Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF1A; TNF receptor superfamily member 1A
Aliases: FPF, p55, p60, TBP1, TNF-R, TNFAR, TNFR1, p55-R, CD120a, TNFR55, TNFR60, TNF-R-I, TNF-R55
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the TNF receptor superfamily of proteins. The encoded receptor is found in membrane-bound and soluble forms that interact with membrane-bound and soluble forms, respectively, of its ligand, tumor necrosis factor alpha. Binding of membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor alpha to the membrane-bound receptor induces receptor trimerization and activation, which plays a role in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. Proteolytic processing of the encoded receptor results in release of the soluble form of the receptor, which can interact with free tumor necrosis factor alpha to inhibit inflammation. Mutations in this gene underlie tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), characterized by fever, abdominal pain and other features. Mutations in this gene may also be associated with multiple sclerosis in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF1A (cancer-related)

Doğan Şiğva ZÖ, Balci Okcanoğlu T, Biray Avci Ç, et al.
Investigation of the synergistic effects of paclitaxel and herbal substances and endemic plant extracts on cell cycle and apoptosis signal pathways in prostate cancer cell lines.
Gene. 2019; 687:261-271 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paclitaxel, which isolated from Taxus brevifolia, is recently started to be used against prostate cancer treatment and it is a very effective compound against cancer. In this study, we aimed to test the synergistic effect of two plant active compounds (sulphoraphane (SFN) and silymarin (SILY)) and several endemic plant species from Turkey (such as Phlomis leucophracta, Rubia davisiana, Alkanna tinctoria), which are known to have anticarcinogenic effect on androgen-independent PC3 and DU145, and androgen-dependent VCaP prostate cancer cell lines, with paclitaxel on the expression of cell cycle signaling and apoptosis regulator genes. Herbal substances and endemic herbal extracts were combined with Paclitaxel drug. IC

Torrey H, Khodadoust M, Tran L, et al.
Targeted killing of TNFR2-expressing tumor cells and T
Leukemia. 2019; 33(5):1206-1218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma often refractory to treatment. SS is defined as adenopathy, erythroderma with high numbers of atypical T cells. This offers an opportunity for new interventions and perhaps antibody-based therapeutic by virtue of its high expression of the TNFR2 oncogene on the tumor cells and on T-regulatory cells (T

Wang F, Zheng Z, Guan J, et al.
Identification of a panel of genes as a prognostic biomarker for glioblastoma.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 37:68-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal disease without effective therapy. Identification of new biomarkers for prognosis would enable more rational selections of strategies to cure patients with GBM and prevent disease relapse.
METHODS: Seven datasets derived from GBM patients using microarray or next generation sequencing in R2 online database ( were extracted and then analyzed using JMP software. The survival distribution was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and the significance was determined using log-rank statistics. The sensitivity of a panel of GBM cell lines in response to temozolomide (TMZ), salinomycin, celastrol, and triptolide treatments was evaluated using MTS and tumor-sphere formation assay.
FINDINGS: We identified that CD44, ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 3 (ABCC3), and tumor necrosis factor receptor subfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) as highly expressed genes in GBMs are associated with patients' poor outcomes and therapy resistance. Furthermore, these three markers combined with MGMT, a conventional GBM marker, can classify GBM patients into five new subtypes with different overall survival time in response to treatment. The four-gene signature and the therapy response of GBMs to a panel of therapeutic compounds were confirmed in a panel of GBM cell lines.
INTERPRETATION: The data indicate that the four-gene panel can be used as a therapy response index for GBM patients and potential therapeutic targets. These results provide important new insights into the early diagnosis and the prognosis for GBM patients and introduce potential targets for GBM therapeutics. FUND: Baylor Scott & White Health Startup Fund (E.W.); Collaborative Faculty Research Investment Program (CFRIP) of Baylor University, Baylor Scott & White Health, and Baylor College of Medicine (E.W., T.S., J.H.H.); NIH R01 NS067435 (J.H.H.); Scott & White Plummer Foundation Grant (J.H.H.); National Natural Science Foundation of China 816280007 (J.H.H. and Fu.W.).

