PTPRJ

Gene Summary

Gene:PTPRJ; protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, J
Aliases: DEP1, SCC1, CD148, HPTPeta, R-PTP-ETA
Location:11p11.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region containing five fibronectin type III repeats, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This protein is present in all hematopoietic lineages, and was shown to negatively regulate T cell receptor signaling possibly through interfering with the phosphorylation of Phospholipase C Gamma 1 and Linker for Activation of T Cells. This protein can also dephosphorylate the PDGF beta receptor, and may be involved in UV-induced signal transduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase eta
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (34)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genetic Testing
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • VHL
  • Alleles
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Polymorphism
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Species Specificity
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Breast Cancer
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Chromosome 11
  • Phosphorylation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Genotype
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Transfection
  • Vimentin
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • PTPRJ
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTPRJ (cancer-related)

Aya-Bonilla C, Camilleri E, Haupt LM, et al.
In silico analyses reveal common cellular pathways affected by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events in the lymphomagenesis of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
BMC Genomics. 2014; 15:390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The analysis of cellular networks and pathways involved in oncogenesis has increased our knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie tumour biology and has unmasked new molecular targets that may lead to the design of better anti-cancer therapies. Recently, using a high resolution loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, we identified a number of potential tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) within common LOH regions across cases suffering from two of the most common forms of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), Follicular Lymphoma (FL) and Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). From these studies LOH of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (PTPRJ) gene was identified as a common event in the lymphomagenesis of these B-cell lymphomas. The present study aimed to determine the cellular pathways affected by the inactivation of these TSGs including PTPRJ in FL and DLBCL tumourigenesis.
RESULTS: Pathway analytical approaches identified that candidate TSGs located within common LOH regions participate within cellular pathways, which may play a crucial role in FL and DLBCL lymphomagenesis (i.e., metabolic pathways). These analyses also identified genes within the interactome of PTPRJ (i.e. PTPN11 and B2M) that when inactivated in NHL may play an important role in tumourigenesis. We also detected genes that are differentially expressed in cases with and without LOH of PTPRJ, such as NFATC3 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3). Moreover, upregulation of the VEGF, MAPK and ERBB signalling pathways was also observed in NHL cases with LOH of PTPRJ, indicating that LOH-driving events causing inactivation of PTPRJ, apart from possibly inducing a constitutive activation of these pathways by reduction or abrogation of its dephosphorylation activity, may also induce upregulation of these pathways when inactivated. This finding implicates these pathways in the lymphomagenesis and progression of FL and DLBCL.
CONCLUSIONS: The evidence obtained in this research supports findings suggesting that FL and DLBCL share common pathogenic mechanisms. Also, it indicates that PTPRJ can play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of these B-cell tumours and suggests that activation of PTPRJ might be an interesting novel chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of these B-cell tumours.

Sundaram K, Sambandam Y, Tsuruga E, et al.
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates CYP2R1 gene expression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor cells.
Horm Cancer. 2014; 5(2):90-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are the most common malignant neoplasms associated with mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and oropharynx. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is implicated as an anticancer agent. Cytochrome P450 2R1 (CYP2R1) is a microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase which plays an important role in converting dietary vitamin D to active metabolite, 25-(OH)D3. We identified high levels of CYP2R1 expression using tissue microarray of human OSCC tumor specimens compared to normal adjacent tissue. Therefore, we hypothesize that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates CYP2R1 gene expression in OSCC tumor cells. Interestingly, real-time RT-PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from OSCC cells (SCC1, SCC11B, and SCC14a) treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 showed a significant increase in CYP2R1 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA expression. Also, Western blot analysis demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment time-dependently increased CYP2R1 expression in these cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation of OSCC cells transiently transfected with the hCYP2R1 promoter (-2 kb)-luciferase reporter plasmid demonstrated a 4.3-fold increase in promoter activity. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased c-Fos, p-c-Jun expression, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in these cells. The JNK inhibitor suppresses 1,25(OH)2D3, inducing CYP2R1 mRNA expression and gene promoter activity in OSCC cells. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor significantly decreased 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibition of OSCC tumor cell proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that AP-1 is a downstream effector of 1,25(OH)2D3 signaling to modulate CYP2R1 gene expression in OSCC tumor cells, and vitamin D analogs could be potential therapeutic agents to control OSCC tumor progression.

Wei W, Jiang M, Luo L, et al.
Colorectal cancer susceptibility variants alter risk of breast cancer in a Chinese Han population.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(4):6268-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies have revealed many novel loci associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility. We evaluated the effect of these colorectal cancer-associated variants on the risk of breast cancer in a Chinese Han population. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3856806 in PPARG, rs7014346 in POU5F1P1, rs989902 in PTPN13, rs1801278 in IRS1, rs7003146 in TCF7L2, rs1503185 in PTPRJ, and rs63750447 in MLH1) were genotyped in Han Chinese subjects, including 216 patients with breast cancer and 216 matched controls, using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. The association of genotypes with susceptibility to breast cancer was analyzed using the odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence interval (CI) and logistic regression. Three SNPs (rs7014346, rs989902, and rs7003146) were found to be significantly associated with the susceptibility of breast cancer. The GA and AA genotypes of rs7003146 in TCF7L2, and the CA and CC genotype of rs989902 in PTPN13 were associated with reduced breast cancer risk in the Chinese Han population based on the best-fit dominant model. The GG genotype of rs7014346 in POU5F1P1 was also significantly associated with decreased breast cancer risk under the best-fit additive model. Our results confirmed the association of rs7014346 in POU5F1P1, rs989902 in PTPN13, and rs7003146 in TCF7L2 with variations in the risk of breast cancer in a Chinese Han population.

