISH could lead to reduced costs, labour, and time consumption compared to current IHC plus FISH standard, while not losing precision.

Shukla A, Gupta P, Singh R, Mishra DP
Glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose activates migration and invasion in glioblastoma cells through modulation of the miR-7-5p/TFF3 signaling pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499(4):829-835 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are characterized by the metabolic shift towards aerobic glycolysis, rapid proliferation and acquisition of the migratory and invasive phenotype aiding tumor angiogenesis. The glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) used for targeting glycolysis in GBMs is ineffective in inhibiting migration and invasion. In the present study we report that 2-DG treatment downregulates the tumor suppressive miR-7-5p in GBM cell lines in vitro. Overexpression of miR-7-5p significantly reduced migration and invasion in GBM cell lines. The 2-DG induced suppression of miR-7-5p in turn activated the PI3K/Akt signaling activator Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3) in GBM cell lines. TFF3 was found to be upregulated in cell lines and clinical samples and its genomic inhibition significantly decreased migration and invasion in GBM cell lines either alone or in combination with 2-DG. Collectively, our results provide the molecular basis for the limited efficacy of 2-DG monotherapy and underscores the significance of the miR-7-5p/TFF3 signaling pathway in the regulation of migration and invasion in 2-DG treated GBM cell lines.

Wu J, Zhang H, Zhang W, et al.
Lentivirus-mediated shRNA interference of trefoil factor 3 blocks cell viability, migration and invasion in the papillary thyroid carcinoma cells.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(2):169-177 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogen- esis, proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. However, the roles of TFF3 concerning the viability, migration and invasion in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells have not yet been studied. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TFF3 knockdown on a thyroid papillary carcinoma TPC-1 cell line both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting TFF3 plasmids were first constructed and stable TPC-1 cells were obtained while their TFF3 gene was silenced with either shTFF3-TPC-1, or a scrambled shRNA control. TFF3 expression was detected using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses. The TPC-1 cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay and colony formation. The cell migration and invasion were assessed by wound scratch assay and transwell filters. AKT phosphorylation, MMP-9, and BCL-2 expression levels were detected by western blot analyses. Our results showed that TFF3 knockdown significantly inhibits TPC-1 cell viability, migration and invasion. AKT phosphoryla- tion, MMP-9, and BCL-2 levels were all remarkably depressed in TFF3 knockdown TPC-1 cells. Using a thyroid papillary carcinoma xenograft mouse model, we further investigated the effects of TFF3 knockdown in vivo. Significantly delayed xenograft emerging, slower growth rate and lower final tumor weights and volumes were observed in the shTFF3 group as compared to the control group. As expected, the expression levels of MMP-9 and BCL-2 in the xenograft are consistent with those of shTFF3-TPC-1 and shTFF3-TPC-1 cells in vitro. Our results suggest that TFF3 plays a vital role in the viability and oncogenesis of TPC-1 cells and may be a potential target for effective treatment of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

Kim WG, Kim JY, Park DY
Simple classifiers for molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2017; 18(4):191-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease entity with a diverse biological pathogenesis. This study aims to validate the two studies published in 2013 which established a separate CRC molecular subtype classification by utilizing a rapidly accessible miniclassifier, and verify a simplified version thereof.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants diagnosed with CRC (n = 568) were subtyped in three classifications for characteristic, and prognostic purposes. Colorectal cancer subtypes (CCS) were classified as: i) CCS1 (CDX2+, microsatellite stable (MSS)/microsatellite instability (MSI)-low), ii) CCS2 (MSI-high), and iii) CCS3 (FRMD6/ZEB1/HTR2B +, CDX2-, MSS/MSI-low]. Simplified CCS (SiCCS) subtypes were grouped as: i) CDX2 (CDX2+, MSS/MSI-low, ZEB1 ≤ 2), ii) MSI-H (MSI-high, CDX2/FRMD6/ZEB1/HTR2B +/-), and iii) ZEB1 (ZEB1 ≥ 2, CDX2-, MSS/MSI-low). New molecular classification (NMC) subtypes were defined as: i) enterocyte (E-C) (MUC2 +), ii) goblet-like (G-L) (MUC2 + and TFF3 +), iii) transit-amplifying (T-A) (CFTR +), and iv) stem-like (S-L) (ZEB1 +).
RESULTS: In total, 53.5% (n = 304) CCS, 58.3% (n = 331) SiCCS, and 37.7% (n = 214) NMC tumours could be evaluated. CCS2 and MSI-H CRCs had the most favourable survival outcome, whereas the CCS3, ZEB1 and S-L subtypes showed the poorest prognosis. A significant overlap between CCS3, ZEB1, and S-L tumours was demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: There is still a need for a consensus gene expression-based subtyping classification system for CRCs, thereby allowing the categorization of most CRC tumours. This study reveals that a simple and rapidly accessible process could replace the complicated, costly and mostly inapproachable methods clinical practices that have been introduced in the majority of previous studies.