Wang M, Zhang C, Tian T, et al.
Increased Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Rely on Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α-TNF Receptor-2 Pathway.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1274 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbors an immune suppression environment, featured by increased regulatory T cells (Tregs). The expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2) on Tregs could be used to identify the maximally suppressive Treg population, and TNF-α furtherly promoted the expansion and function of Tregs

Egusquiaguirre SP, Yeh JE, Walker SR, et al.
The STAT3 Target Gene TNFRSF1A Modulates the NF-κB Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(5):489-498 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor STAT3 is activated inappropriately in 70% of breast cancers, most commonly in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Although the transcriptional function of STAT3 is essential for tumorigenesis, the key target genes regulated by STAT3 in driving tumor pathogenesis have remained unclear. To identify critical STAT3 target genes, we treated TNBC cell lines with two different compounds that block STAT3 transcriptional function, pyrimethamine and PMPTP. We then performed gene expression analysis to identify genes whose expression is strongly down-regulated by both STAT3 inhibitors. Foremost among the down-regulated genes was TNFRSF1A, which encodes a transmembrane receptor for TNFα. We showed that STAT3 binds directly to a regulatory region within the TNFRSF1A gene, and that TNFRSF1A levels are dependent on STAT3 function in both constitutive and cytokine-induced models of STAT3 activation. Furthermore, TNFRSF1A is a major mediator of both basal and TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in breast cancer cells. We extended these findings to primary human breast cancers, in which we found that high TNFRSF1A transcript levels correlated with STAT3 activation. In addition, and consistent with a causal role, increased TNFRSF1A expression was associated with an NF-κB gene expression in signature in breast cancers. Thus, TNFRSF1A is a STAT3 target gene that regulates the NF-κB pathway. These findings reveal a novel functional crosstalk between STAT3 and NF-κB signaling in breast cancer. Furthermore, elevated TNFRSF1A levels may predict a subset of breast tumors that are sensitive to STAT3 transcriptional inhibitors, and may be a biomarker for response to inhibition of this pathway.

Jaudan A, Sharma S, Malek SNA, Dixit A
Induction of apoptosis by pinostrobin in human cervical cancer cells: Possible mechanism of action.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0191523 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pinostrobin (PN) is a naturally occurring dietary bioflavonoid, found in various medicinal herbs/plants. Though anti-cancer potential of many such similar constituents has been demonstrated, critical biochemical targets and exact mechanism for their apoptosis-inducing actions have not been fully elucidated. The present study was aimed to investigate if PN induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells (HeLa) of human origin. It is demonstrated that PN at increasing dose effectivity reduced the cell viability as well as GSH and NO2- levels. Condensed nuclei with fragmented chromatin and changes in mitochondrial matrix morphology clearly indicated the role of mitochondria in PN induced apoptosis. A marked reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased ROS production after PN treatment showed involvement of free radicals, which in turn further augment ROS levels. PN treatment resulted in DNA damage, which could have been triggered by an increase in ROS levels. Decrease in apoptotic cells in the presence of caspase 3 inhibitor in PN-treated cells suggested that PN induced apoptosis via caspase dependent pathways. Additionally, a significant increase in the expression of proteins of extrinsic (TRAIL R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF RI/TNFRSF1A, FADD, Fas/TNFRSF6) and intrinsic pathway (Bad, Bax, HTRA2/Omi, SMAC/Diablo, cytochrome C, Pro-Caspase-3, Cleaved Caspase-3) was observed in the cells exposed to PN. Taken together, these observations suggest that PN efficiently induces apoptosis through ROS mediated extrinsic and intrinsic dependent signaling pathways, as well as ROS mediated mitochondrial damage in HeLa cells.

Lan X, Sun W, Dong W, et al.
Downregulation of long noncoding RNA H19 contributes to the proliferation and migration of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Gene. 2018; 646:98-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have highlighted important roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during the complex process of carcinogenesis. H19 is an example of an lncRNA that can function either as a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor. Here, we investigated the role of H19 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). First, we assessed H19 expression levels in human PTC tissues and PTC cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR. We also established H19-overexpressed PTC cell lines with lentiviral vectors to investigate the effects of H19 on the proliferation and migration of PTC cells. Our results suggest that H19 is downregulated in PTC tissues and in PTC cell lines compared to controls. Decreased H19 expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis. H19 overexpression reduced PTC cell proliferation and migration. It also inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2. These results suggest that H19 inhibits tumorigenesis in PTC and may be utilized as a potential diagnostic tool for PTC.