Luo D, Wilson JM, Harvel N, et al.
A systematic evaluation of miRNA:mRNA interactions involved in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study we performed a systematic evaluation of functional miRNA-mRNA interactions associated with the invasiveness of breast cancer cells using a combination of integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiling, bioinformatics prediction, and functional assays. Analysis of the miRNA expression identified 11 miRNAs that were differentially expressed, including 7 down-regulated (miR-200c, miR-205, miR-203, miR-141, miR-34a, miR-183, and miR-375) and 4 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-138, miR-125b1 and miR-100), in invasive cell lines when compared to normal and less invasive cell lines. Transfection of miR-200c, miR-205, and miR-375 mimics into MDA-MB-231 cells led to the inhibition of in vitro cell migration and invasion. The integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression identified 35 known and novel target genes of miR-200c, miR-205, and mir-375, including CFL2, LAMC1, TIMP2, ZEB1, CDH11, PRKCA, PTPRJ, PTPRM, LDHB, and SEC23A. Surprisingly, the majority of these genes (27 genes) were target genes of miR-200c, suggesting that miR-200c plays a pivotal role in regulating the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. We characterized one of the target genes of miR-200c, CFL2, and demonstrated that CFL2 is overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer cell lines and can be significantly down-regulated by exogenous miR-200c. Tissue microarray analysis further revealed that CFL2 expression in primary breast cancer tissue correlated with tumor grade. The results obtained from this study may improve our understanding of the role of these candidate miRNAs and their target genes in relation to breast cancer invasiveness and ultimately lead to the identification of novel biomarkers associated with prognosis.

Aya-Bonilla C, Green MR, Camilleri E, et al.
High-resolution loss of heterozygosity screening implicates PTPRJ as a potential tumor suppressor gene that affects susceptibility to Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(5):467-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
We employed a Hidden-Markov-Model (HMM) algorithm in loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data from Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) entities, follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This revealed a high frequency of LOH over the chromosomal region 11p11.2, containing the gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (PTPRJ). Although PTPRJ regulates components of key survival pathways in B-cells (i.e., BCR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling), its role in B-cell development is poorly understood. LOH of PTPRJ has been described in several types of cancer but not in any hematological malignancy. Interestingly, FL cases with LOH exhibited down-regulation of PTPRJ, in contrast no significant variation of expression was shown in DLBCLs. In addition, sequence screening in Exons 5 and 13 of PTPRJ identified the G973A (rs2270993), T1054C (rs2270992), A1182C (rs1566734), and G2971C (rs4752904) coding SNPs (cSNPs). The A1182 allele was significantly more frequent in FLs and in NHLs with LOH. Significant over-representation of the C1054 (rs2270992) and the C2971 (rs4752904) alleles were also observed in LOH cases. A haplotype analysis also revealed a significant lower frequency of haplotype GTCG in NHL cases, but it was only detected in cases with retention. Conversely, haplotype GCAC was over-representated in cases with LOH. Altogether, these results indicate that the inactivation of PTPRJ may be a common lymphomagenic mechanism in these NHL subtypes and that haplotypes in PTPRJ gene may play a role in susceptibility to NHL, by affecting activation of PTPRJ in these B-cell lymphomas.

Ding D, Lou X, Hua D, et al.
Recurrent targeted genes of hepatitis B virus in the liver cancer genomes identified by a next-generation sequencing-based approach.
PLoS Genet. 2012; 8(12):e1003065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Integration of the viral DNA into host chromosomes was found in most of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Here we devised a massive anchored parallel sequencing (MAPS) method using next-generation sequencing to isolate and sequence HBV integrants. Applying MAPS to 40 pairs of HBV-related HCC tissues (cancer and adjacent tissues), we identified 296 HBV integration events corresponding to 286 unique integration sites (UISs) with precise HBV-Human DNA junctions. HBV integration favored chromosome 17 and preferentially integrated into human transcript units. HBV targeted genes were enriched in GO terms: cAMP metabolic processes, T cell differentiation and activation, TGF beta receptor pathway, ncRNA catabolic process, and dsRNA fragmentation and cellular response to dsRNA. The HBV targeted genes include 7 genes (PTPRJ, CNTN6, IL12B, MYOM1, FNDC3B, LRFN2, FN1) containing IPR003961 (Fibronectin, type III domain), 7 genes (NRG3, MASP2, NELL1, LRP1B, ADAM21, NRXN1, FN1) containing IPR013032 (EGF-like region, conserved site), and three genes (PDE7A, PDE4B, PDE11A) containing IPR002073 (3', 5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase). Enriched pathways include hsa04512 (ECM-receptor interaction), hsa04510 (Focal adhesion), and hsa04012 (ErbB signaling pathway). Fewer integration events were found in cancers compared to cancer-adjacent tissues, suggesting a clonal expansion model in HCC development. Finally, we identified 8 genes that were recurrent target genes by HBV integration including fibronectin 1 (FN1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT1), two known recurrent target genes, and additional novel target genes such as SMAD family member 5 (SMAD5), phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (PHACTR4), and RNA binding protein fox-1 homolog (C. elegans) 1 (RBFOX1). Integrating analysis with recently published whole-genome sequencing analysis, we identified 14 additional recurrent HBV target genes, greatly expanding the HBV recurrent target list. This global survey of HBV integration events, together with recently published whole-genome sequencing analyses, furthered our understanding of the HBV-related HCC.

