PTTG1

Gene Summary

Gene:PTTG1; pituitary tumor-transforming 1
Aliases: EAP1, PTTG, HPTTG, TUTR1
Location:5q35.1
Summary:The encoded protein is a homolog of yeast securin proteins, which prevent separins from promoting sister chromatid separation. It is an anaphase-promoting complex (APC) substrate that associates with a separin until activation of the APC. The gene product has transforming activity in vitro and tumorigenic activity in vivo, and the gene is highly expressed in various tumors. The gene product contains 2 PXXP motifs, which are required for its transforming and tumorigenic activities, as well as for its stimulation of basic fibroblast growth factor expression. It also contains a destruction box (D box) that is required for its degradation by the APC. The acidic C-terminal region of the encoded protein can act as a transactivation domain. The gene product is mainly a cytosolic protein, although it partially localizes in the nucleus. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:securin
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTTG1 (cancer-related)

Bouchet A, Sakakini N, Atifi ME, et al.
Identification of AREG and PLK1 pathway modulation as a potential key of the response of intracranial 9L tumor to microbeam radiation therapy.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(11):2705-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) relies on the spatial fractionation of a synchrotron beam into parallel micron-wide beams allowing deposition of hectogray doses. MRT controls the intracranial tumor growth in rodent models while sparing normal brain tissues. Our aim was to identify the early biological processes underlying the differential effect of MRT on tumor and normal brain tissues. The expression of 28,000 transcripts was tested by microarray 6 hr after unidirectional MRT (400 Gy, 50 µm-wide microbeams, 200 µm spacing). The specific response of tumor tissues to MRT consisted in the significant transcriptomic modulation of 431 probesets (316 genes). Among them, 30 were not detected in normal brain tissues, neither before nor after MRT. Areg, Trib3 and Nppb were down-regulated, whereas all others were up-regulated. Twenty-two had similar expression profiles during the 2 weeks observed after MRT, including Ccnb1, Cdc20, Pttg1 and Plk1 related to the mitotic role of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) pathway. The up-regulation of Areg expression may indicate the emergence of survival processes in tumor cells triggered by the irradiation; while the modulation of the "mitotic role of Plk1" pathway, which relates to cytokinetic features of the tumor observed histologically after MRT, may partially explain the control of tumor growth by MRT. The identification of these tumor-specific responses permit to consider new strategies that might potentiate the antitumoral effect of MRT.

Zhang G, Zhao Q, Yu S, et al.
Pttg1 inhibits TGFβ signaling in breast cancer cells to promote their growth.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(1):199-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased expression of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (Pttg1) has been shown in various tumor cells, including breast cancer (BC). However, the precise role of Pttg1 in the tumorigenesis is not clarified yet. Here, we examined BC from the patients and detected significant increases and correlation in Pttg1 and phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3), a key effector of activated transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling pathway. Pttg1 levels were then modulated by transgene or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in a human BC cell line, BT474, respectively. We found that Pttg1 overexpression increased the proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo, while Pttg1 inhibition decreased proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, phosphorylation of SMAD3 by TGFβ1 was significantly inhibited by Pttg1 overexpression, suggesting that Pttg1 may promote growth of BC cells by inhibiting pSMAD3-mediated cell-growth inhibition. Thus, Pttg1 appears to be a novel therapeutic target for controlling the tumorigenesis of BC.

Castilla C, Flores ML, Medina R, et al.
Prostate cancer cell response to paclitaxel is affected by abnormally expressed securin PTTG1.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(10):2372-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
PTTG1 protein, the human securin, has a central role in sister chromatid separation during mitosis, and its altered expression has been reported in many tumor types. Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, whose mechanism of action is related to its ability to arrest cells in mitosis and the subsequent induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. By using two prostate cancer cell lines with different responses to paclitaxel treatment, we have identified two situations in which PTTG1 influences cell fate differentially. In slippage-prone PC3 cells, both PTTG1 downregulation and overexpression induce an increase in mitotic cells that is associated with diminished apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. In LNCaP cells, however, PTTG1 downregulation prevents mitotic entry and, subsequently, inhibits mitosis-associated, paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, PTTG1 overexpression induces an increase in mitotic cells and apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. We have also identified a role for Mcl-1 protein in preventing apoptosis during mitosis in PC3 cells, as simultaneous PTTG1 and Mcl-1 silencing enhances mitosis-associated apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. The finding that a more efficient mitotic arrest alone in PC3 cells is not enough to increase apoptosis was also confirmed with the observation that a selected paclitaxel-resistant PC3 cell line showed an apoptosis-resistant phenotype associated with increased mitosis upon paclitaxel treatment. These findings could contribute to identify putative responsive and nonresponsive cells and help us to approach incomplete responses to paclitaxel in the clinical setting.

