Gene Summary

Gene:REG1A; regenerating islet-derived 1 alpha
Aliases: P19, PSP, PTP, REG, ICRF, PSPS, PSPS1
Summary:This gene is a type I subclass member of the Reg gene family. The Reg gene family is a multigene family grouped into four subclasses, types I, II, III and IV, based on the primary structures of the encoded proteins. This gene encodes a protein that is secreted by the exocrine pancreas. It is associated with islet cell regeneration and diabetogenesis and may be involved in pancreatic lithogenesis. Reg family members REG1B, REGL, PAP and this gene are tandemly clustered on chromosome 2p12 and may have arisen from the same ancestral gene by gene duplication. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: REG1A (cancer-related)

He F, Melamed J, Tang MS, et al.
Oncogenic HRAS Activates Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Confers Stemness to p53-Deficient Urothelial Cells to Drive Muscle Invasion of Basal Subtype Carcinomas.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(10):2017-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2016 Related Publications
Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (MIUCB) exhibit frequent receptor tyrosine kinase alterations, but the precise nature of their contributions to tumor pathophysiology is unclear. Using mutant HRAS (HRAS*) as an oncogenic prototype, we obtained evidence in transgenic mice that RTK/RAS pathway activation in urothelial cells causes hyperplasia that neither progresses to frank carcinoma nor regresses to normal urothelium through a period of one year. This persistent hyperplastic state appeared to result from an equilibrium between promitogenic factors and compensatory tumor barriers in the p19-MDM2-p53-p21 axis and a prolonged G2 arrest. Conditional inactivation of p53 in urothelial cells of transgenic mice expressing HRAS* resulted in carcinoma in situ and basal-subtype MIUCB with focal squamous differentiation resembling the human counterpart. The transcriptome of microdissected MIUCB was enriched in genes that drive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the upregulation of which is associated with urothelial cells expressing multiple progenitor/stem cell markers. Taken together, our results provide evidence for RTK/RAS pathway activation and p53 deficiency as a combinatorial theranostic biomarker that may inform the progression and treatment of urothelial carcinoma.

Liu X, Wang J, Wang H, et al.
REG3A accelerates pancreatic cancer cell growth under IL-6-associated inflammatory condition: Involvement of a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 362(1):45-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Regenerating gene protein (REG) 3A is a 19 kD secretory pancreas protein with pro-growth function. Previously we demonstrated that overexpression of REG3A, acting as a key molecule for up-regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, contributed to inflammation-related pancreatic cancer (PaC) development. However the exact network associated with REG3A signaling still remains unclear. Here we determined that exposure of human PaC cells to cytokine IL-6 activated the oncogenic JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which directly upregulated REG3A expression, accelerated cell cycle progression by promoting CyclinD1 expression, and enhancing the expression of the anti-apoptosis Bcl family. Importantly, the activation of REG3A would instead enhance the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to constitute a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop, which leads to the amplification of the oncogenic effects of IL-6/JAK2/STAT3, a classic pathway linking to inflammation-related tumorigenesis, ultimately resulting in PaC cell over-proliferation and tumor formation both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR was found to mediate the REG3A signal for PaC cell growth and JAK2/STAT3 activation, thus functioning as a REG3A receptor. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence for the presence of the synergistic effect of REG3A and IL-6 on PaC development via a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop.

Lee JH, Kim C, Kim SH, et al.
Farnesol inhibits tumor growth and enhances the anticancer effects of bortezomib in multiple myeloma xenograft mouse model through the modulation of STAT3 signaling pathway.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 360(2):280-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently observed in multiple myeloma (MM) cancer and can upregulate the expression of several genes involved in proliferation, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The effect of farnesol (FOH) on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases, its regulated gene products, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis was examined. The in vivo effect of FOH on the growth of human MM xenograft tumors alone and in combination with bortezomib (Bor) in athymic nu/nu female mice was also investigated. We found that FOH suppressed both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation at Tyr705 in MM cells. The suppression of STAT3 was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream JAK1, JAK2, and c-Src kinases. Also, treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, pervanadate treatment reversed the FOH-induced down-regulation of STAT3, possibly indicating the involvement of a PTP. Indeed, we found that FOH treatment induces the increased expression of SHP-2 protein and knockdown of the SHP-2 gene by small interfering RNA suppressed the ability of FOH to inhibit STAT3 activation. FOH inhibited proliferation and significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of bortezomib (Bor) in U266 cells. When administered intraperitoneally, FOH enhanced Bor-induced growth suppression of human MM xenograft tumors in athymic nu/nu female mice. Our results suggest that FOH is a novel blocker of STAT3 signaling pathway and exerts both anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities in MM in vitro and in vivo.