Casagrande S, Ruf M, Rechsteiner M, et al.
The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J is regulated by the pVHL-HIF axis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2013; 229(4):525-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mass spectrometry analysis of renal cancer cell lines recently suggested that the protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (PTPRJ), an important regulator of tyrosine kinase receptors, is tightly linked to the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL). Therefore, we aimed to characterize the biological relevance of PTPRJ for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In pVHL-negative ccRCC cell lines, both RNA and protein expression levels of PTPRJ were lower than those in the corresponding pVHL reconstituted cells. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis of ccRCC with known VHL mutation status and normal matched tissues as well as RNA in situ hybridization on a tissue microarray (TMA) confirmed a decrease of PTPRJ expression in more than 80% of ccRCCs, but in only 12% of papillary RCCs. ccRCC patients with no or reduced PTPRJ mRNA expression had a less favourable outcome than those with a normal expression status (p = 0.05). Sequence analysis of 32 PTPRJ mRNA-negative ccRCC samples showed five known polymorphisms but no mutations, implying other mechanisms leading to PTPRJ's down-regulation. Selective silencing of HIF-α by siRNA and reporter gene assays demonstrated that pVHL inactivation reduces PTPRJ expression through a HIF-dependent mechanism, which is mainly driven by HIF-2α stabilization. Our results suggest PTPRJ as a member of a pVHL-controlled pathway whose suppression by HIF is critical for ccRCC development.

Smart CE, Askarian Amiri ME, Wronski A, et al.
Expression and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J (PTPRJ) in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast tumors.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40742 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J, PTPRJ, is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in a range of cancers, including breast cancer, yet little is known about its role in normal breast physiology or in mammary gland tumorigenesis. In this paper we show that PTPRJ mRNA is expressed in normal breast tissue and reduced in corresponding tumors. Meta-analysis revealed that the gene encoding PTPRJ is frequently lost in breast tumors and that low expression of the transcript associated with poorer overall survival at 20 years. Immunohistochemistry of PTPRJ protein in normal human breast tissue revealed a distinctive apical localisation in the luminal cells of alveoli and ducts. Qualitative analysis of a cohort of invasive ductal carcinomas revealed retention of normal apical PTPRJ localization where tubule formation was maintained but that tumors mostly exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic staining, indicating that dysregulation of localisation associated with loss of tissue architecture in tumorigenesis. The murine ortholog, Ptprj, exhibited a similar localisation in normal mammary gland, and was differentially regulated throughout lactational development, and in an in vitro model of mammary epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human PTPRJ in HC11 murine mammary epithelial cells inhibited dome formation. These data indicate that PTPRJ may regulate differentiation of normal mammary epithelia and that dysregulation of protein localisation may be associated with tumorigenesis.

Obara W, Ohsawa R, Kanehira M, et al.
Cancer peptide vaccine therapy developed from oncoantigens identified through genome-wide expression profile analysis for bladder cancer.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012; 42(7):591-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The field of cancer vaccine therapy is currently expected to become the fourth option in the treatment of cancer after surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We developed a novel cancer peptide vaccine therapy for bladder cancer through a genome-wide expression profile analysis.
METHODS: Among a number of oncoproteins that are transactivated in cancer cells, we focused on M phase phosphoprotein 1 and DEP domain containing 1, both of which are cancer-testis antigens playing critical roles in the growth of bladder cancer cells, as candidate molecules for the development of drugs for bladder cancer. In an attempt to identify the peptide epitope from these oncoantigens, we conducted a clinical trial using these peptides for patients with advanced bladder cancer.
RESULTS: We identified HLA-A24-restricted peptide epitopes corresponding to parts of M phase phosphoprotein 1 and DEP domain containing 1 proteins, which could induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Using these peptides, we found that M phase phosphoprotein 1- and DEP domain containing 1-derived peptide vaccines could be well tolerated without any serious adverse events, and effectively induced peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: The novel approach adopted in the treatment with peptide vaccines is considered to be a promising therapy for bladder cancer.

Cuadrado A, Remeseiro S, Gómez-López G, et al.
The specific contributions of cohesin-SA1 to cohesion and gene expression: implications for cancer and development.
Cell Cycle. 2012; 11(12):2233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Besides its well-established role in sister chromatid cohesion, cohesin has recently emerged as major player in the organization of interphase chromatin. Such important function is related to its ability to entrap two DNA segments also in cis, thereby facilitating long-range DNA looping which is crucial for transcriptional regulation, organization of replication factories and V(D)J recombination. Vertebrate somatic cells have two different versions of cohesin, containing Smc1, Smc3, Rad21/Scc1 and either SA1 or SA2, but their functional specificity has been largely ignored. We recently generated a knockout mouse model for the gene encoding SA1, and found that this protein is essential to complete embryonic development. Cohesin-SA1 mediates cohesion at telomeres, which is required for their replication. Telomere defects in SA1- deficient cells provoke chromosome segregation errors resulting in aneuploidy despite robust centromere cohesion. This aneuploidy could explain why heterozygous animals have an earlier onset of tumorigenesis. In addition, the genome-wide distribution of cohesin changes dramatically in the absence of SA1, and the complex shows reduced accumulation at promoters and CTCF sites. As a consequence, gene expression is altered, leading to downregulation of biological processes related to a developmental disorder linked to cohesin function, the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS). These results point out a prominent role of cohesin-SA1 in transcriptional regulation, with clear implications in the etiology of CdLS.

Bhatnagar R, Dabholkar J, Saranath D
Genome-wide disease association study in chewing tobacco associated oral cancers.
Oral Oncol. 2012; 48(9):831-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
With a view to identify genomic risk variants in chewing-tobacco associated oral cancer patients, a genome-wide association study was conducted in patients of Indian ethnicity with long term tobacco chewing habit. We analyzed 55 oral cancer patients and 92 healthy controls for single nucleotide polymorphisms, using high throughput microarray Illumina Infinium II Assay platform and Human CNV370k-bead chip containing 370,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The PLINK software platform defined 298 SNPs with minor allele frequency of several genes significantly increased in oral cancer patients as compared to the controls (p<0.001). Illumina Genome Viewer Software Version 3.2.9, further delineated 93 SNPs with p-values ranging from 9.3×10(-4) to 1.38×10(-5) and Odd's ratio of 2.18-8.48, associated with 70 genes. Analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database, indicated SNP association with several genes including GRIK2, RASGRP3, CAMK4, SYK, RAPTOR, FHIT, DCC, active in signal transduction; MMP2, CNTNAP2, PTPRJ associated with tumor cell migration; and apoptotic gene IRAK3. The data indicates an inherent role for the genetic constitution of individuals in oral carcinogenesis, with the genomic variants contributing to increased risk or susceptibility to oral cancer.

