Gene Summary

Gene:JUND; jun D proto-oncogene
Aliases: AP-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a member of the JUN family, and a functional component of the AP1 transcription factor complex. This protein has been proposed to protect cells from p53-dependent senescence and apoptosis. Alternative translation initiation site usage results in the production of different isoforms (PMID:12105216). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor jun-D
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Phenotype
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Transcription
  • beta Catenin
  • Transcription Factors
  • Skin Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • Chromosome 19
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
  • U937 Cells
  • Signal Transduction
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Receptors, CCR4
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • HeLa Cells
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • JUND
  • siRNA
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Apoptosis
  • JUN
  • Protein Binding
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • Molecular Sequence Data
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: JUND (cancer-related)

Selvaraj N, Budka JA, Ferris MW, et al.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling regulates the opposing roles of JUN family transcription factors at ETS/AP-1 sites and in cell migration.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(1):88-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
JUN transcription factors bind DNA as part of the AP-1 complex, regulate many cellular processes, and play a key role in oncogenesis. The three JUN proteins (c-JUN, JUNB, and JUND) can have both redundant and unique functions depending on the biological phenotype and cell type assayed. Mechanisms that allow this dynamic switching between overlapping and distinct functions are unclear. Here we demonstrate that JUND has a role in prostate cell migration that is the opposite of c-JUN's and JUNB's. RNA sequencing reveals that opposing regulation by c-JUN and JUND defines a subset of AP-1 target genes with cell migration roles. cis-regulatory elements for only this subset of targets were enriched for ETS factor binding, indicating a specificity mechanism. Interestingly, the function of c-JUN and JUND in prostate cell migration switched when we compared cells with an inactive versus an active RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. We show that this switch is due to phosphorylation and activation of JUND by ERK. Thus, the ETS/AP-1 sequence defines a unique gene expression program regulated by the relative levels of JUN proteins and RAS/ERK signaling. This work provides a rationale for how transcription factors can have distinct roles depending on the signaling status and the biological function in question.

Bartsch DK, Slater EP, Albers M, et al.
Higher risk of aggressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1 patients with MEN1 mutations affecting the CHES1 interacting MENIN domain.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(11):E2387-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Sixty to 80% of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients develop pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias (pNENs), which reveal an aggressive behavior in 10%-20% of patients. Causative MEN1 mutations in the interacting domains of the encoded Menin protein directly alter its regulation abilities and may influence the phenotype.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was the evaluation of an association between MEN1 mutations in different interacting domains of Menin and the phenotype of pNENs.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of 71 genetically confirmed MEN1 patients at a tertiary referral center.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis of patients' characteristics and clinical phenotype of pNENs regarding the mutation type and its location in Menin interacting domains was measured.
RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (93%) developed pNENs after a median follow-up of 134 months. Patients with mutations leading to loss of interaction (LOI) with the checkpoint kinase 1 (CHES1) interacting domain codons (428-610) compared with patients with mutations resulting in LOI with other domains (eg, JunD, Smad3) had significantly higher rates of functioning pNENs (70% vs 34%), malignant pNENs (59% vs 16%), and aggressive pNENs (37% vs 9%), respectively. Patients with CHES1-LOI also had an increased pNEN-related mortality (20% vs 4.5%). Neither gender, age, nor the ABO blood types were associated with the phenotype of pNENs.
CONCLUSIONS: MEN1 patients with MEN1 mutations leading to CHES1-LOI have a higher risk of malignant pNENs with an aggressive course of disease and disease-related death.

Michor F, Weaver VM
Understanding tissue context influences on intratumour heterogeneity.
Nat Cell Biol. 2014; 16(4):301-2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Although human cancers exhibit intratumour heterogeneity, the influence of the tumour environment on this property is unclear. Single basal-like mammary epithelial cells are now shown to engage a dynamic TGFBR3-JUND signalling circuit in an extracellular-matrix-dependent manner. Cell transition between the distinct gene expression states underlying this circuit alters their properties and may modulate their propensity to malignancy.

Wang CC, Bajikar SS, Jamal L, et al.
A time- and matrix-dependent TGFBR3-JUND-KRT5 regulatory circuit in single breast epithelial cells and basal-like premalignancies.
Nat Cell Biol. 2014; 16(4):345-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Basal-like breast carcinoma is characterized by poor prognosis and high intratumour heterogeneity. In an immortalized basal-like breast epithelial cell line, we identified two anticorrelated gene-expression programs that arise among single extracellular matrix (ECM)-attached cells during organotypic three-dimensional culture. The first contains multiple TGF-β-related genes including TGFBR3, whereas the second contains JUND and the basal-like marker KRT5. TGFBR3 and JUND interconnect through four negative-feedback loops to form a circuit that exhibits spontaneous damped oscillations in three-dimensional culture. The TGFBR3-JUND circuit is conserved in some premalignant lesions that heterogeneously express KRT5. The circuit depends on ECM engagement, as detachment causes a rewiring that is triggered by RPS6 dephosphorylation and maintained by juxtacrine tenascin C, which is critical for intraductal colonization of basal-like breast cancer cells in vivo. Intratumour heterogeneity need not stem from partial differentiation and could instead reflect dynamic toggling of cells between expression states that are not cell autonomous.