Holdbrooks AT, Britain CM, Bellis SL
ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase promotes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cancer cell survival via sialylation of the TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) death receptor.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(5):1610-1622 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activation of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) death receptor by TNF induces either cell survival or cell death. However, the mechanisms mediating these distinct outcomes remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that the ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase, an enzyme up-regulated in numerous cancers, sialylates TNFR1 and thereby protects tumor cells from TNF-induced apoptosis. Using pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells with ST6Gal-I knockdown or overexpression, we determined that α2-6 sialylation of TNFR1 had no effect on early TNF-induced signaling events, including the rapid activation of NF-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt (occurring within 15 min). However, upon extended TNF treatment (6-24 h), cells with high ST6Gal-I levels exhibited resistance to TNF-induced apoptosis, as indicated by morphological evidence of cell death and decreased activation of caspases 8 and 3. Correspondingly, at these later time points, high ST6Gal-I expressers displayed sustained activation of the survival molecules Akt and NF-κB. Additionally, extended TNF treatment resulted in the selective enrichment of clonal variants with high ST6Gal-I expression, further substantiating a role for ST6Gal-I in cell survival. Given that TNFR1 internalization is known to be essential for apoptosis induction, whereas survival signaling is initiated by TNFR1 at the plasma membrane, we examined TNFR1 localization. The α2-6 sialylation of TNFR1 was found to inhibit TNF-induced TNFR1 internalization. Thus, by restraining TNFR1 at the cell surface via sialylation, ST6Gal-I acts as a functional switch to divert signaling toward survival. These collective findings point to a novel glycosylation-dependent mechanism that regulates the cellular response to TNF and may promote cancer cell survival within TNF-rich tumor microenvironments.

Wang L, Yang D, Tian J, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2/AKT and ERK signaling pathways contribute to the switch from fibroblasts to CAFs by progranulin in microenvironment of colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(16):26323-26333 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a crucial cellular component in tumor microenvironment and could promote tumor progression. CAFs are usually derived from resident fibroblasts, which undergoing an activated process stimulated by tumor cells. However, the agents and mechanism driving this switch have not yet been elucidated. Progranulin (PGRN), a well acknowledged secreted glycoprotein, could promote proliferation and angiogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, and high expression of PGRN correlated with patient poor prognosis. Whether PGRN has effects on the function of stromal fibroblasts is unknown. Herein we found that there was a positive correlation between PGRN expression of CRC cells and expressions of smooth muscle actin α (α-SMA) on CAFs in CRC patient tissues. PGRN/α-SMA co-expression was positively correlated with CRC patient poor prognosis. Co-cultured with CRC cells or human recombinant PGRN (rPGRN), the expression of Ki67, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and α-SMA in fibroblasts were all up-regulated significantly, accompanying with elevated cellular proliferation, migration and contraction. Whilst co-cultured with PGRN-silenced CRC cells, these functions were down-regulated. Studies of the underlying molecular mechanism demonstrated that either tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2)/Akt or the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway contributed to modulate of Ki67, FAP, and α-SMA expression, and correlated to abilities of proliferation, migration and contraction in fibroblasts. In conclusion, PGRN plays an important role in activation of CRC fibroblasts, which may be taken as a prospective target of CRC therapy.

Brzozowska A, Powrózek T, Homa-Mlak I, et al.
Polymorphism of Promoter Region of TNFRSF1A Gene (-610 T > G) as a Novel Predictive Factor for Radiotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis in HNC Patients.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(1):135-143 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Every year, about 650 thousand new cases of Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) are diagnosed globally. Apart from surgery, radiotherapy (RTH), chemotherapy (CHT) or its combination is used in the treatment of HNC. One of the most frequent complications and, at the same time, limitations of RTH is oral mucositis (OM). Proinflammatory cytokines (including TNF-α) play a key role in the development of OM. Genetic alterations, i.e. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding for receptors for TNF (ie. TNFRSF1A) may change their function. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between a polymorphism of TNFRSF1A and occurrence and severity of acute reaction after RTH for HNC patients. Data from 58 HNC patients (stages I-IV) were analyzed. All of them were irradiated using IMRT technique with doses 50-70Gy. Oral mucositis (OM) was evaluated according to RTOG/EORTC guidelines. DNA from HNC patients were isolated from whole blood and genotypes were determined by sequencing method. Patients with TT or GT genotype demonstrated higher risk of manifestation of grade 3 OM in 5th week of RTH (p=0.041; OR=9.240; 95% CI: 1.101-77.581) compared to GG carriers. Similarly, high risk of grade 3 OM in patients with T allele presence was noted in 6th week (p=0.030; OR=10.50; 95%CI:1.257-87.690) and in 7th week (p=0.008; OR=5.625; 95% CI: 1.584-19.975) of treatment compared to patients with GG homozygote. Our results indicate an association between SNP of TNFRSF1A (rs4149570) gene and risk of more severe OM related to radiation therapy for HNC patients.

