Gene Summary

Gene:JUNB; jun B proto-oncogene
Aliases: AP-1
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor jun-B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: JUNB (cancer-related)

Selvaraj N, Budka JA, Ferris MW, et al.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling regulates the opposing roles of JUN family transcription factors at ETS/AP-1 sites and in cell migration.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(1):88-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
JUN transcription factors bind DNA as part of the AP-1 complex, regulate many cellular processes, and play a key role in oncogenesis. The three JUN proteins (c-JUN, JUNB, and JUND) can have both redundant and unique functions depending on the biological phenotype and cell type assayed. Mechanisms that allow this dynamic switching between overlapping and distinct functions are unclear. Here we demonstrate that JUND has a role in prostate cell migration that is the opposite of c-JUN's and JUNB's. RNA sequencing reveals that opposing regulation by c-JUN and JUND defines a subset of AP-1 target genes with cell migration roles. cis-regulatory elements for only this subset of targets were enriched for ETS factor binding, indicating a specificity mechanism. Interestingly, the function of c-JUN and JUND in prostate cell migration switched when we compared cells with an inactive versus an active RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. We show that this switch is due to phosphorylation and activation of JUND by ERK. Thus, the ETS/AP-1 sequence defines a unique gene expression program regulated by the relative levels of JUN proteins and RAS/ERK signaling. This work provides a rationale for how transcription factors can have distinct roles depending on the signaling status and the biological function in question.

Hicks M, Hu Q, Macrae E, DeWille J
JUNB promotes the survival of Flavopiridol treated human breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(1):19-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy resistance is a major obstacle to achieving durable progression-free-survival in breast cancer patients. Identifying resistance mechanisms is crucial to the development of effective breast cancer therapies. Immediate early genes (IEGs) function in the initial cellular reprogramming response to alterations in the extracellular environment and IEGs have been implicated in cancer cell development and progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of kinase inhibitors on IEG expression in breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that Flavopiridol (FP), a CDK9 inhibitor, effectively reduced gene expression. FP treatment, however, consistently produced a delayed induction of JUNB gene expression in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Similar results were obtained with Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor and U0126, a MEK1 inhibitor. Functional studies revealed that JUNB plays a pro-survival role in kinase inhibitor treated breast cancer cells. These results demonstrate a unique induction of JUNB in response to kinase inhibitor therapies that may be among the earliest events in the progression to treatment resistance.

Berghoff AS, Birner P, Streubel B, et al.
ALK gene aberrations and the JUN/JUNB/PDGFR axis in metastatic NSCLC.
APMIS. 2014; 122(9):867-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene aberrations are found in several tumor types including anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib, an inhibitor of ALK-fusion proteins, has shown clinical activity, but resistance mechanisms limit long-lasting disease control. It has been shown that ALK-NPM fusion upregulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) via JUN and transcription factor Jun B (JUNB) in ALCL. PDGFRB inhibition has been identified as therapy option for ALK-positive ALCL. Here, we investigated the ALK/JUN/JUNB/transcription factor Jun C (JUNC)/PDGFR axis in metastatic NSCLC with regard to ALK aberrations. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), PDGFRB, JUNB and JUNC expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of 15 NSCLC brain metastases (5 ALK translocations, 3 of them involving EML4, 5 ALK amplifications, 5 without ALK aberrations). We did not find a statistically significant difference in expression of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, JUNB or JUNC in tumor samples with normal ALK status, ALK amplification or ALK translocations (Kruskal-Wallis test p > 0.05). Interestingly, PDGFRB was not expressed in tumor cells (but in vascular and stromal cells) in any of our cases. Our data argue against PDGFRB activation in association with ALK gene aberrations in metastatic NSCLC and thus seem to imply differential pathobiological roles of ALK alterations in lung cancer and lymphoma, possibly depending on different fusion partner genes. These results may be relevant for targeted therapies, as they indicate that inhibition of PDGFRB in ALK translocated NSCLC seems to be no therapeutic opportunity.

Jung HS, Seo YR, Yang YM, et al.
Gα12gep oncogene inhibits FOXO1 in hepatocellular carcinoma as a consequence of miR-135b and miR-194 dysregulation.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(7):1456-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
The high mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with its fast-growing malignancy. In tumor microenvironments, certain GPCRs are coupled to Gα12 for signal transduction. Given the role of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in the inhibition of various tumors, this study investigated whether increase of Gα12 in HCC causes FOXO1 repression, and if so, whether this event occurs through microRNA dysregulation. Overexpression of an active mutant of Gα12 (Gα12QL) decreased FOXO1 levels, whereas knockdown of Gα12 had the opposite effect. Of the microRNAs targeting FOXO1, miR-135b levels were markedly increased by Gα12 signaling, which led to FOXO1 repression as shown by the experiments using mimic, antisense oligonucleotide or siRNA. Gα12QL increased the primary form of miR-135b by activating JunB (or c-Jun)/AP-1. Consistently, knockdown of JunB (or c-Jun) decreased miR-135b levels, thereby increasing FOXO1. Moreover, Gα12QL induced MDM2, the deficiency of which facilitated FOXO1 accumulation. In addition, Gα12QL repressed miR-194 cluster gene products (194/192/215), which contributed to MDM2-mediated FOXO1 repression. In functional assays, Gα12QL facilitated tumor cell growth with alterations in cell cycle-associated protein levels, which was antagonized by enforced expression of FOXO1. In human HCCs, FOXO1 levels were decreased as compared with the surrounding liver tissue. Moreover, decrease of FOXO1 or miR-194 was statistically significant between stages T1 and T2, whereas increase of miR-135b discriminated tumor stage T3a versus T1/T2. In conclusion, Gα12gep oncogene inhibits FOXO1, which may result from the inhibition of FOXO1 de novo synthesis by miR-135b in conjunction with MDM2-mediated destabilization of FOXO1.

