Gene Summary

Gene:CD24; CD24 molecule
Aliases: CD24A
Summary:This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and B cells and modulates growth and differentiation signals to these cells. The precursor protein is cleaved to a short 32 amino acid mature peptide which is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. This gene was missing from previous genome assemblies, but is properly located on chromosome 6. Non-transcribed pseudogenes have been designated on chromosomes 1, 15, 20, and Y. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:signal transducer CD24
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD24 (cancer-related)

Li B, Liu D, Yang P, et al.
miR-613 inhibits liver cancer stem cell expansion by regulating SOX9 pathway.
Gene. 2019; 707:78-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) contribute to tumorigenesis, progression, drug resistance and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism for the propagation of liver CSCs remains unclear. Herein, we observed miR-613 expression was downregulated in both chemoresistant and recurrent HCC patients. A remarkable decrease in miR-613 was detected in CD24 or OV6-positive liver CSCs and CSC-enriched hepatoma spheres. Down-regulation of miR-613 facilitated liver CSCs expansion by promoting the dedifferentiation of hepatoma cells and enhancing the self-renewal of liver CSCs. Mechanistically, bioinformatic and luciferase reporter analysis identified SOX9 as a direct target of miR-613. Overexpression of miR-613 inhibited the expression of SOX9 in HCC cells. Special SOX9 siRNA abolished the discrepancy in liver CSCs proportion and the self-renewal capacity between miR-613 overexpression hepatoma cells and control cells, which further confirmed that SOX9 was required in miR-613-inhibited liver CSCs expansion. Furthermore, hepatoma cells with miR-613 overexpression performed more sensitivity to cisplatin or sorafenib treatment. Conclusion: miR-613 could inhibit HCC cell dedifferentiation and liver CSCs expansion by targeting SOX9 signaling and may prove to be a novel therapeutic target for HCC patients.

Kim SL, Choi HS, Kim JH, et al.
Dihydrotanshinone-Induced NOX5 Activation Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cell through the ROS/Stat3 Signaling Pathway.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019; 2019:9296439 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to mediate metastasis and recurrence and are therefore a promising therapeutic target. In this study, we found that dihydrotanshinone (DHTS) inhibits CSC formation. DHTS inhibited mammosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner and showed significant tumor growth inhibition in a xenograft model. This compound reduced the CD44

Hu C, Li M, Guo T, et al.
Anti-metastasis activity of curcumin against breast cancer via the inhibition of stem cell-like properties and EMT.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152740 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with potent chemopreventive and anti-cancer efficacy.
PURPOSE: To explore the potential anti-metastasis efficacy of curcumin in breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs), which are increasingly considered to be the origin of the recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer.
METHODS: A CCK8 assay was performed to evaluate cell viability, and a colony formation assay was conducted to determine cell proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 adherent cells. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to detect the effect of curcumin on cell migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Mammospheres were cultured with serum free medium (SFM) for three generations and the BCSC surface marker CD44
RESULTS: Curcumin exhibited anti-proliferative and colony formation inhibiting activities in both the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. It also suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. The CD44
CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that the inhibitor effects of curcumin on breast cancer cells may be related to resistance to cancer stem-like characters and the EMT process. These data indicate that curcumin could function as a type of anti-metastasis agent for breast cancer.

Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Li M, et al.
Combination of SB431542, CHIR99021 and PD0325901 has a synergic effect on abrogating valproic acid‑induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and stemness in HeLa, 5637 and SCC‑15 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3545-3554 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer progression, metastasis and drug resistance, and recent studies have revealed that neoplastic epithelial cells regain the stem cell state through EMT. Single‑agent targeted cancer therapy frequently fails due to acquired drug resistance. Therefore, multi‑agent targeted therapy exhibits advantages in fighting cancer cells. In the present study, small molecule inhibitors SB431542 (ALK inhibitor), CHIR99021 (GSK3 pathway inhibitor), PD0325901 (MEK/ERK inhibitor) and valproic acid (VPA; HDAC inhibitor) were applied individually or in combination to HeLa uterine cervix carcinoma cells, 5637 bladder cancer cells and SCC‑15 squamous cell carcinoma cells to clarify their potential effects on cancer cells. Cell morphological alterations, pluripotency and EMT‑related gene expression, cell growth rate, cell migration, signal transduction, cell cycle arrest, CD24‑/CD44+ cell percentage, and in vivo tumor clump formation were evaluated. The results of the present study revealed that VPA treatment induced EMT morphology, upregulated the expression of pluripotency and EMT‑related genes, promoted migration and increased CD24‑/CD44+ cell percentage in all three cell lines. PD0325901, SB431542 and CHIR99021 in combination could significantly inhibit cell growth, suppress expression of pluripotency and EMT‑related genes, curb cell migration, cause cell cycle arrest, decrease CD24‑/CD44+ cell percentage in cell spheres, and delay in vivo cell clump formation of cancer cells. These data indicated that VPA may serve as an EMT and cancer stem cell‑promoting agent that may be useful in establishing a screening system for potential anticancer stem cell drugs. The combined inhibition of MEK/ERK, ALK and GSK3 was revealed to be an effective measure for eliminating cancer stem cells.