Xu ZW, Yan SX, Wu HX, et al.
The influence of TNF-α and Ang II on the proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells by regulating the expression of GRK2.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 79(4):747-758 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common digestive system malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. This study researched the interaction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in HCC cells proliferation, migration and invasion and examined their influence on the expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and relevant receptors.
METHODS: Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assays were performed to evaluate the effects of TNF-α and Ang II on HepG2 cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 receptors (AT2R) on the surface of HepG2 cells. Additionally, Western blot was performed to assess the modulation of GRK2 expression by TNF-α and Ang II in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, GRK2 siRNA-transfected HepG2 cells were used to confirm the effects of GRK2, TNF-α and Ang II on the proliferation, migration and invasion of GRK2-knockdown HCC cells. Finally, the expression of TNF-α, Ang II, TNFR1, AT1R, AT2R and GRK2 proteins in HCC, tumor-adjacent and normal liver tissues were tested by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The data demonstrated that TNF-α and Ang II can enhance the proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells through suppressing GRK2 expression but that the two reagents combined did not have synergistic effects. Moreover,overexpression of TNFR1 and AT1R perhaps promoted the formation and progression of HCC, while high AT2R expression had the opposite effect.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new ideas for the prevention and treatment of HCC by researching the interaction and probable mechanism of different bioactive factors associated with HCC.

Zhao Y, Yang F, Li W, et al.
miR-29a suppresses MCF-7 cell growth by downregulating tumor necrosis factor receptor 1.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692264 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is the main receptor mediating many tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cellular events. Some studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 promotes tumorigenesis by activating nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, while other studies have confirmed that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 plays an inhibitory role in tumors growth by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer. Therefore, the function of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in breast cancer requires clarification. In this study, we first found that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and knockdown of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. In addition, miR-29a was predicted as a regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by TargetScan and was shown to be inversely correlated with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Luciferase reporter assay further confirmed that miR-29a negatively regulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region. In our functional study, miR-29a overexpression remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, arrested the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell. Furthermore, in combination with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 transfection, miR-29a significantly reversed the oncogenic role caused by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in MCF-7 cell. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-29a suppressed MCF-7 cell growth by inactivating the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway and by decreasing cyclinD1 and Bcl-2/Bax protein levels. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-29a is an important regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in breast cancer and functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 to influence the growth of MCF-7 cell.

Ilic B, Nikolic N, Andric M, et al.
TNF-α (-308G>A) and TNF-R1 (36A>G) single nucleotide polymorphisms are strong risk factors for odontogenic keratocystic tumor development.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2017; 46(4):292-296 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its receptor TNF-R1 have been shown to affect one person's susceptibility to develop certain neoplastic diseases. The aim of the present association study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF-α (-308G>A) and TNF-R1 (36A>G) genes modulate the susceptibility for keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) development in Serbian patients.
METHODS: Genotyping was performed in 60 KCOT patients and 125 healthy individuals, using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
RESULTS: A significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies was found between patients and controls for both SNPs (P < 0.05). Carriers of the TNF-α A variant had an eightfold increase of KCOT risk (OR = 8.12, 95% CI = 3.98-16.56, P < 0.0001), while carriers of the TNF-R1 G variant had approximately a fourfold increase of KCOT risk (OR=3.65, CI: 1.60-8.40, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the two polymorphisms are strong risk factors for KCOT development in Serbian population.

Kanakry CG, Bakoyannis G, Perkins SM, et al.
Plasma-derived proteomic biomarkers in human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical or human leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow transplantation using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(5):932-940 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies have suggested that plasma-derived proteins may be potential biomarkers relevant for graft-

You BR, Han BR, Park WH
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid increases anti-cancer effect of tumor necrosis factor-α through up-regulation of TNF receptor 1 in lung cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(11):17726-17737 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has anti-cancer effect. Here, we evaluated the effect of SAHA on HDAC activity and cell growth in many normal lung and cancer cells. We observed that the HDAC activities of lung cancer cells were higher than that of normal lung cells. SAHA inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells regardless of the inhibitory effect on HDAC. This agent induced a G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, which was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP: ΔΨm) loss in lung cancer cells. However, SAHA did not induce cell death in normal lung cells. All tested caspase inhibitors prevented apoptotic cell death in SAHA-treated A549 and Calu-6 lung cancer cells. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) enhanced apoptosis in SAHA-treated lung cancer cells through caspase-8 and caspase-9 activations. Especially, SAHA increased the expression level of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), especially acetylation of the region of TNFR1 promoter -223/-29 in lung cancer cells. The down-regulation of TNFR1 suppressed apoptosis in TNF-α and SAHA-treated lung cancer cells. In conclusion, SAHA inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells via a G2/M phase arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. SAHA also enhanced apoptotic effect of TNF-α in human lung cancer cells through up-regulation of TNFR1. TNF-α may be a key to improve anti-cancer effect of HDAC inhibitors.