Bedal KB, Grässel S, Oefner PJ, et al.
Collagen XVI induces expression of MMP9 via modulation of AP-1 transcription factors and facilitates invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86777 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Collagen XVI belongs to the family of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACIT). It is overexpressed during the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present data show a strong collagen XVI-dependent induction of MMP9 and an increase in OSCC cell invasion. We found activated integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in a complex with kindlin-1 and activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) to be responsible for MMP9 induction. Inhibition of the formation of focal adhesions reduced MMP9 expression. Moreover, collagen XVI overexpressing OSCC cell clones (COLXVI cell clones) transfected with vectors containing different MMP9 promoter fragments adjacent to a luciferase reporter revealed an increase in luciferase signal dependent on AP-1 binding sites. Deletion of the AP-1 binding site 98 bp upstream of the reported transcription start site and inhibition of AP-1 with Tanshinone IIA resulted in decreased MMP9 expression. The AP-1 subunit JunB showed differential expression between COLXVI cell clones and mock control cells. Additionally, mass spectrometric analysis of immunoprecipitates revealed that c-Fos interacted strongly with dyskerin in COLXVI cell clones compared to mock controls.

Chen H, Ma J, Sunkel B, et al.
S100A14: novel modulator of terminal differentiation in esophageal cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(12):1542-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Aberrant keratinocyte differentiation is a key mechanism in the initiation of cancer. Because activities regulating differentiation exhibit altered or reduced capacity in esophageal cancer cells, it is vital to pinpoint those genes that control epidermal proliferation and terminal differentiation to better understand esophageal carcinogenesis. S100A14 is a member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family and has been suggested to be involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. The present study used immunohistochemistry analysis of S100A14 in clinical specimens of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to show that decreased S100A14 is strongly correlated with poor differentiation. Furthermore, both mRNA and protein expression of S100A14 was drastically increased upon 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and calcium-induced esophageal cancer cell differentiation. Overexpression of S100A14 resulted in a G1-phase cell cycle arrest and promoted calcium-inhibited cell growth. Conversely, decreasing S100A14 expression significantly promoted G1-S transition and prevented the morphologic changes associated with calcium-induced cell differentiation. Molecular investigation demonstrated that S100A14 altered the calcium-induced expression of late markers of differentiation, with the most prominent effect on involucrin (IVL) and filaggrin (FLG). Finally, it was determined that S100A14 is transcriptionally regulated by JunB and that S100A14 and JunB status significantly correlated in ESCC tissue. In summary, these data demonstrate that S100A14 is transcriptionally regulated by JunB and involved in ESCC cell differentiation.
IMPLICATIONS: This study further differentiates the molecular mechanism controlling the development and progression of esophageal cancer.

Kharman-Biz A, Gao H, Ghiasvand R, et al.
Expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:441 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer.
METHODS: We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient for statistical analyses.
RESULTS: We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer.

Wang L, Zhang X, Jia LT, et al.
c-Myc-mediated epigenetic silencing of MicroRNA-101 contributes to dysregulation of multiple pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(5):1850-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The MYC oncogene is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has been associated with widespread microRNA (miRNA) repression; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that the c-Myc oncogenic transcription factor physically interacts with enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a core enzymatic unit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Furthermore, miR-101, an important tumor-suppressive miRNA in human hepatocarcinomas, is epigenetically repressed by PRC2 complex in a c-Myc-mediated manner. miR-101, in turn, inhibits the expression of two subunits of PRC2 (EZH2 and EED), thus creating a double-negative feedback loop that regulates the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Restoration of miR-101 expression suppresses multiple malignant phenotypes of HCC cells by coordinate repression of a cohort of oncogenes, including STMN1, JUNB, and CXCR7, and further increases expression of endogenous miR-101 by inhibition of PRC2 activation. In addition, co-overexpression of c-Myc and EZH2 in HCC samples was closely associated with lower expression of miR-101 (P < 0.0001) and poorer prognosis of HCC patients (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: c-Myc collaborates with EZH2-containing PRC2 complex in silencing tumor-suppressive miRNAs during hepatocarcinogenesis and provides promising therapeutic candidates for human HCC.