Afshar E, Hashemi-Arabi M, Salami S, et al.
Screening of acetaminophen-induced alterations in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related expression of microRNAs in a model of stem-like triple-negative breast cancer cells: The possible functional impacts.
Gene. 2019; 702:46-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current protocols for therapy inefficiently targets triple negative breast cancer and barely eradicate cancer stem cells. Elucidation of the pleiotropic effect of clinically proven therapeutics on cancer cells shed light on novel application of old friends. The pleiotropic effect of acetaminophen (APAP) on breast cancer was previously reported. In a cell model of triple negative breast cancer with stem-like CD44

Koh SY, Moon JY, Unno T, Cho SK
Baicalein Suppresses Stem Cell-Like Characteristics in Radio- and Chemoresistant MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Up-Regulation of IFIT2.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy is frequent in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. We established treatment-resistant TNBC MDA-MB-231/IR cells by irradiating the parental MDA-MB-231 cells 25 times with 2 Gy irradiation and investigated the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance. The resistant MDA-MB-231/IR cells were enhanced in migration, invasion, and stem cell-like characteristics. Pathway analysis by the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery revealed that the NF-κB pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor pathway were enriched in MDA-MB-231/IR cells. Among 77 differentially expressed genes revealed by transcriptome analysis, 12 genes involved in drug and radiation resistance, including interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (IFIT2), were identified. We found that baicalein effectively reversed the expression of IFIT2, which is reported to be associated with metastasis, recurrence, and poor prognosis in TNBC patients. Baicalein sensitized radio- and chemoresistant cells and induced apoptosis, while suppressing stem cell-like characteristics, such as mammosphere formation, side population, expression of Oct3/4 and ABCG2, and CD44

Wazir U, Orakzai MMAW, Martin TA, et al.
Correlation of
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2019 Mar-Apr; 16(2):121-127 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has a well-known role in carcinogenesis due to its functions in inducing cell immortality and preventing senescence. In this study, the relationships between TERT and a panel of known stem cell markers was examined in order to direct future enquiries into the role of 'stem-ness' in human breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast cancer tissues (n=124) and adjacent normal tissues (n=30) underwent reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Transcript levels were analyzed for the correlation with that of TERT.
RESULTS: A significant direct correlation was found in cancerous tissue between TERT and BMI1 proto-oncogene polycomb ring finger 4 (BMI1; n=88, p<0.001), nestin (NES; n=88, p<0.001), POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 (POU5F1; n=88, p<0.001), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A2 (ALDH1A2; n=87, p=0.0298), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A; n=88, p<0.001), integrin subunit beta 1 (ITGNB1; n=88, p<0.001), integrin subunit alpha 6 (ITGA6; n=88, p<0.001), cluster of differentiation antigen 24 (CD24; n=88, p=0.0114), MET proto-oncogene (MET; n=78, p<0.001) and noggin (NOG; n=88, p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The evidence presented in this article of possible interactions between TERT and a discrete subset of known stem cell markers would significantly contribute to further enquiries regarding clonal dynamics in the context of human breast cancer.

