Gene Summary

Gene:OAS3; 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 3
Aliases: p100, p100OAS
Summary:This gene encodes an enzyme included in the 2', 5' oligoadenylate synthase family. This enzyme is induced by interferons and catalyzes the 2', 5' oligomers of adenosine in order to bind and activate RNase L. This enzyme family plays a significant role in the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis and viral infection resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Haplotypes
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Interferons
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genetic Loci
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Telomere
  • Cell Cycle
  • Dose Fractionation, Radiation
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Telomere Homeostasis
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 12
  • Virus Replication
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Disease Progression
  • Up-Regulation
  • Trastuzumab
  • Transcriptome
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Endoribonucleases
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: OAS3 (cancer-related)

Xu J, Hua X, Jin H, et al.
NFκB2 p52 stabilizes rhogdiβ mRNA by inhibiting AUF1 protein degradation via a miR-145/Sp1/USP8-dependent axis.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(5):777-793 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although overexpression of the non-canonical NFκB subunit p52 has been observed in several tumors, the function and mechanism of p52 in bladder cancer (BC) are less well understood. Here, we aimed at understanding the role and mechanism underlying p52 regulation of BC invasion. Human p52 was stably knockdown with shRNA targeting p52 in two bladder cancer cell lines (T24 and UMUC3). Two constitutively expressing constructs, p52 and p100, were stably transfected in to T24 or UMUC3, respectively. The stable transfectants were used to determine function and mechanisms responsible for p52 regulation of BC invasion. We demonstrate that p52 mediates human BC invasion. Knockdown of p52 impaired bladder cancer invasion by reduction of rhogdiβ mRNA stability and expression. Positively regulation of rhogdiβ mRNA stability was mediated by p52 promoting AUF1 protein degradation, consequently resulting in reduction of AUF1 binding to rhogdiβ mRNA. Further studies indicated that AUF1 protein degradation was mediated by upregulating USP8 transcription, which was modulated by its negative regulatory transcription factor Sp1. Moreover, we found that p52 upregulated miR-145, which directly bound to the 3'-UTR of sp1 mRNA, leading to downregulation of Sp1 protein translation. Our results reveal a comprehensive pathway that p52 acts as a positive regulator of BC invasion by initiating a novel miR-145/Sp1/USP8/AUF1/RhoGDIβ axis. These findings provide insight into the understanding of p52 in the pathology of human BC invasion and progression, which may be useful information in the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches for using p52 as a potential target.

Yu C, Xue P, Zhang L, et al.
Prediction of key genes and pathways involved in trastuzumab-resistant gastric cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab has been prevailingly accepted as a beneficial treatment for gastric cancer (GC) by targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive. However, the therapeutic resistance of trastuzumab remains a major obstacle, restricting the therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, identifying potential key genes and pathways is crucial to maximize the overall clinical benefits.
METHODS: The gene expression profile GSE77346 was retrieved to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the trastuzumab resistance in GC. Next, the DEGs were annotated by the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The DEGs-coded protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and the prognostic values of the 20 hub genes were determined. Correlation of the hub genes were analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas. The prognostic values of hub genes were further validated by Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter.
RESULTS: A total of 849 DEGs were identified, with 374 in upregulation and 475 in downregulation. Epithelium development was the most significantly enriched term in biological processes while membrane-bounded vesicle was in cellular compartments and cell adhesion molecular binding was in molecular functions. Pathways in cancer and ECM-receptor interaction were the most significantly enriched for all DEGs. Among the PPI networks, 20 hub genes were defined, including CD44 molecule (CD44), HER-2, and cadherin 1 (CDH1). Six hub genes were associated with favorable OS while eight were associated with poor OS. Mechanistically, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, 3 (OAS1, OAS3) and CDH1 featured high degrees and strong correlations with other hub genes.
CONCLUSIONS: This bioinformatics analysis identified key genes and pathways for potential targets and survival predictors for trastuzumab treatment in GC.

Jiang XF, Ding L, Tian Y, et al.
Interaction of STAT3 and RelB modulates MMP-1 in colon cancer.
Chem Biol Interact. 2018; 293:94-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MMP-1 (Matrix metalloproteinase-1) promotes carcinogenesis and distant metastasis in different cancers. Regulation of MMP-1 could occur at multiple levels: epigenetically, post-transcriptionally, or post-translationally. An increasing body of evidence supports that the cytoplasmic transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is activated constitutively in a variety of cancers wherein it significantly affects the growth of tumors and also facilitates metastasis. In addition, STAT3 has been found to regulate nuclear activity pro-inflammatory transcriptional factor, NF-κB signaling, especially, the alternative one (RelB/p100) by directly interacting with them METHOD AND RESULTS: In this proof of concept study, we tested the hypothesis that STAT3 interacts with RelB to promote tumor invasion by positively regulating MMP-1 in colon cancer. We found that RelB and STAT3 were constitutively localized in the nucleus of colon cancer in surgically-resected specimens with use of Western blot analysis, which was further confirmed by immunofluorescence (IF) staining in colon carcinoma cell line HT29. We further observed that STAT3/RelB knockdown resulted in reduced MMP-1. Our results from chromatin immunoprecipitation studies further established that association between RelB and MMP-1 promoter decreased when STAT3 was depleted, and conversely, STAT3 association with MMP-1 decreased with the knockdown of RelB.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that STAT3 and ReB constitute a minimal activator complex for positive regulation of MMP-1 in colon cancer.

