Gene Summary

Gene:BUB1B; BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B
Aliases: MVA1, SSK1, BUBR1, Bub1A, MAD3L, hBUBR1, BUB1beta
Summary:This gene encodes a kinase involved in spindle checkpoint function. The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Impaired spindle checkpoint function has been found in many forms of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Genomic Instability
  • Chromosome 15
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Mitosis
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromosomal Instability
  • Urothelium
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Mad2 Proteins
  • Protein Kinases
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Staging
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Cell Cycle
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Computational Biology
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • World Health Organization
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Genetic Variation
  • Cancer DNA
  • Aneuploidy
  • Genes, cdc
  • BUB1B
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Tumor Markers
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BUB1B (cancer-related)

Yang S, Zhang L, Chen X, et al.
Oncoprotein YAP regulates the spindle checkpoint activation in a mitotic phosphorylation-dependent manner through up-regulation of BubR1.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(10):6191-202 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
The transcriptional co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein) functions as an oncogene; however, it is largely unclear how YAP exerts its oncogenic role. In this study, we further explored the functional significance of YAP and its mitotic phosphorylation in the spindle checkpoint. We found that the dynamic mitotic phosphorylation of YAP was CDC14-dependent. We also showed that YAP was required for the spindle checkpoint activation induced by spindle poisons. Mitotic phosphorylation of YAP was required for activation of the spindle checkpoint. Furthermore, enhanced expression of active YAP hyperactivated the spindle checkpoint and induced mitotic defects in a mitotic phosphorylation-dependent manner. Mechanistically, we documented that mitotic phosphorylation of YAP controlled transcription of genes associated with the spindle checkpoint. YAP constitutively associated with BubR1 (BUB1-related protein kinase), and knockdown of BubR1 relieved YAP-driven hyperactivation of the spindle checkpoint. Finally, we demonstrated that YAP promoted epithelial cell invasion via both mitotic phosphorylation and BubR1-dependent mechanisms. Together, our results reveal a novel link between YAP and the spindle checkpoint and indicate a potential mechanism underlying the oncogenic function of YAP through dysregulation of the spindle checkpoint.

Rajan P, Stockley J, Sudbery IM, et al.
Identification of a candidate prognostic gene signature by transcriptome analysis of matched pre- and post-treatment prostatic biopsies from patients with advanced prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:977 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa) can improve patient survival, some tumours are chemo-resistant. Tumour molecular profiles may help identify the mechanisms of drug action and identify potential prognostic biomarkers. We performed in vivo transcriptome profiling of pre- and post-treatment prostatic biopsies from patients with advanced hormone-naive prostate cancer treated with docetaxel chemotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with an aim to identify the mechanisms of drug action and identify prognostic biomarkers.
METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on biopsies from four patients before and ~22 weeks after docetaxel and ADT initiation. Gene fusion products and differentially-regulated genes between treatment pairs were identified using TopHat and pathway enrichment analyses undertaken. Publically available datasets were interrogated to perform survival analyses on the gene signatures identified using cBioportal.
RESULTS: A number of genomic rearrangements were identified including the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and 3 novel gene fusions involving the ETS family of transcription factors in patients, both pre and post chemotherapy. In total, gene expression analyses showed differential expression of at least 2 fold in 575 genes in post-chemotherapy biopsies. Of these, pathway analyses identified a panel of 7 genes (ADAM7, FAM72B, BUB1B, CCNB1, CCNB2, TTK, CDK1), including a cell cycle-related geneset, that were differentially-regulated following treatment with docetaxel and ADT. Using cBioportal to interrogate the MSKCC-Prostate Oncogenome Project dataset we observed a statistically-significant reduction in disease-free survival of patients with tumours exhibiting alterations in gene expression of the above panel of 7 genes (p = 0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: Here we report on the first "real-time" in vivo RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of clinical PCa from pre- and post-treatment TRUSS-guided biopsies of patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy plus ADT. We identify a chemotherapy-driven PCa transcriptome profile which includes the down-regulation of important positive regulators of cell cycle progression. A 7 gene signature biomarker panel has also been identified in high-risk prostate cancer patients to be of prognostic value. Future prospective study is warranted to evaluate the clinical value of this panel.

Brownlow N, Pike T, Zicha D, et al.
Mitotic catenation is monitored and resolved by a PKCε-regulated pathway.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5685 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
Exit from mitosis is controlled by silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). It is important that preceding exit, all sister chromatid pairs are correctly bioriented, and that residual catenation is resolved, permitting complete sister chromatid separation in the ensuing anaphase. Here we determine that the metaphase response to catenation in mammalian cells operates through PKCε. The PKCε-controlled pathway regulates exit from the SAC only when mitotic cells are challenged by retained catenation and this delayed exit is characterized by BubR1-high and Mad2-low kinetochores. In addition, we show that this pathway is necessary to facilitate resolution of retained catenanes in mitosis. When delayed by catenation in mitosis, inhibition of PKCε results in premature entry into anaphase with PICH-positive strands and chromosome bridging. These findings demonstrate the importance of PKCε-mediated regulation in protection from loss of chromosome integrity in cells failing to resolve catenation in G2.