Strekalova E, Malin D, Weisenhorn EMM, et al.
S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis is a targetable metabolic vulnerability of cancer stem cells.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 175(1):39-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Many transformed cells and embryonic stem cells are dependent on the biosynthesis of the universal methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) from methionine by the enzyme MAT2A to maintain their epigenome. We hypothesized that cancer stem cells (CSCs) rely on SAM biosynthesis and that the combination of methionine depletion and MAT2A inhibition would eradicate CSCs.
METHODS: Human triple (ER/PR/HER2)-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) cell lines were cultured as CSC-enriched mammospheres in control or methionine-free media. MAT2A was inhibited with siRNAs or cycloleucine. The effects of methionine restriction and/or MAT2A inhibition on the formation of mammospheres, the expression of CSC markers (CD44
RESULTS: Methionine restriction inhibited mammosphere formation and reduced the CD44
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to SAM biosynthesis as a unique metabolic vulnerability of CSCs that can be targeted by combining methionine depletion with MAT2A inhibition to eradicate drug-resistant CSCs.

Wu CH, Chuang HY, Wang CL, et al.
Estradiol induces cell proliferation in MCF‑7 mammospheres through HER2/COX‑2.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(3):2341-2349 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cluster of differentiation (CD)44+/CD24- breast cancer cells have stem cell‑like characteristics and are potent initiators of tumorigenesis. Mammosphere cells can partially initiate breast tumorigenesis by inducing estradiol (E2)‑dependent breast cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which E2 mediates cancer formation in MCF‑7 mammosphere (MS) cells have remained elusive. In the present study, MS cells were isolated by sphere culture. It was possible to maintain these MS cells in culture for long periods of time, while retaining the CD44+/CD24- stem cell marker status. The CD44+/CD24- status was confirmed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the stem‑cell markers Musashi‑1, cytokeratin (CK)7 and CK19 were identified by immunofluorescence microscopy. It was revealed that treatment of MS cells with E2 increased the expression of CD44, whereas decreased the expression of CD24 on MS cells. In addition, treatment with E2 increased colony formation by MS cells. E2 also induced cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) expression in MS cells, which promoted their proliferation through the estrogen receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/mitogen‑activated protein kinase/phosphoinositide‑3 kinase signaling pathway. The results suggested a tumorigenic mechanism by which E2 promotes tumor cell proliferation via HER2/COX‑2 signaling. The present study provided evidence for the molecular impact of E2 on breast tumorigenesis, and suggested possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

Handa T, Katayama A, Yokobori T, et al.
Carboxypeptidase A4 accumulation is associated with an aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):833-844 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Using whole transcriptome analysis and a lentiviral short hairpin RNA screening library, carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4) was identified as a novel marker in breast cancer and a therapeutic target in triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) in the present study. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the presence of CPA4, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Ki67, epidermal growth factor receptor, cytokeratin 5/6, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, cluster of differentiation (CD)44, CD24, claudins, E‑cadherin, vimentin and androgen receptor in 221 cases of breast cancer, including 68 TNBC cases. The effects of CPA4 on the viability and migration ability of TNBC cells were analyzed using RNA interference methods. Increased CPA4 expression, specifically in the cytoplasm of cancer tissue cells, was detected. Furthermore, high CPA4 expression in TNBC cases was associated with low expression of E‑cadherin and with the expression of cancer stem cell markers (high CD44/low CD24). Patients with TNBC and high levels of CPA4 expression had a significantly poorer prognosis compared with those with low CPA4 expression. Notably, viability and migration were reduced, but E‑cadherin expression was upregulated in CPA4‑suppressed TNBC cells. The present data suggested that CPA4 may be a novel inducer for epithelial‑mesenchymal transition, which is characterized by the downregulation of E‑cadherin and mesenchymal phenotypes. To conclude, CPA4 may be a marker for poor prognosis and a promising therapeutic target in TNBC with aggressive phenotypes.

