Gene Summary

Gene:DICER1; dicer 1, ribonuclease III
Aliases: DCR1, GLOW, MNG1, Dicer, HERNA, RMSE2, Dicer1e, K12H4.8-LIKE
Summary:This gene encodes a protein possessing an RNA helicase motif containing a DEXH box in its amino terminus and an RNA motif in the carboxy terminus. The encoded protein functions as a ribonuclease and is required by the RNA interference and small temporal RNA (stRNA) pathways to produce the active small RNA component that represses gene expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:endoribonuclease Dicer
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: DICER1 (cancer-related)

Kutahyalioglu M, Nguyen HT, Kwatampora L, et al.
Genetic profiling as a clinical tool in advanced parathyroid carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):1977-1986 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with no approved systemic therapies for unresectable locally invasive or distant metastatic disease. Understanding the molecular changes in advanced PC can provide better understanding of this disease and potentially help directing targeted therapy.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tumor-specific genetic changes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels.
DESIGN: All patients with advanced PC were tested for hot-spot panels using NGS panels including a 50-gene panel, a 409-gene panel if the standard 50-gene panel (Ion Torrent, Life Technology) was negative or a FoundationOne panel.
SETTING: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: 11 patients with advanced PC were selected to undergo molecular testing.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Genetic profiles of advanced PC.
RESULTS: Among the 11 patients, 4 patients had the 50-gene panel only, 6 had 409-gene panel after a negative 50-gene panel and 1 had FoundationOne. One patient who had 50-gene panel only also had his metastatic site (esophagus) of his tumor tested with FoundationOne. The most common mutations identified were in the PI3 K (PIK3CA, TSC1 and ATM) (4/11 patients) and TP53 (3/11) pathways. Genes not previously reported to be mutated in PC included: SDHA, TERT promoter and DICER1. Actionable mutations were found in 54% (6/11) of the patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Mutational profiling using NGS panels in advanced PC has yielded important potentially targetable genetic alterations. Larger studies are needed to identify commonly mutated genes in advanced PC patients. Development of novel therapies targeting these cellular pathways should be considered.

Tadepalli SH, Shields CL, Shields JA, Honavar SG
Intraocular medulloepithelioma - A review of clinical features, DICER 1 mutation, and management.
Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019; 67(6):755-762 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intraocular medulloepithelioma is a nonhereditary neoplasm of childhood arising from primitive medullary epithelium. It most often involves the ciliary body. Most patients present between 2 and 10 years of age with loss of vision, pain, leucocoria, or conjunctival congestion. The mass appears as a grey-white ciliary body lesion with intratumoral cysts. Presence of a neoplastic cyclitic membrane with extension to retrolental region is characteristic. Secondary manifestations like cataract and neovascular glaucoma may be present in up to 50% and 60% patients, respectively. These could be the first signs for which, unfortunately, about 50% patients undergo surgery before recognition of the hidden tumor. Systemic correlation with pleuropulmonary blastoma (DICER1 gene) has been documented in 5% cases. Histopathology shows primitive neuroepithelial cells arranged as cords closely resembling the primitive retina. Histopathologically, the tumor is classified as teratoid (containing heteroplastic elements) and nonteratoid (containing medullary epithelial elements), each of which are further subclassified as benign or malignant. Retinoblastoma-like and sarcoma-like areas may be seen within the tissue. The treatment modality depends on tumor size and extent of invasion. For small localized tumors (≤3-4 clock hours), conservative treatments with cryotherapy, plaque radiotherapy, or partial lamellar sclerouvectomy (PLSU) have been used. Plaque brachytherapy is generally preferred for best tumor control. Advanced and extensive tumors require enucleation. Rare use of intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapy has been employed. Systemic prognosis is favorable, but those with extraocular extension and orbital involvement show risk for local recurrence and metastatic disease, which can lead to death.

Piroozian F, Bagheri Varkiyani H, Koolivand M, et al.
The impact of variations in transcription of DICER and AGO2 on exacerbation of childhood B-cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Int J Exp Pathol. 2019; 100(3):184-191 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2020 Related Publications
The expression of microRNA in eukaryotic cells is subject to tightly regulated processing. The altered expression of microRNAs in a number of cancers suggests their contribution to disease pathogenesis, where processing pathways may be involved in disease pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated changes in the profile of two main components of microRNA biogenesis, AGO2 and DICER, and assessed their correlation with disease progression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). To achieve this aim, 25 patients afflicted with ALL were included in the study along with 25 healthy subjects as control. The expression level of AGO2 and DICER was evaluated by real-time PCR. The results revealed an increase in the expression of DICER and a decrease in AGO2 in patients. The correlation between the alteration levels of these genes with pathologic events was also studied. This increase or decrease proved to be directly correlated with the progression of the disease particularly in L1 to L2. According to the obtained results, it can be deduced that dysregulation in transcription of DICER and AGO2, involved in the formation of mature microRNAs in cytoplasm of ALL cancer cells, is a part of the pathological molecular mechanism implicated in the exacerbation of this malignancy. Therefore, the genes involved in microRNAs biogenesis that have been studied here could be considered as candidate prognostic markers especially in childhood ALL which will help towards a better understanding of the molecular basis of ALL.