Eckhoff K, Flurschütz R, Trillsch F, et al.
The prognostic significance of Jun transcription factors in ovarian cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(10):1673-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The Jun proteins (c-Jun, JunD and JunB) play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. It is well established that these proteins participate in the carcinogenesis and progression in several tumour types. However, little is known about the prognostic significance of Jun proteins in patients with invasive epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
METHODS: We analysed fresh-frozen tissues of 161 ovarian cancer patients by using Western blot analysis to investigate protein levels of JunB, JunD, c-Jun and phosphorylated c-Jun (pc-Jun Ser63). The results were correlated with clinicopathologic prognostic parameters and survival data.
RESULTS: A high pc-Jun expression was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival (14 vs. 16 months, p = 0.017) and overall survival (25 vs. 41 months, p = 0.038). In case of JunD, moderate protein levels were associated with a better prognosis, leading to longer progression-free and overall survival compared to weak or strong JunD expression (PFS in cases with weak/moderate/strong JunD expression: 14 vs. 19.5 vs. 16 months, p = 0.011; OAS: 32 vs. 42 vs. 35.5 months, p = 0.009). Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed an independent and significant impact of pc-Jun and JunD on the patient's prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Jun proteins (pc-Jun and JunD) influence carcinogenesis and tumour progression, suggesting a significant role as prognostic predictors in human ovarian carcinoma.

Hsu FN, Chen MC, Lin KC, et al.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates STAT3 and androgen receptor activation through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷ on STAT3 in prostate cancer cells.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 305(8):E975-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is known to regulate prostate cancer metastasis. Our previous results indicated that Cdk5 activates androgen receptor (AR) and supports prostate cancer growth. We also found that STAT3 is a target of Cdk5 in promoting thyroid cancer cell growth, whereas STAT3 may play a role as a regulator to AR activation under cytokine control. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Cdk5 and its activator p35 on STAT3/AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our results show that Cdk5 biochemically interacts with STAT3 and that this interaction depends on Cdk5 activation in prostate cancer cells. The phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser⁷²⁷ (p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3) is regulated by Cdk5 in cells and xenograft tumors. The mutant of STAT3 S727A reduces its interaction with Cdk5. We further show that the nuclear distribution of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes (junB, c-fos, c-myc, and survivin) are regulated by Cdk5 activation. STAT3 mutant does not further decrease cell proliferation upon Cdk5 inhibition, which implies that the role of STAT3 regulated by Cdk5 correlates to cell proliferation control. Interestingly, Cdk5 may regulate the interaction between STAT3 and AR through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and therefore upregulate AR protein stability and transactivation. Correspondingly, clinical evidence shows that the level of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 is significantly correlated with Gleason score and the levels of upstream regulators (Cdk5 and p35) as well as downstream protein (AR). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cdk5 regulates STAT3 activation through Ser⁷²⁷ phosphorylation and further promotes AR activation by protein-protein interaction in prostate cancer cells.

Bisig B, de Reyniès A, Bonnet C, et al.
CD30-positive peripheral T-cell lymphomas share molecular and phenotypic features.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(8):1250-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified is a heterogeneous group of aggressive neoplasms with indistinct borders. By gene expression profiling we previously reported unsupervised clusters of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified correlating with CD30 expression. In this work we extended the analysis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma molecular profiles to prototypical CD30(+) peripheral T-cell lymphomas (anaplastic large cell lymphomas), and validated mRNA expression profiles at the protein level. Existing transcriptomic datasets from peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified and anaplastic large cell lymphomas were reanalyzed. Twenty-one markers were selected for immunohistochemical validation on 80 peripheral T-cell lymphoma samples (not otherwise specified, CD30(+) and CD30(-); anaplastic large cell lymphomas, ALK(+) and ALK(-)), and differences between subgroups were assessed. Clinical follow-up was recorded. Compared to CD30(-) tumors, CD30(+) peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified were significantly enriched in ALK(-) anaplastic large cell lymphoma-related genes. By immunohistochemistry, CD30(+) peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified differed significantly from CD30(-) samples [down-regulated expression of T-cell receptor-associated proximal tyrosine kinases (Lck, Fyn, Itk) and of proteins involved in T-cell differentiation/activation (CD69, ICOS, CD52, NFATc2); upregulation of JunB and MUM1], while overlapping with anaplastic large cell lymphomas. CD30(-) peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified tended to have an inferior clinical outcome compared to the CD30(+) subgroups. In conclusion, we show molecular and phenotypic features common to CD30(+) peripheral T-cell lymphomas, and significant differences between CD30(-) and CD30(+) peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified, suggesting that CD30 expression might delineate two biologically distinct subgroups.

Mahata S, Pandey A, Shukla S, et al.
Anticancer activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Indian gooseberry): inhibition of transcription factor AP-1 and HPV gene expression in cervical cancer cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2013; 65 Suppl 1:88-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plant products of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are traditionally consumed for its immense nutritive and medicinal values. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it exerts it effects is less understood. In this study, we investigated mechanism of action of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) by studying its effect on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity and human papillomavirus (HPV) transcription that are essential for tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells. PE resulted in a dose-and time-dependent inhibition of DNA binding activity of constitutively active AP-1 in both HPV16-positive (SiHa) and HPV18-positive (HeLa) cervical cancer cells. PE-induced AP-1 inhibition was found mediated through downregulation of constituent AP-1 proteins, c-Jun, JunB, JunD, and c-Fos; however, the kinetics of their inhibition varied in both the cell types. Inhibition of AP-1 by PE was accompanied by suppression of viral transcription that resulted in growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Growth inhibitory activity of PE was primarily manifested through induction of apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that P. emblica exhibits its anticancer activities through inhibition of AP-1 and targets transcription of viral oncogenes responsible for development and progression of cervical cancer thus indicating its possible utility for treatment of HPV-induced cervical cancers.