Chettouh H, Mowforth O, Galeano-Dalmau N, et al.
Methylation panel is a diagnostic biomarker for Barrett's oesophagus in endoscopic biopsies and non-endoscopic cytology specimens.
Gut. 2018; 67(11):1942-1949 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Barrett's oesophagus is a premalignant condition that occurs in the context of gastro-oesophageal reflux. However, most Barrett's cases are undiagnosed because of reliance on endoscopy. We have developed a non-endoscopic tool: the Cytosponge, which when combined with trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemistry, can diagnose Barrett's oesophagus. We investigated whether a quantitative methylation test that is not reliant on histopathological analysis could be used to diagnose Barrett's oesophagus.
DESIGN: Differentially methylated genes between Barrett's and normal squamous oesophageal biopsies were identified from whole methylome data and confirmed using MethyLight PCR in biopsy samples of squamous oesophagus, gastric cardia and Barrett's oesophagus. Selected genes were then tested on Cytosponge BEST2 trial samples comprising a pilot cohort (n=20 cases, n=10 controls) and a validation cohort (n=149 cases, n=129 controls).
RESULTS: Eighteen genes were differentially methylated in patients with Barrett'soesophagus compared with squamous controls. Hypermethylation of TFPI2, TWIST1, ZNF345 and ZNF569 was confirmed in Barrett's biopsies compared with biopsies from squamous oesophagus and gastric cardia (p<0.05). When tested in Cytosponge samples, these four genes were hypermethylated in patients with Barrett's oesophagus compared with patients with reflux symptoms (p<0.001). The optimum biomarker to diagnose Barrett's oesophagus was TFPI2 with a sensitivity and specificity of 82.2% and 95.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: TFPI2, TWIST1, ZNF345 and ZNF569 methylation have promise as diagnostic biomarkers for Barrett's oesophagus when used in combination with a simple and cost effective non-endoscopic cell collection device.

Nørgaard M, Haldrup C, Storebjerg TM, et al.
Comprehensive Evaluation of TFF3 Promoter Hypomethylation and Molecular Biomarker Potential for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors remains a major problem in prostate cancer (PC) due to suboptimal diagnostic and prognostic tools. Thus, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the biomarker potential of Trefoil factor 3 (

Hur EH, Goo BK, Moon J, et al.
Induction of immunoglobulin transcription factor 2 and resistance to MEK inhibitor in melanoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(25):41387-41400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary or acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors has been a barrier to successful treatment with MEK inhibitors in many tumors. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiling data from 6 sensitive and 6 resistant cell lines to identify candidate genes whose expression changes are associated with responses to a MEK inhibitor, selumetinib (AZD6244). Of 62 identified differentially expressed genes, we selected Immunoglobulin Transcription Factor 2, also known as transcription factor 4 as a potential drug resistance marker for further analysis. This was because the ITF-2 expression increase in resistant cell lines was relatively high and a previous study has suggested that ITF-2 functions as an oncogene in human colon cancers. We also established an AZD6244 resistant cell line (M14/AZD-3) from an AZD6244 sensitive M14 cell line. The expression of the ITF-2 was elevated both in primary AZD6244 resistant cell line, LOX-IMVI and acquired resistant cell line, M14/AZD-3. Targeted silencing of ITF-2 by siRNA significantly enhanced susceptibility to AZD6244 in resistant cells. Wnt/β-catenin pathway was activated through direct interaction of p-ERK and GSK3β. Our results suggest that up-regulation of the ITF-2 gene expression is associated with cellular resistance to MEK inhibitors, and activation of Wnt signaling pathway through interaction of p-ERK and GSK3β seems to be a mechanism for increase of ITF-2.