Ba H, Li B, Li X, et al.
Transmembrane tumor necrosis factor-α promotes the recruitment of MDSCs to tumor tissue by upregulating CXCR4 expression via TNFR2.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2017; 44:143-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated in tumor sites promote immune evasion. We found that TNFR deficiency-induced rejection of transplanted tumor was accompanied with markedly decreased accumulation of MDSCs. However, the mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not completely understood. Here, we demonstrated that TNFR deficiency did not affect the amount of MDSCs in bone marrow (BM), but decreased accumulation of Gr-1

Wang WL, Xu QZ, Mu XH, et al.
[Role of NF-κB inhibitor in Acute Myeloid Leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2016; 24(6):1622-1626 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of NF-κB inhibitor in occurence and development of AML.
METHODS: AML and normal bone marrow samples were collected from 8 AML patients and 8 normal persons. The expression of NF-κB signaling pathway genes was detected by NF-κB PCR array. Then, AML mouse model was constructed to test the role of NF-κB inhibitor in AML.
RESULTS: The NF-κB signal pathway was activated in AML patients. The up-regulated genes, EDARADD, TNFSF14, could activate the NF-κB signal pathway, IL6 could regulate the inflammatory signal. The down-regulated genes, TNFRSF 10B, TNFRSF1A, could lead to cell apoptosis. the AML mouse model was constructed successfully. Then administration of NF-κB inhibitor reduced the inhibition of leukemia niche to the normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), promoted the HSC to enter into cell cycle.
CONCLUSION: The NF-κB signal pathway is activated in AML cells. AML mouse model is constructed successfully. NF-κB inhibitor has a potential to treat AML and promotes the HSC to enrter into cell cycle.

Singh PR, Priya ES, Balakrishnan S, et al.
Nimbolide inhibits androgen independent prostate cancer cells survival and proliferation by modulating multiple pro-survival signaling pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1623-1634 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most prominent cancer in men, experiencing a relapse in disease often express high serum TNF-α levels. It has been correlated with increased cell survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Previous studies reported that nimbolide, a terpenoid derived from the leaves and flowers of neem tree inhibits cancer growth through selective modulation of cell signaling pathways linked to inflammation, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis.
METHODS: The present study aimed to examine the effect of nimbolide at 1 and 2μM concentrations on TNF-α/TNFR1 mediated signaling molecules involved in cell survival and proliferation in PC-3 cell line via NF-κB and MAPK pathways by real time PCR and western blot. Protein and compound interaction were performed by Molecular docking analysis.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that nimbolide treatment suppressed expression of TNF-α, SODD, Grb2, SOS mRNA and modulated TNF-α/TNFR1 regulated NF-κB and MAPK signaling molecules in PC-3 cells. Additional molecular dynamics simulation studies confirmed the stability of nimbolide and signaling molecules binding interactions. Binding pose analysis revealed the significance of hydrogen bond interactions for effective stabilization of virtual ligand protein complexes.
CONCLUSION: Nimbolide inhibited prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

Chou CP, Jiang SS, Pan HB, et al.
Endothelial cell colony forming units derived from malignant breast diseases are resistant to tumor necrosis factor-α-induced apoptosis.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:37450 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow is a crucial step in the formation of de novo blood vessels, and levels of peripheral blood EPCs have been shown to be elevated in certain malignant states. Using flow cytometry and a Hill-based colony forming unit (CFU) assay, the present study indicated that higher levels of CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) double-positive EPCs, as well as increased formation of endothelial cell colony-forming units (EC-CFUs) are associated with benign and malignant breast diseases, providing possible indicators for breast disease detection. Gene expression profiles revealed a genetic difference between CD34

Tanaka T, Imamura T, Yoneda M, et al.
Enhancement of active MMP release and invasive activity of lymph node metastatic tongue cancer cells by elevated signaling via the TNF-α-TNFR1-NF-κB pathway and a possible involvement of angiopoietin-like 4 in lung metastasis.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(4):1377-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
To study the role of TNF-α in tongue cancer metastasis, we made highly metastatic cells from a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SAS) by repeating the passage in which the cells were injected into a nude mouse tongue and harvested from metastasized cervical lymph nodes. Cancer cells after 5 passages (GSAS/N5) increased invasive activity 7-fold in a TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1)-dependent manner and enhanced mRNA expression of TNF-α and TNFR1. In the highly metastatic cells, NF-κB activation was upregulated via elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Ikkα/β in the signaling pathway and secretion of TNF-α, active MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased. Suppression of increase of TNF-α mRNA expression and MMP secretion by NF-κB inhibitor NBD peptide suggested a positive feedback loop in GSAS/N5 cells; TNF-α activates NF-κB and activated NF-κB induces further TNF-α secretion, leading to increase of active MMP release and promotion of invasion and metastasis of the cells. GSAS/N5 cells that had been injected into the nude mouse tongue and harvested from metastasized lungs multiplied angiopoietin-like 4 (angptl4) expression with enhanced migration activity, which indicated a possible involvement of angptl4 in lung metastasis of the cells. These results suggest that TNF-α and angptl4 promote metastasis of the oral cancer cells, thus, these molecules may be therapeutic targets for patients with tongue cancer.