Godfrey R, Arora D, Bauer R, et al.
Cell transformation by FLT3 ITD in acute myeloid leukemia involves oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/ PTPRJ.
Blood. 2012; 119(19):4499-511 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transduction of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is regulated by protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). We recently identified the PTP DEP-1/CD148/PTPRJ as a novel negative regulator of FLT3. This study addressed the role of DEP-1 for regulation of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-related mutant FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) protein. Our experiments revealed that DEP-1 was expressed but dysfunctional in cells transformed by FLT3 ITD. This was caused by enzymatic inactivation of DEP-1 through oxidation of the DEP-1 catalytic cysteine. In intact cells, including primary AML cells, FLT3 ITD kinase inhibition reactivated DEP-1. DEP-1 reactivation was also achieved by counteracting the high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production detected in FLT3 ITD-expressing cell lines by inhibition of reduced NAD phosphate (NADPH)-oxidases, or by overexpression of catalase or peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1). Interference with ROS production in 32D cells inhibited cell transformation by FLT3 ITD in a DEP-1-dependent manner, because RNAi-mediated depletion of DEP-1 partially abrogated the inhibitory effect of ROS quenching. Reactivation of DEP-1 by stable overexpression of Prx-1 extended survival of mice in the 32D cell/C3H/HeJ mouse model of FLT3 ITD-driven myeloproliferative disease. The study thus uncovered DEP-1 oxidation as a novel event contributing to cell transformation by FLT3 ITD.

Pang LY, Bergkvist GT, Cervantes-Arias A, et al.
Identification of tumour initiating cells in feline head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and evidence for gefitinib induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
Vet J. 2012; 193(1):46-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is considered a highly invasive cancer that carries a high level of morbidity. Despite aggressive surgery, patients often succumb to disease, the tumour having inherent insensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we sought to identify cells within the feline SCC1 line that have stem cell properties, including inherent resistance mechanisms. When feline cells were subjected to harsh growth conditions, they formed sphere colonies consistent with a stem cell phenotype. Utilising CD133, we were able to identify a small fraction of cells within the population that had enhanced sphere-forming ability, reduced sensitivity to radiation and conventional chemotherapy and demonstrated resistance to the EGFR-targeting drug, gefitinib. In addition, long-term culture of feline SSC1 cells in gefitinib caused a change in cell morphology and gene expression reminiscent of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that feline SCC may be driven by small subset of cancer stem cells.

Ellinghaus E, Stanulla M, Richter G, et al.
Identification of germline susceptibility loci in ETV6-RUNX1-rearranged childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(5):902-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of the white blood cells. The etiology of ALL is believed to be multifactorial and likely to involve an interplay of environmental and genetic variables. We performed a genome-wide association study of 355 750 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 474 controls and 419 childhood ALL cases characterized by a t(12;21)(p13;q22) - the most common chromosomal translocation observed in childhood ALL - which leads to an ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion. The eight most strongly associated SNPs were followed-up in 951 ETV6-RUNX1-positive cases and 3061 controls from Germany/Austria and Italy, respectively. We identified a novel, genome-wide significant risk locus at 3q28 (TP63, rs17505102, P(CMH)=8.94 × 10(-9), OR=0.65). The separate analysis of the combined German/Austrian sample only, revealed additional genome-wide significant associations at 11q11 (OR8U8, rs1945213, P=9.14 × 10(-11), OR=0.69) and 8p21.3 (near INTS10, rs920590, P=6.12 × 10(-9), OR=1.36). These associations and another association at 11p11.2 (PTPRJ, rs3942852, P=4.95 × 10(-7), OR=0.72) remained significant in the German/Austrian replication panel after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that germline genetic variation can specifically contribute to the risk of ETV6-RUNX1-positive childhood ALL. The identification of TP63 and PTPRJ as susceptibility genes emphasize the role of the TP53 gene family and the importance of proteins regulating cellular processes in connection with tumorigenesis.

Quan Q, Yang M, Gao H, et al.
Imaging tumor endothelial marker 8 using an 18F-labeled peptide.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011; 38(10):1806-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) has been reported to be upregulated in both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in several cancer types. TEM8 antagonists and TEM8-targeted delivery of toxins have been developed as effective cancer therapeutics. The ability to image TEM8 expression would be of use in evaluating TEM8-targeted cancer therapy.
METHODS: A 13-meric peptide, KYNDRLPLYISNP (QQM), identified from the small loop in domain IV of protective antigen of anthrax toxin was evaluated for TEM8 binding and labeled with 18F for small-animal PET imaging in both UM-SCC1 head-and-neck cancer and MDA-MB-435 melanoma models.
RESULTS: A modified ELISA showed that QQM peptide bound specifically to the extracellular vWA domain of TEM8 with an IC50 value of 304 nM. Coupling 4-nitrophenyl 2-(18)F-fluoropropionate with QQM gave almost quantitative yield and a high specific activity (79.2±7.4 TBq/mmol, n=5) of 18F-FP-QQM at the end of synthesis. 18F-FP-QQM showed predominantly renal clearance and had significantly higher accumulation in TEM8 high-expressing UM-SCC1 tumors (2.96±0.84 %ID/g at 1 h after injection) than TEM8 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 tumors (1.38±0.56 %ID/g at 1 h after injection).
CONCLUSION: QQM peptide bound specifically to the extracellular domain of TEM8. 18F-FP-QQM peptide tracer would be a promising lead compound for measuring TEM8 expression. Further efforts to improve the affinity and specificity of the tracer and to increase its metabolic stability are warranted.