Zhang W, Gong W, Ai H, et al.
Gene expression analysis of lung adenocarcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor lung tissue.
Tumori. 2014 May-Jun; 100(3):338-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to find disease-associated genes and gene functions in lung adenocarcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor lung tissues with DNA microarray.
METHODS: We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE32863 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database including 58 lung adenocarcinoma and 58 adjacent non-tumor lung tissue samples. Data were preprocessed and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using packages in the R computing language. The selected DEGs were further analyzed with bioinformatics methods. After the coexpression network of DEGs was constructed by STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins), we analyzed gene functions with DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) and WebGestalt (WEB-based Gene Set Analysis Toolkit).
RESULTS: A total of 1429 genes were filtered as DEGs, including 873 downregulated genes and 556 upregulated genes, and the DEGs including CDC45, CCNB2, CDC20, MCM2, PTTG1, MCM4 and FEN1 were most significantly related to cell cycle and DNA replication.
CONCLUSION: The discovery of featured genes which were significantly related to cell cycle and DNA replication has potential for use in the clinic for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. However, further experiments will be needed to confirm our result.

Zhang H, Du R, Huang YH, et al.
Characterization of pituitary tumor transforming gene in meningiomas.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014; 122:120-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene and has been detected in several tumors of unrelated histological origin. However, its role in meningiomas is unknown so far. We aim to investigate PTTG expression in intracranial meningiomas, and clarify the relationship between PTTG and the histopathological types of tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 7-year period, 195 meningioma specimens were collected from 195 patients. Seventeen nonneoplastic meningeal tissues were used as controls. We analyze PTTG expression by tissue microarray with immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Immunoexpression of PTTG was identified in 172 of 195 meningiomas, accounting for 88.2%. All of immunoexpression of tumors were found to be cytoplasmic, and no nuclear expression was observed. In the control group, there were 3 of 17 specimens (17.6%) with positive PTTG expression. The percentage of high expression WHO subtypes of meningiomas ranged from 0% to 95.7%. We further stratified the tumors into 3 subgroups based on pathological grading (WHO grade I, WHO grade II and III, control), and there was significant intergroup difference in PTTG expression (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that PTTG was expressed in most of meningioma tissues, and the degree of PTTG immunostaining was variable in the subtypes of tumors. Further investigations into PTTG expression are required to broaden the pathogenesis research of meningiomas.

Zhang E, Liu S, Xu Z, et al.
Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and promotes migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SCC15 cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8801-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is an important oncogenic transcription factor implicated in various malignancies, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common malignancy of head and neck. Although PTTG1 is reportedly overexpressed in OSCC tissues, its role in human OSCC remains elusive. Thus, this study was conducted to explore the correlation between PTTG1 expression and tumorigenesis of OSCC. We first examined PTTG1 mRNA and protein expression in 28 pairs of OSCC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues. PTTG1 protein levels in 98 OSCC specimens were also evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that both mRNA and protein expression levels of PTTG1 in OSCC tissue specimens were markedly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissue samples. A high level of PTTG1 protein expression was found in 74 out of 98 cases (75.51 %) and it was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.007) of patients with OSCC. Moreover, forced overexpression of PTTG1 enhanced SCC15 cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of PTTG1 resulted in reverse phenomena. In addition, elevated PTTG1 also increased the activities and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) process in SCC15 cells. The EMT changes were accompanied by downregulation of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) protein expression and upregulation of snail and vimentin. In summary, our results illustrate that PTTG1 may contribute to the development and progression of human OSCC.

Huang S, Liao Q, Li L, Xin D
PTTG1 inhibits SMAD3 in prostate cancer cells to promote their proliferation.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6265-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased expression of pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) occurs during mitosis-related sister chromatid segregation, and characterizes various tumor cells, including prostate cancer. Whereas the mechanism remains unclarified. Here, the PTTG1 levels in a prostate cancer cell line, PC3, were modulated by the expression of PTTG1 transgene or shRNA, showing that the PTTG1 levels affected the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a significant decrease in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3), a key component of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway, was induced by PTTG1 overexpression. Since SMAD3 is a ubiquitous cell-cycle inhibitor, our data suggest that PTTG1 may promote the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by inhibiting SMAD3-mediated TGFβ signaling. To identify a causal link, we expressed SMAD3 in PTTG1-overexpressing PC3 cells and found that SMAD3 expression inhibited the augmented cancer cell proliferation by PTTG1 overexpression. Furthermore, SMAD3 inhibition by short hairpin RNA (ShRNA) completely rescued the cancer cell proliferation in PTTG1 ShRNA-treated PC3 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that PTTG1 promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells via the inhibition of SMAD3. SMAD3 thus appears to be a novel therapeutic target for suppressing the growth of prostate cancer.