Wojtas B, Pfeifer A, Oczko-Wojciechowska M, et al.
Gene Expression (mRNA) Markers for Differentiating between Malignant and Benign Follicular Thyroid Tumours.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Distinguishing between follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) constitutes a long-standing diagnostic problem resulting in equivocal histopathological diagnoses. There is therefore a need for additional molecular markers. To identify molecular differences between FTC and FTA, we analyzed the gene expression microarray data of 52 follicular neoplasms. We also performed a meta-analysis involving 14 studies employing high throughput methods (365 follicular neoplasms analyzed). Based on these two analyses, we selected 18 genes differentially expressed between FTA and FTC. We validated them by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in an independent set of 71 follicular neoplasms from formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue material. We confirmed differential expression for 7 genes (

El-Balat A, Schmeil I, Karn T, et al.
TFF3 Expression as Stratification Marker in Borderline Epithelial Tumors of the Ovary.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(2):277-282 [PubMed] Related Publications
Borderline tumors (BOT) of the ovary account for 10% to 20% of ovarian neoplasms. Like ovarian cancer, BOT encompass several different histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, transitional cell and mixed) with serous (SBOT) and mucinous (MBOT) the most common. Current hypotheses suggest low-grade serous carcinoma may develop in a stepwise fashion from SBOT whereas the majority of high grade serous carcinomas develop rapidly presumably from inclusion cysts or ovarian surface epithelium. The pathogenesis of mucinous ovarian tumors is still puzzling. Molecular markers could help to better define relationships between such entities. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is an estrogen-regulated gene associated with prognosis in different types of cancer. It has also been included in a recent marker panel predicting subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. We analyzed the expression of TFF3 by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 137 BOT and its association with histopathological features. Overall expression rate of TFF3 was 21.9%. None of the BOT with serous and endometrioid histology displayed strong TFF3 expression. On the other hand, TFF3 was highly expressed in 61.4% of MBOT cases and 33.3% of BOT with mixed histology (P < 0.001) suggesting a potential function of the protein in that subtypes. Associations of TFF3 expression with FIGO stage and micropapillary pattern were significant in the overall cohort but confounded by their correlation with histological subtypes. The highly specific expression of TFF3 in MBOT may help to further clarify potential relationships of tumors with mucinous histology and warrants further studies.

Zhang HX, Liu OS, Deng C, et al.
Genome-wide gene expression profiling of tongue squamous cell carcinoma by RNA-seq.
Clin Oral Investig. 2018; 22(1):209-216 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is significantly more malignant than other type of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we aimed to identify specific global gene expression signatures of TSCC to investigate the more invasive behavior of the deeply infiltrating cancer.
METHODS: Using RNA-seq technology, we detected gene expression of 20 TSCCs, 20 matched paratumor tissues, and 10 healthy normal mucosa tissues. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) and pathway was conducted using online tools DAVID for the dysregulated genes. Additionally, we performed the quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the findings of RNA-Seq in 10 samples of TSCC, matched paratumor, and normal mucosa, respectively.
RESULTS: We detected 252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between TSCC and matched paratumor tissue, including 117 up-regulated and 135 down-regulated genes. For comparison between TSCC and normal mucosa, 234 DEGS were identified, consisting of 67 up-regulated and 167 down-regulated genes. For both two comparisons, GO categories of muscle contraction (GO: 0006936), epidermis development (GO: 0008544), epithelial cell differentiation (GO: 0030855), and keratinization (GO: 0031424) were commonly enriched. Altered gene expression affected some cancer-related pathways, such as tight junction. The qRT-PCR validation showed that gene expression patterns of FOLR1, NKX3-1, TFF3, PIGR, NEFL, MMP13, and HMGA2 were fully in concordance with RNA-Seq results.
CONCLUSION: Findings in this study demonstrated the genetic and molecular alterations associated with TSCC, providing new clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of TSCC pathogenesis.