Pradhan AK, Bhoopathi P, Talukdar S, et al.
MDA-7/IL-24 regulates the miRNA processing enzyme DICER through downregulation of MITF.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(12):5687-5692 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (

Ye T, Yang M, Huang D, et al.
MicroRNA-7 as a potential therapeutic target for aberrant NF-κB-driven distant metastasis of gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated miR-7 and aberrant NF-κB activation were reported in various human cancers. However, the expression profile, clinical relevance and dysregulated mechanism of miR-7 and NF-κB RelA/p65 in human gastric cancers (GC) metastasis remain largely unknown. This study is to investigate the expression profile, clinical relevance and dysregulated mechanism of miR-7 and NF-κB RelA/p65 in GC and to explore the potential therapeutic effect of miR-7 to GC distant metastasis.
METHODS: TCGA STAD and NCBI GEO database were used to investigate the expression profile of miR-7 and NF-κB RelA/p65 and clinical relevance. Lentivirus-mediated gene delivery was applied to explore the therapeutic effect of miR-7 in GC. Real-time PCR, FACS, IHC, IF, reporter gene assay, IP, pre-miRNA-7 processing and binding assays were performed.
RESULTS: Low miR-7 correlated with high RelA/p65 in GC with a clinical relevance that low miR-7 and high RelA/p65 as prognostic indicators of poor survival outcome of GC patients. Moreover, an impaired pre-miR-7 processing caused by dysregulated Dicer1 expression is associated with downregulated miR-7 in GC cells. Functionally, delivery of miR-7 displays therapeutic effects to GC lung and liver metastasis by alleviating hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis as well as inflammation cells infiltration. Mechanistically, miR-7 suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity and its downstream metastasis-related molecules Vimentin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF by reducing p65 and p-p65-ser536 expression. Pharmacologic prevention of NF-κB activator LPS obviously restored miR-7-suppressed NF-κB transcriptional activation and significantly reverted miR-7-inhibited cell migration and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest loss of miR-7 in GC promotes p65-mediated aberrant NF-κB activation, facilitating GC metastasis and ultimately resulting in the worse clinical outcome. Thus, miR-7 may act as novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for aberrant NF-κB-driven GC distant metastasis.

Leckey BD, Carney JM, Sun JM, Pavlisko EN
Novel intronic
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPB) are rare aggressive paediatric lung malignancies associated with

He Q, Zhao L, Liu X, et al.
MOV10 binding circ-DICER1 regulates the angiogenesis of glioma via miR-103a-3p/miR-382-5p mediated ZIC4 expression change.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been reported to interact with RNAs to regulate gene expression. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding RNAs, which involved in the angiogenesis of tumor. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the potential roles and molecular mechanisms of MOV10 and circ-DICER1 in regulating the angiogenesis of glioma-exposed endothelial cells (GECs).
METHODS: The expressions of circ-DICER1, miR-103a-3p and miR-382-5p were detected by real-time PCR. The expressions of MOV10, ZIC4, Hsp90 and PI3K/Akt were detected by real-time PCR or western blot. The binding ability of circ-SHKBP1 and miR-544a / miR-379, ZIC4 and miR-544a / miR-379 were analyzed with Dual-Luciferase Reporter System or RIP experiment. The direct effects of ZIC4 on the Hsp90β promoter were analyzed by the ChIP experiment. The cell viability, migration and tube formation in vitro were detected by CCK-8, Transwell assay and Matrigel tube formation assay. The angiogenesis in vivo was evaluated by Matrigel plug assay. Student's t-test (two tailed) was used for comparisons between two groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multi-group comparisons followed by Bonferroni post-hoc analysis.
RESULTS: The expressions of RNA binding proteins MOV10, circ-DICER1, ZIC4, and Hsp90β were up-regulated in GECs, while miR103a-3p/miR-382-5p were down-regulated. MOV10 binding circ-DICER1 regulated the cell viability, migration, and tube formation of GECs. And the effects of both MOV10 and circ-DICER1 silencing were better than the effects of MOV10 or circ-DICER1 alone silencing. In addition, circ-DICER1 acts as a molecular sponge to adsorb miR-103a-3p / miR-382-5p and impair the negative regulation of miR-103a-3p / miR-382-5p on ZIC4 in GECs. Furthermore, ZIC4 up-regulates the expression of its downstream target Hsp90β, and Hsp90 promotes the cell viability, migration, and tube formation of GECs by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: MOV10 / circ-DICER1 / miR-103a-3p (miR-382-5p) / ZIC4 pathway plays a vital role in regulating the angiogenesis of glioma. Our findings not only provides novel mechanisms for the angiogenesis of glioma, but also provide potential targets for anti-angiogenesis therapies of glioma.