Wang C, Ma Y, Hu Q, et al.
Bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase-ganciclovir gene therapy system induces FasL and TNFR2 mediated antitumor apoptosis in solid tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:545 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Directly targeting therapeutic suicide gene to a solid tumor is a hopeful approach for cancer gene therapy. Treatment of a solid tumor by an effective vector for a suicide gene remains a challenge. Given the lack of effective treatments, we constructed a bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase (BF-rTK) -ganciclovir (GCV) targeting system (BKV) to meet this requirement and to explore antitumor mechanisms.
METHODS: Bifidobacterium (BF) or BF-rTK was injected intratumorally with or without ganciclovir in a human colo320 intestinal xenograft tumor model. The tumor tissues were analyzed using apoptosis antibody arrays, real time PCR and western blot. The colo320 cell was analyzed by the gene silencing method. Autophagy and necroptosis were also detected in colo320 cell. Meanwhile, three human digestive system xenograft tumor models (colorectal cancer colo320, gastric cancer MKN-45 and liver cancer SSMC-7721) and a breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) model were employed to validate the universality of BF-rTK + GCV in solid tumor gene therapy. The survival rate was evaluated in three human cancer models after the BF-rTK + GCV intratumor treatment. The analysis of inflammatory markers (TNF-α) in tumor indicated that BF-rTK + GCV significantly inhibited TNF-α expression.
RESULTS: The results suggested that BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis without autophagy and necroptosis occurrence. The apoptosis was transduced by multiple signaling pathways mediated by FasL and TNFR2 and mainly activated the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim, which was rescued by silencing Bid or/and Bim. However, BF + GCV only induced apoptosis via Fas/FasL signal pathway accompanied with increased P53 expression. We further found that BF-rTK + GCV inhibited the expression of the inflammatory maker of TNF-α. However, BF-rTK + GCV did not result in necroptosis and autophagy.
CONCLUSIONS: BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis mediated by FasL and TNFR2 through the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim without inducing necroptosis and autophagy. Furthermore, BF-rTK + GCV showed to repress the inflammation of tumor through downregulating TNF-α expression. Survival analysis results of multiple cancer models confirmed that BF-rTK + GCV system has a wide field of application in solid tumor gene therapy.

Ting AT, Bertrand MJM
More to Life than NF-κB in TNFR1 Signaling.
Trends Immunol. 2016; 37(8):535-545 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TNF is a master proinflammatory cytokine whose pathogenic role in inflammatory disorders has long been attributed to induction of proinflammatory mediators. TNF also activates cell survival and death pathways, and recent studies demonstrated that TNF also causes inflammation by inducing cell death. The default response of most cells to TNF is survival and NF-κB-mediated upregulation of prosurvival molecules is a well-documented protective mechanism downstream of TNFR1. Recent studies revealed the existence of an NF-κB-independent cell death checkpoint that restricts cell demise by inactivating RIPK1. Disruption of this checkpoint leads to RIPK1 kinase-dependent death and causes inflammation in vivo. These revelations bring complexity to the control of TNF-induced cell death, and suggest clinical benefit of RIPK1 inhibitors in TNF-driven human inflammatory disorders.

Lueck SC, Russ AC, Botzenhardt U, et al.
Smac mimetic induces cell death in a large proportion of primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, which correlates with defined molecular markers.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(31):49539-49551 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Apoptosis is deregulated in most, if not all, cancers, including hematological malignancies. Smac mimetics that antagonize Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have so far largely been investigated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines; however, little is yet known on the therapeutic potential of Smac mimetics in primary AML samples. In this study, we therefore investigated the antileukemic activity of the Smac mimetic BV6 in diagnostic samples of 67 adult AML patients and correlated the response to clinical, cytogenetic and molecular markers and gene expression profiles. Treatment with cytarabine (ara-C) was used as a standard chemotherapeutic agent. Interestingly, about half (51%) of primary AML samples are sensitive to BV6 and 21% intermediate responsive, while 28% are resistant. Notably, 69% of ara-C-resistant samples show a good to fair response to BV6. Furthermore, combination treatment with ara-C and BV6 exerts additive effects in most samples. Whole-genome gene expression profiling identifies cell death, TNFR1 and NF-κB signaling among the top pathways that are activated by BV6 in BV6-sensitive, but not in BV6-resistant cases. Furthermore, sensitivity of primary AML blasts to BV6 correlates with significantly elevated expression levels of TNF and lower levels of XIAP in diagnostic samples, as well as with NPM1 mutation. In a large set of primary AML samples, these data provide novel insights into factors regulating Smac mimetic response in AML and have important implications for the development of Smac mimetic-based therapies and related diagnostics in AML.