Jiang M, Qiu N, Xia H, et al.
Long non‑coding RNA FOXD2‑AS1/miR‑150‑5p/PFN2 axis regulates breast cancer malignancy and tumorigenesis.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):1043-1052 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is a common cancer and leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality in women. Abnormal expression of long non‑coding RNA FOXD2 adjacent opposite strand RNA 1 (FOXD2‑AS1) was associated with the development of a number of tumors. However, whether FOXD2‑AS1 is dysregulated in BC and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, it was identified that FOXD2‑AS1 expression was upregulated in BC tissue, cell lines and sphere subpopulation. Additionally, the abnormal upregulation of FOXD2‑AS1 predicted poor prognosis in patients with BC. Furthermore, downregulation of FOXD2‑AS1 decreased cell proliferation, and migratory and invasive abilities in BC cells, and decreased the growth of transplanted tumors in vivo. Downregulation of FOXD2‑AS1 decreased the percentage of CD44 antigen+/signal transducer CD24- in breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) cells, and decreased the expression of numerous stem factors, including Nanog, octamer‑binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), and sex determining region Y‑box 2 (SOX2), and inhibited the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition process. FOXD2‑AS1 was identified to be primarily located in the cytoplasm. Using bioinformatics analysis, a reporter gene assay and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction assays, it was demonstrated that microRNA (miR)‑150‑5p was able to bind directly with the 3'‑untranslated region of FOXD2‑AS1 and PFN2 mRNA. miR‑150‑5p mimics decreased the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cells. FOXD2‑AS1 knockdown significantly inhibited the miR‑150‑5p inhibitor‑induced increase in Nanog, Oct4 and SOX2 expression. The miR‑150‑5p inhibitor‑induced increase in N‑cadherin, and decrease in E‑cadherin and vimentin was inhibited by FOXD2‑AS1 knockdown. Profilin 2 (PFN2) expression was significantly upregulated in BC tissues. Additionally, the abnormal upregulation of PFN2 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with BC. FOXD2‑AS1 and PFN2 expression was positively correlated. Collectively, the present results demonstrated the role of the FOXD2‑AS1/miR‑150‑5p/PFN2 axis in the development of BC, and provides novel targets for the treatment of BC, and potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of BC.

Yadav P, Shankar BS
Radio resistance in breast cancer cells is mediated through TGF-β signalling, hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype and cancer stem cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 111:119-130 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: A major obstacle for effective cancer treatment by radiation therapy is the development of radio-resistance and identification of underlying mechanisms and activated pathways will lead to better combination therapies.
MAIN METHODS: Irradiated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were characterised following different recovery periods. Proliferation was assessed by MTT, BrdU and clonogenic assays and apoptosis by Annexin V/ propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Gene expression was monitored by real time PCR/ELISA/antibody labelling and migration using transwell inserts.
KEY FINDINGS: Breast cancer cell lines exposed to 6 Gy followed by recovery period for 7 days (D7-6 G) had increased ability for proliferation as well as apoptosis. D7-6 G from both cell lines had increased expression of transforming growth factor isoforms (TGF)-β1, β2 and β3, their receptors TGF-βR1 and TGF-βR2 which are known for such dual effects. The expression of downstream transcription factors Snail, Zeb-1 and HMGA2 also showed a differential pattern in D7-6 G cells with upregulation of at least two of these transcription factors. D7-6 G cells from both cell lines displayed hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype with increased expression of E/M markers and migration. D7-6 G cells had increased expression of cancer stem cells markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog; aldehyde dehydrogenase expression and activity; proportion of CD44
SIGNIFICANCE: Blocking of TGF-β signalling may therefore be an effective strategy for overcoming radio resistance induced by radiation exposure.

Joseph C, Arshad M, Kurozomi S, et al.
Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 confers a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(2):387-399 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: CD133/ prominin 1 is a cancer stem cell marker associated with cancer progression and patient outcome in a variety of solid tumours, but its role in invasive breast cancer (BC) remains obscure. The current study aims to assess the prognostic value of CD133 expression in early invasive BC.
METHODS: CD133 mRNA was assessed in the METABRIC cohort and at the proteomic level using immunohistochemistry utilising a large well-characterised BC cohort. Association with clinicopathological characteristics, expression of other stem cell markers and patient outcome were evaluated.
RESULTS: High expression of CD133 either in mRNA or protein levels was associated with characteristics of poor prognosis including high tumour grade, larger tumour size, high Nottingham Prognostic Index, HER2 positivity and hormonal receptor negativity (all; p < 0.001). High CD133 expression was positively associated with proliferation biomarkers including p16, Cyclin E and Ki67 (p < 0.01). Tumours expressing CD133 showed higher expression of other stem cell markers including CD24, CD44, SOX10, ALDHA3 and ITGA6. High expression of CD133 protein was associated with shorter BC-specific survival (p = 0.026). Multivariate analysis revealed that CD133 protein expression was an independent risk factor for shorter BC-specific survival (p = 0.038).
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the prognostic value of CD133 in invasive BC. A strong positive association of BC stem cell markers is observed at the protein level. Further studies to assess the value of stem cell markers individually or in combination in BC is warranted.