Blockhuys S, Wittung-Stafshede P
Copper chaperone Atox1 plays role in breast cancer cell migration.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 483(1):301-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Copper (Cu) is an essential transition metal ion required as cofactor in many key enzymes. After cell uptake of Cu, the metal is transported by the cytoplasmic Cu chaperone Atox1 to P

Colleypriest BJ, Burke ZD, Griffiths LP, et al.
Hnf4α is a key gene that can generate columnar metaplasia in oesophageal epithelium.
Differentiation. 2017 Jan - Feb; 93:39-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Barrett's metaplasia is the only known morphological precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and is characterized by replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. The cell of origin is uncertain and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the change in cellular phenotype are poorly understood. We therefore explored the role of two transcription factors, Cdx2 and HNF4α in the conversion using primary organ cultures. Biopsy samples from cases of human Barrett's metaplasia were analysed for the presence of CDX2 and HNF4α. A new organ culture system for adult murine oesophagus is described. Using this, Cdx2 and HNF4α were ectopically expressed by adenoviral infection. The phenotype following infection was determined by a combination of PCR, immunohistochemical and morphological analyses. We demonstrate the expression of CDX2 and HNF4α in human biopsy samples. Our oesophageal organ culture system expressed markers characteristic of the normal SSQE: p63, K14, K4 and loricrin. Ectopic expression of HNF4α, but not of Cdx2 induced expression of Tff3, villin, K8 and E-cadherin. HNF4α is sufficient to induce a columnar-like phenotype in adult mouse oesophageal epithelium and is present in the human condition. These data suggest that induction of HNF4α is a key early step in the formation of Barrett's metaplasia and are consistent with an origin of Barrett's metaplasia from the oesophageal epithelium.

Romo-Bucheli D, Janowczyk A, Gilmore H, et al.
Automated Tubule Nuclei Quantification and Correlation with Oncotype DX risk categories in ER+ Breast Cancer Whole Slide Images.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32706 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BCa) treatment is based on the presumed aggressiveness and likelihood of cancer recurrence. Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests have allowed for distinguishing the more aggressive ER+ BCa requiring adjuvant chemotherapy from the less aggressive cancers benefiting from hormonal therapy alone. However these tests are expensive, tissue destructive and require specialized facilities. Interestingly BCa grade has been shown to be correlated with the ODX risk score. Unfortunately Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade determined by pathologists can be variable. A constituent category in BR grading is tubule formation. This study aims to develop a deep learning classifier to automatically identify tubule nuclei from whole slide images (WSI) of ER+ BCa, the hypothesis being that the ratio of tubule nuclei to overall number of nuclei (a tubule formation indicator - TFI) correlates with the corresponding ODX risk categories. This correlation was assessed in 7513 fields extracted from 174 WSI. The results suggests that low ODX/BR cases have a larger TFI than high ODX/BR cases (p < 0.01). The low ODX/BR cases also presented a larger TFI than that obtained for the rest of cases (p < 0.05). Finally, the high ODX/BR cases have a significantly smaller TFI than that obtained for the rest of cases (p < 0.01).

Thangaraj SV, Shyamsundar V, Krishnamurthy A, et al.
Molecular Portrait of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Shown by Integrative Meta-Analysis of Expression Profiles with Validations.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0156582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral Tongue Squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), the most frequently affected oral cancer sub-site, is associated with a poor therapeutic outcome and survival despite aggressive multi- modality management. Till date, there are no established biomarkers to indicate prognosis and outcome in patients presenting with tongue cancer. There is an urgent need for reliable molecular prognostic factors to enable identification of patients with high risk of recurrence and treatment failure in OTSCC management. In the current study, we present the meta-analysis of OTSCC microarray based gene expression profiles, deriving a comprehensive molecular portrait of tongue cancer biology, showing the relevant genes and pathways which can be pursued further to derive novel, tailored therapeutics as well as for prognostication. We have studied 5 gene expression profiling data sets available on exclusively oral tongue subsite comprising of sample size; n = 190, consisting of 111 tumors and 79 normals. The meta- analysis results showed 2405 genes differentially regulated comparing OTSCC tumor and normal. The top up regulated genes were found to be involved in Extracellular matrix degradation (ECM) and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathways. The top down regulated genes were found to be involved in detoxication pathways. We validated the results in clinical samples (n = 206), comprising of histologically normals (n = 10), prospective (n = 29) and retrospective (n = 167) OTSCC by evaluating MMP9 and E-cadherin gene expression by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Consistent with meta-analysis results, MMP9 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in OTSCC primary tumors compared to normals. MMP9 protein over expression was found to be a significant predictor of poor prognosis, disease recurrence and poor Disease Free Survival (DFS) in OTSCC patients. Analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed patients with loss of E-cadherin expression in OTSCC tumors having a poorer DFS (HR = 1.566; P value = 0.045) and poorer Overall Survival (OS) (HR = 1.224; P value = 0.003) respectively. Combined over-expression of MMP9 and loss of E-cadherin membrane positivity in the invasive tumor front (ITF) of OTSCC had a significant association with poorer DFS (Log Rank = 16.040; P value = 0.001). These results suggest that along with known clinical indicators of prognosis like occult node positivity, assessment of MMP9 and E-cadherin expression at ITF can be useful to identify patients at high risk and requiring a more intensive treatment strategy for OTSCC. Meta-analysis study of gene expression profiles indicates that OTSCC is a disease of ECM degradation leading to activated EMT processes implying the aggressive nature of the disease. The triggers for these processes should be studied further. Newer clinical application with agents that can inhibit the mediators of ECM degradation may be a key to achieving clinical control of invasion and metastasis of OTSCC.