Zhao Y, Ando K, Oki E, et al.
Aberrations of BUBR1 and TP53 gene mutually associated with chromosomal instability in human colorectal cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5421-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Defects in mitotic checkpoint and p53-dependent pathways associate with chromosomal instability. In the present study, we investigated the interplay between BUBR1 and p53 and their association with genetic instability in colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 139 colorectal cases were examined for BUBR1, p53 and genetic instability indicators. BUBR1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TP53 gene was directly sequenced. DNA ploidy was studied by laser scanning cytometry; MSI and TP53 loss of heterozygosity was also examined.
RESULTS: 64% of cases had high BUBR1 expression and were associated with the TP53 mutation. High BUBR1 expression and TP53 mutation associated with DNA aneuploidy and showed an inverse association with MSI. Cases with high BUBR1 expression and TP53 mutation had profound aneuploidy phenotypes and less frequent MSI compared to cases with one or neither aberration.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated an interplay between BUBR1 and p53 in colorectal cancer. Altered expression of both molecules was associated with chromosomal instability.

Lin CC, Chao PY, Shen CY, et al.
Novel target genes responsive to apoptotic activity by Ocimum gratissimum in human osteosarcoma cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2014; 42(3):743-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a type of bone cancer. Eighty percent of this tumor will metastasize to the lungs or liver, and as a result, patients generally need chemotherapy to improve survival possibility. Recently, antitumor activity has been reported in Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract (OGE), which has been the focus of recent extensive studies on therapeutic strategies due to its antioxidant properties. We performed pharmacogenomics analyses for the effect of OGE on human osteosarcoma U2-OS and HOS cell growth. Cell viability, Western blot and flow cytometry analysis were performed before performing pharmacogenomics analyses for the effect of OGE on human osteosarcoma U2-OS and HOS cell growth, including cDNA microarray and RT-PCR assays. Cell viability assays revealed that OGE significantly and dose-dependently decreased the viability of U2-OS and HOS cells. Increases in cell shrinkage, Sub-G1 fragments and the activation of caspase 3 indicated that OGE induced cell apoptosis in U2-OS and HOS cells. There was no change in human osteoblast hFOS cells. cDNA microarray assay demonstrated that the expression of cell cycle regulators, apoptosis-related factors and cell proliferation markers were all modified by OGE treatment. RT-PCR analysis also confirmed the down-regulation of SKA2 and BUB1B, and the up-regulation of PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4 by OGE treatment. The finding of anticancer activity in OGE and the identification of some potential target genes raise the expectation that OGE may become a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.

Singh CK, George J, Nihal M, et al.
Novel downstream molecular targets of SIRT1 in melanoma: a quantitative proteomics approach.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(7):1987-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer and its incidence is continuing to rise in the United States. Therefore, novel mechanism and target-based strategies are needed for the management of this disease. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase, has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes and pathological conditions. We recently demonstrated that SIRT1 is upregulated in melanoma and its inhibition by a small-molecule, tenovin-1, inhibits cell proliferation and clonogenic survival of melanoma cells, possibly via activating p53. Here, we employed a gel free quantitative proteomics approach to identify the downstream effectors and targets of SIRT1 in melanoma. The human malignant melanoma, G361 cells were treated with tenovin-1 followed by protein extraction, in liquid trypsin digestion, and peptide analyses using nanoLC-MS/MS. A total of 1091 proteins were identified, of which 20 proteins showed significant differential expression with 95% confidence interval. These proteins were subjected to gene ontology and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to obtain the information regarding their biological and molecular functions. Real-Time qRT-PCR validation showed that five of these (PSAP, MYO1B, MOCOS, HIS1H4A and BUB3) were differentially expressed at mRNA levels. Based on their important role in cell cycle regulation, we selected to focus on BUB family proteins (BUB3, as well as BUB1 and BUBR1) for subsequent validation. The qRT-PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that tenovin-1 inhibition of SIRT1 resulted in a downregulation of BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1 in multiple melanoma cell lines. Since tenovin-1 is an inhibitor of both SIRT1 and SIRT2, we employed lentivirus mediated silencing of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in G361 cells to determine if the observed effects on BUB family proteins are due to SIRT1- or SIRT2- inhibition. We found that only SIRT1 inhibition resulted in a decrease in BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1. Our study identified the mitotic checkpoint regulator BUB family proteins as novel downstream targets of SIRT1. However, further validation is needed in appropriate models to confirm our findings and expand on our observations.

Miao S, Wu K, Zhang B, et al.
Synuclein γ compromises spindle assembly checkpoint and renders resistance to antimicrotubule drugs.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(3):699-713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) have been proposed to contribute to the chromosomal instability in human cancers. One of the major mechanisms underlying antimicrotubule drug (AMD) resistance involves acquired inactivation of SAC. Synuclein γ (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene, is highly expressed in malignant cancer cells but not in normal epithelium. Here, we show that SNCG is sufficient to induce resistance to AMD-caused apoptosis in breast cancer cells and cancer xenografts. SNCG binds to spindle checkpoint kinase BubR1 and inhibits its kinase activity. Specifically, the C-terminal (Gln106-Asp127) of SNCG binds to the N-terminal TPR (tetratricopeptidelike folds) motif of BubR1. SNCG-BubR1 interaction induces a structure change of BubR1, attenuates its interaction with other key checkpoint proteins of Cdc20, and thus compromises SAC function. SNCG expression in breast cancers from patients with a neoadjuvant clinical trial showed that SNCG-positive tumors are resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These data show that SNCG renders AMD resistance by inhibiting BubR1 activity and attenuating SAC function.