Weng CC, Ding PY, Liu YH, et al.
Mutant Kras-induced upregulation of CD24 enhances prostate cancer stemness and bone metastasis.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(12):2005-2019 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCA), one of the most common malignant tumors in men, is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in males worldwide. We report here that PCA models harboring conditional LSL/Kras

Li X, Wang H, Ding J, et al.
Celastrol strongly inhibits proliferation, migration and cancer stem cell properties through suppression of Pin1 in ovarian cancer cells.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 842:146-156 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the most serious diseases worldwide and the fifth-most common cancer among women. Celastrol, extracted from Thunder God Vine, exerts anti-cancer effects on various cancers; however, the mechanism underlying these anti-cancer effects in ovarian cancer needs further investigation. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer efficacy of celastrol and its underlying mechanism in human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, OVCAR3, and SKOV3. Celastrol significantly suppressed cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Celastrol resulted in a G2/M cell cycle arrest, accompanied with the down-regulation of Cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4. Celastrol induced apoptosis primarily via up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Celastrol treatment inhibited the expression of stem cell marker CD44, Nanog, Klf4, and Oct4, and reduced a portion of the CD44

Jia Y, Gu D, Wan J, et al.
The role of GLI-SOX2 signaling axis for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(10):1764-1777 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer, mostly pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), is one of the most lethal cancers, with a dismal median survival around 8 months. PDAC is notoriously resistant to chemotherapy. Thus far, numerous attempts using novel targeted therapies and immunotherapies yielded limited clinical benefits for pancreatic cancer patients. It is hoped that delineating the molecular mechanisms underlying drug resistance in pancreatic cancer may provide novel therapeutic options. Using acquired gemcitabine resistant pancreatic cell lines, we revealed an important role of the GLI-SOX2 signaling axis for regulation of gemcitabine sensitivity in vitro and in animal models. Down-regulation of GLI transcriptional factors (GLI1 or GLI2), but not SMO signaling inhibition, reduces tumor sphere formation, a characteristics of tumor initiating cell (TIC). Down-regulation of GLI transcription factors also decreased expression of TIC marker CD24. Similarly, high SOX2 expression is associated with gemcitabine resistance whereas down-regulation of SOX2 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment. We further revealed that elevated SOX2 expression is associated with an increase in GLI1 or GLI2 expression. Our ChIP assay revealed that GLI proteins are associated with a putative Gli binding site within the SOX2 promoter, suggesting a more direct regulation of SOX2 by GLI transcription factors. The relevance of our findings to human disease was revealed in human cancer specimens. We found that high SOX2 protein expression is associated with frequent tumor relapse and poor survival in stage II PDAC patients (all of them underwent gemcitabine treatment), indicating that reduced SOX2 expression or down-regulation of GLI transcription factors may be effective in sensitizing pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment.

Quayle LA, Ottewell PD, Holen I
Chemotherapy resistance and stemness in mitotically quiescent human breast cancer cells identified by fluorescent dye retention.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2018; 35(8):831-846 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Metastatic recurrence in breast cancer is a major cause of mortality and often occurs many years after removal of the primary tumour. This process is driven by the reactivation of disseminated tumour cells that are characterised by mitotic quiescence and chemotherapeutic resistance. The ability to reliably isolate and characterise this cancer cell population is critical to enable development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of breast cancer recurrence. Here we describe the identification and characterisation of a sub-population of slow-cycling tumour cells in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines based on their ability to retain the lipophilic fluorescent dye Vybrant

Lobo NA, Zabala M, Qian D, Clarke MF
Serially transplantable mammary epithelial cells express the Thy-1 antigen.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):121 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in murine mammary tissue have identified functionally distinct cell populations that may be isolated by surface phenotype or lineage tracing. Previous groups have shown that CD24
METHODS: Flow cytometry-based enrichment of distinct phenotypic populations was assessed for their gene expression profiles and functional proliferative attributes in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Here, we show Thy-1 is differentially expressed in the CD24
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, Thy-1 expression in the immature cell compartment is a useful tool to study the functional heterogeneity that drives mammary gland development and has implications for disease etiology.