Ghosh S, Ashcraft K, Jahid MJ, et al.
Regulation of adipose oestrogen output by mechanical stress.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1821 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Adipose stromal cells are the primary source of local oestrogens in adipose tissue, aberrant production of which promotes oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Here we show that extracellular matrix compliance and cell contractility are two opposing determinants for oestrogen output of adipose stromal cells. Using synthetic extracellular matrix and elastomeric micropost arrays with tunable rigidity, we find that increasing matrix compliance induces transcription of aromatase, a rate-limiting enzyme in oestrogen biosynthesis. This mechanical cue is transduced sequentially by discoidin domain receptor 1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, and phosphorylated JunB, which binds to and activates two breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters. In contrast, elevated cell contractility due to actin stress fibre formation dampens aromatase transcription. Mechanically stimulated stromal oestrogen production enhances oestrogen-dependent transcription in oestrogen receptor-positive tumour cells and promotes their growth. This novel mechanotransduction pathway underlies communications between extracellular matrix, stromal hormone output, and cancer cell growth within the same microenvironment.

Zhang H, Qu S, Li S, et al.
Silencing SATB1 inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 378(1-2):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been shown that over-expression of Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) in breast cancer predicts a poor prognosis. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of silencing SATB1 on mesenchymal derived human osteosarcoma U2OS cells and the underlying mechanisms. The expressions of SATB1 and the related genes in the cells were detected by qRT-PCR and/or Western Blotting. SATB1 silencing was achieved by stable transfection with the vectors expressing small hairpin RNA versus SATB1. Cell proliferation was detected in a microplate reader with Cell Counting Kit-8 and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using a cell cycle detection kit. The study found that SATB1 was particularly over-expressed in human osteosarcoma U2OS. Silencing SATB1 inhibited the proliferation of U2OS. It was found that inhibition of cell proliferation resulted from cell cycle arrest due to down-regulated expression of CFGF and JunB. The over-expression of SATB1 is responsible for abnormal proliferation of mesenchymal derived human Osteosatcoma U2OS cells, indicating that silencing SATB1 expression in the cells might be developed as an efficient osteosarcoma therapy. CTGF and JunB were involved in SATB1-mediated proliferation of U2OS cells.

Nottingham LK, Yan CH, Yang X, et al.
Aberrant IKKα and IKKβ cooperatively activate NF-κB and induce EGFR/AP1 signaling to promote survival and migration of head and neck cancer.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(9):1135-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The inhibitor-κB kinase-nuclear factor-κB (IKK-NF-κB) and epidermal growth factor receptor-activator protein-1 (EGFR-AP1) pathways are often co-activated and promote malignant behavior, but the underlying basis for this relationship is unclear. Resistance to inhibitors of IKKβ or EGFR is observed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Here, we reveal that both IKKα and β contribute to nuclear activation of canonical and alternate NF-κB/REL family transcription factors, and overexpression of signal components that enhance co-activation of the EGFR-AP1 pathway. We observed that IKKα and IKKβ exhibit increased protein expression, nuclear localization, and phosphorylation in HNSCC tissues and cell lines. Individually, IKK activity varied among different cell lines, but overexpression of both IKKs induced the strongest NF-κB activation. Conversely, siRNA knock down of both IKKs significantly decreased nuclear localization and phosphorylation of canonical RELA and IκBα and alternative p52 and RELB subunits. Knock down of both IKKs more effectively inhibited NF-κB activation, broadly modulated gene expression and suppressed cell proliferation and migration. Global expression profiling revealed that NF-κB, cytokine, inflammatory response and growth factor signaling are among the top pathways and networks regulated by IKKs. Importantly, IKKα and IKKβ together promoted the expression and activity of transforming growth factor α, EGFR and AP1 transcription factors cJun, JunB and Fra1. Knock down of AP1 subunits individually decreased 8/15 (53%) of IKK-targeted genes sampled and similarly inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Mutations of NF-κB and AP1-binding sites abolished or decreased IKK-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) promoter activity. Compounds such as wedelactone with dual IKK inhibitory activity and geldanomycins that block IKKα/β and EGFR pathways were more active than IKKβ-specific inhibitors in suppressing NF-κB activation and proliferation and inducing cell death. We conclude that IKKα and IKKβ cooperatively activate NF-κB and EGFR/AP1 networks of signaling pathways and contribute to the malignant phenotype and the intrinsic or acquired therapeutic resistance of HNSCC.