Zhou D, Li Z, Bai X
BRAFV600E and RET/PTC Promote Proliferation and Migration of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cells In Vitro by Regulating Nuclear Factor-κB.
Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23:5321-5329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with mutations of BRAFV600E and RET/PTC and high levels of expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). However, few studies have focused on the association between NF-κB expression and mutations in BRAFV600E and RET/PTC, especially regarding PTC cell proliferation and migration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of BRAFV600E or RET/PTC on NF-κB expression, cell proliferation and cell migration in four established PTC cell lines. MATERIAL AND METHODS Four cell lines included TPC-1 (BRAFWT/WT), BCPAP (BRAFV600E/V600E), PCCL3, and PTC3-5 (RET/PTC), were grown in culture in vitro with or without suppression of NF-κB using pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), and cell proliferation, and cell migration were evaluated. RESULTS Expression of the BRAF gene was increased in the BCPAP cell line when compared with the TPC-1 cells. Expression of the RET gene was increased in the PTC3-5 cell line when compared with the PCCL3 cells. In the BCPAP and PTC3-5 cell lines, the relative expression of NF-κB protein, including phosphorylated p100/52, phosphorylated p65, phosphorylated IKKa/b, phosphorylated IκBα, and p65 nuclear translocation were increased compared with the TPC-1 and PCCL3 cells. Proliferation and migration of BCPAP and PTC3-5 cells were increased compared with the TPC-1 and PCCL3 cells. Suppression of NF-κB reduced NF-κB protein expression and inhibited the proliferation of cells in the TPC-1, BCPAP, PCCL3 and PTC3-5 cell lines, and migration of the BCPAP and PTC3-5 cells. CONCLUSIONS BRAFV600E and RET/PTC and the expression of NF-κB promote the proliferation and migration of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro.

Guo X, Koff JL, Moffitt AB, et al.
Molecular impact of selective NFKB1 and NFKB2 signaling on DLBCL phenotype.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(29):4224-4232 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been categorized into two molecular subtypes that have prognostic significance, namely germinal center B-cell like (GCB) and activated B-cell like (ABC). Although ABC-DLBCL has been associated with NF-κB activation, the relationships between activation of specific NF-κB signals and DLBCL phenotype remain unclear. Application of novel gene expression classifiers identified two new DLBCL categories characterized by selective p100 (NF-κB2) and p105 (NF-κB1) signaling. Interestingly, our molecular studies showed that p105 signaling is predominantly associated with GCB subtype and histone mutations. Conversely, most tumors with p100 signaling displayed ABC phenotype and harbored ABC-associated mutations in genes such as MYD88 and PIM1. In vitro, MYD88 L265P mutation promoted p100 signaling through TAK1/IKKα and GSK3/Fbxw7a pathways, suggesting a novel role for this protein as an upstream regulator of p100. p100 signaling was engaged during activation of normal B cells, suggesting p100's role in ABC phenotype development. Additionally, silencing p100 in ABC-DLBCL cells resulted in a GCB-like phenotype, with suppression of Blimp, IRF4 and XBP1 and upregulation of BCL6, whereas introduction of p52 or p100 into GC cells resulted in differentiation toward an ABC-like phenotype. Together, these findings identify specific roles for p100 and p105 signaling in defining DLBCL molecular subtypes and posit MYD88/p100 signaling as a regulator for B-cell activation.

Yeo SK, French R, Spada F, Clarkson R
Opposing roles of Nfkb2 gene products p100 and p52 in the regulation of breast cancer stem cells.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 162(3):465-477 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling has been shown to regulate properties of breast cancer stem cells. However, the specific contribution of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, components of which are elevated in aggressive breast cancer has not been addressed.
METHODS: Through shRNA silencing of the Nfkb2 gene, the role of p100/p52 in 4T1 and N202.1A cell lines were assessed by NF-κB reporter, invasion, tumoursphere and orthotopic transplantation assays. The processing of p100 into p52 was also inhibited with a p97 ATPase inhibitor, NMS-873, and its effects on tumoursphere formation was assessed.
RESULTS: Knockdown of Nfkb2 led to opposing changes in NF-κB-dependent transcription. NF-κB activity was elevated in 4T1 cells and this resulted in increased motility, cancer stem cell (CSC) activity and tumourigenicity in vivo. Conversely, depletion of Nfkb2 in N202.1a cells decreased NF-κB activity, CSC properties and tumourigenicity in vivo. By selectively overexpressing the p52 subunit in Nfkb2 depleted cells, we found that the increased malignancy in 4T1 cells could not be reverted in the presence of p52, whereas the decreased tumourigenicity of N202.1a cells could be rescued by p52. These results indicate that p100 and its subunit p52 have opposing effects on breast CSC activity. Accordingly, inhibition of an upstream regulator of p100 processing was effective in reducing tumoursphere formation of N202.1A and SKBR3 (ErbB2
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that inhibiting the processing of p100 may be a potential therapeutic strategy to suppress CSC activity in a subset of breast tumours.

Gutierrez-Beltran E, Denisenko TV, Zhivotovsky B, Bozhkov PV
Tudor staphylococcal nuclease: biochemistry and functions.
Cell Death Differ. 2016; 23(11):1739-1748 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (TSN, also known as Tudor-SN, SND1 or p100) is an evolutionarily conserved protein with invariant domain composition, represented by tandem repeat of staphylococcal nuclease domains and a tudor domain. Conservation along significant evolutionary distance, from protozoa to plants and animals, suggests important physiological functions for TSN. It is known that TSN is critically involved in virtually all pathways of gene expression, ranging from transcription to RNA silencing. Owing to its high protein-protein binding affinity coexistent with enzymatic activity, TSN can exert its biochemical function by acting as both a scaffolding molecule of large multiprotein complexes and/or as a nuclease. TSN is indispensible for normal development and stress resistance, whereas its increased expression is closely associated with various types of cancer. Thus, TSN is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy and a potent tumor marker. Considering ever increasing interest to further understand a multitude of TSN-mediated processes and a mechanistic role of TSN in these processes, here we took an attempt to summarize and update the available information about this intriguing multifunctional protein.