Gillison ML, Akagi K, Xiao W, et al.
Human papillomavirus and the landscape of secondary genetic alterations in oral cancers.
Genome Res. 2019; 29(1):1-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary but insufficient cause of a subset of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) that is increasing markedly in frequency. To identify contributory, secondary genetic alterations in these cancers, we used comprehensive genomics methods to compare 149 HPV-positive and 335 HPV-negative OSCC tumor/normal pairs. Different behavioral risk factors underlying the two OSCC types were reflected in distinctive genomic mutational signatures. In HPV-positive OSCCs, the signatures of APOBEC cytosine deaminase editing, associated with anti-viral immunity, were strongly linked to overall mutational burden. In contrast, in HPV-negative OSCCs, T>C substitutions in the sequence context 5'-ATN-3' correlated with tobacco exposure. Universal expression of HPV

Oz M, Karakus S, Yildirim M, et al.
Genetic variants in the microRNA machinery gene (Dicer) have a prognostic value in the management of endometrial cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018 Oct-Dec; 14(6):1279-1284 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim: Although several associations were found between Dicer rs3742330 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and development and prognosis of some epithelial cancers, relationship between the SNP rs3742330 and endometrial cancer (EC) has not yet been studied. We aimed to investigate the prognostic role of rs3742330 SNP of Dicer gene in EC patients.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 80 EC patients and 80 control subjects included in the study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and the allele discrimination technique was used for genotyping of rs3742330 SNP.
Results: There was no significant difference between EC patients and control subjects with regard to the genotype and allele frequencies for Dicer rs3742330 SNP (P > 0.05). Despite Dicer rs3742330 SNP had no prognostic value in terms of stage, grade, lymphovascular invasion, myometrial invasion, tumor size, and histopathology; malignant peritoneal cytology has been detected higher in the patients bearing AA genotype compare with AG genotype (P = 0.023). Higher recurrence rate and shorter time to recurrence were found in patients bearing AG and GG genotype compare with AA genotype (P = 0.009).
Conclusion: Dicer rs3742330 AG and GG genotypes may have the potential to be used as a predictor of poor prognosis in the management of EC case.

Balacescu O, Sur D, Cainap C, et al.
The Impact of miRNA in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Its Liver Metastases.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies with a high incidence and mortality rate. An essential challenge in colorectal cancer management is to identify new prognostic factors that could better estimate the evolution and treatment responses of this disease. Considering their role in cancer development, progression and metastasis, miRNAs have become an important class of molecules suitable for cancer biomarkers discovery. We performed a systematic search of studies investigating the role of miRNAs in colorectal progression and liver metastasis published until October 2018. In this review, we present up-to-date information regarding the specific microRNAs involved in CRC development, considering their roles in alteration of Wnt/βcatenin, EGFR, TGFβ and TP53 signaling pathways. We also emphasize the role of miRNAs in controlling the epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition of CRC cells, a process responsible for liver metastasis in a circulating tumor cell-dependent manner. Furthermore, we discuss the role of miRNAs transported by CRC-derived exosomes in mediating liver metastases, by preparing the secondary pre-metastatic niche and in inducing liver carcinogenesis in a Dicer-dependent manner.

Black KL, Naqvi AS, Asnani M, et al.
Aberrant splicing in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(21):11357-11369 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
Aberrant splicing is a hallmark of leukemias with mutations in splicing factor (SF)-encoding genes. Here we investigated its prevalence in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALL), where SFs are not mutated. By comparing these samples to normal pro-B cells, we found thousands of aberrant local splice variations (LSVs) per sample, with 279 LSVs in 241 genes present in every comparison. These genes were enriched in RNA processing pathways and encoded ∼100 SFs, e.g. hnRNPA1. HNRNPA1 3'UTR was most pervasively mis-spliced, yielding the transcript subject to nonsense-mediated decay. To mimic this event, we knocked it down in B-lymphoblastoid cells and identified 213 hnRNPA1-regulated exon usage events comprising the hnRNPA1 splicing signature in pediatric leukemia. Some of its elements were LSVs in DICER1 and NT5C2, known cancer drivers. We searched for LSVs in other leukemia and lymphoma drivers and discovered 81 LSVs in 41 additional genes. Seventy-seven LSVs out of 81 were confirmed using two large independent B-ALL RNA-seq datasets, and the twenty most common B-ALL drivers, including NT5C2, showed higher prevalence of aberrant splicing than of somatic mutations. Thus, post-transcriptional deregulation of SF can drive widespread changes in B-ALL splicing and likely contributes to disease pathogenesis.