Stevens KN, Wang X, Fredericksen Z, et al.
Evaluation of associations between common variation in mitotic regulatory pathways and risk of overall and high grade breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 129(2):617-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitotic regulatory pathways insure proper timing of mitotic entry, sister chromatid cohesion and separation, and cytokinesis. Disruption of this process results in inappropriate chromosome segregation and aneuploidy, and appears to contribute to cancer. Specifically, disregulation and somatic mutation of mitotic regulators has been observed in human cancers, and overexpression of mitotic regulators is common in aggressive and late stage tumors. However, the role of germline variation in mitotic pathways and risk of cancer is not well understood. We tested 1,084 haplotype-tagging and functional variants from 164 genes in mitotic regulatory pathways in 791 Caucasian women with breast cancer and 843 healthy controls for association with risk of overall and high grade breast cancer. Sixty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 40 genes were associated (P < 0.05) with risk of breast cancer in a log-additive model. In addition, 60 SNPs were associated (P < 0.05) with risk of high grade breast cancer. However, none of these associations were significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In gene-level analyses, CDC25C, SCC1/RAD21, TLK2, and SMC6L1 were associated (P < 0.05) with overall breast cancer risk, CDC6, CDC27, SUMO3, RASSF1, KIF2, and CDC14A were associated with high grade breast cancer risk, and EIF3S10 and CDC25A were associated with both. Further investigation in breast and other cancers are needed to understand the influence of inherited variation in mitotic genes on tumor grade and cancer risk.

Kahyo T, Iwaizumi M, Shinmura K, et al.
A novel tumor-derived SGOL1 variant causes abnormal mitosis and unstable chromatid cohesion.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(44):4453-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitosis is the most conspicuous cell cycle phase, because it is the phase in which the dynamic physical distributions of cellular components into the two daughter cells occur. The separation of sister chromatids is especially important during mitosis, because of the extreme accuracy required for distribution to the next generation of cells. Shugoshin-like 1 (SGOL1) is a key protein in protecting sister chromatids from precocious separation. We have reported finding that chromosome instability is more likely in SGOL1-downregulated colorectal cancers, but it is still unknown whether there is an association between cancer and SGOL1 transcript variation. Here, we identified a novel SGOL1 variant, SGOL1-P1, in human colon cancer. The SGOL1-P1 transcript contains an exon-skip of exon 3 that results in a stop codon occurring within exon 4. Overexpression of SGOL1-P1 in HCT116 cells resulted in an increased number of cells with aberrant chromosome alignment, precociously separated chromatids and delayed mitotic progression, occasionally followed by inaccurate distribution of the chromosomes. These phenotypes, observed when SGOL1-P1 was present, were also observed very frequently in SGOL1-knockdown cells. Furthermore, the overexpression of SGOL1-P1 inhibited the localization of endogenous SGOL1 and cohesin subunit RAD21/SCC1 to the centromere. These results suggest that SGOL1-P1 may function as a negative factor to native SGOL1, and that abundant expression of SGOL1-P1 may be responsible for chromosomal instability.

Arora D, Stopp S, Böhmer SA, et al.
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 controls receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(13):10918-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) plays an important role in hematopoietic differentiation, and constitutively active FLT3 mutant proteins contribute to the development of acute myeloid leukemia. Little is known about the protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) affecting the signaling activity of FLT3. To identify such PTP, myeloid cells expressing wild type FLT3 were infected with a panel of lentiviral pseudotypes carrying shRNA expression cassettes targeting different PTP. Out of 20 PTP tested, expressed in hematopoietic cells, or presumed to be involved in oncogenesis or tumor suppression, DEP-1 (PTPRJ) was identified as a PTP negatively regulating FLT3 phosphorylation and signaling. Stable 32D myeloid cell lines with strongly reduced DEP-1 levels showed site-selective hyperphosphorylation of FLT3. In particular, the sites pTyr-589, pTyr-591, and pTyr-842 involved in the FLT3 ligand (FL)-mediated activation of FLT3 were hyperphosphorylated the most. Similarly, acute depletion of DEP-1 in the human AML cell line THP-1 caused elevated FLT3 phosphorylation. Direct interaction of DEP-1 and FLT3 was demonstrated by "substrate trapping" experiments showing association of DEP-1 D1205A or C1239S mutant proteins with FLT3 by co-immunoprecipitation. Moreover, activated FLT3 could be dephosphorylated by recombinant DEP-1 in vitro. Enhanced FLT3 phosphorylation in DEP-1-depleted cells was accompanied by enhanced FLT3-dependent activation of ERK and cell proliferation. Stable overexpression of DEP-1 in 32D cells and transient overexpression with FLT3 in HEK293 cells resulted in reduction of FL-mediated FLT3 signaling activity. Furthermore, FL-stimulated colony formation of 32D cells expressing FLT3 in methylcellulose was induced in response to shRNA-mediated DEP-1 knockdown. This transforming effect of DEP-1 knockdown was consistent with a moderately increased activation of STAT5 upon FL stimulation but did not translate into myeloproliferative disease formation in the 32D-C3H/HeJ mouse model. The data indicate that DEP-1 is negatively regulating FLT3 signaling activity and that its loss may contribute to but is not sufficient for leukemogenic cell transformation.