Dewert N, Amschler K, Lorenz V, Schön MP
The IKKα-dependent non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation is constitutively active and modulates progression-related functions in a subset of human melanomas.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2016; 308(10):733-742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Owing to activation of several resistance-mediating pathways including NF-κB signaling, metastasized melanoma is almost universally resistant against chemotherapy. Given that blocking of NF-κB either by proteasome-, pan-IKK- or selective IKKβ-inhibitors may increase the susceptibility of melanoma cells to chemotherapy, we have assessed the role of the second kinase within the IKK complex, IKKα. While expression of IKKα and overall activation of NF-κB were heterogeneous, the IKKα-specific p100/p52 processing was detected in a small subset of melanomas (1/9 primary and 1/12 metastatic melanomas) as well as in 1/8 melanoma cell lines. Down-modulation of IKKα by siRNA resulted in diminution of doxorubicin-induced NF-κB activation, constitutive and TNFα-stimulated expression of CXCL8 and ICAM-1, and cell migration. In contrast, overexpression of IKKα in melanoma cells did not significantly affect progression-related functions. Thus, IKKα may be a worthwhile target only in selected individualized therapies but not in general melanoma therapy.

Roy P, Mukherjee T, Chatterjee B, et al.
Non-canonical NFκB mutations reinforce pro-survival TNF response in multiple myeloma through an autoregulatory RelB:p50 NFκB pathway.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(10):1417-1429 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Environmental drug resistance constitutes a serious impediment for therapeutic intervention in multiple myeloma. Tumor-promoting cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), induce nuclear factor-κB (NFκB)- driven expression of pro-survival factors, which confer resistance in myeloma cells to apoptotic insults from TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and other chemotherapeutic drugs. It is thought that RelA:p50 dimer, activated from IκBα-inhibited complex in response to TNF-induced canonical NFκB signal, mediates the pro-survival NFκB function in cancerous cells. Myeloma cells additionally acquire gain-of-function mutations in the non-canonical NFκB module, which induces partial proteolysis of p100 into p52 to promote RelB:p52/NFκB activation from p100-inhibited complex during immune cell differentiation. However, role of non-canonical NFκB signaling in the drug resistance in multiple myeloma remains unclear. Here we report that myeloma-associated non-canonical aberrations reinforce pro-survival TNF signaling in producing a protracted TRAIL-refractory state. These mutations did not act through a typical p52 NFκB complex, but completely degraded p100 to reposition RelB under IκBα control, whose degradation during TNF signaling induced an early RelB:p50 containing NFκB activity. More so, autoregulatory RelB synthesis prolonged this TNF-induced RelB:p50 activity in myeloma cells harboring non-canonical mutations. Intriguingly, TNF-activated RelB:p50 dimer was both necessary and sufficient, and RelA was not required, for NFκB-dependent pro-survival gene expressions and suppression of apoptosis. Indeed, high RelB mRNA expressions in myeloma patients correlated with the augmented level of pro-survival factors and resistance to therapeutic intervention. In sum, we provide evidence that cancer-associated mutations perpetuate TNF-induced pro-survival NFκB activity through autoregulatory RelB control and thereby exacerbate environmental drug resistance in multiple myeloma.

Xu J, Wang Y, Hua X, et al.
Inhibition of PHLPP2/cyclin D1 protein translation contributes to the tumor suppressive effect of NFκB2 (p100).
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(23):34112-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the precursor protein of NFκB2 (p100) is thought to act as a tumor suppressor in mammalian cells, the molecular mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is far from clear. Here, we are, for the first time, to report that p100 protein expression was dramatically decreased in bladder cancers of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-treated mice and human patients. Knockdown of p100 in cultured human bladder cancer cells promoted anchorage-independent growth accompanied with elevating abundance of cell-cycle-related proteins and accelerated cell-cycle progression. Above effects could be completely reversed by ectopically expression of p100, but not p52. Mechanistically, p100 inhibited Cyclin D1 protein translation by activating the transcription of LARP7 and its hosted miR-302d, which could directly bind to 3'-UTR of cyclin d1 mRNA and inhibited its protein translation. Furthermore, p100 suppressed the expression of PHLPP2 (PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases 2), thus promoting CREB phosphorylation at Ser133 and subsequently leading to miR-302d transcription. Taken together, our studies not only for the first time establish p100 as a key tumor suppressor of bladder cancer growth, but also identify a novel molecular cascade of PHLPP2/CREB/miR-302d that mediates the tumor suppressive function of p100.

de Oliveira KA, Kaergel E, Heinig M, et al.
A roadmap of constitutive NF-κB activity in Hodgkin lymphoma: Dominant roles of p50 and p52 revealed by genome-wide analyses.
Genome Med. 2016; 8(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NF-κB is widely involved in lymphoid malignancies; however, the functional roles and specific transcriptomes of NF-κB dimers with distinct subunit compositions have been unclear.
METHODS: Using combined ChIP-sequencing and microarray analyses, we determined the cistromes and target gene signatures of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB species in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells.
RESULTS: We found that the various NF-κB subunits are recruited to regions with redundant κB motifs in a large number of genes. Yet canonical and non-canonical NF-κB dimers up- and downregulate gene sets that are both distinct and overlapping, and are associated with diverse biological functions. p50 and p52 are formed through NIK-dependent p105 and p100 precursor processing in HL cells and are the predominant DNA binding subunits. Logistic regression analyses of combinations of the p50, p52, RelA, and RelB subunits in binding regions that have been assigned to genes they regulate reveal a cross-contribution of p52 and p50 to canonical and non-canonical transcriptomes. These analyses also indicate that the subunit occupancy pattern of NF-κB binding regions and their distance from the genes they regulate are determinants of gene activation versus repression. The pathway-specific signatures of activated and repressed genes distinguish HL from other NF-κB-associated lymphoid malignancies and inversely correlate with gene expression patterns in normal germinal center B cells, which are presumed to be the precursors of HL cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide insights that are relevant for lymphomas with constitutive NF-κB activation and generally for the decoding of the mechanisms of differential gene regulation through canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling.