Wang X, Chen H, Wen Y, et al.
Dicer affects cisplatin‑mediated apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(5):4381-4387 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
Dicer is an essential enzyme that processes micro (mi)-RNA precursors into mature miRNAs, and serves a critical role in cancer development and progression by regulating gene expression. However, the role of Dicer in cisplatin‑mediated apoptosis and chemotherapy resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells is poorly understood. In the present study, Dicer was expressed at low levels in cisplatin‑resistant A2780 cells when compared with parental cells. In addition, knocking down Dicer using short hairpin RNA decreased the sensitivity of A2780 and CAOV3 cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, downregulating Dicer significantly inhibited cisplatin‑induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, and decreased the levels of proteins involved in apoptosis signaling pathways, including P73, P63, P53, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. These findings indicated that Dicer may be a promising target for overcoming drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

Liu F, Gong R, He B, et al.
TUSC2P suppresses the tumor function of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating TUSC2 expression and correlates with disease prognosis.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):894 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pseudogenes are RNA transcripts with high homology with its parent protein-coding genes. Although pseudogenes lost the ability to produce protein, it still exert import biological function, and play important role in the pathogenesis of a wide varity of tumors; However, the role of pseudogenes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is poorly understood.
METHODS: TUSC2P function in ESCC were explored using both in vitro and in vivo experiments cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis assay was performed to evaluated the effect of TUSC2P on the tumor biology of ESCC. Expression of relative genes was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting in EC109 and TE-1 cell, as well as ESCC patients. 3'UTR luciferase assay was used to confirm the direct binding of miRNAs with TUSC2 and TUSC2P 3'UTR. Relation betweenTUSC2P, TUSC2 and ESCC prognosis was predicted by survival analysis (n = 56).
RESULTS: Pseudogene TUSC2P was down regulated in ESCC tissues compared with paired normal adjacent tissues, and the expression of TUSC2P was significantly correlated with survivalof ESCC patients. Over expression of TUSC2P in EC109 and TE-1 cells resulted in altered expression of TUSC2, thus inhibited proliferation, invasion and promoted apoptosis. Dual luciferase assay demonstrated that TUSC2P 3'UTR decoyed miR-17-5p, miR-520a-3p, miR-608, miR-661 from binding to TUSC2.
CONCLUSIONS: TUSC2P can suppresses the tumor function of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating TUSC2 expression and may also serve as a prognostic factor for ESCC patients.

Yuan X, Mu N, Wang N, et al.
GABPA inhibits invasion/metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma by regulating DICER1 expression.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(7):965-979 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ETS family transcription factor GABPA is suggested as an oncogenic element, which is further supported by the recent reporting of it as the sole ETS member to activate the mutant TERT promoter in thyroid carcinomas (TC). However, it remains unclear how GABPA contributes to TC pathogenesis. The present study is designed to address this issue. TERT expression was significantly diminished in TERT promoter-mutated TC cells upon GABPA inhibition. Surprisingly, GABPA depletion led to robustly increased cellular invasion independently of TERT promoter mutations and TERT expression. DICER1, a component of the microRNA machinery, was identified as a downstream effector of GABPA. GABPA facilitated Dicer1 transcription while its depletion reduced Dicer1 expression. The mutation of the GABPA binding site in the DICER1 promoter led to diminished basal levels of DICER1 promoter activity and abolishment of GABPA-stimulated promoter activity as well. The forced DICER1 expression abrogated the invasiveness of GABPA-depleted TC cells. Consistently, the analyses of 93 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) revealed a positive correlation between GABPA and DICER1 expression. GABPA expression was negatively associated with TERT expression and promoter mutations, in contrast to published observations in cancer cell lines. Lower GABPA expression was associated with distant metastasis and shorter overall/disease-free survival in PTC patients. Similar results were obtained for PTC cases in the TCGA dataset. In addition, a positive correlation between GABPA and DICER1 expression was seen in multiple types of malignancies. Taken together, despite its stimulatory effect on the mutant TERT promoter and telomerase activation, GABPA may itself act as a tumor suppressor rather than an oncogenic factor to inhibit invasion/metastasis in TCs and be a useful predictor for patient outcomes.

Stepanenko AA, Chekhonin VP
A compendium of adenovirus genetic modifications for enhanced replication, oncolysis, and tumor immunosurveillance in cancer therapy.
Gene. 2018; 679:11-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this review, we specifically focus on genetic modifications of oncolytic adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based vectors that enhance replication, oncolysis/spread, and virus-mediated tumor immunosurveillance. The finding of negative regulation of minor core protein V by SUMOylation led to the identification of amino acid residues, which when mutated increase adenovirus replication and progeny yield. Suppression of Dicer and/or RNAi pathway with shRNA or p19 tomato bushy stunt protein also results in significant enhancement of adenovirus replication and progeny yield. Truncation mutations in E3-19K or i-leader sequence or overexpression of adenovirus death protein (ADP) potently increase adenovirus progeny release and spread without affecting virus yield. Moreover, E3-19K protein, which was found to inhibit both major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) and MHC-I chain-related A and B proteins (MICA/MICB) expression on the cell surface, protecting infected cells from T-lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell attack, may be tailored to selectively target only MHCI or MICA/MICB, or to lose the ability to downregulate both. At last, E3-19K protein may be exploited to deliver tumor-associated epitopes directly to the endoplasmic reticulum for loading MHCI in the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-deregulated cells.