Salsi V, Ferrari S, Gorello P, et al.
NUP98 fusion oncoproteins promote aneuploidy by attenuating the mitotic spindle checkpoint.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(4):1079-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUP98 is a recurrent fusion partner in chromosome translocations that cause acute myelogenous leukemia. NUP98, a nucleoporin, and its interaction partner Rae1, have been implicated in the control of chromosome segregation, but their mechanistic contributions to tumorigenesis have been unclear. Here, we show that expression of NUP98 fusion oncoproteins causes mitotic spindle defects and chromosome missegregation, correlating with the capability of NUP98 fusions to cause premature securin degradation and slippage from an unsatisfied spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). NUP98 fusions, unlike wild-type NUP98, were found to physically interact with the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)(Cdc20) and to displace the BubR1 SAC component, suggesting a possible mechanistic basis for their interference with SAC function. In addition, NUP98 oncoproteins displayed a prolonged half-life in cells. We found that NUP98 stability is controlled by a PEST sequence, absent in NUP98 oncoproteins, whose deletion reproduced the aberrant SAC-interfering activity of NUP98 oncoproteins. Together, our findings suggest that NUP98 oncoproteins predispose myeloid cells to oncogenic transformation or malignant progression by promoting whole chromosome instability.

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Ikawa-Yoshida A, Ando K, Oki E, et al.
Contribution of BubR1 to oxidative stress-induced aneuploidy in p53-deficient cells.
Cancer Med. 2013; 2(4):447-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
DNA aneuploidy is observed in various human tumors and is associated with the abnormal expression of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins. Oxidative stress (OS) causes DNA damage and chromosome instability that may lead to carcinogenesis. OS is also suggested to contribute to an increase in aneuploid cells. However, it is not clear how OS is involved in the regulation of SAC and contributes to carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy. Here we show that an oxidant (KBrO3) activated the p53 signaling pathway and suppressed the expression of SAC factors, BubR1, and Mad2, in human diploid fibroblast MRC5 cells. This suppression was dependent on functional p53 and reactive oxygen species. In p53 knockdown cells, KBrO3 did not suppress BubR1 and Mad2 expression and increased both binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content. BubR1 and not Mad2 downregulation suppressed KBrO3-induced binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content in p53 knockdown cells, suggesting that BubR1 contributes to enhanced polyploidization by a mechanism other than its SAC function. In analysis of 182 gastric cancer specimens, we found that BubR1 expression was significantly high when p53 was positively stained, which indicates loss of p53 function (P = 0.0019). Moreover, positive staining of p53 and high expression of BubR1 in tumors were significantly correlated with DNA aneuploidy (P = 0.0065). These observations suggest that p53 deficiency may lead to the failure of BubR1 downregulation by OS and that p53 deficiency and BubR1 accumulation could contribute to gastric carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy.

Schnerch D, Schmidts A, Follo M, et al.
BubR1 is frequently repressed in acute myeloid leukemia and its re-expression sensitizes cells to antimitotic therapy.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(12):1886-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
Spindle poison-based therapy is of only limited benefit in acute myeloid leukemia while lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma responds well. In this study, we demonstrated that the spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 was down-regulated in the vast majority of cases of acute myeloid leukemia whereas its expression was high in lymphoblastic cells. Correct function of the spindle assembly checkpoint is pivotal in mediating mitotic delay in response to spindle poisons. Mitotic delay by the spindle assembly checkpoint is achieved by inhibition of anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteolysis of cyclin B and securin. We demonstrated a link between the repression of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 in acute myeloid leukemia and the limited response to spindle poison. In accordance with its established role as an anaphase-promoting complex-inhibitor, we found that repression of BubR1 was associated with enhanced anaphase-promoting complex activity and cyclin B and securin degradation, which leads to premature sister-chromatid separation and failure to sustain a mitotic arrest. This suggests that repression of BubR1 in acute myeloid leukemia renders the spindle assembly checkpoint-mediated inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex insufficient, which facilitates completion of mitosis in the presence of spindle poison. As both direct and BubR1-mediated restoration of cyclin B expression enhanced response to spindle poison, we propose that the downstream axis of the spindle assembly checkpoint is a promising target for tailored therapies for acute myeloid leukemia.

Borges KS, Moreno DA, Martinelli CE, et al.
Spindle assembly checkpoint gene expression in childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT): Overexpression of Aurora kinases A and B is associated with a poor prognosis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(11):1809-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare malignancies and treatment has a small impact on survival in advanced disease and the discovery of potential target genes could be important in new therapeutic approaches.
METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of spindle checkpoint genes AURKA, AURKB, BUB, and BUBR1 were analyzed in 60 children with ACT by quantitative real time PCR. The anticancer effect of ZM447439, an experimental AURK inhibitor, was analyzed in a primary childhood ACT culture carrying the TP53 p.R337H mutation.
RESULTS: A significant association was observed between malignancy as defined by Weiss score ≥3 and higher AURKA (2.0-fold, P = 0.01), AURKB (7.0-fold, P = 0.007), and BUBR1 (5.8-fold, P = 0.007) gene expression, and between unfavorable event (death or relapse) and higher expression of AURKA (6.0-fold, P = 0.034) and AURKB (17-fold, P = 0.013). Overexpression of AURKA and AURKB was associated with lower event-free survival in uni- (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively) and multivariate (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, respectively) analysis. Significant lower Event free survival (EFS) was also observed in patients with moderate/strong immunostaining to AURKA (P = 0.012) and AURKB (P = 0.045). ZM447439 was able to induce inhibition of proliferation and colony formation in a primary childhood ACT culture carrying the TP53 p.R337H mutation.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that AURKA and AURKB overexpression in pediatric ACT may be related to more aggressive disease and the inhibition of these proteins could be an interesting approach for the treatment of these tumors.