Mehraein-Ghomi F, Kegel SJ, Church DR, et al.
Targeting androgen receptor and JunD interaction for prevention of prostate cancer progression.
Prostate. 2014; 74(7):792-803 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Previously, we reported an induction of Spermidine/Spermine N(1) -Acetyl Transferase (SSAT) by androgen-activated androgen receptor (AR)-JunD protein complex that leads to over-production of ROS in PCa cells. In our current research, we identify small molecules that specifically block AR-JunD in this ROS-generating metabolic pathway.
METHODS: A high throughput assay based on Gaussia Luciferase reconstitution was used to identify inhibitors of the AR-JunD interaction. Selected hits were further screened using a fluorescence polarization competitor assay to eliminate those that bind to the AR Ligand Binding Domain (LBD), in order to identify molecules that specifically target events downstream to androgen activation of AR. Eleven molecules were selected for studies on their efficacy against ROS generation and growth of cultured human PCa cells by DCFH dye-oxidation assay and DNA fluorescence assay, respectively. In situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA), SSAT promoter-luciferase reporter assay, and western blotting of apoptosis and cell cycle markers were used to study mechanism of action of the lead compound.
RESULTS: Selected lead compound GWARJD10 with EC(50) 10 μM against ROS production was shown to block AR-JunD interaction in situ as well as block androgen-induced SSAT gene expression at IC(50) 5 μM. This compound had no effect on apoptosis markers, but reduced cyclin D1 protein level.
CONCLUSIONS: Inhibitor of AR-JunD interaction, GWARJD10 shows promise for prevention of progression of PCa at an early stage of the disease by blocking growth and ROS production.

Gurung B, Muhammad AB, Hua X
Menin is required for optimal processing of the microRNA let-7a.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(14):9902-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that includes susceptibility to pancreatic islet hyperplasia. This syndrome results from mutations in the MEN1 gene, which encodes menin protein. Menin interacts with several transcription factors, including JunD, and inhibits their activities. However, the precise mechanism by which menin suppresses gene expression is not well understood. Here, we show that menin interacts with arsenite-resistant protein 2 (ARS2), a component of the nuclear RNA CAP-binding complex that is crucial for biogenesis of certain miRNAs including let-7a. The levels of primary-let-7a (pri-let-7a) are not affected by menin; however, the levels of mature let-7a are substantially decreased upon Men1 excision. Let-7a targets, including Insr and Irs2, pro-proliferative genes that are crucial for insulin-mediated signaling, are up-regulated in Men1-excised cells. Inhibition of let-7a using anti-miRNA in wild type cells is sufficient to enhance the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) to levels observed in Men1-excised cells. Depletion of menin does not affect the expression of Drosha and CBP80, but substantially impairs the processing of pri-miRNA to pre-miRNA. Ars2 knockdown decreased let-7a processing in menin-expressing cells but had little impact on let-7a levels in menin-excised cells. As IRS2 is known to mediate insulin signaling and insulin/mitogen-induced cell proliferation, these findings collectively unravel a novel mechanism whereby menin suppresses cell proliferation, at least partly by promoting the processing of certain miRNAs, including let-7a, leading to suppression of Irs2 expression and insulin signaling.

Kim JO, Jun DW, Jang K
[Synchronous double primary hepatic cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma].
Korean J Gastroenterol. 2013; 62(2):135-9 [PubMed] Related Publications

Kharman-Biz A, Gao H, Ghiasvand R, et al.
Expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:441 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer.
METHODS: We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient for statistical analyses.
RESULTS: We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer.

Ishikawa C, Tanaka J, Katano H, et al.
Hippuristanol reduces the viability of primary effusion lymphoma cells both in vitro and in vivo.
Mar Drugs. 2013; 11(9):3410-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (also known as human herpesvirus-8) shows serious lymphomatous effusion in body cavities. PEL is difficult to treat and there is no standard treatment strategy. Hippuristanol is extracted from Okinawan coral Isis hippuris, and inhibits translational initiation by blocking eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, binding to mRNA. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting translation initiation as an anticancer therapy. Here, we show that treatment of PEL cell lines with hippuristanol resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and induced caspases activation and apoptosis. Hippuristanol also reduced the expression of cyclin D2, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and prosurvival XIAP and Mcl-1 proteins. Activation of activator protein-1, signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 3 and Akt pathways plays a critical role in the survival and growth of PEL cells. Hippuristanol suppressed the activities of these three pathways by inhibiting the expression of JunB, JunD, c-Fos, signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 3 and Akt proteins. In a xenograft mouse model that showed ascites and diffused organ invasion of PEL cells, treatment with hippuristanol significantly inhibited the growth and invasion of PEL cells compared with untreated mice. The results of the in vitro and in vivo experiments underline the potential usefulness of hippuristanol in the treatment of PEL.