Salotti J, Sakchaisri K, Tourtellotte WG, Johnson PF
An Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ pathway linked to ras-induced senescence and cancer.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(5):866-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) protects normal cells from transformation by Ras, whereas cells lacking p14/p19(Arf) or other tumor suppressors can be transformed. The transcription factor C/EBPβ is required for OIS in primary fibroblasts but is downregulated by H-Ras(V12) in immortalized NIH 3T3 cells through a mechanism involving p19(Arf) loss. Here, we report that members of the serum-induced early growth response (Egr) protein family are also downregulated in 3T3(Ras) cells and directly and redundantly control Cebpb gene transcription. Egr1, Egr2, and Egr3 recognize three sites in the Cebpb promoter and associate transiently with this region after serum stimulation, coincident with Cebpb induction. Codepletion of all three Egrs prevented Cebpb expression, and serum induction of Egrs was significantly blunted in 3T3(Ras) cells. Egr2 and Egr3 levels were also reduced in Ras(V12)-expressing p19(Arf) null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and overall Egr DNA-binding activity was suppressed in Arf-deficient but not wild-type (WT) MEFs, leading to Cebpb downregulation. Analysis of human cancers revealed a strong correlation between EGR levels and CEBPB expression, regardless of whether CEBPB was increased or decreased in tumors. Moreover, overexpression of Egrs in tumor cell lines induced CEBPB and inhibited proliferation. Thus, our findings identify the Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ axis as an important determinant of cellular responses (senescence or transformation) to oncogenic Ras signaling.

Zhang Y, Peng L, Hu T, et al.
La-related protein 4B maintains murine MLL-AF9 leukemia stem cell self-renewal by regulating cell cycle progression.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(4):309-18.e2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our recent study identified a nonsense mutation of La-related protein 4B (LARP4B) from whole genome sequencing of a 3-year-old female monozygotic twin pair discordant for MLL-associated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To study the role of LARP4B in AML, we established a LARP4B-knockdown MLL-AF9 AML mouse model. Using this mouse model, we found that LARP4B knockdown significantly decreased leukemia cells in the peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow and prolonged the survival of AML recipient mice. Additional studies showed that LARP4B knockdown reduced leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and impaired the self-renew capacity of LSCs. Cell cycle analysis revealed that LARP4B knockdown arrested more LSCs in the G0 phase. The transcription of the cell cycle inhibitors p16, p19, and p21 and of the lineage-specific transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α was increased in the LARP4B-knockdown LSCs. Thus, our results demonstrate that LARP4B plays an important role in the maintenance of LSCs and suggest that LARP4B may regulate the cell cycle of LSCs via suppressing the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p16, p19, and p21 and the myeloid specific transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α.

Zhang F, Song X, Li L, et al.
Polygala tenuifolia polysaccharide (PTP) inhibits cell proliferation by repressing Bmi-1 expression and downregulating telomerase activity.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2907-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
In our previous study, we isolated a homogeneous polysaccharide (PTP) with antitumor activity from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia. In view of the close correlation between Bmi-1 expression and progression of ovarian cancer, we intend to elucidate the mechanism of its activity by determining the Bmi-1 expression and the telomerase activity in human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cells following treatment with PTP at three concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL for 48 h. MTT and colony-forming assays revealed that PTP had a significant inhibitory effect on the cell growth and colony formation of OVCAR-3 cells. Furthermore, Western blot and real-time PCR analysis showed that PTP inhibited Bmi-1 both in protein and transcript levels. Besides, the telomerase activity in OVCAR-3 cells was also downregulated after PTP treatment for 48 h. Taken together, the inhibitory effect of PTP on the cell growth was at least in part mediated via the downregulation of Bmi-1 expression and the telomerase activity in OVCAR-3 cells, and PTP might be a new candidate for chemotherapeutic agent against human ovarian cancer.

Zhang F, Song X, Li L, et al.
Polygala tenuifolia polysaccharide PTP induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via a mitochondrial pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2913-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
One purified polysaccharide protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) was isolated from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antitumor effect of PTP on human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells and explore the molecular mechanism of the action involved. The results of MTT assay and apoptosis detection assay showed that PTP inhibited cellular proliferation of OVCAR-3 cells and induced apoptotic cellular death via arresting cell circle at the G0/G1 phase. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis identified that bcl-2 gradually decreased at both transcription and protein levels after PTP treatment for 48 h in OVCAR-3 cells, while those of bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3, and caspase-9 increased. In addition, the low expression of NF-κB in PTP-treated OVCAR-3 cells would trigger the extrinsic pathway of programmed cell death signaling in tumor cells. These results together suggest that PTP may induce apoptosis of OVCAR-3 cells through a mitochondrial pathway.

Rad SM, Bamdad T, Sadeghizadeh M, et al.
Transcription factor decoy against stem cells master regulators, Nanog and Oct-4: a possible approach for differentiation therapy.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2621-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factor decoys (TFDs) are exogenous oligonucleotides which can compete by cis-elements in promoters or enhancers for binding to TFs and downregulating gene expression in a specific manner. It is believed that tumor mass originates from cancer stem cells (CSCs) which the same with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the properties of both pluripotency and self-renewal (stemness). Many transcription factors such as Nanog, Oct-4, Sox2, Klf4, and Sall4 act as master regulators in the maintenance of stemness in both cell types. Differentiation therapy is based on this theory that by differentiation of CSCs, tumor mass can be eliminated with common cancer therapy methods. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of a TFD approach against master regulator of stemness, Nanog, Oct-4, and Klf4, for downregulation purposes in P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cell. Different simple and complex decoys against Nanog, OCT-4, Sox2, and Klf4 were designed and used for this purpose. The results showed that the applied decoys especially Nanog-specific decoy decreased the expression of downstream genes.