Al-Lamki RS, Lu W, Manalo P, et al.
Tubular epithelial cells in renal clear cell carcinoma express high RIPK1/3 and show increased susceptibility to TNF receptor 1-induced necroptosis.
Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7(6):e2287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously reported that renal clear cell carcinoma cells (RCC) express both tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1 and -2, but that, in organ culture, a TNF mutein that only engages TNFR1, but not TNFR2, causes extensive cell death. Some RCC died by apoptosis based on detection of cleaved caspase 3 in a minority TUNEL-positive cells but the mechanism of death in the remaining cells was unexplained. Here, we underpin the mechanism of TNFR1-induced cell death in the majority of TUNEL-positive RCC cells, and show that they die by necroptosis. Malignant cells in high-grade tumors displayed threefold to four fold higher expression of both receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)1 and RIPK3 compared with non-tumor kidney tubular epithelium and low-grade tumors, but expression of both enzymes was induced in lower grade tumors in organ culture in response to TNFR1 stimulation. Furthermore, TNFR1 activation induced significant MLKL(Ser358) and Drp1(Ser616) phosphorylation, physical interactions in RCC between RIPK1-RIPK3 and RIPK3-phospho-MLKL(Ser358), and coincidence of phospho-MLKL(ser358) and phospho-Drp1(Ser616) at mitochondria in TUNEL-positive RCC. A caspase inhibitor only partially reduced the extent of cell death following TNFR1 engagement in RCC cells, whereas three inhibitors, each targeting a different step in the necroptotic pathway, were much more protective. Combined inhibition of caspases and necroptosis provided additive protection, implying that different subsets of cells respond differently to TNF-α, the majority dying by necroptosis. We conclude that most high-grade RCC cells express increased amounts of RIPK1 and RIPK3 and are poised to undergo necroptosis in response to TNFR1 signaling.

Tortola L, Nitsch R, Bertrand MJM, et al.
The Tumor Suppressor Hace1 Is a Critical Regulator of TNFR1-Mediated Cell Fate.
Cell Rep. 2016; 15(7):1481-1492 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The HECT domain E3 ligase HACE1 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. Here, we report that HACE1 is a central gatekeeper of TNFR1-induced cell fate. Genetic inactivation of HACE1 inhibits TNF-stimulated NF-κB activation and TNFR1-NF-κB-dependent pathogen clearance in vivo. Moreover, TNF-induced apoptosis was impaired in hace1 mutant cells and knockout mice in vivo. Mechanistically, HACE1 is essential for the ubiquitylation of the adaptor protein TRAF2 and formation of the apoptotic caspase-8 effector complex. Intriguingly, loss of HACE1 does not impair TNFR1-mediated necroptotic cell fate via RIP1 and RIP3 kinases. Loss of HACE1 predisposes animals to colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis in vivo, which is markedly alleviated by genetic inactivation of RIP3 kinase and TNFR1. Thus, HACE1 controls TNF-elicited cell fate decisions and exerts tumor suppressor and anti-inflammatory activities via a TNFR1-RIP3 kinase-necroptosis pathway.

Singhal P, Sharma U, Hussain S, et al.
Identification of genetic variants in TNF receptor 2 which are associated with the development of cervical carcinoma.
Biomarkers. 2016; 21(7):665-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in India. Beside HPV, other factors present in host also put their role in the progression of cervical tumerogenesis. In present study, we screened 300 subjects to identify variations in TNFR2 gene by PCR-dHPLC method followed by direct sequencing. We identified six known and four novel variations in six different exons of TNFR2 gene. Out of these identified variations, five known variations were found to be significantly associated with the risk of cervical cancer (p < 0.0001). On construction of haplotypes, one haplotype (TTGCC) was emerged as a major protective type while two (CAAGC + CTGCC) were revealed as major risk haplotypes. In conclusion, postmenopausal women having CAAGC + CTGCC haplotypes in TNFR2 gene along with HPV infection and tobacco consumption may lead to the development of cervical cancer.