De Marco C, Rinaldo N, Bruni P, et al.
Multiple genetic alterations within the PI3K pathway are responsible for AKT activation in patients with ovarian carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55362 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is activated in multiple cancers including ovarian carcinoma (OC). However, the relative contribution of the single components within the PI3K pathway to AKT activation in OC is still unclear. We examined 98 tumor samples from Italian OC patients for alterations in the members of the PI3K pathway. We report that AKT is significantly hyperactive in OC compared to normal tissue (n = 93; p<0.0001) and that AKT activation is preferentially observed in the elderly (>58 years old; n = 93; p<0.05). The most frequent alteration is the overexpression of the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K (63/93, ∼68%); less frequent alterations comprise the loss of PTEN (24/89, 27%) and the overexpression of AKT1 (18/96, 19%) or AKT2 (11/88,12.5%). Mutations in the PIK3CA or KRAS genes were detected at lower frequency (12% and 10%, respectively) whereas mutations in AKT1 or AKT2 genes were absent. Although many tumors presented a single lesion (28/93, of which 23 overexpressed PIK3CA, 1 overexpressed AKT and 4 had lost PTEN), many OC (35/93) presented multiple alterations within the PI3K pathway. Apparently, aberrant PI3K signalling was mediated by activation of the canonical downstream AKT-dependent mTOR/S6K1/4EBP1 pathway and by regulation of expression of oncogenic transcription factors that include HMGA1, JUN-B, FOS and MYC but not by AKT-independent activation of SGK3. FISH analysis indicated that gene amplification of PIK3CA, AKT1 and AKT2 (but not of PI3KR1) and the loss of PTEN are common and may account for changes in the expression of the corresponding proteins. In conclusion, our results indicate that p110α overexpression represents the most frequent alteration within the PI3K/AKT pathway in OC. However, p110α overexpression may not be sufficient to activate AKT signalling and drive ovarian tumorigenesis since many tumors overexpressing PI3K presented at least one additional alteration.

Lai YH, Yu SL, Chen HY, et al.
The HLJ1-targeting drug screening identified Chinese herb andrographolide that can suppress tumour growth and invasion in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(5):1069-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
HLJ1 is a novel tumour suppressor and is a potential druggable target for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this report, using a promoter-containing enhancer region as the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform, we identified several herbal compounds from a Chinese herbal bank with the capacity to enhance HLJ1 promoter activity and suppress tumour growth and invasion of NSCLC. Among the herbal drugs identified, the andrographolide (from Andrographis paniculata [Burm. f.] Nees.) most significantly induced HLJ1 expression and suppressed tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. The andrographolide upregulates HLJ1 via JunB activation, which modulates AP-2α binding at the MMP-2 promoter and represses the expression of MMP-2. In addition, silencing of HLJ1 partially reverses the inhibition of cancer-cell invasion by andrographolide. Microarray transcriptomic analysis was performed to comprehensively depict the andrographolide-regulated signalling pathways. We showed that andrographolide can affect 939 genes (analysis of variance, false discovery rate < 0.05) that are dominantly involved in the cell cycle, apoptosis and adhesion-related biological signalling, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, focal adhesion and tight junction pathways, indicating the diverse effects of andrographolide on anticancer invasion and proliferation. In conclusion, the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform is useful for screening of novel anticancer compounds. Using this platform, we identified andrographolide is a promising new anticancer agent that could suppress tumour growth and invasion in NSCLC.

Guo C, Liu Q, Zhang L, et al.
Double lethal effects of fusion gene of wild-type p53 and JunB on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2012; 32(5):663-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study explored the double lethal effects of pEGFP-C1-wtp53/junB fusion gene on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. wtp53/junB fusion gene was constructed and transformed into HepG2 cell line. Expression of KAI1 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, cells apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry, proliferation of cells was detected byMTT chromometry, cell transmigration was detected by using transwell systems. The results showed that after transformation with pEGFP-C1-wtp53/JunB, the expression level of KAI1 protein was up-regulated, being 8.13 times the blank control group in HepG2 cells and significantly higher than 2.87 times which transformed with pEGFP-C1-JunB, 3.11 times which transformed with pEGFP-C1-wtp53 (P<0.001). Apoptosis rate of HepG2 cells transformed with pEGFP-C1-wtp53/JunB was significantly higher than that of other groups (P<0.001), and invasive ability of HepG2 cells transformed with pEGFP-C1-wtp53/JunB was significantly lower than other groups(P<0.001). It was concluded that the fusion gene of wtp53 and JunB could not only inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells and promote tumor cell apoptosis, but also suppress the invasive ability of tumor cells by up-regulating the expression of KAI1.

Elton TS, Selemon H, Elton SM, Parinandi NL
Regulation of the MIR155 host gene in physiological and pathological processes.
Gene. 2013; 532(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, play a critical role in posttranscriptional gene regulation by acting as adaptors for the miRNA-induced silencing complex to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and/or cleavage. miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p are processed from the B-cell Integration Cluster (BIC) gene (now designated, MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG). MiR-155-5p is highly expressed in both activated B- and T-cells and in monocytes/macrophages. MiR-155-5p is one of the best characterized miRNAs and recent data indicate that miR-155-5p plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes such as hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Down syndrome. In this review we summarize the mechanisms by which MIR155HG expression can be regulated. Given that the pathologies mediated by miR-155-5p result from the over-expression of this miRNA it may be possible to therapeutically attenuate miR-155-5p levels in the treatment of several pathological processes.