Chun J, Li RJ, Cheng MS, Kim YS
Alantolactone selectively suppresses STAT3 activation and exhibits potent anticancer activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(1):393-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
The important goal of cancer drug discovery is to develop therapeutic agents that are effective, safe, and affordable. In the present study, we demonstrated that alantolactone, which is a sesquiterpene lactone, has potential activity against triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Alantolactone effectively suppressed both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation at tyrosine 705. Alantolactone decreased STAT3 translocation to the nucleus, its DNA-binding, and STAT3 target gene expression. Alantolactone significantly inhibits STAT3 activation with a marginal effect on MAPKs and on NF-κB transcription; however, this effect is not mediated by inhibiting STAT3 upstream kinases. Although SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, which are protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), were not affected by alantolactone, the treatment with a PTP inhibitor reversed the alantolactone-induced suppression of STAT3 activation, indicating that PTP plays an important role in the action of alantolactone. Finally, alantolactone treatment resulted in the inhibition of migration, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation. The in vivo administration of alantolactone inhibited the growth of human breast xenograft tumors. These results provide preclinical evidence to continue the development of alantolactone as a STAT3 inhibitor and as a potential therapeutic agent against breast cancer.

Hsieh MH, Tsai CH, Lin CC, et al.
Topoisomerase II inhibition suppresses the proliferation of telomerase-negative cancers.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015; 72(9):1825-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Telomere maintenance is required for chromosome stability, and telomeres are typically elongated by telomerase following DNA replication. In both tumor and yeast cells that lack telomerase, telomeres are maintained via an alternative recombination mechanism. Previous studies have indicated that yeast Sgs1 and Top3 may work together to remove highly negative supercoils that are generated from recombination. However, the mechanism by which cells eradicate highly positive supercoils during recombination remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that TOP2 is involved in telomere-telomere recombination. Disturbance of telomeric structure by RIF1 or RIF2 deletion alleviates the requirement for TOP2 in telomere-telomere recombination. In human telomerase-negative alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) cells, TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown decreases ALT-associated PML bodies, increases telomere dysfunction-induced foci and triggers telomere shortening. Similar results were observed when ALT cells were treated with ICRF-193, a TOP2 inhibitor. Importantly, ICRF-193 treatment blocks ALT-associated phenotypes in vitro, causes telomere shortening, and inhibits ALT cell proliferation in mice. Taken together, these findings imply that TOP2 is involved in the ALT pathway, perhaps by resolving the highly positive supercoil structure at the front of the helicase. Inhibition of topoisomerase II may be a promising therapeutic approach that can be used to prevent cell proliferation in ALT-type cancer cells.

Mußbach F, Henklein P, Westermann M, et al.
Proteinase-activated receptor 1- and 4-promoted migration of Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells depends on ROS formation and RTK transactivation.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(5):813-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is growing evidence for a role of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, in cancer. We have previously shown that PAR1 and PAR4 are able to promote the migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells suggesting a function in HCC progression. In this study, we assessed the underlying signalling mechanisms.
METHODS: Using Hep3B liver carcinoma cells, RTK activation was assessed by Western blot employing phospho-RTK specific antibodies, ROS level were estimated by H2DCF-DA using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and measurement of PTP activity was performed in cell lysates using 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP) as a substrate.
RESULTS: Thrombin, the PAR1 selective agonist peptide TFLLRN-NH2 (PAR1-AP), and the PAR4 selective agonist peptide, AYPGKF-NH2 (PAR4-AP), induced a significant increase in Hep3B cell migration that could be blocked by inhibitors targeting formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or activation of hepatocyte-growth factor receptor (Met), or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), respectively. The involvement of these intracellular effectors in PAR1/4-initiated migratory signalling was further supported by the findings that individual stimulation of Hep3B cells with the PAR1-AP and the PAR4-AP induced an increase in ROS production and the transactivation of Met and PDGFR. In addition, PAR1- and PAR4-mediated inhibition of total PTP activity and specifically PTP1B. ROS inhibition by N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented the inhibition of PTP1B phosphatase activity induced by PAR1-AP and the PAR4-AP, but had no effect on PAR1/4-mediated activation of Met and PDGFR in Hep3B cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data indicate that PAR1 and PAR4 activate common promigratory signalling pathways in Hep3B liver carcinoma cells including activation of the receptor tyrosine kinases Met and PDGFR, the formation of ROS and the inactivation of PTP1B. However, PAR1/4-triggered Met and PDGFR transactivation seem to be mediated independently from the ROS-PTP1B signalling module.