Eckhoff K, Flurschütz R, Trillsch F, et al.
The prognostic significance of Jun transcription factors in ovarian cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(10):1673-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The Jun proteins (c-Jun, JunD and JunB) play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. It is well established that these proteins participate in the carcinogenesis and progression in several tumour types. However, little is known about the prognostic significance of Jun proteins in patients with invasive epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
METHODS: We analysed fresh-frozen tissues of 161 ovarian cancer patients by using Western blot analysis to investigate protein levels of JunB, JunD, c-Jun and phosphorylated c-Jun (pc-Jun Ser63). The results were correlated with clinicopathologic prognostic parameters and survival data.
RESULTS: A high pc-Jun expression was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival (14 vs. 16 months, p = 0.017) and overall survival (25 vs. 41 months, p = 0.038). In case of JunD, moderate protein levels were associated with a better prognosis, leading to longer progression-free and overall survival compared to weak or strong JunD expression (PFS in cases with weak/moderate/strong JunD expression: 14 vs. 19.5 vs. 16 months, p = 0.011; OAS: 32 vs. 42 vs. 35.5 months, p = 0.009). Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed an independent and significant impact of pc-Jun and JunD on the patient's prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Jun proteins (pc-Jun and JunD) influence carcinogenesis and tumour progression, suggesting a significant role as prognostic predictors in human ovarian carcinoma.

Borowiak M, Kuhlmann AS, Girard S, et al.
HTLV-1 bZIP factor impedes the menin tumor suppressor and upregulates JunD-mediated transcription of the hTERT gene.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(11):2664-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Telomerase activity in cancer cells is dependent on the transcriptional regulation of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of human telomerase. We have shown previously that HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper (HBZ), a viral regulatory protein encoded by the human retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) cooperates with JunD to enhance hTERT transcription in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells. Menin, the product of the tumor-suppressor MEN-1 gene, also interacts with JunD, represses its transcriptional activity and downregulates telomerase expression. The main objective of this study was to examine how menin and HBZ get involved in the regulation of hTERT transcription. In this study, we report that JunD and menin form a repressor complex of hTERT transcription in HBZ-negative cells. Conversely, in HBZ-positive cells, the formation of a JunD/HBZ/menin ternary complex and the recruitment of p300 histone acetyl transferase activity by HBZ lead to a decreased activity of the JunD-menin suppressor unit that correlates with the activation of hTERT transcription. Silencing HBZ or menin expression in ATL cells confirms that these proteins are differentially involved in telomerase regulation. These results propose that HBZ, by impeding the tumor-suppressor activity of menin, functions as a leukemogenic cofactor to upregulate gene transcription and promote JunD-mediated leukemogenesis.

Mahata S, Pandey A, Shukla S, et al.
Anticancer activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Indian gooseberry): inhibition of transcription factor AP-1 and HPV gene expression in cervical cancer cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2013; 65 Suppl 1:88-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plant products of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are traditionally consumed for its immense nutritive and medicinal values. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it exerts it effects is less understood. In this study, we investigated mechanism of action of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) by studying its effect on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity and human papillomavirus (HPV) transcription that are essential for tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells. PE resulted in a dose-and time-dependent inhibition of DNA binding activity of constitutively active AP-1 in both HPV16-positive (SiHa) and HPV18-positive (HeLa) cervical cancer cells. PE-induced AP-1 inhibition was found mediated through downregulation of constituent AP-1 proteins, c-Jun, JunB, JunD, and c-Fos; however, the kinetics of their inhibition varied in both the cell types. Inhibition of AP-1 by PE was accompanied by suppression of viral transcription that resulted in growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Growth inhibitory activity of PE was primarily manifested through induction of apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that P. emblica exhibits its anticancer activities through inhibition of AP-1 and targets transcription of viral oncogenes responsible for development and progression of cervical cancer thus indicating its possible utility for treatment of HPV-induced cervical cancers.