Jun BY, Kim SW, Jung CK, et al.
Expression of girdin in human colorectal cancer and its association with tumor progression.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2013; 56(1):51-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Girdin is crucial for cellular motility in cancer cell lines and for metastasis in a mouse model. Its expression has been demonstrated in a range of cancers by a few studies and was a prognostic factor in a subset of patients.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Girdin expression to clinicopathologic factors in terms of the progression of colorectal cancers and patient survival.
DESIGN: This study is a retrospective review of immunohistochemical and clinicopathologic data.
SETTING: This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital/referral center in South Korea.
PATIENTS: Tissue microarrays were made from surgical biopsies of 298 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between November 1996 and August 2007. Patients were included in the study if their survival time was known and if well-preserved surgical biopsy specimens were available.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were Girdin expression and its association in tumor progression and patient survival.
RESULTS: Positive staining for Girdin was observed in samples from 66 of 242 patients (27.3%). Expression of Girdin was significantly associated with tumor-node-metastasis stage (p = 0.036), liver metastasis (p = 0.025), and metastases involving the liver and other organs (p = 0.009). However, Girdin expression did not correlate significantly with the overall survival of patients and was not a significant negative prognostic factor for survival by univariate or multivariate analyses.
LIMITATIONS: The number of investigated patients and the number of cases with positive staining for Girdin were rather small for the multivariate analysis. The inclusion time frame is long and includes other surgical and medical improvements, which influence a patient's survival.
CONCLUSION: The expression of Girdin is related to tumor metastasis but not to survival in human colorectal cancers.

Zhang HS, Yan B, Li XB, et al.
PAX2 protein induces expression of cyclin D1 through activating AP-1 protein and promotes proliferation of colon cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(53):44164-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Paired box (PAX) 2, a transcription factor, plays a critical role in embryogenesis. When aberrantly expressed in adult tissues, it generally exhibits oncogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We reported previously that the expression of PAX2 was up-regulated in human colon cancers. However, the role of PAX2 in colon cancer cells has yet to be determined. The aim of this study is to determine the function of PAX2 in colon cancer cells and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlain. We find that knockdown of PAX2 inhibits proliferation and xenograft growth of colon cancer cells. Inhibition of PAX2 results in a decreased expression of cyclin D1. Expression of cyclin D1 is found increased in human primary colon malignant tumors, and its expression is associated with that of PAX2. These data indicate that PAX2 is a positive regulator of expression of cyclin D1. We find that knockdown of PAX2 inhibits the activity of AP-1, a transcription factor that induces cyclin D1 expression, implying that PAX2 induces cyclin D1 through AP-1. PAX2 has little effect on expression of AP-1 members including c-Jun, c-Fos, and JunB. Our data show that PAX2 prevents JunB from binding c-Jun and enhances phosphorylation of c-Jun, which may elevate the activity of AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that PAX2 promotes proliferation of colon cancer cells through AP-1.

Kim YH, Jun BC, Yun SH, Chang KH
Intracochlear schwannoma extending to vestibule.
Auris Nasus Larynx. 2013; 40(5):497-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intralabyrinthine schwannomas are benign tumors arising de novo from the perineural Schwann cell sheath of the intralabyrinthine branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has significantly increased the diagnosis of these tumors. Intralabyrinthine schwannomas can be sub-classified into seven groups according to the structures of the inner ear that are affected. The management strategy for intralabyrinthine schwannoma is regular monitoring with MRI, as the tumor grows slowly. In cases where the tumor growth is documented on serial MRI or disturbing vestibular symptoms are present, surgical removal can be considered. The surgical approach varies based on tumor location and size. We report a case of intravestibulocochlear schwannoma causing vertigo that developed from an intracochlear tumor during MRI. We successfully removed the tumor via the transotic approach.

Sundqvist A, Zieba A, Vasilaki E, et al.
Specific interactions between Smad proteins and AP-1 components determine TGFβ-induced breast cancer cell invasion.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(31):3606-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signal transduction cascade is functionally linked to cancer. In early phases, TGFβ acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, whereas in late phases, it can act as a tumor promoter by stimulating tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Smad transcriptional effectors mediate TGFβ responses, but relatively little is known about the Smad-containing complexes that are important for epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that specific members of the AP-1 transcription factor family determine TGFβ signaling specificity in breast cancer cell invasion. Using a 3D model of collagen-embedded spheroids of MCF10A-MII premalignant human breast cancer cells, we identified the AP-1 transcription factor components c-Jun, JunB, c-Fos and Fra1 as essential factors for TGFβ-induced invasion and found that various mesenchymal and invasion-associated TGFβ-induced genes are co-regulated by these proteins. In situ proximity ligation assays showed that TGFβ signaling not only induces complexes between Smad3 and Smad4 in the nucleus but also complexes between Smad2/3 and Fra1, whereas complexes between Smad3, c-Jun and JunB could already be detected before TGFβ stimulation. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitations showed that c-Jun, JunB and Fra1, but not c-Fos, are required for TGFβ-induced binding of Smad2/3 to the mmp-10 and pai-1 promoters. Together these results suggest that in particular formation of Smad2/3-Fra1 complexes may reflect activation of the Smad/AP-1-dependent TGFβ-induced invasion program.