Chen W, Husain A, Nelson GS, et al.
Immunohistochemical Profiling of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2017; 36(2):128-139 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) is an aggressive neoplasm mainly seen in older women. The objective of this study was to refine immunohistochemical (IHC) panels for the differential diagnoses against endometrial endometrioid grade 3 (EC3), endometrial clear cell, and ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma as well as exploring the prognostic role of selected IHC markers. Fifty-two ESC from a single institution were assessed for 20 IHC markers, including ARID1A, CCNE1, CDKN2A, ERBB2, ESR1, HNF1B, FBXW7, IGF2BP3, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NAPSA, PAX8, PGR, PMS2, PTEN, TFF3, TP53, VIM, and WT1. ERBB2 chromogenic in situ hybridization was evaluated on tissue microarrays. Statistical analysis was performed. All ESC showed aberrant TP53, normal mismatch repair protein, and retained ARID1A and PTEN expression. ESR1 expression was present in 80% of ESC. A combination of TP53, PTEN, and CDKN2A had a sensitivity of 93.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84%-98%] and specificity of 87.8% (95% CI, 75%-95%) for ESC versus EC3. A combination of NAPSA and ESR1 had a sensitivity of 97.9% (95% CI, 89%-99%) and specificity of 72.2% (95% CI, 46%-90%) for ESC versus clear cell carcinoma. Absence of WT1 alone had a sensitivity of 66.0% (95% CI, 51%-79%) and specificity of 98.0% (95% CI, 94%-99%) for ESC versus ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Among all 52 ESCs, ERBB2 amplification was present in 23%, FBXW7 expression was absent in 10%, and CCNE1 was overexpressed in 59%, however, none were associated with prognosis. Our data support the value of IHC marker panels for histotyping of high-grade endometrial carcinomas.

Gao F, Pan S, Liu B, Zhang H
TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(11):14568-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P < 0.01). After transfecting with small interference RNA (siRNA) against TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels were remarkably depressed after siRNA transfection, while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels were elevated. TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

Hope ER, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Pejovic T, et al.
Nestin: A biomarker of aggressive uterine cancers.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(3):503-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of potential prognostic and predictive value for nestin was investigated in well-annotated uterine cancers (UCs).
METHODS: Nestin expression and previously-published biomarkers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in UC tissue microarrays. Biomarkers were categorized as low vs. high, and nestin was cut at 10% positive staining. Relationship between nestin and clinicopathologic factors, biomarkers and outcome were evaluated using exact/log-rank testing or logistic/Cox modeling.
RESULTS: There were 323 eligible cases, 34% had advanced stage disease, 37% had type II disease, and 5% were carcinosarcomas. High nestin, observed in 19% of cases, was more common in advanced vs. early stage disease, type II cancers or uterine carcinosarcoma vs. type I cancers, grade 3 disease, positive lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and tumors >6cm (p<0.05). Nestin was inversely correlated with ER, PR and TFF3, and correlated with p53 and IMP3. Women with high vs. low nestin had worse progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival overall, and worse PFS in the subset who received no adjuvant therapy or radiation, or had early stage, type I disease or tumors with both low and high ER, PR, TFF3, PTEN, p53 or IMP3. The relationship between nestin and PFS was independent of stage, LVSI and risk categorization but not type of UC.
CONCLUSIONS: High nestin was more common in UCs with aggressive features and poor outcome. Nestin may represent a predictive biomarker for treatment selection for patients previously considered to be lower risk and a candidate for no or radiation-based adjuvant therapy, and compliment ER/PR testing.