Morales AG, Pezuk JA, Brassesco MS, et al.
BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition decreases proliferation and colony formation, and enhances radiation sensitivity in pediatric glioblastoma cells.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2013; 29(12):2241-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a very aggressive and lethal brain tumor with poor prognosis. Despite new treatment strategies, patients' median survival is still lower than 1 year in most cases. The expression of the BUB gene family has demonstrated to be altered in a variety of solid tumors, pointing to a role as putative therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to determine BUB1, BUB3, and BUBR1 gene expression profiles in glioblastoma and to analyze the effects of BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition combined or not with Temozolomide and radiation in the pediatric SF188 GBM cell line.
METHODS: For gene expression analysis, 8 cell lines and 18 tumor samples were used. The effect of BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition was evaluated using siRNA. Apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle kinetics, micronuclei formation, and clonogenic capacity were analyzed after BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition. Additionally, combinatorial effects of gene inhibition and radiation or Temozolomide (TMZ) treatment were evaluated through proliferation and clonogenic capacity assays.
RESULTS: We report the upregulation of BUB1 and BUBR1 expression and the downregulation of BUB3 in GBM samples and cell lines when compared to white matter samples (p < 0.05). Decreased cell proliferation and colony formation after BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition were observed, along with increased micronuclei formation. Combinations with TMZ also caused cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Moreover, our results demonstrate that BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition sensitized SF188 cells to γ-irradiation as shown by decreased growth and abrogation of colony formation capacity.
CONCLUSION: BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition decreases proliferation and shows radiosensitizing effects on pediatric GBM cells, which could improve treatment strategies for this devastating tumor. Collectively, these findings highlight the potentials of BUB1 and BUBR1 as putative therapeutic targets for glioblastoma treatment.

Yong KJ, Milenic DE, Baidoo KE, Brechbiel MW
212Pb-radioimmunotherapy potentiates paclitaxel-induced cell killing efficacy by perturbing the mitotic spindle checkpoint.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(10):2013-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel has recently been reported by this laboratory to potentiate the high-LET radiation therapeutic (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab, which targets HER2. To elucidate mechanisms associated with this therapy, targeted α-particle radiation therapeutic (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab together with paclitaxel was investigated for the treatment of disseminated peritoneal cancers.
METHODS: Mice bearing human colon cancer LS-174T intraperitoneal xenografts were pre-treated with paclitaxel, followed by treatment with (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab and compared with groups treated with paclitaxel alone, (212)Pb-TCMC-HuIgG, (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab and (212)Pb-TCMC-HuIgG after paclitaxel pre-treatment.
RESULTS: (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab with paclitaxel given 24 h earlier induced increased mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. The combined modality of paclitaxel and (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab markedly reduced DNA content in the S-phase of the cell cycle with a concomitant increase observed in the G2/M-phase. This treatment regimen also diminished phosphorylation of histone H3, accompanied by an increase in multi-micronuclei, or mitotic catastrophe in nuclear profiles and positively stained γH2AX foci. The data suggests, possible effects on the mitotic spindle checkpoint by the paclitaxel and (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment. Consistent with this hypothesis, (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment in response to paclitaxel reduced expression and phosphorylation of BubR1, which is likely attributable to disruption of a functional Aurora B, leading to impairment of the mitotic spindle checkpoint. In addition, the reduction of BubR1 expression may be mediated by the association of a repressive transcription factor, E2F4, on the promoter region of BubR1 gene.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the sensitisation to therapy of (212)Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab by paclitaxel may be associated with perturbation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint, leading to increased mitotic catastrophe and cell death.

Habel LA, Sakoda LC, Achacoso N, et al.
HOXB13:IL17BR and molecular grade index and risk of breast cancer death among patients with lymph node-negative invasive disease.
Breast Cancer Res. 2013; 15(2):R24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that a two-gene ratio (HOXB13:IL17BR) and a five-gene (BUB1B, CENPA, NEK2, RACGAP1, RRM2) molecular grade index (MGI) are predictive of clinical outcomes among early-stage breast cancer patients. In an independent population of lymph node-negative breast cancer patients from a community hospital setting, we evaluated the performance of two risk classifiers that have been derived from these gene signatures combined, MGI+HOXB13:IL17BR and the Breast Cancer Index (BCI).
METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among 4,964 Kaiser Permanente patients diagnosed with node-negative invasive breast cancer from 1985 to 1994 who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. For 191 cases (breast cancer deaths) and 417 matched controls, archived tumor tissues were available and analyzed for expression levels of the seven genes of interest and four normalization genes by RT-PCR. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 10-year absolute risk of breast cancer death associated with prespecified risk categories for MGI+HOXB13:IL17BR and BCI.
RESULTS: Both MGI+HOXB13:IL17BR and BCI classified over half of all ER-positive patients as low risk. The 10-year absolute risks of breast cancer death for ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated patients classified in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 3.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9% to 5.4%), 5.9% (95% CI 3.0% to 8.6%), and 12.9% (95% CI 7.9% to 17.6%) by MGI+HOXB13:IL17BR and 3.5% (95% CI 1.9% to 5.1%), 7.0% (95% CI 3.8% to 10.1%), and 12.9% (95% CI 7.1% to 18.3%) by BCI. Those for ER-positive, tamoxifen-untreated patients were 5.7% (95% CI 4.0% to 7.4%), 13.8% (95% CI 8.4% to 18.9%), and 15.2% (95% CI 9.4% to 20.5%) by MGI+HOXB13:IL17BR and 5.1% (95% CI 3.6% to 6.6%), 18.6% (95% CI 10.8% to 25.7%), and 17.5% (95% CI 11.1% to 23.5%) by BCI. After adjusting for tumor size and grade, the RRs of breast cancer death comparing high- versus low-risk categories of both classifiers remained elevated but were attenuated for tamoxifen-treated and tamoxifen-untreated patients.
CONCLUSION: Among ER-positive, lymph node-negative patients not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, MGI+HOXB13:IL17BR and BCI were associated with risk of breast cancer death. Both risk classifiers appeared to provide risk information beyond standard prognostic factors.