Li Y, Zhou LP, Ma P, et al.
Relationship of PTTG expression with tumor invasiveness and microvessel density of pituitary adenomas: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(4):279-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Many existing studies have demonstrated that pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) expression may contribute to the development of pituitary adenomas (PAs), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationships of PTTG expression with tumor invasiveness and microvessel density of pituitary adenomas.
METHODS: We searched CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from inception through September 1st, 2013. Meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. The crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated.
RESULTS: Fifteen clinical cohort studies were included with a total of 752 pituitary adenoma patients. The meta-analysis results revealed that patients with invasive pituitary adenomas had higher positive expression of PTTG than those of noninvasive patients (OR=6.68, 95% CI=3.72-11.99, p<0.001). We also found a significant difference in the microvessel density between invasive and noninvasive patients (OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.39-3.23, p<0.001). No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis (all p>0.05).
CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis suggests that PTTG expression may be associated with tumor invasiveness and microvessel density of pituitary adenomas. Thus, detection of PTTG expression may be useful for the prediction of malignancy degree in pituitary adenomas.

Xiao JQ, Liu XH, Hou B, et al.
Correlations of pituitary tumor transforming gene expression with human pituitary adenomas: a meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90396 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an important paracrine growth factor involved in early lactotrope transformation and early onset of angiogenesis in pituitary hyperplasia. Emerging evidences have shown that PTTG expression may contribute to the etiology of pituitary adenomas; but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the correlations of PTTG expression with human pituitary adenomas.
METHODS: A range of electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE (1966∼2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980∼2013), CINAHL (1982∼2013), Web of Science (1945∼2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982∼2013) without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratio (OR) or standard mean difference (SMD) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated.
RESULTS: Twenty-four clinical cohort studies were included with a total of 1,464 pituitary adenomas patients. The meta-analysis results revealed that patients with invasive pituitary adenomas had higher positive expression of PTTG than those of non-invasive patients (OR  = 6.68, 95%CI  = 3.72-11.99, P<0.001). We also found a significant difference in microvessel density between invasive and non-invasive patients (SMD  = 1.81, 95%CI  = 0.39-3.23, P = 0.013). However, there were no significant difference in PTTG expression between functional and non-functional patients with pituitary adenomas (OR  = 1.11, 95%CI  = 0.58-2.10, P = 0.753). No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis (all P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: This present meta-analysis suggests that PTTG expression may be associated with tumor invasiveness and microvessel density of pituitary adenomas, while no correlations with functional status was found.

Read ML, Seed RI, Fong JC, et al.
The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) regulates p53 activity in thyroid cells.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(4):1222-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) has an emerging repertoire of roles, especially in thyroid biology, and functions as a protooncogene. High PBF expression is independently associated with poor prognosis and lower disease-specific survival in human thyroid cancer. However, the precise role of PBF in thyroid tumorigenesis is unclear. Here, we present extensive evidence demonstrating that PBF is a novel regulator of p53, a tumor suppressor protein with a key role in maintaining genetic stability, which is infrequently mutated in differentiated thyroid cancer. By coimmunoprecipitation and proximity-ligation assays, we show that PBF binds specifically to p53 in thyroid cells and significantly represses transactivation of responsive promoters. Further, we identify that PBF decreases p53 stability by enhancing ubiquitination, which appears dependent on the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2. Impaired p53 function was evident in a transgenic mouse model with thyroid-specific PBF overexpression (transgenic PBF mice), which had significantly increased genetic instability as indicated by fluorescent inter simple sequence repeat-PCR analysis. Consistent with this, approximately 40% of all DNA repair genes examined were repressed in transgenic PBF primary cultures, including genes with critical roles in maintaining genomic integrity such as Mgmt, Rad51, and Xrcc3. Our data also revealed that PBF induction resulted in up-regulation of the E2 enzyme Rad6 in murine thyrocytes and was associated with Rad6 expression in human thyroid tumors. Overall, this work provides novel insights into the role of the protooncogene PBF as a negative regulator of p53 function in thyroid tumorigenesis, in which PBF is generally overexpressed and p53 mutations are rare compared with other tumor types.

Mateu-Huertas E, Rodriguez-Revenga L, Alvarez-Mora MI, et al.
Blood expression profiles of fragile X premutation carriers identify candidate genes involved in neurodegenerative and infertility phenotypes.
Neurobiol Dis. 2014; 65:43-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Male premutation carriers presenting between 55 and 200 CGG repeats in the Fragile-X-associated (FMR1) gene are at risk of developing Fragile X Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), and females undergo Premature Ovarian Failure (POF1). Here, we have evaluated gene expression profiles from blood in male FMR1 premutation carriers and detected a strong deregulation of genes enriched in FXTAS relevant biological pathways, including inflammation, neuronal homeostasis and viability. Gene expression profiling distinguished between control individuals, carriers with FXTAS and carriers without FXTAS, with levels of expanded FMR1 mRNA being increased in FXTAS patients. In vitro studies in a neuronal cell model indicate that expression levels of expanded FMR1 5'-UTR are relevant in modulating the transcriptome. Thus, perturbations of the transcriptome may be an interplay between the CGG expansion size and FMR1 expression levels. Several deregulated genes (DFFA, BCL2L11, BCL2L1, APP, SOD1, RNF10, HDAC5, KCNC3, ATXN7, ATXN3 and EAP1) were validated in brain samples of a FXTAS mouse model. Downregulation of EAP1, a gene involved in the female reproductive system physiology, was confirmed in female carriers. Decreased levels were detected in female carriers with POF1 compared to those without POF1, suggesting that EAP1 levels contribute to ovarian insufficiency. In summary, gene expression profiling in blood has uncovered mechanisms that may underlie different pathological aspects of the premutation. A better understanding of the transcriptome dynamics in relation with expanded FMR1 mRNA expression levels and CGG expansion size may provide mechanistic insights into the disease process and a more accurate FXTAS diagnosis to the myriad of phenotypes associated with the premutation.