Xu X, Wang X, Fu B, et al.
Differentially expressed genes and microRNAs in bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 and T24 detected by RNA sequencing.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):12678-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder carcinoma is a common malignancy with complicated treatment methods due to its heterogeneity. In this study, we focused on two bladder carcinoma cell lines, 5637 and T24, to compare their differences from the transcriptome level. RNA sequencing was used to generate the transcriptome data of the two cell line and the control cell line SV-HUC-1. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) of cell line 5637 and T24 were screened. Their annotation and analyses were conducted using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to predict their possible functions and pathways involved. Number of DEGs specific in cell line 5637, specific in cell line T24 and in both the cell lines was 880, 1512 and 1412, respectively. Number of differentially expressed miRNAs of the three categories was 7, 20 and 18, respectively. These DEGs and miRNAs participated in different biological processes and pathways, among which some were further verified by qRT-PCR. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including STAT1, TMEM173 and OAS3, were down-regulated in cell line 5637 compared to SV-HUC-1. NDOR1 and NDUFV1, genes related to mitochondrial metabolism, were up-regulated in cell line T24. miR-4257, miR-6733 and gene WNT9A and WNT10A were down-regulated in both the cell lines. Thus cell line 5637 might have lower chemotherapy resistance while T24 might exhibit abnormal mitochondrial metabolism. These results uncovered major differences between cell line 5637 and T24, which indicated the two cell lines, should be selectively used in bladder carcinoma research.

Gautrey H, Jackson C, Dittrich AL, et al.
SRSF3 and hnRNP H1 regulate a splicing hotspot of HER2 in breast cancer cells.
RNA Biol. 2015; 12(10):1139-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of the oncogene HER2 occurs in 20-30% of invasive breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. A number of different splice variants of HER2 have been identified which produce functionally different proteins. Previously these splice variants have been investigated separately, but in the present study we collectively look at the expression and regulation of a group of HER2 splice variants produced by a splicing hotspot. Initial investigation in a cohort of tumor samples showed large variations in HER2 variant expression between patient samples. RNA interference studies identified 2 splicing factors involved in the regulation of splicing within this region, hnRNP H1 and SRSF3. siRNA targeting hnRNP H1 increases levels of X5 and the oncogenic variant Δ16HER2. Furthermore RNA chromatography assays demonstrated binding of hnRNP H1 to RNA in this region. Additionally the proto-oncogene SRSF3 was also identified as an important regulator of splicing with SRSF3 knockdown resulting in changes in all the splice variants located at the hotspot. Most notably knockdown of SRSF3 resulted in a switch from the oncogenic Δ16HER2 to p100 which inhibits cell proliferation. Binding of SRSF3 to RNA within this region was also demonstrated by RNA chromatography and more specifically 2 SRSF3 binding sites were identified within exon 15. SRSF3 and hnRNP H1 are the first splicing factors identified which regulate the production of these functionally distinct HER2 splice variants and therefore maybe important for the regulation of HER2 signaling.

Sharma R, Williams PJ, Gupta A, et al.
A dominant-negative F-box deleted mutant of E3 ubiquitin ligase, β-TrCP1/FWD1, markedly reduces myeloma cell growth and survival in mice.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(25):21589-602 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib can result in severe adverse effects, necessitating the development of targeted inhibitors of the proteasome. We show that stable expression of a dominant-negative F-box deleted (∆F) mutant of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, SCFβ-TrCP/FWD1, in murine 5TGM1 myeloma cells dramatically attenuated their skeletal engraftment and survival when inoculated into immunocompetent C57BL/KaLwRij mice. Similar results were obtained in immunodeficient bg-nu-xid mice, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of host recipient immune status. Bone marrow stroma offered no protection for 5TGM1-∆F cells in cocultures treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), indicating a cell-autonomous anti-myeloma effect. Levels of p100, IκBα, Mcl-1, ATF4, total and cleaved caspase-3, and phospho-β-catenin were elevated in 5TGM1-∆F cells whereas cIAP was down-regulated. TNF also activated caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, correlating with the enhanced susceptibility of 5TGM1-∆F cells to apoptosis. Treatment of 5TGM1 tumor-bearing mice with a β-TrCP1/FWD1 inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), significantly reduced tumor burden in bone. PDTC also increased levels of cleaved Mcl-1 and caspase-3 in U266 human myeloma cells, correlating with our murine data and validating the development of specific β-TrCP inhibitors as an alternative therapy to nonspecific proteasome inhibitors for myeloma patients.

Hirashima K, Seimiya H
Telomeric repeat-containing RNA/G-quadruplex-forming sequences cause genome-wide alteration of gene expression in human cancer cells in vivo.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(4):2022-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomere erosion causes cell mortality, suggesting that longer telomeres enable more cell divisions. In telomerase-positive human cancer cells, however, telomeres are often kept shorter than those of surrounding normal tissues. Recently, we showed that cancer cell telomere elongation represses innate immune genes and promotes their differentiation in vivo. This implies that short telomeres contribute to cancer malignancy, but it is unclear how such genetic repression is caused by elongated telomeres. Here, we report that telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) induces a genome-wide alteration of gene expression in telomere-elongated cancer cells. Using three different cell lines, we found that telomere elongation up-regulates TERRA signal and down-regulates innate immune genes such as STAT1, ISG15 and OAS3 in vivo. Ectopic TERRA oligonucleotides repressed these genes even in cells with short telomeres under three-dimensional culture conditions. This appeared to occur from the action of G-quadruplexes (G4) in TERRA, because control oligonucleotides had no effect and a nontelomeric G4-forming oligonucleotide phenocopied the TERRA oligonucleotide. Telomere elongation and G4-forming oligonucleotides showed similar gene expression signatures. Most of the commonly suppressed genes were involved in the innate immune system and were up-regulated in various cancers. We propose that TERRA G4 counteracts cancer malignancy by suppressing innate immune genes.