Agarwal SK
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
Front Horm Res. 2013; 41:1-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal-dominant tumor syndrome characterized by the occurrence of tumors in multiple endocrine tissues and nonendocrine tissues. The three main endocrine tissues most frequently affected by tumors are parathyroid (95%), enteropancreatic neuroendocrine (50%) and anterior pituitary (40%). Tumors are caused by a heterozygous germline-inactivating mutation in the MEN1 gene (1st hit) followed by somatic inactivating mutation or loss of the normal copy of the gene (2nd hit), leading to complete loss of function of the encoded protein menin. Most of the disease features and tumors are recapitulated in mouse models with heterozygous germline loss of the Men1 gene. Also, tissue-specific tumors are observed in mouse models with homozygous somatic loss of the Men1 gene specifically in MEN1-associated endocrine tissues. Hence, mouse models could serve as possible surrogates for studying MEN1 and related states. To gain insights into MEN1 pathophysiology, menin-interacting partners and pathways have been identified to investigate its tumor suppressor and other functions. Also, the 3D crystal structure of menin has been deciphered which could be useful to reveal the relevance of MEN1 gene mutations and menin's interactions. This chapter covers clinical, genetic and basic findings about the MEN1 syndrome, MEN1 gene and its product protein menin.

Higuchi T, Nakayama T, Arao T, et al.
SOX4 is a direct target gene of FRA-2 and induces expression of HDAC8 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 121(18):3640-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, we have shown that an AP-1 family member, FRA-2, is constitutively expressed in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and, together with JUND, upregulates CCR4 and promotes ATL cell growth. Among the identified potential target genes of FRA-2/JUND was SOX4. Here, we examine the expression and function of SOX4 in ATL. SOX4 was indeed consistently expressed in primary ATL cells. FRA-2/JUND efficiently activated the SOX4 promoter via an AP-1 site. Knockdown of SOX4 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) strongly suppressed cell growth of ATL cell lines. Microarray analyses revealed that SOX4 knockdown reduced the expression of genes such as germinal center kinase related (GCKR), NAK-associated protein 1 (NAP1), and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). We confirmed consistent expression of GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8 in primary ATL cells. We also showed direct activation of the HDAC8 promoter by SOX4. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8 each significantly suppressed cell growth of ATL cell lines. Taken together, we have revealed an important oncogenic cascade involving FRA-2/JUND and SOX4 in ATL, which leads to the expression of genes such as GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8.

Thevenon J, Bourredjem A, Faivre L, et al.
Higher risk of death among MEN1 patients with mutations in the JunD interacting domain: a Groupe d'etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE) cohort study.
Hum Mol Genet. 2013; 22(10):1940-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Although genotype-phenotype studies have so far failed to identify any statistical correlations, some families harbor recurrent tumor patterns. The function of MENIN is unclear, but has been described through the discovery of its interacting partners. Mutations in the interacting domains of MENIN functional partners have been shown to directly alter its regulation abilities. We report on a cohort of MEN1 patients from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients with a molecular diagnosis and a clinical follow-up, totaling 262 families and 806 patients, were included. Associations between mutation type, location or interacting factors of the MENIN protein and death as well as the occurrence of MEN1-related tumors were tested using a frailty Cox model to adjust for potential heterogeneity across families. Accounting for the heterogeneity across families, the overall risk of death was significantly higher when mutations affected the JunD interacting domain (adjusted HR = 1.88: 95%-CI = 1.15-3.07). Patients had a higher risk of death from cancers of the MEN1 spectrum (HR = 2.34; 95%-CI = 1.23-4.43). This genotype-phenotype correlation study confirmed the lack of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. However, patients with mutations affecting the JunD interacting domain had a higher risk of death secondary to a MEN1 tumor and should thus be considered for surgical indications, genetic counseling and follow-up.

Talwar S, Balasubramanian S, Sundaramurthy S, et al.
Overexpression of RNA-binding protein CELF1 prevents apoptosis and destabilizes pro-apoptotic mRNAs in oral cancer cells.
RNA Biol. 2013; 10(2):277-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
CELF1 RNA-binding protein, otherwise called CUGBP1, associates and coordinates the degradation of GU-rich element (GRE) containing mRNA's encoding factors important for cell growth, migration and apoptosis. Although many substrates of CELF1 have been identified, the biological significance of CELF1-mediated mRNA decay remains unclear. As the processes modulated by CELF1 are frequently disrupted in cancer, we investigated the expression and role of CELF1 in oral squamous cancer cells (OSCCs). We determined that CELF1 is reproducibly overexpressed in OSCC tissues and cell lines. Moreover, depletion of CELF1 reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in OSCCs, but had negligible effect in non-transformed cells. We found that CELF1 associates directly with the 3'UTR of mRNAs encoding the pro-apoptotic factors BAD, BAX and JunD and mediates their rapid decay. Specifically, 3'UTR fragment analysis of JunD revealed that the GRE region is critical for binding with CELF1 and expression of JunD in oral cancer cells. In addition, silencing of CELF1 rendered BAD, BAX and JunD mRNAs stable and increased their protein expression in oral cancer cells. Taken together, these results support a critical role for CELF1 in modulating apoptosis and implicate this RNA-binding protein as a cancer marker and potential therapeutic target.