Palanichamy K, Jacob JR, Litzenberg KT, et al.
Cells isolated from residual intracranial tumors after treatment express iPSC genes and possess neural lineage differentiation plasticity.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 36:281-292 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study is to identify and characterize treatment resistant tumor initiating cells (TRTICs) using orthotopic xenografts.
METHODS: TRTICs were enriched from GBM cell lines using mouse xenografts treated with fractionated doses of radiation and temozolomide. TRTICs were characterized by neurosphere clonogenicity and self-renewal, serial xenotransplantation, differentiation potential, and mRNA & miRNA transcriptomic profiling. We use an unbiased approach to identify antigens encoding TRTIC and glioma stem cells (GSC) populations. Co-culture experiments of TRTIC and differentiated cells were conducted to evaluate the reliance of TRTIC differentiation on the secretome of differentiated cells.
FINDINGS: TRTICs acquire stem-like gene expression signatures and increased side population staining resulting from the activation of multi-drug resistance genes. Genetic and functional characterization of TRTICs shows a striking resemblance with GSCs. TRTICs can differentiate towards specific progeny in the neural stem cell lineage. TRTIC-derived tumors display all the histological hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM) and exhibit a miRNA-transcript and mRNA-transcriptomic profile associated with aggressiveness. We report that CD24+/CD44+ antigens are expressed in TRTICs and patient-derived GSCs. Double positive CD24+/CD44+ exhibit treatment resistance and enhanced tumorigenicity. Interestingly, co-culture experiments with TRTICs and differentiated cells indicated that the regulation of TRTIC differentiation could rely on the secretome in the tumor niche.
INTERPRETATION: Radiation and temozolomide treatment enriches a population of cells that have increased iPSC gene expression. As few as 500 cells produced aggressive intracranial tumors resembling patient GBM. CD24+/CD44+ antigens are increased in TRTICs and patient-derived GSCs. The enrichment for TRTICs may result in part from the secretome of differentiated cells. FUND: NIH/NCI 1RC2CA148190, 1R01CA108633, 1R01CA188228, and The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Reshadmanesh A, Rahbarizadeh F, Ahmadvand D, Jafari Iri Sofla F
Evaluation of cellular and transcriptional targeting of breast cancer stem cells via anti-HER2 nanobody conjugated PAMAM dendrimers.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018; 46(sup3):S105-S115 [PubMed] Related Publications
According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, a small subset of cells with stem cell-like characteristics is responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. CD44

Kim DH, Yoon HJ, Cha YN, Surh YJ
Role of heme oxygenase-1 and its reaction product, carbon monoxide, in manifestation of breast cancer stem cell-like properties: Notch-1 as a putative target.
Free Radic Res. 2018; 52(11-12):1336-1347 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a subpopulation of transformed cells that possess intrinsic ability to undergo selfrenewal and differentiation, which drive tumour resistance and cancer recurrence. It has been reported that CSCs possess enhanced protection against oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species compared with nonstem-like cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a representative antioxidant enzyme, on the stemness and selfrenewal of human breast CSCs. We found that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HO-1 attenuated the sphere formation, whereas HO-1 inducers enhanced the number and the size of tumourspheres in breast CSCs. Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously generated as a consequence of degradation of heme by HO-1. The proportion of populations of CD44

Leontovich AA, Jalalirad M, Salisbury JL, et al.
NOTCH3 expression is linked to breast cancer seeding and distant metastasis.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):105 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Development of distant metastases involves a complex multistep biological process termed the invasion-metastasis cascade, which includes dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor to secondary organs. NOTCH developmental signaling plays a critical role in promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, tumor stemness, and metastasis. Although all four NOTCH receptors show oncogenic properties, the unique role of each of these receptors in the sequential stepwise events that typify the invasion-metastasis cascade remains elusive.
METHODS: We have established metastatic xenografts expressing high endogenous levels of NOTCH3 using estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα
RESULTS: In this study, we identified an association between NOTCH3 expression and development of metastases in ERα
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the key role of NOTCH3 oncogenic signaling in the genesis of breast cancer metastasis and provide a compelling preclinical rationale for the design of novel therapeutic strategies that will selectively target NOTCH3 to halt metastatic seeding and to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer.