Adam Maciejczyk A
New prognostic factors in breast cancer.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2013 Jan-Feb; 22(1):5-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
For many years, the age of the patient, the condition of axillar lymph nodes, the size of the tumour, histological traits (in particular histological grade of malignancy and invasion of lymphatic vessels), condition of hormonal receptors and HER2 represented principal factors used for the stratification of breast cancer patients for the purposes of evaluating the prognosis and determining the appropriate strategy of treatment. Although the variables are useful for the prognostic evaluation of individual groups of breast cancer patients, their role in determining the individual risk level of the patient and in the selection of supplementary treatment is quite restricted. This article shows the prognostic value of additional parameters, whose expression is associated with chemioresistance (MRP2, BCRP, YB1) or individual assessment of the dynamics of tumor progression (S100P, BUBR1). In addition, it describes the role of an online database of "The Kaplan-Meier plotter" which contains the assessment of the effects of expression of various genes on the clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer.

Chen F, Yang G, Xia B
Increased expression of the spindle checkpoint protein BubR1 is associated with high cell proliferation in primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013; 66(3):747-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PGI-DLBCL) is a relatively rare malignancy with limited results on clinical characteristics and carcinogenesis. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer cells, including lymphoma. As a key component of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), BubR1 plays a crucial role in maintaining genome stability. To elucidate the roles of BubR1 in the pathogenesis of PGI-DLBCL, and its relationship to cell proliferation, Helicobacter pylori infection, and BCL-6 gene translocation, we examined the possible alterations of BubR1 protein expression in PGI-DLBCL patients. Paraffin-embedded cancer tissues from 20 PGI-DLBCL patients were evaluated for BubR1 and H. pylori expression by immunohistochemistry, as well as cell proliferative activity measured by Ki-67 proliferation index (PI). BCL-6 gene rearrangement was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and BubR1 expression status was compared with clinicopathological parameters in PGI-DLBCL patients. Overexpression of BubR1 was observed in the majority of PGI-DLBCL patients. The mean expression level of BubR1 was 57.33 ± 23.27% in PGI-DLBCL, which was higher than normal gastrointestinal tissue (10.18 ± 5.65%) and reactive lymph node (26.74 ± 8.60%) (P < 0.01), while it was comparable to nodal lymphoma (54.32 ± 21.28%) (P > 0.05). BubR1 overexpression had a positive correlation with Ki-67 proliferation index (PI) (r = 0.51, P < 0.01) in PGI-DLBCL, but had no relationship to H. pylori infection and BCL-6 gene translocation. In addition, no correlation was found between BubR1 expression levels and overall survivals (P > 0.05). BubR1 overexpression was associated with cell proliferation and may play a role in the carcinogenesis of PGI-DLBCL. Aberrant BubR1 expression may potentially be a biomarker for estimating biologic characteristics of PGI-DLBCL.

Maciejczyk A, Szelachowska J, Czapiga B, et al.
Elevated BUBR1 expression is associated with poor survival in early breast cancer patients: 15-year follow-up analysis.
J Histochem Cytochem. 2013; 61(5):330-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
BUBR1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-related 1) represents the component of a controlling complex in mitosis. Defects in mitotic control complex result in chromosomal instability and, as a result, disturb the mitotic process. This study was aimed at examining the prognostic value linked to the expression of BUBR1 in a group of patients with breast cancer. We analyzed the expression of BUBR1 in 98 stage II breast cancer patients with a median follow-up of 15 years. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using monoclonal antibodies against BUBR1. We also studied the prognostic value of BUBR1 mRNA expression using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter, which assessed the effect of 22,277 genes on survival in 2422 breast cancer patients. A background database was established using gene expression data and survival information on 2422 patients downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO; Affymetrix HGU133A and HGU133+2 microarrays). The median relapse-free survival was 6.43 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that higher expression of BUBR1 was typical for cases of shorter overall survival, disease-free time, and disease-specific survival. KM plotter analysis showed that elevated BUBR1 mRNA expression had a negative impact on patients' relapse-free, distant metastases-free, and overall survival. Elevated BUBR1 expression was associated with poor survival in early stage breast cancer patients.