Chaudhary F, Lucito R, Tonks NK
Missing-in-Metastasis regulates cell motility and invasion via PTPδ-mediated changes in SRC activity.
Biochem J. 2015; 465(1):89-101 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
MIM (Missing-in-Metastasis), also known as MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor 1), is a scaffold protein that is down-regulated in multiple metastatic cancer cell lines compared with non-metastatic counterparts. MIM regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and actin polymerization, and has been implicated in the control of cell motility and invasion. MIM has also been shown to bind to a receptor PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatase), PTPδ, an interaction that may provide a link between tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent signalling and metastasis. We used shRNA-mediated gene silencing to investigate the consequences of loss of MIM on the migration and invasion of the MCF10A mammary epithelial cell model of breast cancer. We observed that suppression of MIM by RNAi enhanced migration and invasion of MCF10A cells, effects that were associated with increased levels of PTPδ. Furthermore, analysis of human clinical data indicated that PTPδ was elevated in breast cancer samples when compared with normal tissue. We demonstrated that the SRC protein tyrosine kinase is a direct substrate of PTPδ and, upon suppression of MIM, we observed changes in the phosphorylation status of SRC; in particular, the inhibitory site (Tyr527) was hypophosphorylated, whereas the activating autophosphorylation site (Tyr416) was hyperphosphorylated. Thus the absence of MIM led to PTPδ-mediated activation of SRC. Finally, the SRC inhibitor SU6656 counteracted the effects of MIM suppression on cell motility and invasion. The present study illustrates that both SRC and PTPδ have the potential to be therapeutic targets for metastatic tumours associated with loss of MIM.

Wang Y, Jin W, Jia X, et al.
Transcriptional repression of CDKN2D by PML/RARα contributes to the altered proliferation and differentiation block of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1431 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell proliferation and differentiation are highly coordinated processes. These two processes are disrupted during leukemogenesis, resulting in differentiation block and uncontrolled proliferation in leukemia. To understand the mechanisms disrupting the coordination between the two processes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), we investigated the regulatory mechanism of the negative cell cycle regulator CDKN2D by the promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion protein and the role of CDKN2D in cell differentiation and proliferation. We found that CDKN2D expression in APL cells was significantly lower than that in normal promyelocytes. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays, we showed that PML/RARα directly bound to and inhibited the transactivation of the CDKN2D promoter. Further evidence by the truncated and mutated CDKN2D promoters revealed that the everted repeat 8 (ER8) motif on the promoter was the binding site of PML/RARα. Forced expression of CDKN2D induced G0/G1 phase arrest and partial granulocytic differentiation in APL-derived NB4 cells, suggesting the function of CDKN2D in regulating both cell proliferation and granulocytic differentiation. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) significantly induced CDKN2D expression in APL cells and knockdown of CDKN2D expression during ATRA treatment partially blocked the ATRA-induced differentiation and cell cycle arrest. Collectively, our data indicate that CDKN2D repression by PML/RARα disrupts both cell proliferation and differentiation in the pathogenesis of APL, and induced expression of CDKN2D by ATRA alleviates the disruption of both processes to ensure treatment efficiency. This study provides a mechanism for coupling proliferation and differentiation in leukemic cells through the action of CDKN2D.

Sakurai T, Kashida H, Watanabe T, et al.
Stress response protein cirp links inflammation and tumorigenesis in colitis-associated cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(21):6119-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is caused by chronic intestinal inflammation and is reported to be associated with refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Defective apoptosis of inflammatory cell populations seems to be a relevant pathogenetic mechanism in refractory IBD. We assessed the involvement of stress response protein cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (Cirp) in the development of intestinal inflammation and CAC. In the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis, expression of Cirp correlated significantly with the expression of TNFα, IL23/IL17, antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and stem cell markers such as Sox2, Bmi1, and Lgr5. The expression of Cirp and Sox2 was enhanced in the colonic mucosae of refractory ulcerative colitis, suggesting that Cirp expression might be related to increased cancer risk. In human CAC specimens, inflammatory cells expressed Cirp protein. Cirp(-/-) mice given dextran sodium sulfate exhibited decreased susceptibility to colonic inflammation through decreased expression of TNFα, IL23, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL in colonic lamina propria cells compared with similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In the murine CAC model, Cirp deficiency decreased the expression of TNFα, IL23/IL17, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Sox2 and the number of Dclk1(+) cells, leading to attenuated tumorigenic potential. Transplantation of Cirp(-/-) bone marrow into WT mice reduced tumorigenesis, indicating the importance of Cirp in hematopoietic cells. Cirp promotes the development of intestinal inflammation and colorectal tumors through regulating apoptosis and production of TNFα and IL23 in inflammatory cells.

Kim SM, Lee JH, Sethi G, et al.
Bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin obtained from grapefruit juice induces chemosensitization and apoptosis through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway in tumor cells.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(1):153-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Persistent activation of signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been closely related to growth, survival, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of various cancer cells, and thus its inhibition can be considered a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the role of bergamottin (BGM) obtained from grapefruit juice in abrogating the constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This suppression was mediated through the inhibition of phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1/2 and c-Src. Pervanadate reversed the BGM induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Furthermore, BGM induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of BGM to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a critical role for SHP-1 in the action of BGM. BGM also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as COX-2, VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, IAP-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl in MM cells. This correlated with induction of substantial apoptosis as indicated by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population and caspase-3 induced PARP cleavage. Also, this agent significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of bortezomib and thalidomide in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that BGM is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway thus may have a potential in therapy of MM and other cancers.