Thomsen KG, Lyng MB, Elias D, et al.
Gene expression alterations associated with outcome in aromatase inhibitor-treated ER+ early-stage breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 154(3):483-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aromatase inhibitors (AI), either alone or together with chemotherapy, have become the standard adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Although AIs improve overall survival, resistance is still a major clinical problem, thus additional biomarkers predictive of outcome of ER+ breast cancer patients treated with AIs are needed. Global gene expression analysis was performed on ER+ primary breast cancers from patients treated with adjuvant AI monotherapy; half experienced recurrence (median follow-up 6.7 years). Gene expression alterations were validated by qRT-PCR, and functional studies evaluating the effect of siRNA-mediated gene knockdown on cell growth were performed. Twenty-six genes, including TFF3, DACH1, RGS5, and GHR, were shown to exhibit altered expression in tumors from patients with recurrence versus non-recurrent (fold change ≥1.5, p < 0.05), and the gene expression alterations were confirmed using qRT-PCR. Ten of these 26 genes could be linked in a network associated with cellular proliferation, growth, and development. TFF3, which encodes for trefoil factor 3 and is an estrogen-responsive oncogene shown to play a functional role in tamoxifen resistance and metastasis of ER+ breast cancer, was also shown to be upregulated in an AI-resistant cell line model, and reduction of TFF3 levels using TFF3-specific siRNAs decreased the growth of both the AI-resistant and -sensitive parental cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of TFF3 in parental AI-sensitive MCF-7/S0.5 cells resulted in reduced sensitivity to the AI exemestane, whereas TFF3 overexpression had no effect on growth in the absence of exemestane, indicating that TFF3 mediates growth and survival signals that abrogate the growth inhibitory effect of exemestane. We identified a panel of 26 genes exhibiting altered expression associated with disease recurrence in patients treated with adjuvant AI monotherapy, including TFF3, which was shown to exhibit a growth- and survival-promoting effect in the context of AI treatment.

Xiao P, Ling H, Lan G, et al.
Trefoil factors: Gastrointestinal-specific proteins associated with gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2015; 450:127-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trefoil factor family (TFF), composed of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3, is a cluster of secreted peptides characterized by trefoil domain (s) and C-terminal dimerization domain. TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor, is a single trefoil peptide originally detected in breast cancer cell lines but expressed mainly in the stomach; TFF2, a candidate of gastric cancer suppressor with two trefoil domains, is abundant in the stomach and duodenal Brunner's glands; and TFF3 is another single trefoil peptide expressed throughout the intestine which can promote the development of gastric carcinoma. According to multiple studies, TFFs play a regulatory function in the mammals' digestive system, namely in mucosal protection and epithelial cell reconstruction, tumor suppression or promotion, signal transduction and the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Action mechanisms of TFFs remain unresolved, but the recent demonstration of a GKN (gastrokine) 2-TFF1 heterodimer implicates structural and functional interplay with gastrokines. This review aims to encapsulate the structural and biological characteristics of TFF.

Jin EH, Lee SI, Kim J, et al.
Association between Promoter Polymorphisms of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the Risk of Gastric and Diffuse Gastric Cancers in a Korean Population.
J Korean Med Sci. 2015; 30(8):1035-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in TFF gene family, TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the risk of gastric cancer (GC) and GC subgroups in a Korean population via a case-control study. The eight polymorphisms in TFF gene family were identified by sequencing and genotyped with 377 GC patients and 396 controls by using TaqMan genotyping assay. The rs184432 TT genotype of TFF1 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of GC (odds ratio, [OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence interval, [CI] = 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009), more protective against diffuse-type GC (OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05-0.89; P = 0.035) than GC (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14-0.82; P = 0.017) in subjects aged < 60 yr, and correlated with lymph node metastasis negative GC and diffuse-type GC (OR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.23-0.86; P = 0.016 and OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05-0.87; P = 0.031, respectively). In addition, a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis negative GC and diffuse-type GC was observed for rs225359 TT genotype of TFF1 (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.24-0.88; P = 0.020 and OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.05-0.88; P = 0.033, respectively). These findings suggest that the rs184432 and rs225359 polymorphisms in TFF1 have protective effects for GC and contribute to the development of GC in Korean individuals.

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