Lee SH, Singh I, Tisdale S, et al.
Widespread intronic polyadenylation inactivates tumour suppressor genes in leukaemia.
Nature. 2018; 561(7721):127-131 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
DNA mutations are known cancer drivers. Here we investigated whether mRNA events that are upregulated in cancer can functionally mimic the outcome of genetic alterations. RNA sequencing or 3'-end sequencing techniques were applied to normal and malignant B cells from 59 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)

Vo DD, Becquart C, Tran TPA, et al.
Building of neomycin-nucleobase-amino acid conjugates for the inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs biogenesis.
Org Biomol Chem. 2018; 16(34):6262-6274 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered category of small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in a variety of human cancers, thus being oncogenic. The inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs (defined as the blocking of miRNAs' production or function) would find application in the therapy of different types of cancer in which these miRNAs are implicated. In this work, we describe the design and synthesis of new small-molecule RNA ligands with the aim of inhibiting Dicer-mediated processing of oncogenic miRNAs. One of the synthesized compound (4b) composed of the aminoglycoside neomycin conjugated to an artificial nucleobase and to amino acid histidine is able to selectively decrease miR-372 levels in gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells and to restore the expression of the target LATS2 protein. This activity led to the inhibition of proliferation of these cells. The study of the interactions of 4b with pre-miR-372 allowed for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of the conjugate, thus leading to new perspectives for the design of future inhibitors.

Zhang X, Wu M, Chong QY, et al.
Amplification of hsa-miR-191/425 locus promotes breast cancer proliferation and metastasis by targeting DICER1.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(12):1506-1516 [PubMed] Related Publications
The dysregulation of micro RNAs (miRNAs) is a crucial characteristic of human cancers. Herein, we observed frequent amplification of the MIR191/425 locus in breast cancer, which is correlated with poor survival outcome. We demonstrated that the miR-191/425 cluster binds the 3' untranslated region of the DICER1 transcript and posttranscriptionally represses DICER1 expression, thereby impairing global miRNAs biogenesis. Functionally, the forced expression of miR-191 or miR-425 stimulated the proliferation, survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, whereas the inhibition of miR-191 or miR-425 suppressed these oncogenic behaviors of breast cancer cells, in a manner dependent on miR-191/425-mediated downregulation of DICER1. Furthermore, the miR-191/425 cluster promoted breast tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in vivo. The let-7 family of miRNAs was downregulated upon forced expression of miR-191 or miR-425, with a corresponding increase in the levels of let-7 target, high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2). The forced expression of let-7 partially abrogated the miR-191/425-mediated oncogenic effects in breast cancer cells, suggestive of let-7 as a downstream effector of the miR-191/425-DICER1 axis. Collectively, we proposed that the inhibition of global miRNA processing, through miR-191/425-mediated downregulation of DICER1, promotes breast cancer progression.

Albani A, Perez-Rivas LG, Reincke M, Theodoropoulou M
Endocr Pract. 2018; 24(10):907-914 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Cushing disease is a rare severe condition caused by pituitary tumors that secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), leading to excessive endogenous glucocorticoid production. Tumors causing Cushing disease, also called corticotropinomas, are typically monoclonal neoplasms that mainly occur sporadically.
METHODS: Literature review.
RESULTS: Cushing disease is very rarely encountered in genetic familial syndromes. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes commonly associated with other tumor types are only rarely mutated in this tumor type. The advent of next-generation sequencing led to the identification of a single mutational hotspot in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 ( USP8) gene in almost half of Cushing disease tumors.
CONCLUSION: The new discoveries showcase a novel mechanism responsible for corticotroph tumorigenesis and ACTH hypersecretion and highlight USP8 and its downstream signaling pathways as potential promising pharmacologic targets for the management of Cushing disease.
ABBREVIATIONS: ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone; BRG1 = Brahma-related gene 1; CABLES1 = CDK5 and ABL1 enzyme substrate 1; CD = Cushing disease; CNC = Carney complex; DICER1 = cytoplasmic endoribonuclease III; EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptor; GR = glucocorticoid receptor; IL = interleukin; MEN = multiple endocrine neoplasia; miRNA = microRNA; POMC = proopiomelanocortin; SSTR = somatostatin receptor; USP8 = ubiquitin-specific protease 8.