Hatcher RJ, Dong J, Liu S, et al.
Pttg1/securin is required for the branching morphogenesis of the mammary gland and suppresses mammary tumorigenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(3):1008-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (Pttg1) encodes the mammalian securin, which is an inhibitor of separase (a protease required for the separation of sister chromatids in mitosis and meiosis). PTTG1 is overexpressed in a number of human cancers and has been suggested to be an oncogene. However, we found that, in Pttg1-mutant females, the mammary epithelial cells showed increased proliferation and precocious branching morphogenesis. In accord with these phenotypic changes, progesterone receptor, cyclin D1, and Mmp2 were up-regulated whereas p21 (Cdkn1a) was down-regulated. These molecular changes provide explanation for the observed developmental defects, and suggest that Pttg1 is a tumor suppressor. Indeed, mice lacking Pttg1 developed spontaneous mammary tumors. Furthermore, in human breast tumors, PTTG1 protein levels were down-regulated and the reduction was significantly correlated with the tumor grade.

Xia YH, Li M, Fu DD, et al.
Effects of PTTG down-regulation on proliferation and metastasis of the SCL-1 cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(11):6245-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To study effects of down-regulation of pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) on proliferation and metastasis ability of the SCL-1 cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) cell line and explore related mechanisms.
METHODS: SCL-1 cells were divided into 3 groups (untreated, siRNA control and PTTG siRNA). Cell proliferation assays were performed using a CCK-8 kit and proliferation and metastasis ability were analyzed using Boyden chambers. In addition, expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was detected by r-time qPCR and Western blotting.
RESULTS: Down-regulation of PTTG could markedly inhibit cell proliferation in SCL-1 cells, compared to untreated and control siRNA groups (P < 0.05). Real-time qPCR demonstrated that expression levels of PTTG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the PTTG siRNA group were 0.8%, 23.2% and 21.3% of untreated levels. Western blotting revealed that expression of PTTG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins in the PTTG siRNA group was obviously down-regulated. The numbers of migrating cells (51.38 ± 4.71) in the PTTG siRNA group was obviously lower than that in untreated group (131.33 ± 6.12) and the control siRNA group (127.72 ± 5.20) (P < 0.05), suggesting that decrease of proliferation and metastasis ability mediated by PTTG knock-down may be closely correlated with down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.
CONCLUSION: Inhibition of PTTG expression may be a new target for therapy of CSCC.

Grizzi F, Di Biccari S, Fiamengo B, et al.
Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 is expressed in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases.
Dis Markers. 2013; 35(4):267-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the advances that have been made in the fields of molecular and cell biology, there is still considerable debate explaining how the breast cancer cells progress through carcinogenesis and acquire their metastatic ability. The lack of preventive methods and effective therapies underlines the pressing need to identify new biomarkers that can aid early diagnosis and may be targets for effective therapeutic strategies. In this study we explore the pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) expression in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Three human cell lines, 184B5 derived from normal mammary epithelium, HCC70 from a primary ductal carcinoma, and MDA-MB-361 from a breast metastasis, were used for quantifying PTTG1 mRNA expression. The PTTG1 immunohistochemical expression was carried out on specimens taken from eight patients with invasive ductal breast cancer who underwent surgical treatment and followup for five years retrospectively selected. The study demonstrated that PTTG1 is expressed gradually in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Our findings suggest that the immunohistochemical evaluation of PTTG1 expression might be a powerful biomarker of recognition and quantification of the breast cancer cells in routine pathological specimens and a potential target for developing an effective immunotherapeutic strategy for primary and metastatic breast cancer.

Wang Y, Zang W, Du Y, et al.
Mir-655 up-regulation suppresses cell invasion by targeting pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes under different conditions and thus can play a significant role in cancer development. We investigated miR-655 expression in a cohort of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to assess the impact of this miRNA on ESCC cell invasion and metastasis.
METHODS: A qRT-PCR assay was used to quantify miR-655 expression levels in 34 paired ESCC samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues. Wound healing and transwell assays were used to evaluate the effects of miR-655 expression on the invasiveness of ESCC cells. Luciferase reporter and western blot assays were used to determine whether the mRNA encoding pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a major target of miR-655.
RESULTS: The expression level of miR-655 in ESCC tissues was found to be lower than in adjacent non-tumor tissues (P < 0.05). This relatively low expression level was significantly associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases (P < 0.05). Migration rates were significantly lower for two ESCC-derived cell lines (EC9706 and KYSE150) transfected with miR-429 mimics (P < 0.05). Subsequent western blot and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-655 could bind to putative binding sites within the PTTG1 mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) and thus reduce the expression.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-655 is expressed at low levels in primary ESCC tissues, and up-regulation of miR-655 inhibits ESCC cell invasiveness by targeting PTTG1. Our findings suggest that PTTG1 may act as a major target of miR-655. This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ESCC pathogenesis and may promote the development of novel targeted therapies.