Xie W, Feng Q, Su Y, et al.
Transcriptional regulation of PES1 expression by c-Jun in colon cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e42253 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Pescadillo is a nucleolar protein that has been suggested to be involved in embryonic development and ribosome biogenesis. Deregulated expression of human pescadillo (PES1) was described in some tumors, but its precise roles in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we generated three monoclonal antibodies recognizing PES1 with high specificity and sensitivity, with which PES1 expression in human colon cancer was analyzed immunohistochemically. Out of 265 colon cancer tissues, 89 (33.6%) showed positive PES1 expression, which was significantly higher than in non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001). Silencing of PES1 in colon cancer cells resulted in decreased proliferation, reduced growth of xenografts, and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, indicating PES1 functions as an oncogene. We then explored the mechanism by which PES1 expression is controlled in human colon cancers and demonstrated that c-Jun, but not JunB, JunD, c-Fos, or mutant c-Jun, positively regulated PES1 promoter transcription activity. In addition, we mapped -274/-264 region of PES1 promoter as the c-Jun binding sequence, which was validated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Moreover, we demonstrated a positive correlation between c-Jun and PES1 expression in colon cancer cells and colon cancer tissues. Upstream of c-Jun, it was revealed that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) is essential for controlling PES1 expression. Our study, in the first place, uncovers the oncogenic role of PES1 in colon cancer and elucidates the molecular mechanism directing PES1 expression.

Wang CC, Lin SY, Lai YH, et al.
Dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the multiple functions of the tumor suppressor HLJ1 through activator protein-1 activation in NSCLC cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e33772 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that displays a diversity of antitumor activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that DMSO can modulate AP-1 activity and lead to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. HLJ1 is a newly identified tumor and invasion suppressor that inhibits tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. Its transcriptional activity is regulated by the transcription factor AP-1. However, the effects of DMSO on HLJ1 are still unknown. In the present study, we investigate the antitumor effects of DMSO through HLJ1 induction and demonstrate the mechanisms involved.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Low-HLJ1-expressing highly invasive CL1-5 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of DMSO. We found that DMSO can significantly inhibit cancer cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and colony formation capabilities through upregulation of HLJ1 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas ethanol has no effect. In addition, the HLJ1 promoter and enhancer reporter assay revealed that DMSO transcriptionally upregulates HLJ1 expression through an AP-1 site within the HLJ1 enhancer. The AP-1 subfamily members JunD and JunB were significantly upregulated by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, pretreatment with DMSO led to a significant increase in the percentage of UV-induced apoptotic cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DMSO may be an important stimulator of the tumor suppressor protein HLJ1 through AP-1 activation in highly invasive lung adenocarcinoma cells. Targeted induction of HLJ1 represents a promising approach for cancer therapy, which also implied that DMSO may serve as a potential lead compound or coordinated ligand for the development of novel anticancer drugs.

Vishwamitra D, Li Y, Wilson D, et al.
MicroRNA 96 is a post-transcriptional suppressor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 180(5):1772-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) constitutes a part of the oncogenic fusion proteins nucleophosmin-ALK and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4-ALK, which are aberrantly expressed in a subset of T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and non-small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The expression of mutated, constitutively active ALK also occurs in a subset of neuroblastoma tumors. ALK is believed to play an important role in promoting tumor survival. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the expression of ALK in cancer cells are not completely known. MicroRNA (miR) has been implicated in the regulation of the expression of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of ALK could be regulated by miR. Three Internet-based algorithms identified miR-96 to potentially bind with the ALK 3'-untranslated region. Notably, miR-96 levels were markedly decreased in ALK-expressing cancer cell lines and primary human tumors compared with their normal cellular and tissue counterparts. Transfection of the cell lines with miR-96 decreased levels of the different forms of ALK protein, without significant effects on ALK mRNA. Furthermore, miR-96 decreased the phosphorylation of ALK target proteins, including Akt, STAT3, JNK, and type I insulin-like growth factor receptor, and it down-regulated JunB. These effects were associated with reduced proliferation, colony formation, and migration of ALK-expressing cancer cells. These data provide novel evidence that decreases in miR-96 could represent a mechanism underlying the aberrant expression of ALK in cancer cells.

Gervasi M, Bianchi-Smiraglia A, Cummings M, et al.
JunB contributes to Id2 repression and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in response to transforming growth factor-β.
J Cell Biol. 2012; 196(5):589-603 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) contributes to tissue fibrosis, wound healing, and cancer via a mechanism that is not fully understood. This study identifies a critical role of JunB in the EMT and profibrotic responses to TGF-β. Depletion of JunB by small interfering ribonucleic acid abrogates TGF-β-induced disruption of cell-cell junctions, formation of actin fibers, focal adhesions, and expression of fibrotic proteins. JunB contributes to Smad-mediated repression of inhibitor of differentiation 2 through interaction with transcription repressor activating transcription factor 3. Importantly, JunB mediates the TGF-β induction of profibrotic response factors, fibronectin, fibulin-2, tropomyosin (Tpm1), and integrin-β3, which play critical roles in matrix deposition, cell-matrix adhesion, and actin stress fibers. In summary, JunB provides important input in setting the transcriptional program of the EMT and profibrotic responses to TGF-β. Thus, JunB represents an important target in diseases associated with EMT, including cancer and fibrosis.