Stricker TP, Henriksen KJ, Tonsgard JH, et al.
Expression profiling of 519 kinase genes in matched malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor/plexiform neurofibroma samples is discriminatory and identifies mitotic regulators BUB1B, PBK and NEK2 as overexpressed with transformation.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(7):930-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
About 50% of all malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) arise as neurofibromatosis type 1 associated lesions. In those patients malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are thought to arise through malignant transformation of a preexisting plexiform neurofibroma. The molecular changes associated with this transformation are still poorly understood. We sought to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of expression of kinases contributes to this malignant transformation. We analyzed expression of all 519 kinase genes in the human genome using the nanostring nCounter system. Twelve cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in a background of preexisting plexiform neurofibroma were included. Both components were separately sampled. Statistical analysis compared global changes in expression levels as well as changes observed in the pairwise comparison of samples taken from the same surgical specimen. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on tissue array slides to confirm expression of selected proteins. The expression pattern of kinase genes can separate malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and preexisting plexiform neurofibromas. The majority of kinase genes is downregulated rather than overexpressed with malignant transformation. The patterns of expression changes are complex without simple recurring alteration. Pathway analysis demonstrates that differentially expressed kinases are enriched for kinases involved in the direct regulation of mitosis, and several of these show increased expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Immunohistochemical studies for the mitotic regulators BUB1B, PBK and NEK2 confirm higher expression levels at the protein level. These results suggest that the malignant transformation of plexiform neurofibroma is associated with distinct changes in the expression of kinase genes. The patterns of these changes are complex and heterogeneous. There is no single unifying alteration. Kinases involved in mitotic regulation are particularly enriched in the pool of differentially expressed kinases. Some of these are overexpressed and are therefore possible targets for kinase inhibitors.

Naylor RM, Baker DJ, van Deursen JM
Senescent cells: a novel therapeutic target for aging and age-related diseases.
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013; 93(1):105-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
Aging is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases, disabilities, and declining health. It has been proposed that senescent cells--damaged cells that have lost the ability to divide--drive the deterioration that underlies aging and age-related diseases. However, definitive evidence for this relationship has been lacking. The use of a progeroid mouse model (which expresses low amounts of the mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1) has been instrumental in demonstrating that p16(Ink4a)-positive senescent cells drive age-related pathologies and that selective elimination of these cells can prevent or delay age-related deterioration. These studies identify senescent cells as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of aging and age-related diseases. Here, we describe how senescent cells develop, the experimental evidence that causally implicates senescent cells in age-related dysfunction, the chronic diseases and disorders that are characterized by the accumulation of senescent cells at sites of pathology, and the therapeutic approaches that could specifically target senescent cells.

He J, Wu J, Xu N, et al.
MiR-210 disturbs mitotic progression through regulating a group of mitosis-related genes.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41(1):498-508 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
MiR-210 is up-regulated in multiple cancer types but its function is disputable and further investigation is necessary. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified the putative target genes of miR-210 in hypoxia-induced CNE cells from genome-wide scale. Two functional gene groups related to cell cycle and RNA processing were recognized as the major targets of miR-210. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism and biological consequence of miR-210 in cell cycle regulation, particularly mitosis. Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of miR-210 was highly correlated with the down-regulation of a group of mitosis-related genes, including Plk1, Cdc25B, Cyclin F, Bub1B and Fam83D. MiR-210 suppressed the expression of these genes by directly targeting their 3'-UTRs. Over-expression of exogenous miR-210 disturbed mitotic progression and caused aberrant mitosis. Furthermore, miR-210 mimic with pharmacological doses reduced tumor formation in a mouse metastatic tumor model. Taken together, these results implicate that miR-210 disturbs mitosis through targeting multi-genes involved in mitotic progression, which may contribute to its inhibitory role on tumor formation.

Wan X, Yeung C, Kim SY, et al.
Identification of FoxM1/Bub1b signaling pathway as a required component for growth and survival of rhabdomyosarcoma.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(22):5889-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
We identified Bub1b as an essential element for the growth and survival of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells using a bar-coded, tetracycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library screen. Knockdown of Bub1b resulted in suppression of tumor growth in vivo, including the regression of established tumors. The mechanism by which this occurs is via postmitotic endoreduplication checkpoint and mitotic catastrophe. Furthermore, using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that Bub1b is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1). Suppression of FoxM1 either by shRNA or the inhibitor siomycin A resulted in reduction of Bub1b expression and inhibition of cell growth and survival. These results show the important role of the Bub1b/FoxM1 pathway in RMS and provide potential therapeutic targets.

Wang L, Huang J, Jiang M, et al.
Activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network in human hepatocellular carcinoma by systems-theoretic analysis.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2012; 2012:428979 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
Studies were done on analysis of biological processes in the same high expression (fold change ≥2) activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion gene ontology (GO) network of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with the corresponding low expression activated GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection). Activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion network consisted of anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cell-cell signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, intracellular transport, metabolism, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, positive regulation of transcription, regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, transcription, and transport in HCC. We proposed activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network. Our hypothesis was verified by the different activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion GO network of HCC compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues, or the same compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of HCC. Activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network included BUB1B, GNG10, PTHR2, GNAZ, RFC4, UBE2C, NRXN3, BAP1, PVRL2, TROAP, and VCAN in HCC from GEO dataset using gene regulatory network inference method and our programming.