Zhang X, Shen D, Wang Y
Detection of the DICER1 hotspot mutation alongside immunohistochemical analysis may provide a better diagnostic measure for ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(9):1370-1375 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinicopathological and histopathological characteristics of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) in relation to differential diagnosis, and patient prognosis.
METHODS: A review of clinical data, pathological morphology and immunohistochemical analysis of SLCTs were performed in 18 SLCTs patients. The DICER1 gene mutation was assessed in eight cases that were obtained from in-house surgical resections.
RESULTS: Among 18 SLCTs patients, three cases had well-differentiated tumors, 8 cases had moderately-differentiated tumors, and the remaining 7 cases had poorly-differentiated tumors. Among the moderately-differentiated tumors, three cases occurred coincidently with other diseases - one case occurred with endometrial carcinoma (grade I), and two cases with endometrial carcinoma of the ovary (grade 2 and grade 3). Immunohistochemical staining for α-inhibin, calretinin, and FOXL2 was positive in all the biopsies tested. The intensity of staining varied depending on the percentage of Sertoli cells and the primitive gonad interstitial composition. DICER1 mutations were detected in three of eight cases that were evaluated and were significantly more in low age range patients (P < 0.05). The initial symptoms of these three cases were sexual changes and elevation of androgen levels. The follow-up time in this study ranged from 3 to 87 months with the mean follow-up time of 29.1 months. Prognosis was generally favorable. There was no recurrence or metastasis in any patient, except for one case with recurrence of endometrial carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of SLCTs can be both varied and complex. Pathological examination is imperative for both diagnostic and prognostic grading. Immunohistochemical stain of α-inhibin, FOXL2, and calretinin and genetic testing for DICER1 mutations will be more potent for differential diagnosis.

Nowak I, Boratyn E, Durbas M, et al.
Exogenous expression of miRNA-3613-3p causes APAF1 downregulation and affects several proteins involved in apoptosis in BE(2)-C human neuroblastoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(4):1787-1799 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non‑coding RNAs involved in post‑transcriptional gene regulation. Furthermore, dysregulation of miRNA expression is an important factor in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Our previous study identified that overexpression of monocyte chemoattractant protein‑induced protein 1 protein led to a significant downregulation of a novel miRNA molecule, miRNA‑3613‑3p. In the present study, the potential involvement of miRNA‑3613‑3p in the cell biology of neuroblastoma was investigated. It was identified that the expression of miRNA‑3613‑3p varies among a range of human neuroblastoma cell lines. As the delineation of the functions of a miRNA requires the identification of its target genes, seven putative mRNAs that may be regulated by miRNA‑3613‑3p were selected. Furthermore, it was identified that overexpression of miRNA‑3613‑3p causes significant downregulation of several genes exhibiting tumor suppressive potential [encoding apoptotic protease‑activating factor 1 (APAF1), Dicer, DNA fragmentation factor subunit β, von Hippel‑Lindau protein and neurofibromin 1] in BE(2)‑C human neuroblastoma cells. APAF1 mRNA was the most significantly decreased transcript in the cells with miRNA‑3613‑3p overexpression. In accordance with the aforementioned results, the downregulation of cleaved caspase-9 and lack of activation of executive caspases in BE(2)‑C cells following miRNA‑3613‑3p overexpression was observed. The results of the present study suggest a potential underlying molecular mechanism of apoptosis inhibition via APAF1 downregulation in human neuroblastoma BE(2)‑C cells with miRNA‑3613‑3p overexpression.

Snuderl M, Kannan K, Pfaff E, et al.
Recurrent homozygous deletion of DROSHA and microduplication of PDE4DIP in pineoblastoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2868 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
Pineoblastoma is a rare and highly aggressive brain cancer of childhood, histologically belonging to the spectrum of primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Patients with germline mutations in DICER1, a ribonuclease involved in microRNA processing, have increased risk of pineoblastoma, but genetic drivers of sporadic pineoblastoma remain unknown. Here, we analyzed pediatric and adult pineoblastoma samples (n = 23) using a combination of genome-wide DNA methylation profiling and whole-exome sequencing or whole-genome sequencing. Pediatric and adult pineoblastomas showed distinct methylation profiles, the latter clustering with lower-grade pineal tumors and normal pineal gland. Recurrent variants were found in genes involved in PKA- and NF-κB signaling, as well as in chromatin remodeling genes. We identified recurrent homozygous deletions of DROSHA, acting upstream of DICER1 in microRNA processing, and a novel microduplication involving chromosomal region 1q21 containing PDE4DIP (myomegalin), comprising the ancient DUF1220 protein domain. Expresion of PDE4DIP and DUF1220 proteins was present exclusively in pineoblastoma with PDE4DIP gain.