Liu Z, Yan R, Al-Salman A, et al.
Epidermal growth factor induces tumour marker AKR1B10 expression through activator protein-1 signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biochem J. 2012; 442(2):273-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase 1B10) is overexpressed in liver and lung cancer, and plays a critical role in tumour development and progression through promoting lipogenesis and eliminating cytotoxic carbonyls. AKR1B10 is a secretory protein and potential tumour marker; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of AKR1B10 expression. The present study showed that AKR1B10 is induced by mitogen EGF (epidermal growth factor) and insulin through the AP-1 (activator protein-1) signalling pathway. In human HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells (HepG2 and Hep3B), EGF (50 ng/ml) and insulin (10 nM) stimulated endogenous AKR1B10 expression and promoter activity. In the AKR1B10 promoter, a putative AP-1 element was found at bp -222 to -212. Deletion or mutation of this AP-1 element abrogated the basal promoter activity and response to EGF and AP-1 proteins. This AP-1 element bound to nuclear proteins extracted from HepG2 cells, and this binding was stimulated by EGF and insulin in a dose-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the AP-1 proteins c-Fos and c-Jun were the predominant factors bound to the AP-1 consensus sequence, followed by JunD and then JunB. The same order was followed in the stimulation of endogenous AKR1B10 expression by AP-1 proteins. Furthermore, c-Fos shRNA (short hairpin RNA) and AP-1 inhibitors/antagonists (U0126 and Tanshinone IIA) inhibited endogenous AKR1B10 expression and promoter activity in HepG2 cells cultured in vitro or inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice. U0126 also inhibited AKR1B10 expression induced by EGF. Taken together, these results suggest that AKR1B10 is up-regulated by EGF and insulin through AP-1 mitogenic signalling and may be implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis.

Lee KH, Kim JR
Regulation of HGF-mediated cell proliferation and invasion through NF-κB, JunB, and MMP-9 cascades in stomach cancer cells.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2012; 29(3):263-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Blocking of activator protein-1 activity leads to suppression of growth factor-induced transformation. However, the role of individual components of the Jun family in this process is unclear. Over-expression of JunB has been reported to be associated with neoplastic transformation and regulation of Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. Using cDNA microarray, we found that JunB might be one of target genes up-regulated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Therefore, we tried to investigate the role of JunB in HGF-medicated cell proliferation and cell invasion in human gastric cancer cells, NUGC3 and MKN28. We verified that HGF increased JunB in time and dose-dependent manners. The JunB levels were decreased by the treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Down-regulation of JunB by transfecting cells with JunB-short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) inhibited MMP-9 up-regulation induced by HGF. Furthermore, transfection with JunB-shRNA repressed HGF-mediated increases in cell proliferation and cell invasion. These data suggest that JunB might be regulated through an NF-κB pathway and up-regulation of JunB induced by HGF might play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell invasion through MMP-9 expression. In conclusion, these results may contribute to the JunB-associated malignant phenotype of gastric cancers by regulating MMP-9, and serve as a novel therapeutic target for stomach cancer therapy in the future.

Melaiu O, Cristaudo A, Melissari E, et al.
A review of transcriptome studies combined with data mining reveals novel potential markers of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Mutat Res. 2012 Apr-Jun; 750(2):132-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a cancer of the serosal pleural cavities, is one of the most aggressive human tumors. In order to identify genes crucial for the onset and progression of MPM, we performed an extensive literature review focused on transcriptome studies (RTS). In this kind of studies a great number of transcripts are analyzed without formulating any a priori hypothesis, thus preventing any bias coming from previously established knowledge that could lead to an over-representation of specific genes. Each study was thoroughly analyzed paying particular attention to: (i) the employed microarray platform, (ii) the number and type of samples, (iii) the fold-change, and (iv) the statistical significance of deregulated genes. We also performed data mining (DM) on MPM using three different tools (Coremine, SNPs3D, and GeneProspector). Results from RTS and DM were compared in order to restrict the number of genes potentially deregulated in MPM. Our main requirement for a gene to be a "mesothelioma gene" (MG) is to be reproducibly deregulated among independent studies and confirmed by DM. A list of MGs was thus produced, including PTGS2, BIRC5, ASS1, JUNB, MCM2, AURKA, FGF2, MKI67, CAV1, SFRP1, CCNB1, CDK4, and MSLN that might represent potential novel biomarkers or therapeutic targets for MPM. Moreover, it was found a sub-group of MGs including ASS1, JUNB, PTGS2, EEF2, SULF1, TOP2A, AURKA, BIRC5, CAV1, IFITM1, PCNA, and PKM2 that could explain, at least in part, the mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, one first-line chemotherapeutic drug used for the disease. Finally, the pathway analysis showed that co-regulation networks related to the cross-talk between MPM and its micro-environment, in particular involving the adhesion molecules, integrins, and cytokines, might have an important role in MPM. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the role played by these genes in MPM.

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