Arnoux V, Long JA, Jund J, et al.
[Renal cell carcinoma: A 12-year retrospective study of epidemiologic, therapeutic and follow-up data].
Prog Urol. 2013; 23(1):15-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of epidemiology and management of renal cell carcinoma and their impact on overall and progression-free survivals.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the files of consecutive patients with renal cell carcinoma in our center between January 2000 and December 2011. Patients with confirmed diagnosis on histology who underwent radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy or thermoablation were included. Benign tumors were excluded. Epidemiologic and therapeutic data during the period of study were compared. Overall and progression-free survivals divided in three periods were compared by Kaplan-Meier curves.
RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-nine patients were included with a median age of 60 years old [21; 89], and median follow-up of 39 months. Tumor histology was clear cell carcinoma in 75.9% of cases. During the period of study, patients with ASA score upper than 3 increased from 20.4% to 47.8%, tumor size decreased from 58.4mm to 49.5mm and incidental tumor discovery increased from 59.1% to 71.6%. Nephron-sparing surgery increased from 19.7% to 44%. Overall survival and progression-free survival was not different during this period (P=0.071 and P=0.582).
CONCLUSION: The increase in early incidental discovery of renal cell carcinoma allowed nephron-sparing surgery in spite of patients with more comorbidities, with stable overall and progression-free survivals in our series.

Yu D, Qing Y, Jianxun Z, Jun D
An artificial neural network approach to the predictive modeling of tensile force during renal suturing.
Ann Biomed Eng. 2013; 41(4):786-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Further understanding of the mechanical deformation and tear behavior of kidney during suturing helps to enhance surgical task execution that requires fine suture manipulation. This paper aims to develop a model to describe the relationship between the tensile force acting on suture line and the resulted kidney deformation in the tension of suture line. The tensile force was recorded during multiple suture procedures, filtered, and we extracted the force data between the beginnings of tensioning suture line and tearing renal remnant. The extracted data were interpolated to obtain the same data sample length for each suture procedure, and then used to train the back propagation (BP) neural network. In order to predict the tearing force, force data were collected in sequence and interpolated to be input into BP network. Suture processes were performed on in vitro porcine kidneys, and experimental results verified the effectiveness of predictive modeling and the accuracy of tearing force prediction. The relative error for tearing force prediction was about 15%. The predictive modeling method can be used to forecast the tearing force before the suture line tears through soft tissues.

Yang Z, Misner B, Ji H, et al.
Targeting nitric oxide signaling with nNOS inhibitors as a novel strategy for the therapy and prevention of human melanoma.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013; 19(5):433-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
AIMS: Our previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in increasing the invasion and proliferation of human melanoma cells, suggesting that targeting NO signaling may facilitate therapy and prevention. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is present in melanocytes, a cell type that originates from the neural crest. The aims of this study were to determine the role of nNOS in melanoma progression and the potential antitumor effects of novel synthesized nNOS inhibitors.
RESULTS: In vitro studies demonstrated abundant expression of nNOS in melanoma compared to melanocytes, which was inducible by ultraviolet radiation and was associated with increased NO generation. nNOS was also detected in melanoma biopsies that increased with disease stage. Knockdown of nNOS in melanoma cells diminished L-arginine-induced NO production; the metastatic capacity was also reduced as well as the levels of MMP-1, Bcl-2, JunD, and APE/Ref-1. Similar inhibition of NO and invasion potential was observed utilizing novel, highly selective nNOS inhibitors. In three-dimensional human skin reconstructs, the nNOS inhibitor cpd8 effectively reversed the melanoma overgrowth stimulated by NO stress.
INNOVATION: Our work lays the foundation for development of clinical "drug-like" nNOS inhibitors as a new and promising strategy for the chemoprevention of early melanoma progression and the inhibition of secondary melanoma in high-risk individuals.
CONCLUSION: Based on our observations, we propose that nNOS in melanoma results in constitutive overproduction of NO, which stimulates proliferation and increases invasion potential, leading to subsequent development of metastases.