Demeure MJ, Coan KE, Grant CS, et al.
PTTG1 overexpression in adrenocortical cancer is associated with poor survival and represents a potential therapeutic target.
Surgery. 2013; 154(6):1405-16; discussion 1416 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is associated with poor survival rates. The objective of the study was to analyze ACC gene expression profiling data for prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
METHODS: We profiled 44 ACC and 4 normal adrenals on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 expression microarrays. Pathway and transcriptional enrichment analysis was performed. Protein levels were determined by Western blot. Drug efficacy was assessed against ACC cell lines. Previously published expression datasets were analyzed for validation.
RESULTS: Pathway enrichment analysis identified marked dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases and mitosis. Overexpression of PTTG1, which encodes securin, a negative regulator of p53, was identified as a marker of poor survival. Median survival for patients with tumors expressing high PTTG1 levels (log2 ratio of PTTG1 to average β-actin <-3.04) was 1.8 years compared with 9.0 years if tumors expressed lower levels of PTTG1 (P < .0001). Analysis of a previously published dataset confirmed the association of high PTTG1 expression with a poor prognosis. Treatment of 2 ACC cell lines with vorinostat decreased securin levels and inhibited cell growth (median inhibition concentrations of 1.69 μmol/L and 0.891 μmol/L, for SW-13 and H295R, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of PTTG1 is correlated with poor survival in ACC. PTTG1/securin is a prognostic biomarker and warrants investigation as a therapeutic target.

Wang IC, Ustiyan V, Zhang Y, et al.
Foxm1 transcription factor is required for the initiation of lung tumorigenesis by oncogenic Kras(G12D.).
Oncogene. 2014; 33(46):5391-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths in cancer patients in the United States. Identification of new molecular targets is clearly needed to improve therapeutic outcomes of this devastating human disease. Activating mutations in K-Ras oncogene and increased expression of FOXM1 protein are associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Transgenic expression of activated Kras(G12D) in mouse respiratory epithelium is sufficient to induce lung adenocarcinomas; however, transcriptional mechanisms regulated by K-Ras during the initiation of lung cancer remain poorly understood. Foxm1 transcription factor, a downstream target of K-Ras, stimulates cellular proliferation during embryogenesis, organ repair and tumor growth, but its role in tumor initiation is unknown. In the present study, we used transgenic mice expressing Kras(G12D) under control of Sftpc promoter to demonstrate that Foxm1 was induced in type II epithelial cells before the formation of lung tumors. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from Kras(G12D)-expressing respiratory epithelium prevented the initiation of lung tumors in vivo. The loss of Foxm1 inhibited expression of K-Ras target genes critical for the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, including Ikbkb, Nfkb1, Nfkb2, Rela, Jnk1, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a. Transgenic overexpression of activated FOXM1 mutant was sufficient to induce expression of these genes in alveolar type II cells. FOXM1 directly bound to promoter regions of Ikbkb, Nfkb2, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a, indicating that these genes are direct FOXM1 targets. FOXM1 is required for K-Ras-mediated lung tumorigenesis by activating genes critical for the NF-κB and JNK pathways.

Zhang J, Yang Y, Chen L, et al.
Overexpression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Acta Histochem. 2014; 116(3):435-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a newly identified proto-oncogene that has been shown to be aberrantly overexpressed in a subset of human cancers. The aim of the present study was to examine PTTG expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and explore its clinical significance. PTTG protein expression was analyzed in 108 archived, paraffin-embedded primary ESCC specimens by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patients' outcome. Overexpression of PTTG was observed in 38.0% (41/108) of primary ESCC tissues and significantly correlated with differentiation, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and depth of invasion (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that ESCC patients with tumors expressing high levels of PTTG had substantially shorter overall survival compared with patients expressing low levels of PTTG (P=0.022, log-rank test). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PTTG was an independent prognostic factor in overall survival for ESCC patients (hazard ratio was 2.35, P=0.009). Overall, our data suggest that overexpression of PTTG may contribute to the malignant progression of ESCC and serve as a novel prognostic indicator for patients with ESCC.