Walia V, Prickett TD, Kim JS, et al.
Mutational and functional analysis of the tumor-suppressor PTPRD in human melanoma.
Hum Mutat. 2014; 35(11):1301-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) tightly regulate tyrosine phosphorylation essential for cell growth, adhesion, migration, and survival. We performed a mutational analysis of the PTP gene family in cutaneous metastatic melanoma and identified 23 phosphatase genes harboring somatic mutations. Among these, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase delta (PTPRD) was one of the most highly mutated genes, harboring 17 somatic mutations in 79 samples, a prevalence of 21.5%. Functional evaluation of six PTPRD mutations revealed enhanced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, melanoma cells expressing mutant PTPRD were significantly more migratory than cells expressing wild-type PTPRD or vector alone, indicating a novel gain-of-function associated with mutant PTPRD. To understand the molecular mechanisms of PTPRD mutations, we searched for its binding partners by converting the active PTPRD enzyme into a "substrate trap" form. Using mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation, we report desmoplakin, a desmosomal protein that is implicated in cell-cell adhesion, as a novel PTPRD substrate. Further analysis showed reduced phosphatase activity of mutant PTPRD against desmoplakin. Our findings identify an essential signaling cascade that is disrupted in melanoma. Moreover, because PTPRD is also mutated in glioblastomas and adenocarcinoma of the colon and lung, our data might be applicable to a large number of human cancers.

Dreidax D, Bannert S, Henrich KO, et al.
p19-INK4d inhibits neuroblastoma cell growth, induces differentiation and is hypermethylated and downregulated in MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas.
Hum Mol Genet. 2014; 23(25):6826-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uncontrolled cell cycle entry, resulting from deregulated CDK-RB1-E2F pathway activity, is a crucial determinant of neuroblastoma cell malignancy. Here we identify neuroblastoma-suppressive functions of the p19-INK4d CDK inhibitor and uncover mechanisms of its repression in high-risk neuroblastomas. Reduced p19-INK4d expression was associated with poor event-free and overall survival and neuroblastoma risk factors including amplified MYCN in a set of 478 primary neuroblastomas. High MYCN expression repressed p19-INK4d mRNA and protein levels in different neuroblastoma cell models with conditional MYCN expression. MassARRAY and 450K methylation analyses of 105 primary neuroblastomas uncovered a differentially methylated region within p19-INK4d. Hypermethylation of this region was associated with reduced p19-INK4d expression. In accordance, p19-INK4d expression was activated upon treatment with the demethylating agent, 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine, in neuroblastoma cell lines. Ectopic p19-INK4d expression decreased viability, clonogenicity and the capacity for anchorage-independent growth of neuroblastoma cells, and shifted the cell cycle towards the G1/0 phase. p19-INK4d also induced neurite-like processes and markers of neuronal differentiation. Moreover, neuroblastoma cell differentiation, induced by all-trans retinoic acid or NGF-NTRK1-signaling, activated p19-INK4d expression. Our findings pinpoint p19-INK4d as a neuroblastoma suppressor and provide evidence for MYCN-mediated repression and for epigenetic silencing of p19-INK4d by DNA hypermethylation in high-risk neuroblastomas.

Katsuyama A, Konno T, Shimoyama S, Kikuchi H
The mycotoxin patulin decreases expression of density-enhanced phosphatase-1 by down-regulating PPARγ in human colon cancer cells.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014; 233(4):265-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patulin is a mycotoxin that is found mainly in apple products and causes symptoms such as bleeding from the digestive tract and diarrhea. Efforts to elucidate the mechanism of its toxicity have focused on protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which regulate the function of tight junctions (TJs) in colon epithelial cells. Patulin reacts with the conserved cysteine residues in the catalytic domains of PTP isoforms. Treatment of Caco-2 human colon cancer cells, used as a colon epithelial model, with 50 µM patulin decreased the level of density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) protein to 30% of the control level after 6 h. The level of DEP-1 mRNA was also decreased during 24 h after treatment with patulin. Moreover, knockdown of DEP-1 increased the level of phosphorylated claudin-4. Destruction of TJs by patulin treatment was observed by immunostaining with an antibody against zonula occludens (ZO)-1. To better understand the mechanistic basis of the decrease in DEP-1 mRNA levels, we searched for a cis-element upstream of the DEP-1 gene and found an element responsive to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) protein. Using a PPARγ-specific antibody, we showed a decrease in PPARγ abundance to 42% of the control level within 6 h after treatment with patulin. PPARγ has four cysteine residues that are involved in zinc finger formation. Our data suggest that DEP-1 affects TJ function and that PPARγ might control DEP-1 expression. Therefore, the toxicity of patulin to cellular functions might be attributable to its ability to down-regulate the expression of DEP-1 and PPARγ.