Kong HK, Yoon S, Park JH
The regulatory mechanism of the LY6K gene expression in human breast cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(46):38889-900 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
LY6K is a cancer biomarker and a therapeutic target that induces invasion and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine human LY6K transcription are completely unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in human LY6K gene regulation and expression, multiple cis-elements were predicted using TRANSFAC software, and the LY6K regulatory region was identified using the luciferase assay in the human LY6K gene promoter. We performed ChIP, EMSA, and supershift assays to investigate the transcription factor activity on the LY6K promoter, and the effect of a SNP and CpG site methylation on AP-1 transcription factor binding affinity. AP-1 and the CREB transcription factor bound to LY6K promoter within -550/-1, which was essential for LY6K expression, but only the AP-1 heterodimer, JunD, and Fra-1, modulates LY6K gene transcriptional level. A decrease in LY6K was associated with the SNP242 C allele, a polymorphic G/C-SNP at the 242 nucleotide in the LY6K promoter region (rs2585175), or methylation of the CpG site, which was closely located with the AP-1 site by interfering with binding of the AP-1 transcription factor to the LY6K promoter. Our findings reveal an important role for AP-1 activation in promoting LY6K gene expression that regulates cell mobility of breast cancer cells, whereas the SNP242 C allele or methylation of the CpG site may reduce the risk of invasion or metastasis by interfering AP-1 activation.

Xie W, Feng Q, Su Y, et al.
Transcriptional regulation of PES1 expression by c-Jun in colon cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e42253 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
Pescadillo is a nucleolar protein that has been suggested to be involved in embryonic development and ribosome biogenesis. Deregulated expression of human pescadillo (PES1) was described in some tumors, but its precise roles in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we generated three monoclonal antibodies recognizing PES1 with high specificity and sensitivity, with which PES1 expression in human colon cancer was analyzed immunohistochemically. Out of 265 colon cancer tissues, 89 (33.6%) showed positive PES1 expression, which was significantly higher than in non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001). Silencing of PES1 in colon cancer cells resulted in decreased proliferation, reduced growth of xenografts, and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, indicating PES1 functions as an oncogene. We then explored the mechanism by which PES1 expression is controlled in human colon cancers and demonstrated that c-Jun, but not JunB, JunD, c-Fos, or mutant c-Jun, positively regulated PES1 promoter transcription activity. In addition, we mapped -274/-264 region of PES1 promoter as the c-Jun binding sequence, which was validated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Moreover, we demonstrated a positive correlation between c-Jun and PES1 expression in colon cancer cells and colon cancer tissues. Upstream of c-Jun, it was revealed that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) is essential for controlling PES1 expression. Our study, in the first place, uncovers the oncogenic role of PES1 in colon cancer and elucidates the molecular mechanism directing PES1 expression.

Gazon H, Lemasson I, Polakowski N, et al.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) bZIP factor requires cellular transcription factor JunD to upregulate HTLV-1 antisense transcription from the 3' long terminal repeat.
J Virol. 2012; 86(17):9070-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a fatal malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of virally infected CD4(+) T cells. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) is believed to contribute to development and maintenance of ATL. Unlike the other HTLV-1 genes, the hbz gene is encoded on the complementary strand of the provirus and therefore is not under direct control of the promoter within the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) of the provirus. This promoter can undergo inactivating genetic or epigenetic changes during the course of ATL that eliminates expression of all viral genes except that of hbz. In contrast, repressive modifications are not known to occur on the hbz promoter located in the 3' LTR, and hbz expression has been consistently detected in all ATL patient samples. Although Sp1 regulates basal transcription from the HBZ promoter, other factors that activate transcription remain undefined. In this study, we used a proviral reporter construct deleted of the 5' LTR to show that HBZ upregulates its own expression through cooperation with JunD. Activation of antisense transcription was apparent in serum-deprived cells in which the level of JunD was elevated, and elimination of JunD expression by gene knockout or shRNA-mediated knockdown abrogated this effect. Activation through HBZ and JunD additionally required Sp1 binding at the hbz promoter. These data favor a model in which JunD is recruited to the promoter through Sp1, where it heterodimerizes with HBZ thereby enhancing its activity. Separately, hbz gene expression led to an increase in JunD abundance, and this effect correlated with emergence of features of transformed cells in immortalized fibroblasts. Overall, our results suggest that JunD represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of ATL.