Wang LQ, Yu P, Li B, et al.
miR-372 and miR-373 enhance the stemness of colorectal cancer cells by repressing differentiation signaling pathways.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(11):1949-1964 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
miR-372/373, a cluster of stem cell-specific microRNAs transactivated by the Wnt pathway, has been reported to be dysregulated in various cancers, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the unique role of these microRNAs in cancer remains to be discovered. In the present study, we characterized the upregulation in expression of miR-372/373 in CRC tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas data, and then showed that overexpression of miR-372/373 enhanced the stemness of CRC cells by enriching the CD26/CD24-positive cell population and promoting self-renewal, chemotherapy resistance and the invasive potential of CRC cells. To clarify the mechanism underlying microRNA-induced stemness, we profiled 45 cell signaling pathways in CRC cells overexpressing miR-372/373 and found that stemness-related pathways, such as Nanog and Hedgehog, were upregulated. Instead, differentiation-related pathways, such as NFκB, MAPK/Erk and VDR, were markedly repressed by miR-372/373. Numerous new targets of miR-372/373 were identified, including SPOP, VDR and SETD7, all of which are factors important for cell differentiation. Furthermore, in contrast to the increase in miR-372/373 expression in CRC tissues, the expression levels of SPOP and VDR mRNA were significantly downregulated in these tissues, indicative of the poor differentiation status of CRC. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-372/373 enhance CRC cell stemness by repressing the expression of differentiation genes. These results provide new insights for understanding the function and mechanisms of stem cell-specific microRNAs in the development of metastasis and drug resistance in CRC.

Choi HS, Kim SL, Kim JH, et al.
Triterpene Acid (
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are drug-resistant and radiation-resistant cancer cells that are responsible for tumor progression and maintenance, cancer recurrence, and metastasis. Targeting breast CSCs with phytochemicals is a new paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment. In this study, activity-guided fractionation from mammosphere formation inhibition assays, repeated chromatographic preparations over silica gel, preparatory thin layer chromatography, and HPLC using aronia extracts led to the isolation of one compound. Using ¹H and

Durinikova E, Kozovska Z, Poturnajova M, et al.
ALDH1A3 upregulation and spontaneous metastasis formation is associated with acquired chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):848 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Efficiency of colorectal carcinoma treatment by chemotherapy is diminished as the resistance develops over time in patients. The same holds true for 5-fluorouracil, the drug used in first line chemotherapy of colorectal carcinoma.
METHODS: Chemoresistant derivative of HT-29 cells was prepared by long-term culturing in increasing concentration of 5-fluorouracil. Cells were characterized by viability assays, flow cytometry, gene expression arrays and kinetic imaging. Immunomagnetic separation was used for isolation of subpopulations positive for cancer stem cells-related surface markers. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression was attenuated by siRNA. In vivo studies were performed on SCID/bg mice.
RESULTS: The prepared chemoresistant cell line labeled as HT-29/EGFP/FUR is assigned with different morphology, decreased proliferation rate and 135-fold increased IC
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that acquired chemoresistance goes along with metastatic and migratory phenotype and can be accompanied with increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We describe here the valuable model to study molecular link between resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic dissemination.

Troschel FM, Böhly N, Borrmann K, et al.
miR-142-3p attenuates breast cancer stem cell characteristics and decreases radioresistance in vitro.
Tumour Biol. 2018; 40(8):1010428318791887 [PubMed] Related Publications
Effectively targeting cancer stem cells, a subpopulation of tumorigenic, aggressive, and radioresistant cells, holds therapeutic promise. However, the effects of the microRNA miR-142-3p, a small endogenous regulator of gene expression on breast cancer stem cells, have not been investigated. This study identifies the influence of miR-142-3p on mammary stemness properties and breast cancer radioresistance to establish its role in this setting. miR-142-3p precursor transfection was performed in MDA-MB-468, HCC1806, and MCF-7 cells, and stem cell markers CD44, CD133, ALDH1 activity and mammosphere formation were measured. β-catenin, the canonical wnt signaling effector protein, was quantified by Western blots and cell fluorescence assays both in miR-142-3p-overexpressing and anti-miR-142-3p-treated cells. Radiation response was investigated by colony formation assays. Levels of BRCA1, BRCA2, and Bod1 in miR-142-3p-overexpressing cells as well as expression of miR-142-3p, Bod1, KLF4, and Oct4 in sorted CD44