Qian L, Luo Q, Zhao X, Huang J
Pathways enrichment analysis for differentially expressed genes in squamous lung cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(1):197-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous lung cancer (SQLC) is a common type of lung cancer, but its oncogenesis mechanism is not so clear. The aim of this study was to screen the potential pathways changed in SQLC and elucidate the mechanism of it. Published microarray data of GSE3268 series was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Significance analysis of microarrays was performed using software R, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were harvested. The functions and pathways of DEGs were mapped in Gene Otology and KEGG pathway database, respectively. A total of 2961 genes were filtered as DEGs between normal and SQLC cells. Cell cycle and metabolism were the mainly changed functions of SQLC cells. Meanwhile genes such as MCM, RFC, FEN1, and POLD may induce SQLC through DNA replication pathway, and genes such as PTTG1, CCNB1, CDC6, and PCNA may be involved in SQLC through cell cycle pathway. It is demonstrated that pathway analysis is useful in the identification of target genes in SQLC.

Lu Y, You M, Ghazoui Z, et al.
Concordant effects of aromatase inhibitors on gene expression in ER+ Rat and human mammary cancers and modulation of the proteins coded by these genes.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(11):1151-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aromatase inhibitors are effective in therapy/prevention of estrogen receptor-positive (ER⁺) breast cancers. Rats bearing methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced ER⁺ mammary cancers were treated with the aromatase inhibitor vorozole (1.25 mg/kg BW/day) for five days. RNA expression showed 162 downregulated and 180 upregulated (P < 0.05 and fold change >1.5) genes. Genes modulated by vorozole were compared with published data from four clinical neoadjuvant trials using aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole). More than 30 genes and multiple pathways exhibited synchronous changes in animal and human datasets. Cell-cycle genes related to chromosome condensation in prometaphase [anaphase-prometaphase complex (APC) pathway, including Aurora-A kinase, BUBR1B, TOP2, cyclin A, cyclin B CDC2, and TPX-2)] were downregulated in animal and human studies reflecting the strong antiproliferative effects of aromatase inhibitors. Comparisons of rat arrays with a cell culture study where estrogen was removed from MCF-7 cells showed decreased expression of E2F1-modulated genes as a major altered pathway. Alterations of the cell cycle and E2F-related genes were confirmed in a large independent set of human samples (81 pairs baseline and two weeks anastrozole treatment). Decreases in proliferation-related genes were confirmed at the protein level for cyclin A2, BuRB1, cdc2, Pttg, and TPX-2. Interestingly, the proteins downregulated in tumors were similarly downregulated in vorozole-treated normal rat mammary epithelium. Finally, decreased expression of known estrogen-responsive genes (including TFF, 1,3, progesterone receptor, etc.) were decreased in the animal model. These studies demonstrate that gene expression changes (pathways and individual genes) are similar in humans and the rat model.

Fletcher MN, Castro MA, Wang X, et al.
Master regulators of FGFR2 signalling and breast cancer risk.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2464 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) locus has been consistently identified as a breast cancer risk locus in independent genome-wide association studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGFR2-mediated risk are still unknown. Using model systems we show that FGFR2-regulated genes are preferentially linked to breast cancer risk loci in expression quantitative trait loci analysis, supporting the concept that risk genes cluster in pathways. Using a network derived from 2,000 transcriptional profiles we identify SPDEF, ERα, FOXA1, GATA3 and PTTG1 as master regulators of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signalling, and show that ERα occupancy responds to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signalling. Our results indicate that ERα, FOXA1 and GATA3 contribute to the regulation of breast cancer susceptibility genes, which is consistent with the effects of anti-oestrogen treatment in breast cancer prevention, and suggest that fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signalling has an important role in mediating breast cancer risk.

Colak D, Nofal A, Albakheet A, et al.
Age-specific gene expression signatures for breast tumors and cross-species conserved potential cancer progression markers in young women.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA) associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative genomic and cross-species analysis may provide robust biomarkers for the detection of disease progression in young women, and lead to more effective treatment strategies.

Li H, Yin C, Zhang B, et al.
PTTG1 promotes migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer cells and is modulated by miR-186.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(9):2145-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deeper mechanistic understanding of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a leading cause of total cancer-related deaths, may facilitate the establishment of more effective therapeutic strategies. In this study, pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) expression was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with NSCLC and was correlated with patient survival. Reduction of PTTG1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibits the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells by mediating matrix metalloproteinases expression. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report that PTTG1 promotes epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced the phosphorylation of LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 protein domain kinase and cofilin, a critical step in cofilin recycling and actin polymerization. Additionally, EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed through knockdown of PTTG1. Interestingly, miR-186 can modulate PTTG1 protein expression. As observed from the animal experiment in this study, knockdown of PTTG1 through siRNA and overexpression of miR-186 inhibited invasive activity of NSCLC cells toward the SCID mice lung. In summary, our in vitro and in vivo results indicate that PTTG1 modulated by miR-186 has an important function in NSCLC invasion/metastasis. This study identified both PTTG1 and miR-186 as potential anti-invasion targets for therapeutic intervention in NSCLC.