Macaire H, Riquet A, Moncollin V, et al.
Tax protein-induced expression of antiapoptotic Bfl-1 protein contributes to survival of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T-cells.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(25):21357-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). ATLL is a severe malignancy with no effective treatment. HTLV-1 regulatory proteins Tax and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) play a major role in ATLL development, by interfering with cellular functions such as CD4(+) T-cell survival. In this study, we observed that the expression of Bfl-1, an antiapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, is restricted to HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and to T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ proteins. We showed that Tax-induced bfl-1 transcription through the canonical NF-κB pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that Tax cooperated with c-Jun or JunD, but not JunB, transcription factors of the AP-1 family to stimulate bfl-1 gene activation. By contrast, HBZ inhibited c-Jun-induced bfl-1 gene activation, whereas it increased JunD-induced bfl-1 gene activation. We identified one NF-κB, targeted by RelA, c-Rel, RelB, p105/p50, and p100/p52, and two AP-1, targeted by both c-Jun and JunD, binding sites in the bfl-1 promoter of T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ. Analyzing the potential role of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival, we demonstrated that these cells are differentially sensitive to silencing of Bfl-1, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-2. Indeed, both Bfl-1 and Bcl-x(L) knockdowns decreased the survival of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, although no cell death was observed after Bcl-2 knockdown. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Bfl-1 knockdown sensitizes HTLV-1-infected T-cells to ABT-737 or etoposide treatment. Our results directly implicate Bfl-1 and Bcl-x(L) in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival and suggest that both Bfl-1 and Bcl-x(L) represent potential therapeutic targets for ATLL treatment.

Kaji H
Menin and bone metabolism.
J Bone Miner Metab. 2012; 30(4):381-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Menin, a product of the MEN1 gene, is related to the ontogeny of several cancers such as MEN1 and sporadic endocrine tumors, although it is considered to be a tumor suppressor. Many proteins interact with menin, and it is involved in various biological functions in several tissues. Menin plays some physiological and pathological roles related to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway in the parathyroid, and it is implicated in the tumorigenesis of parathyroid tumors. In bone, the bone phenotype was observed in some menin-deleted mice. Menin is considered to support BMP-2- and Runx2-induced differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts by interacting with Smad1/5, Runx2, β-catenin and LEF-1, although it has different effects on osteoblasts at later differentiation stages through TGF-β-Smad3 and AP-1 pathways. Further research is expected to shed more light on the role of menin in bone.

Wang CC, Lin SY, Lai YH, et al.
Dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the multiple functions of the tumor suppressor HLJ1 through activator protein-1 activation in NSCLC cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e33772 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that displays a diversity of antitumor activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that DMSO can modulate AP-1 activity and lead to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. HLJ1 is a newly identified tumor and invasion suppressor that inhibits tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. Its transcriptional activity is regulated by the transcription factor AP-1. However, the effects of DMSO on HLJ1 are still unknown. In the present study, we investigate the antitumor effects of DMSO through HLJ1 induction and demonstrate the mechanisms involved.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Low-HLJ1-expressing highly invasive CL1-5 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of DMSO. We found that DMSO can significantly inhibit cancer cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and colony formation capabilities through upregulation of HLJ1 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas ethanol has no effect. In addition, the HLJ1 promoter and enhancer reporter assay revealed that DMSO transcriptionally upregulates HLJ1 expression through an AP-1 site within the HLJ1 enhancer. The AP-1 subfamily members JunD and JunB were significantly upregulated by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, pretreatment with DMSO led to a significant increase in the percentage of UV-induced apoptotic cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DMSO may be an important stimulator of the tumor suppressor protein HLJ1 through AP-1 activation in highly invasive lung adenocarcinoma cells. Targeted induction of HLJ1 represents a promising approach for cancer therapy, which also implied that DMSO may serve as a potential lead compound or coordinated ligand for the development of novel anticancer drugs.

Nakayama T, Higuchi T, Oiso N, et al.
Expression and function of FRA2/JUND in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(4):1367-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are known to frequently express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). Previously, we investigated the transcriptional control of CCR4 expression in ATLL and have found that an activating protein 1 (AP1) family member, FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS)-related antigen 2 (FRA2), is consistently expressed at high levels in ATLL and, together with v-JUN avian sarcoma virus 17 oncogene homolog D (JUND), up-regulates the expression of CCR4 as well as that of several proto-oncogenes such as v-MYB myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB), murine double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), and B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6). Here, we examined the expression of these genes in clinical samples of CTCLs. We detected the transcripts of FRA2, JUND, CCR4, MYB, MDM2, and BCL6 at high levels in CTCL skin lesions. Except for BCL6, we confirmed protein expression of FRA2, JUND, CCR4, MYB, and MDM2 in CTCL skin lesions. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of FRA2 or JUND suppressed cell growth and the expression of CCR4, MYB, MDM2, and BCL6 in CTCL cell lines. Our results, thus, demonstrate the presence of a common oncogenic cascade initiated by FRA2/JUND in CCR4-expressing mature T-cell malignancies such as ATLL and CTCLs.