Korf K, Wodrich H, Haschke A, et al.
The PML domain of PML-RARα blocks senescence to promote leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(33):12133-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
In most acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases, translocons produce a promyelocytic leukemia protein-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARα) fusion gene. Although expression of the human PML fusion in mice promotes leukemia, its efficiency is rather low. Unexpectedly, we find that simply replacing the human PML fusion with its mouse counterpart results in a murine PML-RARα (mPR) hybrid protein that is transformed into a significantly more leukemogenic oncoprotein. Using this more potent isoform, we show that mPR promotes immortalization by preventing cellular senescence, impeding up-regulation of both the p21 and p19(ARF) cell-cycle regulators. This induction coincides with a loss of the cancer-associated ATRX/Daxx-histone H3.3 predisposition complex and suggests inhibition of senescence as a targetable mechanism in APL therapy.

Roda-Navarro P, Bastiaens PI
Dynamic recruitment of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPD1 to EGF stimulation sites potentiates EGFR activation.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e103203 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Balanced activity of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases (PTPs) controls tyrosine phosphorylation levels and, consequently, is needed to prevent pathologies like cancer. Phosphatase activity is tightly regulated in space and time. Thus, in order to understand how phospho-tyrosine signalling is regulated, the intracellular dynamics of PTPs should be investigated. Here, we have studied the intracellular dynamics of PTPD1, a FERM (four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain-containing PTP that is over expressed in cancer cells and potentiates EGFR signalling. Whereas PTPD1 was excluded from E-cadherin rich cell-cell adhesions in epithelial cell monolayers, it diffused from the cytoplasm to those membranes in contact with the extracellular medium. Localisation of PTPD1 at the plasma membrane was mediated by its FERM domain and enabled the formation of EGFR/PTPD1-containing signalling complexes that pre-existed at the plasma membrane before EGF stimulation. PTPD1 and EGFR transiently co-localised at EGF stimulation sites until the formation of macropinosomes containing active species of EGFR. Interference of PTPD1 expression caused a decrease in EGFR phosphorylated species at the periphery of the cell. Presented data suggest that the transient formation of dynamic PTPD1/EGFR signalling complexes strengthens EGF signalling by promoting the spatial propagation of EGFR phosphorylated species.

Huang WQ, Lin Q, Zhuang X, et al.
Structure, function, and pathogenesis of SHP2 in developmental disorders and tumorigenesis.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2014; 14(6):567-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by the human PTPN11 gene, is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that consists of two tandem Src homology (SH2) domains (N-SH2 and C-SH2), a PTP catalytic domain, and a C-terminal tail with tyrosyl phosphorylation sites. It plays critical roles in numerous cellular processes through the regulation of various signaling pathways in PTP catalytic activity-dependent and -independent manners. Dysfunction of SHP2 resulting from pathogenic mutations and aberrant expression leads to the dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, thus contributing to different human disorders. Germline and somatic mutations in PTPN11 are involved in Noonan syndrome (NS), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), and hematological malignancies, as well as several solid tumors. In this report, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the structure and function of SHP2, and further discuss the molecular and pathogenic mechanism of SHP2 in human diseases, with a special focus on tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we summarize that SHP2 might itself represent a potential drug target for cancer prevention and treatment. Ongoing research and development of SHP2-specific inhibitors would enhance this potential.

Kovacheva M, Zepp M, Berger SM, Berger MR
Sustained conditional knockdown reveals intracellular bone sialoprotein as essential for breast cancer skeletal metastasis.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(14):5510-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Increased bone sialoprotein (BSP) serum levels are related to breast cancer skeletal metastasis, but their relevance is unknown. We elucidated novel intracellular BSP functions by a conditional knockdown of BSP. Conditional MDA-MB-231 subclones were equipped with a novel gene expression cassette containing a tet-reg-ulated miRNA providing knockdown of BSP production. These clones were used to assess the effect of BSP on morphology, proliferation, migration, colony formation and gene expression in vitro, and on soft tissue and osteolytic le-sions in a xenograft model by three imaging methods. BSP knockdown caused significant anti-proliferative, anti-migratory and anti-clonogenic effects in vitro (p<0.001). In vivo, significant de-creases of soft tissue and osteolytic lesions (p<0.03) were recorded after 3 weeks of miRNA treatment, leading to complete remission within 6 weeks. Microarray data revealed that 0.3% of genes were modulated in response to BSP knockdown. Upregulated genes included the endoplasmic reticulum stress genes ATF3 and DDIT3, the tumor suppressor gene EGR1, ID2 (related to breast epithelial differentiation), c-FOS and SERPINB2, whereas the metastasis associated genes CD44 and IL11 were downregulated. Also, activation of apoptotic pathways was demonstrated. These results implicate that intracellular BSP is essential for breast cancer skeletal metastasis and a target for treating these lesions.