Valdiglesias V, Fernández-Tajes J, Méndez J, et al.
The marine toxin okadaic acid induces alterations in the expression level of cancer-related genes in human neuronal cells.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013; 92:303-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most common and highly distributed marine toxins. It can be accumulated in several molluscs and other marine organisms and cause acute gastrointestinal symptoms after oral consumption by humans, called diarrheic shellfish poisoning. However other toxic effects beyond these gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported. Thus, OA was found to induce important chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic injuries that can lead to severe pathologies, including cancer. Furthermore, the relationship between OA and carcinogenic processes has been previously demonstrated in in vivo studies with rodents, and also suggested in human epidemiological studies. In this context, further research is required to better understand the underlying mechanisms of OA-related tumourigenesis. In a previous study, we identified 247 genes differentially expressed in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to 100nM OA at different times (3, 24 and 48h) by means of suppression subtractive hybridization. These genes were involved in relevant cell functions such as signal transduction, cell cycle, metabolism, and transcription and translation processes. However, due to the high potential percentage of false positives that may be obtained by this approach, results from SSH are recommended to be analyzed by an independent method. In the present study, we selected ten genes related to cancer initiation or progression, directly or indirectly, for further quantitative PCR analysis (ANAPC13, PTTG1, CALM2, CLU, HN1, MALAT1, MAPRE2, MLLT11, SGA-81M and TAX1BP1). Results obtained showed important alterations in the expression patterns of all the genes evaluated at one or more treatment times, providing, for the first time, a possible explanation at the molecular level of the potential relationship between the consumption of OA-contaminated shellfish and the incidence of different cancers in humans. Nevertheless, given the complexity of this process, more exhaustive studies are required before drawing any final conclusion.

Lin H, Chen QL, Wang XY, et al.
Clinical significance of pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 and transgelin-2 in pancreatic cancer.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013 Jan-Mar; 26(1):147-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is an oncogenic transcription factor that is overexpressed in many malignancies, especially cancers with metastatic potential, while transgelin-2 (TAGLN2) is an actin-binding protein shown to be a tumor suppressor. However, the expression and clinical significance of PTTG1 and TAGLN2 in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significance of PTTG1 and TAGLN2 in human primary pancreatic cancer. Seventy-five cases of human pancreatic cancer tissues were collected. The expression of PTTG1 and TAGLN2 protein was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) through tissue microarray procedure. The clinicopathologic characteristics of all patients were analyzed. As a result, the expression of PTTG1 and TAGLN2 in cancerous tissues showed the positive staining mainly in the cytoplasm, and they were found in cancerous tissues with higher strong reactivity rate compared with the adjacent non-cancer tissues (ANCT) (56.0 percent vs 22.7 percent, P less than 0.001; 100 percent vs 84 percent, P=0.002), elevating with the ascending order of tumor malignancy. Furthermore, the positive expression of PTTG1 was associated with the gender of pancreatic cancer patients, but did not correlate with their age, pathological styles, tumor size, tumor sites, TNM staging, perineural infiltration and distant metastasis (each P greater than 0.05). In addition, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed the positive correlation of PTTG1 with TAGLN2 (r=0.624, P less than 0.001). Taken together, PTTG1 and TAGLN2 are highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer, and the positive expression of PTTG1 is associated with the gender of cancer patients, suggesting that it may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Ishitsuka Y, Kawachi Y, Taguchi S, et al.
Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 as a proliferation marker lacking prognostic value in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Exp Dermatol. 2013; 22(5):318-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequently occurring type of cancer worldwide and is caused by epidermal carcinogenesis and malignant progression that involve dysregulated expression of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The proto-oncogene pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that can promote enhanced proliferation of cultured epidermal keratinocytes. To investigate the potential roles of PTTG1 in epidermal carcinogenesis and malignant progression, the expression of PTTG1 was analysed by immunohistochemistry along with Ki67, keratin 10 (K10) and p53 in tissue samples of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), actinic keratoses (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD). Expression levels of PTTG1 were compared among these disease groups to test for correlations with proliferation, differentiation capacity or the existence of mutated tumor suppressor genes in each disease group. In each disease group, the expression levels of PTTG1 correlated positively with those of Ki67, although the differentiation status, measured by K10 expression, did not show any correlation. In contrast, the existence of mutated p53 proteins showed a positive correlation only in the SCC group. Moreover, the expression levels of PTTG1 in SCC did not correlate with known prognostic factors such as TNM staging or tumor thickness. These results suggest that PTTG1 may represent a proliferation marker associated with mutated p53 proteins but is not an informative predictor of poor clinical outcomes in SCC.