Ishikawa C, Arbiser JL, Mori N
Honokiol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inhibition of survival signals in adult T-cell leukemia.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1820(7):879-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a naturally occurring biphenyl, possesses anti-neoplastic properties. We investigated activities of honokiol against adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1).
METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using colorimetric assay. Propidium iodide staining was performed to determine cell cycle phase. Apoptotic effects were evaluated by 7A6 detection and caspases activity. Expressions of cell cycle- and apoptosis-associated proteins were analyzed by Western blot. We investigated the efficacy of honokiol in mice harboring tumors of HTLV-1-infected T-cell origin.
RESULTS: Honokiol exhibited cytotoxic activity against HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and ATL cells. We identified two different effects of honokiol on HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines: cell cycle inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Honokiol induced G1 cell cycle arrest by reducing the expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and c-Myc, while apoptosis was induced via reduced expression of cIAP-2, XIAP and survivin. The induced apoptosis was also associated with activation of caspases-3 and -9. In addition, honokiol suppressed the phosphorylation of IκBα, IKKα, IKKβ, STAT3, STAT5 and Akt, down-regulated JunB and JunD, and inhibited DNA binding of NF-κB, AP-1, STAT3 and STAT5. These effects resulted in the inactivation of survival signals including NF-κB, AP-1, STATs and Akt. Honokiol was highly effective against ATL in mice
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that honokiol is a systemically available, non-toxic inhibitor of ATL cell growth that should be examined for potential clinical application.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of honokiol for the management of ATL.

Liu Z, Yan R, Al-Salman A, et al.
Epidermal growth factor induces tumour marker AKR1B10 expression through activator protein-1 signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biochem J. 2012; 442(2):273-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase 1B10) is overexpressed in liver and lung cancer, and plays a critical role in tumour development and progression through promoting lipogenesis and eliminating cytotoxic carbonyls. AKR1B10 is a secretory protein and potential tumour marker; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of AKR1B10 expression. The present study showed that AKR1B10 is induced by mitogen EGF (epidermal growth factor) and insulin through the AP-1 (activator protein-1) signalling pathway. In human HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells (HepG2 and Hep3B), EGF (50 ng/ml) and insulin (10 nM) stimulated endogenous AKR1B10 expression and promoter activity. In the AKR1B10 promoter, a putative AP-1 element was found at bp -222 to -212. Deletion or mutation of this AP-1 element abrogated the basal promoter activity and response to EGF and AP-1 proteins. This AP-1 element bound to nuclear proteins extracted from HepG2 cells, and this binding was stimulated by EGF and insulin in a dose-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the AP-1 proteins c-Fos and c-Jun were the predominant factors bound to the AP-1 consensus sequence, followed by JunD and then JunB. The same order was followed in the stimulation of endogenous AKR1B10 expression by AP-1 proteins. Furthermore, c-Fos shRNA (short hairpin RNA) and AP-1 inhibitors/antagonists (U0126 and Tanshinone IIA) inhibited endogenous AKR1B10 expression and promoter activity in HepG2 cells cultured in vitro or inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice. U0126 also inhibited AKR1B10 expression induced by EGF. Taken together, these results suggest that AKR1B10 is up-regulated by EGF and insulin through AP-1 mitogenic signalling and may be implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis.

Canaff L, Vanbellinghen JF, Kaji H, et al.
Impaired transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) transcriptional activity and cell proliferation control of a menin in-frame deletion mutant associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(11):8584-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/04/2015 Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is characterized by tumors of the parathyroid, enteropancreas, and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene encodes the tumor suppressor menin of 610 amino acids that has multiple protein partners and activities. The particular pathways that, when lost, lead to tumorigenesis are not known. We demonstrated that members of a three-generation MEN1 kindred are heterozygous for a donor splice site mutation at the beginning of intron 3 (IVS3 + 1G→A). Lymphoblastoid cells of a mutant gene carrier had, in addition to the wild-type menin transcript, an aberrant transcript resulting from use of a cryptic splice site within exon III that splices to the start of exon IV. The predicted menin Δ(184-218) mutant has an in-frame deletion of 35 amino acids but is otherwise of wild-type sequence. The transfected menin Δ(184-218) mutant was well expressed and fully able to mediate the normal inhibition of the activity of the transcriptional regulators JunD and NF-κB. However, it was defective in mediating TGF-β-stimulated Smad3 action in promoter-reporter assays in insulinoma cells. Importantly, lymphoblastoid cells from an individual heterozygous for the mutation had reduced TGF-β-induced (Smad3) transcriptional activity but normal JunD and NF-κB function. In addition, the mutant gene carrier lymphoblastoid cells proliferated faster and were less responsive to the cytostatic effects of TGF-β than cells from an unaffected family member. In conclusion, the menin mutant exhibits selective loss of the TGF-β signaling pathway and loss of cell proliferation control contributing to the development of MEN1.

Lee HL, Kim DC, Lee SP, et al.
Treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma with endoscopic submucosal dissection.
Gastrointest Endosc. 2012; 76(4):913-5 [PubMed] Related Publications

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