Petermann A, Haase D, Wetzel A, et al.
Loss of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/PTPRJ drives meningioma cell motility.
Brain Pathol. 2011; 21(4):405-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
DEP-1/PTPRJ is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase which has been proposed as a suppressor of epithelial tumors. We have found loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the PTPRJ gene and loss of DEP-1 protein expression in a subset of human meningiomas. RNAi-mediated suppression of DEP-1 in DEP-1 positive meningioma cell lines caused enhanced motility and colony formation in semi-solid media. Cells devoid of DEP-1 exhibited enhanced signaling of endogenous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, and reduced paxillin phosphorylation upon seeding. Moreover, DEP-1 loss caused diminished adhesion to different matrices, and impaired cell spreading. DEP-1-deficient meningioma cells exhibited invasive growth in an orthotopic xenotransplantation model in nude mice, indicating that elevated motility translates into a biological phenotype in vivo. We propose that negative regulation of PDGF receptor signaling and positive regulation of adhesion signaling by DEP-1 cooperate in inhibition of meningioma cell motility, and possibly tumor invasiveness. These phenotypes of DEP-1 loss reveal functions of DEP-1 in adherent cells, and may be more generally relevant for tumorigenesis.

Hatakeyama H, Cheng H, Wirth P, et al.
Regulation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor by miR-212 and acquired cetuximab-resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(9):e12702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by cetuximab, a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody, induces up-regulation of its ligands resulting in resistance and that microRNAs (miRs) play an important role in the ligand regulation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome-wide changes in gene and miR expression were determined in cetuximab-sensitive cell line, SCC1, and its resistant derivative 1Cc8 using DNA microarrays and RT-PCR. The effects of differentially expressed EGFR ligands and miRs were examined by MTS, colony formation, ELISA, and western blot assays. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and its regulator, miR-212, were differentially expressed with statistical significance when SCC1 and 1Cc8 were compared for gene and miR expression. Stimulation with HB-EGF induced cetuximab resistance in sensitive cell lines. Inhibition of HB-EGF and the addition of miR-212 mimic induced cetuximab sensitivity in resistant cell lines. MicroRNA-212 and HB-EGF expression were inversely correlated in an additional 33 HNSCC and keratinocyte cell lines. Six tumors and 46 plasma samples from HNSCC patients were examined for HB-EGF levels. HB-EGF plasma levels were lower in newly diagnosed HNSCC patients when compared to patients with recurrent disease.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased expression of HB-EGF due to down-regulation of miR-212 is a possible mechanism of cetuximab resistance. The combination of EGFR ligand inhibitors or miR modulators with cetuximab may improve the clinical outcome of cetuximab therapy in HNSCC.

Iuliano R, Palmieri D, He H, et al.
Role of PTPRJ genotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma risk.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(4):1001-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The strong genetic predisposition to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) might be due to a combination of low-penetrance susceptibility variants. Thus, the research into gene variants involved in the increase of susceptibility to PTC is a relevant field of investigation. The gene coding for the receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ has been proposed as a cancer susceptibility gene, and its role as a tumor suppressor gene is well established in thyroid carcinogenesis. In this study, we want to ascertain the role of PTPRJ genotype in the risk for PTC. We performed a case-control study in which we determined the PTPRJ genotype for the non-synonymous Gln276Pro and Asp872Glu polymorphisms by PCR amplification and sequencing. We calculated allele and genotype frequencies for the considered polymorphisms of PTPRJ in a total sample of 299 cases (PTC patients) and 339 controls (healthy subjects) selected from Caucasian populations. We observed a significantly higher frequency of homozygotes for the Asp872 allele in the group of PTC patients than in the control group (odds ratio=1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.15-2.25, P=0.0053). We observed a non-significant increased frequency of homozygotes for Gln276Pro polymorphism in PTC cases in two distinct Caucasian populations. Therefore, the results reported here show that the homozygous genotype for Asp872 of PTPRJ is associated with an increased risk to develop PTC.

Pandruvada SN, Yuvaraj S, Liu X, et al.
Role of CXC chemokine ligand 13 in oral squamous cell carcinoma associated osteolysis in athymic mice.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(10):2319-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are malignant tumors with a potent activity of local bone invasion; however, the molecular mechanisms of tumor osteolysis are unclear. In this study, we identified high level expression of chemokine ligand, CXCL13 and RANK ligand (RANKL) in OSCC cells (SCC1, SCC12 and SCC14a). OSCC cell-conditioned media (20%) induced osteoclast differentiation which was inhibited by OPG in peripheral blood monocyte cultures indicating that OSCC cells produce soluble RANKL. Recombinant hCXCL13 (10 ng/ml) significantly enhanced RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation in these cultures. Trans-well migration assay identified that CXCL13 induces chemotaxis of peripheral blood monocytes in vitro which was inhibited by addition of anti-CXCR5 receptor antibody. Zymogram analysis of conditioned media from OSCC cells revealed matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. Interestingly, CXCL13 treatment to OSCC cells induced CXCR5 and MMP-9 expression suggesting an autocrine regulatory function in OSCC cells. To examine the OSCC tumor cell bone invasion/osteolysis, we established an in vivo model for OSCC by subcutaneous injection of OSCC cells onto the surface of calvaria in NCr-nu/nu athymic mice, which developed tumors in 4-5 weeks. muCT analysis revealed numerous osteolytic lesions in calvaria from OSCC tumor-bearing mice. Histochemical staining of calvarial sections from these mice revealed a significant increase in the numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the tumor-bone interface. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed CXCL13 and MMP-9 expression in tumor cells. Thus, our data implicate a functional role for CXCL13 in bone invasion and may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent osteolysis associated with OSCC tumors in vivo.