Soltanian S, Dehghani H, Matin MM, Bahrami AR
Expression analysis of BORIS during pluripotent, differentiated, cancerous, and non-cancerous cell states.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014; 46(8):647-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
BORIS/CTCFL is an 11 zinc finger protein, which is the paralog of CTCF, a ubiquitously expressed protein with diverse roles in gene expression and chromatin organization. Several studies have shown that the expression of BORIS is restricted to normal adult testis, pluripotent cells, and diverse cancer cell lines. Thus, it is known as a cancer-testis (CT) gene that has been hypothesized to exhibit oncogenic properties and to be involved in cancer cell proliferation. On the contrary, other reports have shown that its expression is more widespread and can be detected in differentiated and normal somatic cells; hence, it might have roles in general cellular functions. The present study was aimed to analyze the expression of BORIS in different cell states of pluripotent, differentiated, cancerous and non-cancerous.We found that the two cell states of pluripotency and differentiation are not accompanied with significant variations of BORIS expression. Furthermore, Boris transcripts were detected at approximately the same level in cancer and non-cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that, in contrast to some previous reports, the expression of mouse BORIS is not limited to only cancerous cells or pluripotent cell states.

Xie Y, Liu S, Lu W, et al.
Slug regulates E-cadherin repression via p19Arf in prostate tumorigenesis.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(7):1355-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
SLUG represses E-cadherin to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various cancers. Mechanisms that regulate SLUG/E-cadherin pathway remain poorly understood, especially during tumorigenesis in vivo. Here we report that p19(Arf) (p14(ARF) in human) stabilizes Slug to inhibit E-cadherin in prostate cancer mouse models. Inactivation of p19(Arf) reduces Slug levels, resulting in increased E-cadherin expression and delaying the onset and progression of prostate cancer in Pten/Trp53 double null mice. Mechanistically, p14(ARF) stabilizes SLUG through increased sumoylation at lysine residue 192. Importantly, levels of SLUG and p14(ARF) are positively correlated in human prostate cancer specimens. These data demonstrated that ARF modulates the SLUG/E-cadherin signaling axis for augmenting prostate tumorigenesis in vivo, revealing a novel paradigm where the oncogenic functions of SLUG require ARF to target E-cadherin in prostate cancer. Collectively, our findings further support that ARF has dual tumor suppressive/oncogenic roles in cancers in a context-dependent manner.

Schuler PJ, Saze Z, Hong CS, et al.
Human CD4+ CD39+ regulatory T cells produce adenosine upon co-expression of surface CD73 or contact with CD73+ exosomes or CD73+ cells.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2014; 177(2):531-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
While murine CD4(+) CD39(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg)) co-express CD73 and hydrolyze exogenous (e) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to immunosuppressive adenosine (ADO), surface co-expression of CD73 on human circulating CD4(+) CD39(+) T(reg) is rare. Therefore, the ability of human T(reg) to produce and utilize ADO for suppression remains unclear. Using mass spectrometry, we measured nucleoside production by subsets of human CD4(+) CD39(+) and CD4(+) CD39(-)CD73(+) T cells or CD19(+) B cells isolated from blood of 30 volunteers and 14 cancer patients. CD39 and CD73 expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, Western blots, confocal microscopy or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Circulating CD4(+) CD39(+) T(reg) which hydrolyzed eATP to 5'-AMP contained few intracytoplasmic granules and had low CD73 mRNA levels. Only ∼1% of these T(reg) were CD39(+) CD73(+) . In contrast, CD4(+) CD39(neg) CD73(+) T cells contained numerous CD73(+) granules in the cytoplasm and strongly expressed surface CD73. In vitro-generated T(reg) (Tr1) and most B cells were CD39(+) CD73(+) . All these CD73(+) T cell subsets and B cells hydrolyzed 5'-AMP to ADO. Exosomes isolated from plasma of normal control (NC) or cancer patients carried enzymatically active CD39 and CD73(+) and, when supplied with eATP, hydrolyzed it to ADO. Only CD4(+) CD39(+) T(reg) co-incubated with CD4(+) CD73(+) T cells, B cells or CD39(+) CD73(+) exosomes produced ADO. Thus, contact with membrane-tethered CD73 was sufficient for ADO production by CD4(+) CD39(+) T(reg). In microenvironments containing CD4(+) CD73(+) T cells, B cells or CD39(+) CD73(+) exosomes, CD73 is readily available to CD4(+) CD39(+) CD73(neg) T(reg) for the production of immunosuppressive ADO.

Muniyan S, Ingersoll MA, Batra SK, Lin MF
Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase, a PTEN-functional homologue in prostate epithelia, functions as a prostate-specific tumor suppressor.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1846(1):88-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a vital role in the progression of human cancers. Nevertheless, those ubiquitous TSGs have been shown with limited roles in various stages of diverse carcinogenesis. Investigation on identifying unique TSG, especially for early stage of carcinogenesis, is imperative. As such, the search for organ-specific TSGs has emerged as a major strategy in cancer research. Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence in solid tumors in US males. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) is a prostate-specific differentiation antigen. Despite intensive studies over the past several decades on PAcP as a PCa biomarker, the role of cPAcP as a PCa-specific tumor suppressor has only recently been emerged and validated. The mechanism underlying the pivotal role of cPAcP as a prostate-specific TSG is, in part, due to its function as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) as well as a phosphoinositide phosphatase (PIP), an apparent functional homologue to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in PCa cells. This review is focused on discussing the function of this authentic prostate-specific tumor suppressor and the mechanism behind the loss of cPAcP expression leading to prostate carcinogenesis. We review other phosphatases' roles as TSGs which regulate oncogenic PI3K signaling in PCa and discuss the functional similarity between cPAcP and PTEN in prostate carcinogenesis.