Iannetti A, Ledoux AC, Tudhope SJ, et al.
Regulation of p53 and Rb links the alternative NF-κB pathway to EZH2 expression and cell senescence.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(9):e1004642 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There are two major pathways leading to induction of NF-κB subunits. The classical (or canonical) pathway typically leads to the induction of RelA or c-Rel containing complexes, and involves the degradation of IκBα in a manner dependent on IκB kinase (IKK) β and the IKK regulatory subunit NEMO. The alternative (or non-canonical) pathway, involves the inducible processing of p100 to p52, leading to the induction of NF-κB2(p52)/RelB containing complexes, and is dependent on IKKα and NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK). Here we demonstrate that in primary human fibroblasts, the alternative NF-κB pathway subunits NF-κB2 and RelB have multiple, but distinct, effects on the expression of key regulators of the cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein stability. Specifically, following siRNA knockdown, quantitative PCR, western blot analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) show that NF-κB2 regulates the expression of CDK4 and CDK6, while RelB, through the regulation of genes such as PSMA5 and ANAPC1, regulates the stability of p21WAF1 and the tumour suppressor p53. These combine to regulate the activity of the retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leading to induction of polycomb protein EZH2 expression. Moreover, our ChIP analysis demonstrates that EZH2 is also a direct NF-κB target gene. Microarray analysis revealed that in fibroblasts, EZH2 antagonizes a subset of p53 target genes previously associated with the senescent cell phenotype, including DEK and RacGAP1. We show that this pathway provides the major route of crosstalk between the alternative NF-κB pathway and p53, a consequence of which is to suppress cell senescence. Importantly, we find that activation of NF-κB also induces EZH2 expression in CD40L stimulated cells from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients. We therefore propose that this pathway provides a mechanism through which microenvironment induced NF-κB can inhibit tumor suppressor function and promote tumorigenesis.

Yu J, Wang Y, Yan F, et al.
Noncanonical NF-κB activation mediates STAT3-stimulated IDO upregulation in myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer.
J Immunol. 2014; 193(5):2574-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapy for cancer treatment is achieved through the activation of competent immune effector cells and the inhibition of immunosuppressive cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Although MDSCs have been shown to contribute to breast cancer development, the mechanism underlying MDSC-mediated immunosuppression is unclear. We have identified a poorly differentiated MDSC subset in breast cancer-suppressing T cell function through STAT3-dependent IDO upregulation. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying aberrant expression of IDO in MDSCs. MDSCs were induced by coculturing human CD33(+) myeloid progenitors with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Increased STAT3 activation in MDSCs was correlated with activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, including increased NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protein level, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB kinase α and p100, and RelB-p52 nuclear translocation. Blocking STAT3 activation with the small molecule inhibitor JSI-124 significantly inhibited the accumulation of NIK and IDO expression in MDSCs. Knockdown of NIK in MDSCs suppressed IDO expression but not STAT3 activation. RelB-p52 dimers were found to directly bind to the IDO promoter, leading to IDO expression in MDSCs. IL-6 was found to stimulate STAT3-dependent, NF-κB-mediated IDO upregulation in MDSCs. Furthermore, significant positive correlation between the numbers of pSTAT3(+) MDSCs, IDO(+) MDSCs, and NIK(+) MDSCs was observed in human breast cancers. These results demonstrate a STAT3/NF-κB/IDO pathway in breast cancer-derived MDSCs, which provides insight into understanding immunosuppressive mechanisms of MDSCs in breast cancer.

Chanut A, Duguet F, Marfak A, et al.
RelA and RelB cross-talk and function in Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):871-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we determined the respective roles of RelA and RelB NF-κB subunits in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells. Using different EBV-immortalized B-cell models, we showed that only RelA activation increased both survival and cell growth. RelB activity was induced secondarily to RelA activation and repressed RelA DNA binding by trapping the p50 subunit. Reciprocally, RelA activation repressed RelB activity by increasing expression of its inhibitor p100. To search for such reciprocal inhibition at the transcriptional level, we studied gene expression profiles of our RelA and RelB regulatable cellular models. Ten RelA-induced genes and one RelB-regulated gene, ARNTL2, were repressed by RelB and RelA, respectively. Apart from this gene, RelB signature was included in that of RelA Functional groups of RelA-regulated genes were for control of energy metabolism, genetic instability, protection against apoptosis, cell cycle and immune response. Additional functions coregulated by RelA and/or RelB were autophagy and plasma cell differentiation. Altogether, these results demonstrate a cross-inhibition between RelA and RelB and suggest that, in fine, RelB was subordinated to RelA. In the view of future drug development, RelA appeared to be pivotal in both classical and alternative activation pathways, at least in EBV-transformed B cells.