Huang J, Wang L, Jiang M, et al.
PTHLH coupling upstream negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis and Wnt receptor signal to downstream peptidase activity-induced apoptosis network in human hepatocellular carcinoma by systems-theoretical analysis.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2012; 32(5):250-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies were done on the analysis of biological processes in the same high expression (fold change ≥ 2) PTHLH-activated feedback negative regulation-mediated apoptosis gene ontology (GO) network of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with the corresponding low expression activated GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues [hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection]. We proposed PTHLH-activated network that upstream included the regulation of apoptosis, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in transcription of p21 class mediator, negative regulation of centriole replication, negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, negative regulation of Wnt receptor signaling pathway, anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism, apoptosis, induction of apoptosis, and negative regulation of phosphorylation. Downstream-network negative regulation of peptidase activity, anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism, apoptosis, induction of apoptosis and negative regulation of phosphorylation, as a result of coupling upstream negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis and Wnt receptor signal to downstream peptidase activity-induced apoptosis in HCC. Our hypothesis was verified by the different PTHLH-activated feedback negative regulation-mediated apoptosis GO network of HCC compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues, or the same compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of HCC. PTHLH coupling upstream negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis and Wnt receptor signal to downstream peptidase activity-induced apoptosis network was constructed that upstream BRCA1, DKK1, BUB1B activated PTHLH, and downstream PTHLH-activated CST6, BUB1B, NTN1, PHLDA2 in HCC from GEO data set using gene regulatory network inference method and our programing.

Kim S, Kon M, DeLisi C
Pathway-based classification of cancer subtypes.
Biol Direct. 2012; 7:21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers based on gene expression profiles have been used in experimental and clinical settings to distinguish cancerous tumors in stage, grade, survival time, metastasis, and drug sensitivity. However, most significant gene markers are unstable (not reproducible) among data sets. We introduce a standardized method for representing cancer markers as 2-level hierarchical feature vectors, with a basic gene level as well as a second level of (more stable) pathway markers, for the purpose of discriminating cancer subtypes. This extends standard gene expression arrays with new pathway-level activation features obtained directly from off-the-shelf gene set enrichment algorithms such as GSEA. Such so-called pathway-based expression arrays are significantly more reproducible across datasets. Such reproducibility will be important for clinical usefulness of genomic markers, and augment currently accepted cancer classification protocols.
RESULTS: The present method produced more stable (reproducible) pathway-based markers for discriminating breast cancer metastasis and ovarian cancer survival time. Between two datasets for breast cancer metastasis, the intersection of standard significant gene biomarkers totaled 7.47% of selected genes, compared to 17.65% using pathway-based markers; the corresponding percentages for ovarian cancer datasets were 20.65% and 33.33% respectively. Three pathways, consisting of Type_1_diabetes mellitus, Cytokine-cytokine_receptor_interaction and Hedgehog_signaling (all previously implicated in cancer), are enriched in both the ovarian long survival and breast non-metastasis groups. In addition, integrating pathway and gene information, we identified five (ID4, ANXA4, CXCL9, MYLK, FBXL7) and six (SQLE, E2F1, PTTG1, TSTA3, BUB1B, MAD2L1) known cancer genes significant for ovarian and breast cancer respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Standardizing the analysis of genomic data in the process of cancer staging, classification and analysis is important as it has implications for both pre-clinical as well as clinical studies. The paradigm of diagnosis and prediction using pathway-based biomarkers as features can be an important part of the process of biomarker-based cancer analysis, and the resulting canonical (clinically reproducible) biomarkers can be important in standardizing genomic data. We expect that identification of such canonical biomarkers will improve clinical utility of high-throughput datasets for diagnostic and prognostic applications.

Dai Y, Tang Y, He F, et al.
Screening and functional analysis of differentially expressed genes in EBV-transformed lymphoblasts.
Virol J. 2012; 9:77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epstain-Barr virus (EBV) can transform human B lymphocytes making them immortalized and inducing tumorigenic ability in vitro, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to detect and analyze differentially expressed genes in two types of host cells, normal human lymphocytes and coupled EBV-transformed lymphoblasts in vitro using gene chips, and to screen the key regulatory genes of lymphocyte transformation induced by EB virus.
METHODS: Fresh peripheral blood samples from seven healthy donors were collected. EBV was used to transform lymphocytes in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from 7 cases of the normal lymphocytes and transformed lymphoblasts respectively, marked with dihydroxyfluorane after reverse transcription, then hybridized with 4 × 44 K Agilent human whole genome microarray. LIMMA, String, Cytoscape and other softwares were used to screen and analyze differentially expressed genes. Real-time PCR was applied to verify the result of gene expression microarrays.
RESULTS: There were 1745 differentially expressed genes that had been screened, including 917 up-regulated genes and 828 down-regulated genes. According to the results of Generank, String and Cytoscape analyses, 38 genes may be key controlled genes related to EBV-transformed lymphocytes, including 22 up-regulated genes(PLK1, E2F1, AURKB, CDK2, PLCG2, CD80, PIK3R3, CDC20, CDC6, AURKA, CENPA, BUB1B, NUP37, MAD2L1, BIRC5, CDC25A, CCNB1, RPA3, HJURP, KIF2C, CDK1, CDCA8) and 16 down-regulated genes(FYN, CD3D, CD4, CD3G, ZAP70, FOS, HCK, CD247, PRKCQ, ITK, LCP2, CXCL1, CD8A, ITGB5, VAV3, CXCR4), which primarily control biological processes such as cell cycle, mitosis, cytokine-cytokine pathway, immunity response and so on.
CONCLUSIONS: Human lymphocyte transformation induced by EB virus is a complicated process, involving multiple-genes and -pathways in virus-host interactions. Global gene expression profile analysis showed that EBV may transform human B lymphocytes by promoting cell cycle and mitosis, inhibiting cell apoptosis, hindering host immune function and secretion of cytokines.