Zinnall U, Weyerer V, Compérat E, et al.
Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma: evaluation of HER2 status and immunohistochemical characterization of the molecular subtype.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 80:55-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comprehensive molecular analyses of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) have defined distinct subtypes with potential therapeutic implications. In this study, we focused on micropapillary urothelial carcinoma (MPUC), an aggressive, histomorphologically defined rare variant. Apart from genetic alterations shared with conventional UBC, alterations of the HER2 gene have been reported in higher frequencies. However, only small cohorts of MPUCs have been analyzed, and the real impact is still unclear. We collected a cohort of 94 MPUCs and immunohistochemically tested HER2, basal (CD44, CK5, EGFR, p63) and luminal (CD24, FOXA1, GATA3, CK20) markers to allocate MPUC to a molecular subtype. Additionally, HER2 amplification status was assigned by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Sanger sequencing of exon 4 and 8 was used to test for HER2 mutations. Kruskal-Wallis test was calculated to compare marker distribution between proportions of the MPUC component. HER2 2+/3+ staining scores were identified in 39.6% of 91 analyzed MPUCs and were not differentially distributed among the proportion of the MPUC component (P = .89). Additionally, CISH analysis revealed 30% of HER2-amplified tumors independently of the MPUC fraction. In 6/90 evaluable MPUCs, a p.S310F HER2 mutation was detected. Overexpression of luminal markers was observed in the majority of MPUC. Our investigations of the largest cohort of analyzed MPUC demonstrate that HER2 overexpression and amplifications are common genetic alterations and identification of overexpressed luminal markers allows subclassification to the luminal subtype. These findings highlight the need of histomorphological recognition of MPUC and analysis of HER2 status and the luminal molecular subtype for potential targeted therapeutic strategies.

Liu DH, An M, Bao BL, et al.
Nicotine inhibits CD24 expression in Lewis lung carcinoma cells by upregulation of RAS expression.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):815-822 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cluster of ddifferentiation 24 (CD24) is a widely used cancer stem cell (CSC) marker in numerous cancer types. However, a number of studies have shown that CD24 is a prognostic marker, but not a CSC marker for lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, firstly, bioinformatic analyses were used to identify the CD24 mRNA levels in the subtypes of lung cancer. Secondly, CD24high and CD24low cells were isolated from the side population of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells using flow cytometry. Furthermore, the stemness of CD24high and CD24low cells were determined in vivo and in vitro. Lastly, the mechanism(s) of nicotine-inhibited CD24 expression in LLC cells were assessed. The main findings of this study are that: i) CD24 could be used as a prognostic marker for human lung adenocarcinoma; ii) the in vitro and in vivo experiments did not determine a significant influence of CD24 on the tumorgenicity of LLC cells; and iii) nicotine inhibited CD24 expression in LLC cells by upregulation of RAS. However, the detailed mechanism(s) of these results require further analysis.

Xu X, Zhang L, He X, et al.
TGF-β plays a vital role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) drug-resistance through regulating stemness, EMT and apoptosis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 502(1):160-165 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most malignant subtype of breast cancer in which the cell surface lacks usual targets for drug to exhibit its effects. Epirubicin (Epi) is widely used for TNBC, but a substantial number of patients develop Epi resistance that is usually associated with poor prognosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine. In recent study, it appears that TGF-β influences the cancer stem cell population, thus, the drug resistance of cancer may also be affected. We used epirubicin to treat MDA-MB-231 (MB-231) cells and found that TGF-β and breast cancer stem cell markers CD44

Carroll MJ, Fogg KC, Patel HA, et al.
Alternatively-Activated Macrophages Upregulate Mesothelial Expression of P-Selectin to Enhance Adhesion of Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(13):3560-3573 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Peritoneal metastasis of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) occurs when tumor cells suspended in ascites adhere to mesothelial cells. Despite the strong relationship between metastatic burden and prognosis in HGSOC, there are currently no therapies specifically targeting the metastatic process. We utilized a coculture model and multivariate analysis to examine how interactions between tumor cells, mesothelial cells, and alternatively-activated macrophages (AAM) influence the adhesion of tumor cells to mesothelial cells. We found that AAM-secreted MIP-1β activates CCR5/PI3K signaling in mesothelial cells, resulting in expression of P-selectin on the mesothelial cell surface. Tumor cells attached to this

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