Choudhary S, Kalita M, Fang L, et al.
Inducible tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor-1 expression couples the canonical to the non-canonical NF-κB pathway in TNF stimulation.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(20):14612-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The NF-κB transcription factor mediates the inflammatory response through distinct (canonical and non-canonical) signaling pathways. The mechanisms controlling utilization of either of these pathways are largely unknown. Here we observe that TNF stimulation induces delayed NF-κB2/p100 processing and investigate the coupling mechanism. TNF stimulation induces TNF-associated factor-1 (TRAF-1) that directly binds NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) and stabilizes it from degradation by disrupting its interaction with TRAF2·cIAP2 ubiquitin ligase complex. We show that TRAF1 depletion prevents TNF-induced NIK stabilization and reduces p52 production. To further examine the interactions of TRAF1 and NIK with NF-κB2/p100 processing, we mathematically modeled TRAF1·NIK as a coupling signaling complex and validated computational inference by siRNA knockdown to show non-canonical pathway activation is dependent not only on TRAF1 induction but also NIK stabilization by forming TRAF1·NIK complex. Thus, these integrated computational-experimental studies of TNF-induced TRAF1 expression identified TRAF1·NIK as a central complex linking canonical and non-canonical pathways by disrupting the TRAF2-cIAP2 ubiquitin ligase complex. This feed-forward kinase pathway is essential for the activation of non-canonical pathway.

Tchoghandjian A, Jennewein C, Eckhardt I, et al.
Identification of non-canonical NF-κB signaling as a critical mediator of Smac mimetic-stimulated migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e564 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins can regulate additional signaling pathways beyond apoptosis, we investigated the effect of the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic BV6, which antagonizes IAP proteins, on non-apoptotic functions in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we identify non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)/TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) autocrine/paracrine loop as critical mediators of BV6-stimulated migration and invasion of GBM cells. In addition to GBM cell lines, BV6 triggers cell elongation, migration and invasion in primary, patient-derived GBM cells at non-toxic concentrations, which do not affect cell viability or proliferation, and also increases infiltrative tumor growth in vivo underscoring the relevance of these findings. Molecular studies reveal that BV6 causes rapid degradation of cellular IAP proteins, accumulation of NIK, processing of p100 to p52, translocation of p52 into the nucleus, increased NF-κB DNA binding and enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay supershift shows that the NF-κB DNA-binding subunits consist of p50, p52 and RelB further confirming the activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. BV6-stimulated NF-κB activation leads to elevated mRNA levels of TNFα and additional NF-κB target genes involved in migration (i.e., interleukin 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, CXC chemokine receptor 4) and invasion (i.e., matrix metalloproteinase-9). Importantly, inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor prevents the BV6-stimulated cell elongation, migration and invasion. Similarly, specific inhibition of non-canonical NF-κB signaling by RNA interference-mediated silencing of NIK suppresses the BV6-induced cell elongation, migration and invasion as well as upregulation of NF-κB target genes. Intriguingly, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the BV6-stimulated TNFα autocrine/paracrine loop by the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel or by knockdown of TNFR1 abrogates BV6-induced cell elongation, migration and invasion. By demonstrating that the Smac mimetic BV6 at non-toxic concentrations promotes migration and invasion of GBM cells via non-canonical NF-κB signaling, our findings have important implications for the use of Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics.

Rauert-Wunderlich H, Siegmund D, Maier E, et al.
The IKK inhibitor Bay 11-7082 induces cell death independent from inhibition of activation of NFκB transcription factors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e59292 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) displays an NFκB activity-related gene expression signature and about 20% of primary MM samples harbor genetic alterations conducive to intrinsic NFκB signaling activation. The relevance of blocking the classical versus the alternative NFκB signaling pathway and the molecular execution mechanisms involved, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we comparatively tested NFκB activity abrogation through TPCA-1 (an IKK2 inhibitor), BAY 11-7082 (an IKK inhibitor poorly selective for IKK1 and IKK2), and MLN4924 (an NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE)-inhibitor), and analyzed their anti-MM activity. Whereas TPCA-1 interfered selectively with activation of the classical NFκB pathway, the other two compounds inhibited classical and alternative NFκB signaling without significant discrimination. Noteworthy, whereas TPCA-1 and MLN4924 elicited rather mild anti-MM effects with slight to moderate cell death induction after 1 day BAY 11-7082 was uniformly highly toxic to MM cell lines and primary MM cells. Treatment with BAY 11-7082 induced rapid cell swelling and its initial effects were blocked by necrostatin-1 or the ROS scavenger BHA, but a lasting protective effect was not achieved even with additional blockade of caspases. Because MLN4924 inhibits the alternative NFκB pathway downstream of IKK1 at the level of p100 processing, the quite discordant effects between MLN4924 and BAY 11-7082 must thus be due to blockade of IKK1-mediated NFκB-independent necrosis-inhibitory functions or represent an off-target effect of BAY 11-7082. In accordance with the latter, we further observed that concomitant knockdown of IKK1 and IKK2 did not have any major short-term adverse effect on the viability of MM cells.

Buchan SL, Al-Shamkhani A
Distinct motifs in the intracellular domain of human CD30 differentially activate canonical and alternative transcription factor NF-κB signaling.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e45244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The TNF-receptor superfamily member CD30 is expressed on normal and malignant lymphocytes, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells. CD30 transmits multiple effects, including activation of NF-κB signaling, cell proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. How CD30 generates these pleiotropic effects is currently unknown. Herein we describe ALCL cells expressing truncated forms of the CD30 intracellular domain that allowed us to identify the key regions responsible for transmitting its biological effects in lymphocytes. The first region (CD30(519-537)) activated both the alternative and canonical NF-κB pathways as detected by p100 and IκBα degradation, IKKβ-dependent transcription of both IκBα and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) and induction of cell cycle arrest. In contrast, the second region of CD30 (CD30(538-595)) induced some aspects of canonical NF-κB activation, including transcription of IκBα, but failed to activate the alternative NF-κB pathway or drive p21(WAF1/CIP1)-mediated cell-cycle arrest. Direct comparison of canonical NF-κB activation by the two motifs revealed 4-fold greater p65 nuclear translocation following CD30(519-537) engagement. These data reveal that independent regions of the CD30 cytoplasmic tail regulate the magnitude and type of NF-κB activation and additionally identify a short motif necessary for CD30-driven growth arrest signals in ALCL cells.