Savva CG, Totokotsopoulos S, Nicolaou KC, et al.
Selective activation of TNFR1 and NF-κB inhibition by a novel biyouyanagin analogue promotes apoptosis in acute leukemia cells.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:279 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance towards apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Elimination of cells bearing activated oncogenes or stimulation of tumor suppressor mediators may provide a selection pressure to overcome resistance. KC-53 is a novel biyouyanagin analogue known to elicit strong anti-inflammatory and anti-viral activity. The current study was designed to evaluate the anticancer efficacy and molecular mechanisms of KC-53 against human cancer cells.
METHODS: Using the MTT assay we examined initially how KC-53 affects the proliferation rates of thirteen representative human cancer cell lines in comparison to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and immortalized cell lines. To decipher the key molecular events underlying its mode of action we selected the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the acute lymphocytic leukemia CCRF/CEM cell lines that were found to be the most sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of KC-53.
RESULTS: KC-53 promoted rapidly and irreversibly apoptosis in both leukemia cell lines at relatively low concentrations. Apoptosis was characterized by an increase in membrane-associated TNFR1, activation of Caspase-8 and proteolytic inactivation of the death domain kinase RIP1 indicating that KC-53 induced mainly the extrinsic/death receptor apoptotic pathway. Regardless, induction of the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway was also achieved by Caspase-8 processing of Bid, activation of Caspase-9 and increased translocation of AIF to the nucleus. FADD protein knockdown restored HL-60 and CCRF/CEM cell viability and completely blocked KC-53-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, KC-53 administration dramatically inhibited TNFα-induced serine phosphorylation on TRAF2 and on IκBα hindering therefore p65/NF-κΒ translocation to nucleus. Reduced transcriptional expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-survival p65 target genes, confirmed that the agent functionally inhibited the transcriptional activity of p65.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the selective anticancer properties of KC-53 towards leukemic cell lines and provide a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying its dual anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. These results provide new insights into the development of innovative and targeted therapies for the treatment of some forms of leukemia.

Stachura A, Brym P, Bojarojć-Nosowicz B, Kaczmarczyk E
Polymorphism and expression of the tumor necrosis factor receptor II gene in cows infected with the bovine leukemia virus.
Pol J Vet Sci. 2016; 19(1):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
A single T>C nucleotide polymorphism (rs42686850) of bovine tumor necrosis factor receptor type II gene (TNF-RII) is located within a sequence with allele-specific affinity to bind E2F transcription factors, considered pivotal in the regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of this SNP and BLV infection on the TNF-RII gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We noted that analyzed TNF-RII gene polymorphism influenced the expression of the TNF-RII gene at the mRNA level but only in BLV-positive cows. Concurrently, no statistically significant association was found between gene polymorphism and TNF-RII expression at the protein level. However, we found a significant effect of BLV infection status on the amount of TNF-RII mRNA and the percentage of PBMC expressing TNF-RII. These results show an unclear effect of considered T>C polymorphism on TNF-RII gene expression in bovine leukocytes and they suggest the involvement of BLV in modifying the TNF-RII expression in BLV-infected cows potentially implying the EBL (Enzootic Bovine Leukosis) associated pathogenesis.

Ivanova OK, Sharapova TN, Romanova EA, et al.
Apoptotic tumor cell death under the influence of the cytotoxic complex Tag7-Hsp70 is induced by interaction with the TNFR1 receptor.
Dokl Biol Sci. 2016; 466:48-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The results of comparative analysis of interaction between the protein cytotoxic complex Tag 7-Hsp70 and the Tag 7 component of this complex with TNFR1 receptor in solution and in tumor cells are presented.

Cui H, Liu J, Li L, et al.
Analysis of differential β variable region of T cell receptor expression and NAV3/TNFRSF1B gene mutation in mycosis fungoides.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):17986-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the predominant expression of the variable region of T cell receptor (TRBV) and determine whether NAV3 or TNFRSF1B gene mutation involved in the pathogenesis of MF.
RESULTS: TRBV5-7 expression increased from the normal, early-stage to advanced-stage lesion in MF patient. By contrast, TRBV2 decreased with the lesion developed. We found no mutations of NAV3 or TNFRSF1B in the lesions from this study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR were used to screen differential expression of TRBV in different lesions. Mutational analyses were used to validate genetic alterations in the skin lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: The identification of TRBV gene expression differences between normal and different stages of MF lesions provide insight into promising new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. None of the reported genetic abnormalities suggests complexity of progress from a primary cytogenetic event to an advanced stage with poor prognosis in MF.

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