Mita Y, Yasuda Y, Sakai A, et al.
Missense polymorphisms of PTPRJ and PTPN13 genes affect susceptibility to a variety of human cancers.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136(2):249-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We investigated the association between incidence of various cancers and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two each in two protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes, PTPRJ and PTPN13, by a case-control study conducted in Japan.
METHODS: The study samples comprised 819 cancer-free controls and 569 cancer cases including lung, head and neck, colorectal, and esophageal cancers.
RESULTS: Compared with the major homozygotes at the Arg326Gln SNP in PTPRJ, a likely homologue of the mouse SCC1 (susceptible to colon cancer), Arg/Gln or Gln/Gln genotypes exhibited an increased colorectal cancer risk with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of 1.71 (P = 0.021) and 3.74 (P = 4.14 x 10(-4)), respectively. Increased risks were observed with one or more of the combination genotypes of Gln276Pro and Arg326Gln in PTPRJ for most cancer types (aOR range 10.13-55.08, Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.0454-7.20 x 10(-9)). In the PTPN13, major homozygotes of Ile1522Met showed an increased risk for lung squamous cell carcinomas (aOR 1.86), compared to the heterozygotes. Increased risks were observed with at least one of the combination genotypes of the two SNPs, Ile1522Met and Tyr2081Asp, for all but esophageal cancer examined (aOR 3.36-13.75), compared with double heterozygotes. Moreover, these high risks were seen also when all cancer cases were combined (aOR 1.81-6.84).
CONCLUSIONS: PTPRJ and PTPN13 SNPs were found to influence susceptibility to a wide spectrum of cancers. Because allelic frequencies of these SNPs are relatively common in many ethnic groups, these findings are worthy of further study.

McNally LR, Rosenthal EL, Zhang W, Buchsbaum DJ
Therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with replicative adenovirus expressing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and chemoradiation.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2009; 16(3):246-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of targeted therapy combined with radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We hypothesized that a combination treatment including a replicating adenovirus armed with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), radiation and Cisplatin will augment treatment response and reduce tumor growth in vivo of HNSCC xenografts. Both single-agent (TIMP-2 virus, radiation and Cisplatin) and the combination therapies were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of both single-agent and combination therapies in vivo was determined by monitoring tumor growth and immunohistochemistry. Treatment with replicative Ad-TIMP-2 virus and radiation decreased cell viability in vitro and resulted in an additional antiangiogenic response in vivo. Tumor response rates to treatment with replicative Ad-TIMP-2, radiation, Cisplatin or combination therapies ranged from limited inhibition of tumor growth of the single-agent therapy to a statistically significant additive antitumor response with the combination therapies. Replicative Ad-TIMP-2+radiation+Cisplatin in the SCC1 nude mice demonstrated the greatest response rates in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Combination of Ad-TIMP-2 gene therapy with radiation and the triple treatment group resulted in an augmented therapeutic response. This is the first report of the potential benefits of combining radiation and MMP inhibitor treatment.

Toland AE, Rozek LS, Presswala S, et al.
PTPRJ haplotypes and colorectal cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17(10):2782-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies from mouse mapping studies for cancer susceptibility have successfully led to the identification of a handful of susceptibility genes. Ptprj was identified as a strong candidate gene for mouse locus susceptibility to colorectal cancer 1, and one variant, rs1566734, showed evidence of preferential allelic imbalance in human colorectal tumors. Haplotypes in human PTPRJ have also been associated with protective effects for breast cancer risk. To determine if variants or haplotype in PTPRJ confer protective or risk effects for colorectal cancer (CRC), we genotyped rs1566734 and six additional PTPRJ haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CRC cases and controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. There was no evidence for cancer risk with rs1566734 in 1,897 cases and 1,954 controls with a homozygote odds ratio of 1.09 and 95% confidence interval of 0.85 to 1.39. The 6 tagging SNPs resulted in 6 main haplotypes (frequencies, >1%). None of the six tagSNPs individually showed significant evidence for risk; however, rs1503185 showed a nonsignificant protective effect. One haplotype was overrepresented in cases compared with controls, corresponding to a 34% increase in risk CRC, but there was no significant difference overall in haplotype frequencies between cases and controls (global test P statistic=0.19). From this study, we observe no significant increase in risk for human CRC with variants or haplotypes in PTPRJ. Additional studies are warranted to study possible PTPRJ-interacting loci, which are observed with Scc1 in the mouse models for CRC susceptibility.

Wang D, Veena MS, Stevenson K, et al.
Liposome-encapsulated curcumin suppresses growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in xenografts through the inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB by an AKT-independent pathway.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(19):6228-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a liposomal formulation of curcumin would suppress the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines CAL27 and UM-SCC1 in vitro and in vivo.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HNSCC cell lines were treated with liposomal curcumin at different doses and assayed for in vitro growth suppression using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. A reporter gene assay was done on cell lines to study the effect of liposomal curcumin on nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activation. Western blot analysis was done to determine the effect of curcumin on the expression of NFkappaB, phospho-IkappaBalpha, phospho-AKT (pAKT), phospho-S6 kinase, cyclin D1, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1L, and Mcl-1S. Xenograft mouse tumors were grown and treated with intravenous liposomal curcumin. After 5 weeks, tumors were harvested and weighed. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were used to study the effect of liposomal curcumin on the expression of NFkappaB and pAKT.
RESULTS: The addition of liposomal curcumin resulted in a dose-dependent growth suppression of both cell lines. Liposomal curcumin treatment suppressed the activation of NFkappaB without affecting the expression of pAKT or its downstream target phospho-S6 kinase. Expression of cyclin D1, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1L, and Mcl-1S were reduced, indicating the effect of curcumin on the NFkappaB pathway. Nude mice xenograft tumors were suppressed after 3.5 weeks of treatment with i.v. liposomal curcumin, and there was no demonstrable toxicity of liposomal curcumin upon autopsy. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis on xenograft tumors showed the inhibition of NFkappaB without affecting the expression of pAKT.
CONCLUSIONS: Liposomal curcumin suppresses HNSCC growth in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that liposomal curcumin is a viable nontoxic therapeutic agent for HNSCC that may work via an AKT-independent pathway.