Huang SQ, Zhou ZX, Zheng SL, et al.
Association of variants of miRNA processing genes with cervical precancerous lesion risk in a southern Chinese population.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
The miRNA processing genes play essential roles in the biosynthesis of mammalian miRNAs, and their genetic variants are involved in the development of various cancers. Our study aimed to determine the potential association between miRNA processing gene polymorphisms and cervical precancerous lesions. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including Ran-GTP (

Gu Z, Hou Z, Zheng L, et al.
LncRNA DICER1-AS1 promotes the proliferation, invasion and autophagy of osteosarcoma cells via miR-30b/ATG5.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 104:110-118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a prevalent primary malignant tumor and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been validated to modulate the osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. In present study, our research team investigates the role of a novel identified lncRNA DICER1-AS1 on the tumor progression and autophagy. Results showed that lncRNA DICER1-AS1 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma cells using microarray analysis and RT-PCR. Cellular functional experiments revealed that DICER1-AS1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation, migration, invasion and autophagy of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Besides, DICER1-AS1 knockdown inhibited the protein expression levels of ATG5, LC3-II and Beclin 1, suggesting the inhibition on the autophagy of osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, miR-30b was verified to target 3'-UTR of DICER1-AS1 and ATG5 using bioinformatics tools and luciferase reporter assay or RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP). Western blot showed that ATG5 protein expression was decreased in DICER1-AS1 knockdown and miR-30b mimics transfected cells, while increased in miR-30b inhibitor transfected cells, presenting a negative correlation with miR-30b and a positive correlation with DICER1-AS1. Finally, xenograft assay in vivo indicated that DICER1-AS1 knockdown inhibited the osteosarcoma tumor growth and protein expression level of ATG5. In summary, all the results conclude that DICER1-AS1 regulates the proliferation, invasion and autophagy of osteosarcoma via miR-30b/ATG5 axis, providing a novel insight for osteosarcoma tumorigenesis.

Chang CC, Chang YS, Huang HY, et al.
Determination of the mutational landscape in Taiwanese patients with papillary thyroid cancer by whole-exome sequencing.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 78:151-158 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among women in Taiwan, thyroid cancer is the fifth most common malignant neoplasia. However, genomic profiling of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cases from Taiwan has not been attempted previously. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in a cohort of 19 PTC patients. Sequencing was performed using the Illumina system; Sanger sequencing was used to validate all identified mutations. We identified new somatic mutations in APC, DICER1, LRRC8D and NDRG1. We also found somatic mutations in ARID5A, CREB3L2, MDM4, PPP2R5A and TFPT; mutations in these genes had been found previously in other tumors, but had not been described previously in PTC. We also investigated the pathway deregulation in BRAF-mutated PTC compared with wild-type BRAF PTC. In checking our gene mutations against The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we identified aberrations in one pathway that are specific to BRAF-mutated PTC: maturity-onset diabetes of the young. In addition, the caffeine metabolism pathway showed aberrations that are specific to wild-type BRAF PTC. For this study, we performed a comprehensive exome-wide analysis of the mutational spectra of Taiwanese patients with PTC. We identified novel genes that are potentially associated with PTC tumorigenesis, as well as aberrations in pathways that led to the distinct pathogeneses of BRAF-mutated PTC and wild-type BRAF PTC, which may provide a new target for PTC therapy.

Nicolson NG, Murtha TD, Dong W, et al.
Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Predicts Prognosis Independent of Histology.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 103(7):2640-2650 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is classified into minimally invasive (miFTC), encapsulated angioinvasive (eaFTC), and widely invasive (wiFTC) subtypes, according to the 2017 World Health Organization guidelines. The genetic signatures of these subtypes may be crucial for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment but have not been described.
Objective: Identify and describe the genetic underpinnings of subtypes of FTC.
Methods: Thirty-nine tumors, comprising 12 miFTCs, 17 eaFTCs, and 10 wiFTCs, were whole-exome sequenced and analyzed. Somatic mutations, constitutional sequence variants, somatic copy number alterations, and mutational signatures were described. Clinicopathologic parameters and mutational profiles were assessed for associations with patient outcomes.
Results: Total mutation burden was consistent across FTC subtypes, with a median of 10 (range 1 to 44) nonsynonymous somatic mutations per tumor. Overall, 20.5% of specimens had a mutation in the RAS subfamily (HRAS, KRAS, or NRAS), with no notable difference between subtypes. Mutations in TSHR, DICER1, EIF1AX, KDM5C, NF1, PTEN, and TP53 were also noted to be recurrent across the cohort. Clonality analysis demonstrated more subclones in wiFTC. Survival analysis demonstrated worse disease-specific survival in the eaFTC and wiFTC cohorts, with no recurrences or deaths for patients with miFTC. Mutation burden was associated with worse prognosis, independent of histopathological classification.
Conclusions: Though the number and variety of somatic variants are similar in the different histopathological subtypes of FTC in our study, mutational burden was an independent predictor of mortality and recurrence.

Wu K, He J, Pu W, Peng Y
The Role of Exportin-5 in MicroRNA Biogenesis and Cancer.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2018; 16(2):120-126 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/09/2019 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and participate in a variety of biological processes. The biogenesis of miRNAs is tightly controlled at multiple steps, such as transcription of miRNA genes, processing by Drosha and Dicer, and transportation of precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5 (XPO5). Given the critical role of nuclear export of pre-miRNAs in miRNA biogenesis, any alterations of XPO5, resulting from either genetic mutation, epigenetic change, abnormal expression level or posttranslational modification, could affect miRNA expression and thus have profound effects on tumorigenesis. Importantly, XPO5 phosphorylation by ERK kinase and its cis/trans isomerization by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 impair XPO5's nucleo-to-cytoplasmic transport ability of pre-miRNAs, leading to downregulation of mature miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we focus on how XPO5 transports pre-miRNAs in the cells and summarize the dysregulation of XPO5 in human tumors.