Kawabata T, Tanimura S, Asai K, et al.
Up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bim and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 cooperatively mediate enhanced tumor cell death induced by the combination of ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor and microtubule inhibitor.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(13):10289-300 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
Blockade of the ERK signaling pathway by ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors selectively enhances the induction of apoptosis by microtubule inhibitors in tumor cells in which this pathway is constitutively activated. We examined the mechanism by which such drug combinations induce enhanced cell death by applying time-lapse microscopy to track the fate of individual cells. MEK inhibitors did not affect the first mitosis after drug exposure, but most cells remained arrested in interphase without entering a second mitosis. Low concentrations of microtubule inhibitors induced prolonged mitotic arrest followed by exit of cells from mitosis without division, with most cells remaining viable. However, the combination of a MEK inhibitor and a microtubule inhibitor induced massive cell death during prolonged mitosis. Impairment of spindle assembly checkpoint function by RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 markedly suppressed such prolonged mitotic arrest and cell death. The cell death was accompanied by up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim (to which MEK inhibitors contributed) and by down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 (to which microtubule and MEK inhibitors contributed synergistically). Whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bim suppressed cell death, stabilization of Mcl-1 by RNAi-mediated depletion of Mule slowed its onset. Depletion of Mcl-1 sensitized tumor cells to MEK inhibitor-induced cell death, an effect that was antagonized by knockdown of Bim. The combination of MEK and microtubule inhibitors thus targets Bim and Mcl-1 in a cooperative manner to induce massive cell death in tumor cells with aberrant ERK pathway activation.

Huang C, Tang H, Zhang W, et al.
Integrated analysis of multiple gene expression profiling datasets revealed novel gene signatures and molecular markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(1):166-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify the novel gene signatures and molecular markers of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by integrated bioinformatics analysis of multiple gene expression profiling datasets.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seven published gene expression profiling studies and one of our unpublished works were reanalyzed to identify the common significantly dysregulated (CSD) genes in NPC. Overrepresentation analysis of cytogenetic bands, Gene Ontology (GO) categories, pathways were used to explore CSD genes functionally associated with carcinogenesis. The protein expressions of selected CSD genes were examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, and the correlations of their expressions with clinical outcomes were evaluated.
RESULTS: Using the criteria (genes reported deregulated in more than one study), a total of 962 genes were identified as the CSD genes in NPC. Four upregulated (BUB1B, CCND2, CENPF, and MAD2L1) and two downregulated (LTF and SLPI) genes were markedly reported in six studies. The enrichments of chromosome aberrations were 2q23, 2q31, 7p15, 12q15, 12q22, 18q11, and 18q12 in upregulated genes and 14q32 and 16q13 in downregulated genes. The activated GO categories and pathways related to proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and downregulated immune response had been functionally associated with NPC. SLPI significantly downregulated in nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the high expression of BUB1B or CENPF was associated with poor overall survival of patients.
CONCLUSION: It was first clearly identified the dysregulated expression of BUB1B and SLPI in NPC tissues.
IMPACT: Further studies of the CSD genes as gene signatures and molecular markers of NPC might improve the understanding of the disease and identify new therapeutic targets.

Fragoso MC, Almeida MQ, Mazzuco TL, et al.
Combined expression of BUB1B, DLGAP5, and PINK1 as predictors of poor outcome in adrenocortical tumors: validation in a Brazilian cohort of adult and pediatric patients.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2012; 166(1):61-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A recent microarray study identified a set of genes whose combined expression patterns were predictive of poor outcome in a cohort of adult adrenocortical tumors (ACTs). The difference between the expression values measured by qRT-PCR of DLGAP5 and PINK1 genes was the best molecular predictor of recurrence and malignancy. Among the adrenocortical carcinomas, the combined expression of BUB1B and PINK1 genes was the most reliable predictor of overall survival. The prognostic and molecular heterogeneity of ACTs raises the need to study the applicability of these molecular markers in other cohorts.
OBJECTIVE: To validate the combined expression of BUB1B, DLGAP5, and PINK1 as outcome predictor in ACTs from a Brazilian cohort of adult and pediatric patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: BUB1B, DLGAP5, and PINK1 expression was assessed by quantitative PCR in 53 ACTs from 52 patients - 24 pediatric and 28 adults (one pediatric patient presented a bilateral asynchronous ACT).
RESULTS: DLGAP5-PINK1 and BUB1B-PINK1 were strong predictors of disease-free survival and overall survival, respectively, among adult patients with ACT. In the pediatric cohort, these molecular predictors were only marginally associated with disease-free survival but not with overall survival.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the prognostic value of the combined expression of BUB1B, DLGAP5, and PINK1 genes in a Brazilian group of adult ACTs. Among pediatric ACTs, other molecular predictors of outcome are required.

Bie L, Zhao G, Cheng P, et al.
The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25631 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/03/2016 Related Publications
Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK) significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001), and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.

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