Jacque E, Billot K, Authier H, et al.
RelB inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth through p53 transcriptional activation.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(21):2661-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The alternative nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) -activation pathway proceeds via inducible p100 processing, leading to the activation of RelB-containing dimers. This pathway is aberrantly activated in several types of tumors; however, a direct role for RelB in the control of cell proliferation is still largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that RelB provides cell proliferation-inhibitory signals in murine fibroblasts. In agreement with these results, RelB ectopic expression inhibits xenograft tumor growth in vivo, whereas RelB knockdown enhances it. Significantly, we show that RelB inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in a p53-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies indicate that RelB regulates the transcription of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene through direct recruitment to the p53 promoter, thus increasing both p53 protein levels and expression of p53 target genes such as p21. Our findings define a novel link between NF-κB and growth-inhibitory pathways involving the RelB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of p53. Furthermore, they suggest that inhibition of RelB in some tumor types that retain wild-type p53 may diminish rather than improve therapeutic responses.

Pérez-Chacón G, Llobet D, Pardo C, et al.
TNFR-associated factor 2 deficiency in B lymphocytes predisposes to chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma in mice.
J Immunol. 2012; 189(2):1053-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously shown that transgenic (tg) mice expressing in B lymphocytes both BCL-2 and a TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) mutant lacking the really interesting new gene and zinc finger domains (TRAF2DN) develop small lymphocytic lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia with high incidence (Zapata et al. 2004. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 16600-16605). Further analysis of the expression of TRAF2 and TRAF2DN in purified B cells demonstrated that expression of both endogenous TRAF2 and tg TRAF2DN was negligible in Traf2DN-tg B cells compared with wild-type mice. This was the result of proteasome-dependent degradation, and rendered TRAF2DN B cells as bona fide TRAF2-deficient B cells. Similar to B cells with targeted Traf2 deletion, Traf2DN-tg mice show expanded marginal zone B cell population and have constitutive p100 NF-κB2 processing. Also, TRAF3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, and Bcl-X(L) expression levels were increased, whereas cellular inhibitors of apoptosis 1 and 2 levels were drastically reduced compared with those found in wild-type B cells. Moreover, consistent with previous results, we also show that TRAF2 was required for efficient JNK and ERK activation in response to CD40 engagement. However, TRAF2 was deleterious for BCR-mediated activation of these kinases. In contrast, TRAF2 deficiency had no effect on CD40-mediated p38 MAPK activation but significantly reduced BCR-mediated p38 activation. Finally, we further confirm that TRAF2 was required for CD40-mediated proliferation, but its absence relieved B cells of the need for B cell activating factor for survival. Altogether, our results suggest that TRAF2 deficiency cooperates with BCL-2 in promoting chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma in mice, possibly by specifically enforcing marginal zone B cell accumulation, increasing X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis expression, and rendering B cells independent of B cell activating factor for survival.

Macaire H, Riquet A, Moncollin V, et al.
Tax protein-induced expression of antiapoptotic Bfl-1 protein contributes to survival of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T-cells.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(25):21357-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). ATLL is a severe malignancy with no effective treatment. HTLV-1 regulatory proteins Tax and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) play a major role in ATLL development, by interfering with cellular functions such as CD4(+) T-cell survival. In this study, we observed that the expression of Bfl-1, an antiapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, is restricted to HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and to T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ proteins. We showed that Tax-induced bfl-1 transcription through the canonical NF-κB pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that Tax cooperated with c-Jun or JunD, but not JunB, transcription factors of the AP-1 family to stimulate bfl-1 gene activation. By contrast, HBZ inhibited c-Jun-induced bfl-1 gene activation, whereas it increased JunD-induced bfl-1 gene activation. We identified one NF-κB, targeted by RelA, c-Rel, RelB, p105/p50, and p100/p52, and two AP-1, targeted by both c-Jun and JunD, binding sites in the bfl-1 promoter of T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ. Analyzing the potential role of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival, we demonstrated that these cells are differentially sensitive to silencing of Bfl-1, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-2. Indeed, both Bfl-1 and Bcl-x(L) knockdowns decreased the survival of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, although no cell death was observed after Bcl-2 knockdown. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Bfl-1 knockdown sensitizes HTLV-1-infected T-cells to ABT-737 or etoposide treatment. Our results directly implicate Bfl-1 and Bcl-x(L) in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival and suggest that both Bfl-1 and Bcl-x(L) represent potential therapeutic targets for ATLL treatment.

Schwarzer R, Dörken B, Jundt F
Notch is an essential upstream regulator of NF-κB and is relevant for survival of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(4):806-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
A major pathogenetic mechanism in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is constitutive activation of canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p50/p65 signaling, controlling lymphoma cell proliferation and survival. Recently, we demonstrated that aberrant Notch1 activity is a negative regulator of the B cell program in B cell-derived Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. Despite abundant evidence for a complex context-dependent cross talk between Notch and NF-κB signaling in hematopoietic cells, it is unknown whether these pathways interact in HRS cells. Here, we show that Notch-signaling inhibition in HRS cells by the γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) XII results in decreased alternative p52/RelB NF-κB signaling, interfering with processing of the NF-κB2 gene product p100 into its active form p52. As a result, expression of Notch and NF-κB target genes is reduced, and survival of HRS cells is impaired. Stimulation of alternative NF-κB signaling in the Hodgkin cell line L540cy by activation of the CD30 receptor rescued GSI-mediated loss of cell viability and apoptosis induction. Our data reveal that Notch is an essential upstream regulator of alternative NF-κB signaling and indicate cross talk between both the pathways in HRS cells. Therefore, we suggest that targeting the Notch pathway is a promising therapeutic option in cHL.