Herriges JC, Brown S, Longhurst M, et al.
Identification of two 14q32 deletions involving DICER1 associated with the development of DICER1-related tumors.
Eur J Med Genet. 2019; 62(1):9-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
DICER1 encodes an RNase III endonuclease protein that regulates the production of small non-coding RNAs. Germline mutations in DICER1 are associated with an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome that confers an increased risk for the development of several rare childhood and adult-onset tumors, the most frequent of which include pleuropulmonary blastoma, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, cystic nephroma, and thyroid gland neoplasia. The majority of reported germline DICER1 mutations are truncating sequence-level alterations, suggesting that a loss-of-function type mechanism drives tumor formation in DICER1 syndrome. However, reports of patients with germline DICER1 whole gene deletions are limited, and thus far, only two have reported an association with tumor development. Here we report the clinical findings of three patients from two unrelated families with 14q32 deletions that encompass the DICER1 locus. The deletion identified in Family I is 1.4 Mb and was initially identified in a 6-year-old male referred for developmental delay, hypotonia, macrocephaly, obesity, and behavioral problems. Subsequent testing revealed that this deletion was inherited from his mother, who had a clinical history that included bilateral multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The second deletion is 5.0 Mb and was identified in a 15-year-old female who presented with autism, coarse facial features, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, and Wilms' tumor. These findings provide additional supportive evidence that germline deletion of DICER1 confers an increased risk for DICER1-related tumor development, and provide new insight into the clinical significance of deletions involving the 14q32 region.

Liao Y, Liao Y, Li J, et al.
Genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes associated with clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of gastric cancer patients.
Int J Biol Markers. 2018; 33(3):301-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in miRNA machinery genes have been proved to be related to risk or survival of several kinds of cancers, but the results are controversial and the role of these polymorphisms in gastric cancer remains uncertain. In our study, we investigated the association between five genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes ( DICER, RAN, XPO5 [name of the gene]) and clinical outcomes in Chinese gastric cancer patients.
METHODS: A total of 96 patients with stage IB-III gastric cancer treated with radical gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy of oxaliplatin and fluorouracils were analyzed. The MassARRAY MALDI-TOF system was used to determine the genotypes.
RESULTS: DICER rs3742330 AG+GG genotype was associated with more advanced T stage compared to AA genotype ( P=0.009). More patients with XPO5 rs2257082 CC genotype had poorly differentiated tumors compared with CT+TT genotype carriers. After adjustment by age, sex, differentiation, T stage, and lymph node status, XPO5 rs2257082 CC genotype carriers were found to have worse disease-free survival than CT+TT genotype carriers (adjusted HR 3.099; 95% CI 1.270, 7.564; P=0.013), carriers of RAN rs14035 CC genotype had higher three-year OS rate than carriers of CT+TT genotype (adjusted HR 3.174; 95% CI 1.010, 9.973; P=0.048).
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes might be associated with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of completely resected gastric cancer patients.

Wang Y, Karnezis AN, Magrill J, et al.
DICER1 hot-spot mutations in ovarian gynandroblastoma.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(2):306-313 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Gynandroblastoma is a rare ovarian sex cord-stromal tumour characterised by the presence of both male (Sertoli and/or Leydig cells) and female (granulosa cells) components. We investigated the mutational status of DICER1, FOXL2 and AKT1 genes at hot-spot regions that are known to be the key driving events in the development of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour (SLCT), adult granulosa cell tumour (aGCT) and juvenile granulosa cell tumour (jGCT), respectively, to gain insights into the molecular pathogenesis of gynandroblastoma.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen cases of gynandroblastoma were studied. All contained SLCT or Sertoli cell tumour components. aGCT and jGCT components were identified in seven and 10 cases, respectively, with one presenting both components. Heterozygous hot-spot mutations in the RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 were discovered in three cases, including one case with heterologous mucinous elements, all of which were composed of moderately or poorly differentiated SLCT and jGCT components, and harboured the mutations in both histological components. None of the 16 cases displayed mutations at the p.C134W (c.402C→G) of FOXL2 or within the pleckstrin-homology domain of AKT1. All cases showed FOXL2 immunostaining in both male and female components.
CONCLUSION: DICER1 hot-spot mutation is the key-driving event in a subset of gynandroblastomas containing components of SLCT and jGCT. Gynandroblastomas composed of SLCT and jGCT may represent morphological variants of SLCT. The molecular basis of gynandroblastoma containing a component of aGCT is different from pure aGCT.

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