Zhou C, Tong Y, Wawrowsky K, Melmed S
PTTG acts as a STAT3 target gene for colorectal cancer cell growth and motility.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(7):851-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG), the index mammalian securin, is abundantly expressed in several tumors and regulates tumor growth and progression. Molecular mechanisms elucidating PTTG regulation and actions remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that PTTG acts as a signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) target gene. Total STAT3 and Tyr705 phosphorylated STAT3 were concordantly expressed with PTTG in human colorectal tumors (n=97 and n=95, respectively, P<0.001). STAT3 specifically bound the human PTTG promoter and induced PTTG transcriptional activity (twofold) as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. STAT3 transfection increased PTTG mRNA and protein abundance twofold in HCT116 human colon cancer cells, and induction was further enhanced (threefold) by constitutively active STAT3 (STAT3-C), whereas strongly abrogated by dominant-negative STAT3 (STAT3-DN). Attenuating PTTG expression by siRNA in STAT3 HCT116 stable transfectants suppressed cell growth and colony formation in vitro, and PTTG cell knockout also constrained activated STAT3-induced explanted murine tumor growth in vivo. STAT3 increased HCT116 cell migration and invasion up to fivefold, whereas cell mobility was abolished by STAT3-DN (>85%). Impairing PTTG expression by siRNA also strongly suppressed STAT3-faciliated cell migration and invasion by up to 90%. Knocking out PTTG in STAT3-C HCT116 stable transfectants strongly decreased tumor metastases in nude mice, indicating the requirement of PTTG for STAT3-promoted metastasis. These results elucidate a mechanism for tumor cell PTTG regulation, whereby STAT3 induces PTTG expression to facilitate tumor growth and metastasis, and further support the rationale for targeting PTTG to abrogate colorectal cancer growth.

Sánchez-Tejada L, Sánchez-Ortiga R, Moreno-Pérez O, et al.
Pituitary tumor transforming gene and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression and immunohistochemical measurement of Ki-67 as potential prognostic markers of pituitary tumors aggressiveness.
Endocrinol Nutr. 2013 Aug-Sep; 60(7):358-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The ability to predict recurrence of pituitary adenoma (PA) after surgery may be helpful to determine follow-up frequency and the need for adjuvant treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic capacity of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and Ki-67.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the normalized copy number (NCN) of PTIG and IGF1R mRNA was measured using RT-PCR, and the Ki-67 index was measured by immunohistochemistry in 46 PA samples. Clinical data, histological subtype, and radiographic characteristics were collected to assess associations between variables and tumor behavior. Progression of tumor remnants and its association to markers was also studied in 14 patients with no adjuvant treatment after surgery followed up for 46±36 months.
RESULTS: Extrasellar tumors had a lower PTTG expression as compared to sellar tumors (0.065 [1st-3rd quartile: 0.000-0.089] NCN vs. 0.135 [0.105-0.159] NCN, p=0.04). IGF1R expression changed depending on histological subtype (p=0.014), and was greater in tumor with remnant growth greater than 20% during follow-up (10.69±3.84 NCN vs. 5.44±3.55 NCN, p=0.014).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the IGF1R is a more helpful molecular marker than PTTG in PA management. Ki-67 showed no association to tumor behavior. However, the potential of these markers should be established in future studies with standardized methods and on larger samples.

Jia W, Lu R, Jia G, et al.
Expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in human pituitary macroadenomas.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(3):1559-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) and invasiveness in pituitary macroadenomas and to determine the association between PTTG and both the tumor proliferative activity marker proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the angiogenic factor basic fibroblast growth factor. A total of 70 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent transsphenoidal or craniotomy surgical resection were enrolled. The average age were 42.5 ± 13.7 years (17-64 years) for the invasive group and 46.8 ± 12.1 years (16-71 years) for the non-invasive group, with no significant difference (P=0.179) between the two groups. RT-PCR analysis of a group of pituitary macroadenomas demonstrated that the expression levels of PTTG and PCNA in invasive pituitary adenomas were significantly higher than in non-invasive pituitary adenomas. Both factors are both closely related to the invasive growth of pituitary adenomas and may possibly serve as important markers of this growth. In conclusion, PTTG may promote invasive tumor growth by stimulating pituitary adenomas proliferation. The mechanisms of tumor growth promotion and invasion of the surrounding structures by PTTG need to be further explored.

Salehi F, Scheithauer BW, Sharma S, et al.
Immunohistochemical expression of PTTG in brain tumors.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(1):119-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG1) has been implicated in several oncogenic processes. The aim of this study was to determine PTTG expression in brain tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 88 benign and malignant brain tumors. PTTG immunoexpression was evaluated using a scale of 0 to 3. PTTG immunoexpression was nuclear and cytoplasmic in most tumors, except for medulloblastomas and hemangiopericytomas. Expression was highest in medulloblastomas. Higher grade gliomas including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) IV and astrocytoma III had the highest level of PTTG expression, whereas low-grade gliomas had the lowest levels of PTTG expression. Hemangiopericytomas had the lowest levels of PTTG immunoreactivity, with meningiomas and schwannomas exhibiting similarly low PTTG levels. Nuclear PTTG immunoreactivity was higher than cytoplasmic in higher-grade tumors.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that PTTG immunoexpression is higher in aggressive brain tumors including medulloblastomas, GBM IV, and astrocytoma III, whereas in more benign tumors, PTTG immunoexpression is lower.

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