Preusser M, Hoischen A, Novak K, et al.
Angiocentric glioma: report of clinico-pathologic and genetic findings in 8 cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2007; 31(11):1709-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiocentric glioma has recently been described as a novel epilepsy associated tumor with distinct clinico-pathologic features. We report the clinical and pathologic findings in 8 additional cases of this rare tumor type and extend its characterization by genomic profiling. Almost all patients had a history of long-standing drug-resistant epilepsy. Cortico-subcortical tumors were located in the temporal and parietal lobes. Seizures began at 3 to 14 years of age and surgery was performed at 6 to 70 years. Histologically, the tumors were characterized by diffuse growth and prominent perivascular tumor cell arrangements with features of astrocytic/ependymal differentiation, but lacking neoplastic neuronal features. Necrosis and vascular proliferation were not observed and mitoses were sparse or absent. MIB-1 proliferation indices ranged from <1% to 5%. Immunohistochemically, all cases stained positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, protein S100B, variably for podoplanin, and showed epithelial membrane antigen-positive cytoplasmic dots. Electron microscopy showed ependymal characteristics in 2 of 3 cases investigated. An analysis of genomic imbalances by chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization revealed loss of chromosomal bands 6q24 to q25 as the only alteration in 1 of 8 cases. In 1 of 3 cases, a high-resolution screen by array-comparative genomic hybridization identified a copy number gain of 2 adjacent clones from chromosomal band 11p11.2 containing the protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (PTPRJ) gene. All patients are seizure free and without evidence of tumor recurrence at follow-up times ranging from 1/2 to 6.9 years. Our findings support 2 previous reports proposing that angiocentric glioma is a novel glial tumor entity of low-grade malignancy.

Iervolino A, Iuliano R, Trapasso F, et al.
The receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase J antagonizes the biochemical and biological effects of RET-derived oncoproteins.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(12):6280-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is frequently associated with the oncogenic conversion of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. RET gene rearrangements, which lead to the generation of chimeric RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) oncogenes, occur in PTC, whereas RET point mutations occur in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). We showed previously that the expression of the receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase J (PTPRJ) is suppressed in neoplastically transformed follicular thyroid cells. We now report that PTPRJ coimmunoprecipitates with wild-type RET and with the MEN2A-associated RET(C634R) oncoprotein but not with the RET/PTC1 and RET-MEN2B isoforms. Using mutated forms of PTPRJ and RET-MEN2A, we show that the integrity of the respective catalytic domains is required for the PTPRJ/RET-MEN2A interaction. PTPRJ expression induces dephosphorylation of the RET(C634R) and, probably via an indirect mechanism, RET/PTC1 oncoproteins on two key RET autophosphorylation sites (Tyr1062 and Tyr905). This results in a significant decrease of RET-induced Shc and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation levels. In line with this finding, adoptive PTPRJ expression reduced the oncogenic activity of RET(C634R) in an in vitro focus formation assay of NIH3T3 cells. As expected from the coimmunoprecipitation results, the RET(M918T) oncoprotein, which is associated to MEN2B and sporadic MTC, was resistant to the dephosphorylating activity of PTPRJ. Taken together, these findings identify RET as a novel substrate of PTPRJ and suggest that PTPRJ expression levels may affect tumor phenotype associated with RET/PTC1 and RET(C634R) mutants. On the other hand, resistance to PTPRJ may be part of the mechanism of RET oncogenic conversion secondary to the M918T mutation.

Luo L, Shen GQ, Stiffler KA, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity in human aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a putative precursor of colon cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2006; 27(6):1153-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the earliest neoplastic lesions of the colon, have genetic and epigenetic alterations. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor gene loci is seen in most colon cancers, but it is not known how early in tumorigenesis this takes place. Nine microsatellite markers close to specific genes, that is, APC (5q21), PTPRJ (11p11), p53 (17p13) and DCC (18q21), were analyzed in 32 ACF and samples of normal crypts from the same 28 patients. Six losses of heterozygosity were found in 5 of 32 ACF: 4 losses of heterozygosity were at 11p11, the location of the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (PTPRJ) and of a second independent region of deletion; the others were at 5q21 and 18q21. Microsatellite instability (MSI) with markers for a single locus was found in 4 of 32 ACF. All the observed allelic alterations (LOH and MSI) were in 8 of 32 ACF. The finding of LOH in ACF with normal expressions of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and beta-catenin proteins suggests that LOH can occur very early in colon neoplasia and perhaps even before APC mutations. The finding of 3 of 4 of the losses of heterozygosity at 11p11 for PTPRJ and half of all the losses of heterozygosity in this study at PTPRJ suggest that this gene plays a role early in colon neoplasia.

van Puijenbroek M, Dierssen JW, Stanssens P, et al.
Mass spectrometry-based loss of heterozygosity analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism loci in paraffin embedded tumors using the MassEXTEND assay: single-nucleotide polymorphism loss of heterozygosity analysis of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J in familial colorectal cancer.
J Mol Diagn. 2005; 7(5):623-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As the number of identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increases, high-throughput methods are required to characterize the informative loci in large patient series. We investigated the feasibility of MassEXTEND LOH analysis using Sequenom's MassArray RT software, a mass spectrometry method, as an alternative to determine loss of heterozygosity (LOH). For this purpose, we studied the c.827A>C SNP (1176A>C p.Gln276Pro) in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type-J (PTPRJ), which is frequently deleted in human cancers. In sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), c.827A>C showed allele-specific LOH of the c.827A allele, which is important because LOH of PTPRJ may be an early event during sporadic CRC. To elucidate the impact of this low-penetrance gene on familial CRC, we studied c.827A>C in 222 familial CRC cases and 156 controls. In 6.2% of the A/C genotyped CRC samples, LOH of c.827A was observed with MassEXTEND LOH analysis and confirmed by conventional sequencing. Furthermore, a case with LOH of c.827A showed no LOH in 22 synchronously detected adenomas, including one with malignant transformation. The importance of the PTPRJ- c.827A>C SNP appears to be limited in familial CRC. We conclude that MassEXTEND LOH analysis (using Sequenom's MassARRAY RT software) is a sensitive, high-throughput, and cost-effective method to screen SNP loci for LOH in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

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