Perrot-Applanat M, Vacher S, Toullec A, et al.
Similar NF-κB gene signatures in TNF-α treated human endothelial cells and breast tumor biopsies.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21589 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse pathologies ranging from vascular and immune diseases to cancer. TNF-α is one of the mediators of endothelial dysfunction through the activation of transcription factors, including NF-κB. While HUVEC (macrovascular cells) have been largely used in the past, here, we documented an NF-κB gene signature in TNFα-stimulated microvascular endothelial cells HMEC often used in tumor angiogenesis studies.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured mRNA expression of 55 NF-κB related genes using quantitative RT-PCR in HUVEC and HMEC. Our study identified twenty genes markedly up-regulated in response to TNFα, including adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines, and apoptosis regulators, some of them being identified as TNF-α-inducible genes for the first time in endothelial cells (two apoptosis regulators, TNFAIP3 and TNFRSF10B/Trail R2 (DR5), the chemokines GM-CSF/CSF2 and MCF/CSF1, and CD40 and TNF-α itself, as well as NF-κB components (RELB, NFKB1 or 50/p105 and NFKB2 or p52/p100). For eight genes, the fold induction was much higher in HMEC, as compared to HUVEC. Most importantly, our study described for the first time a connection between NF-κB activation and the induction of most, if not all, of these genes in HMEC as evaluated by pharmacological inhibition and RelA expression knock-down by RNA interference. Moreover, since TNF-α is highly expressed in tumors, we further applied the NF-κB gene signature documented in TNFα-stimulated endothelial cells to human breast tumors. We found a significant positive correlation between TNF and the majority (85 %) of the identified endothelial TNF-induced genes in a well-defined series of 96 (48 ERα positive and 48 ERα negative) breast tumors.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together these data suggest the potential use of this NF-κB gene signature in analyzing the role of TNF-α in the endothelial dysfunction, as well as in breast tumors independently of the presence of ERα.

Pipatpajong H, Phanthumchinda K
Neurofibromatosis type I associated multiple sclerosis.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2011; 94(4):505-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis (NF) type I is a common autosomal dominant disease that principally affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type I associated multiple sclerosis is a very rare condition. A 28-year old NF1 man developed progressive spastic-ataxic gait, left side dysmetria, right internuclear ophthalmoplegia, spastic dysarthria. MRI of the brain depicted Dawson finger appearance demyelination of the corpus callosum and other multifoci demyelinating lesions typical for MS. CSF revealed high CSF protein with negative oligoclonal band. Visual evoked potential showed prolonged P100 latency, abnormal waveform and temporal dispersion bilaterally. The syndrome partially responded and stabilized with corticosteroid. Six months later progression of the syndrome characterized by paraparesis, bilateral cerebellar hemispheric syndrome and bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia occurred. Repeated MRI revealed more extensive white matter lesions extended into centrum semiovale. The progressive syndrome did not respond to corticosteroid. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis was diagnosed. Only thirteen cases with NF1 and multiple sclerosis have been described in the literature. The association has been hypothesized to be related to mutations in the neurofibromin protein or oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) gene.

Damm S, Koefinger P, Stefan M, et al.
HGF-promoted motility in primary human melanocytes depends on CD44v6 regulated via NF-kappa B, Egr-1, and C/EBP-beta.
J Invest Dermatol. 2010; 130(7):1893-903 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The regulation of CD44v6, a variant of the CD44 family of glycosylated adhesion molecules, through hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has implications for motility in primary human melanocytes. We show that exposure of primary human melanocytes to HGF results in an increase of CD44v6 expression. Immunostaining of melanocytic lesions revealed low cytoplasmic positivity of CD44v6 in some nevi but high membranous expression in primary cutaneous melanomas, and cutaneous and lymph node metastases. HGF-dependent CD44v6 regulation in melanocytes is NF-kappaB dependent because BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation, but not interference with the mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade, antagonized HGF-induced CD44v6 expression. NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional regulation of CD44v6 involves the transcription factors Egr-1 and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP-beta). In gel shift assays, the initial binding of p100/p52 NF-kappaB, C/EBP-beta, and Egr-1 to the CD44 promoter experienced reshuffling toward increased affinity of C/EBP-beta after HGF stimulation. A blocking antibody to CD44v6 decreased HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation as well as enhanced random- and site-directed migration. Our data show that HGF-induced motility in primary human melanocytes depends on c-Met-CD44v6 interaction, and that HGF-enhanced CD44v6 expression is required for motility and transcriptional upregulation of CD44v6, presumably mediated through a complex comprising NF-kappaB/C/EBP-beta and Egr-1.

Fritz RD, Radziwill G
CNK1 promotes invasion of cancer cells through NF-kappaB-dependent signaling.
Mol Cancer Res. 2010; 8(3):395-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hallmarks of cancer cells are uncontrolled proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell invasion, and metastasis, which are driven by oncogenic activation of signaling pathways. Herein, we identify the scaffold protein CNK1 as a mediator of oncogenic signaling that promotes invasion in human breast cancer and cervical cancer cells. Downregulation of CNK1 diminishes the invasiveness of cancer cells and correlates with reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP). Ectopic expression of CNK1 elevates MT1-MMP promoter activity in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner. Moreover, CNK1 cooperates with the NF-kappaB pathway, but not with the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, to promote cell invasion. Mechanistically, CNK1 regulates the alternative branch of the NF-kappaB pathway because knockdown of CNK1 interferes with processing of NF-kappaB2 p100 to p52 and its localization to the nucleus. In agreement with this, the invasion of CNK1-depleted cells is less sensitive to RelB downregulation compared with the invasion of control cells. Moreover, CNK1-dependent MT1-MMP promoter activation is blocked by RelB siRNA. Thus, CNK1 is an essential mediator of an oncogenic pathway involved in invasion of breast and cervical cancer cells and is therefore a putative target for cancer therapy.

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