Yamamoto J, Ohnuma K, Hatano R, et al.
Regulation of somatostatin receptor 4-mediated cytostatic effects by CD26 in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(9):2232-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm arising from mesothelial lining of pleura. CD26 molecules preferentially expressed on epithelioid type of MPM. This study investigates the molecular mechanisms of CD26 regulating MPM cells in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Biochemical and cell biological approaches were used for identifying a novel molecular target of MPM. Its contribution to tumour expansion has been also assessed using animal models. The clinical samples of MPM were also assessed for its expression.
RESULTS: We identify that cytostatic effects in MPM are mediated by somatostatin (SST) receptor 4 (SSTR4), being inhibited by the interaction of CD26 molecules. We also indicates that SSTR4-mediated cytostatic effects are regulated by SHP-2 PTP, and that this inhibitory effect by SST agonist is enhanced via lipid raft clustering of associated molecules following crosslinking of anti-CD26 antibody. Finally, using an in vivo xenograft model, we demonstrate that the anti-tumour effect of anti-CD26 mAb is enhanced when combined with SSTR4 agonist treatment, and that SSTR4 is highly coexpressed with CD26 on epithelioid or biphasic types of MPM tissues obtained from patients' surgical specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with humanised anti-CD26 mAb and SSTR4 agonist may therefore potentiate anti-tumour effect on MPM.

Wang CY, Chao TT, Tai WT, et al.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as molecular therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(4):488-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor that modulates survival-directed transcription, is often persistently activated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to determine whether sorafenib and its derivative can inhibit EGFR wild-type NSCLC via STAT3 inactivation.
METHODS: EGFR wild-type NSCLC cell lines (A549 H292 H322 H358 and H460) were treated with sorafenib or SC-1, a sorafenib derivative that closely resembled sorafenib structurally but was devoid of kinase inhibitory activity. Apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. In vivo efficacy was determined in nude mice with H460 and A549 xenograft.
RESULTS: SC-1 had better effects than sorafenib on growth inhibition and apoptosis in all tested EGFR wild-type NSCLC lines. SC-1 reduced STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 in all tested EGFR wild-type NSCLC cells. The expression of STAT3-driven genes, including cylcin D1 and survivin, was also repressed by SC-1. Ectopic expression of STAT3 in H460 cells abolished apoptosis in SC-1-treated cells. Sorafenib and SC-1 enhanced Src homology-2 containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) activity, whereas knockdown of SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), by small interference RNA reduced SC-1-induced apoptosis. SC-1 significantly reduced H460 and A549 tumor growth in vivo through SHP-1/STAT3 pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: SC-1 provides proof that targeting STAT3 signaling pathway may be a novel approach for the treatment of EGFR wild-type NSCLC.

Treanor LM, Zhou S, Janke L, et al.
Interleukin-7 receptor mutants initiate early T cell precursor leukemia in murine thymocyte progenitors with multipotent potential.
J Exp Med. 2014; 211(4):701-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) exhibits lymphoid, myeloid, and stem cell features and is associated with a poor prognosis. Whole genome sequencing of human ETP-ALL cases has identified recurrent mutations in signaling, histone modification, and hematopoietic development genes but it remains to be determined which of these abnormalities are sufficient to initiate leukemia. We show that activating mutations in the interleukin-7 receptor identified in human pediatric ETP-ALL cases are sufficient to generate ETP-ALL in mice transplanted with primitive transduced thymocytes from p19(Arf-/-) mice. The cellular mechanism by which these mutant receptors induce ETP-ALL is the block of thymocyte differentiation at the double negative 2 stage at which myeloid lineage and T lymphocyte developmental potential coexist. Analyses of samples from pediatric ETP-ALL cases and our murine ETP-ALL model show uniformly high levels of LMO2 expression, very low to undetectable levels of BCL11B expression, and a relative lack of activating NOTCH1 mutations. We report that pharmacological blockade of Jak-Stat signaling with ruxolitinib has significant antileukemic activity in this ETP-ALL model. This new murine model recapitulates several important cellular and molecular features of ETP-ALL and should be useful to further define novel therapeutic approaches for this aggressive leukemia.

Kannan K, Coarfa C, Rajapakshe K, et al.
CDKN2D-WDFY2 is a cancer-specific fusion gene recurrent in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(3):e1004216 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women. Almost 70% of ovarian cancer deaths are due to the high-grade serous subtype, which is typically detected only after it has metastasized. Characterization of high-grade serous cancer is further complicated by the significant heterogeneity and genome instability displayed by this cancer. Other than mutations in TP53, which is common to many cancers, highly recurrent recombinant events specific to this cancer have yet to be identified. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of seven patient samples combined with experimental validation at DNA, RNA and protein levels, we identified a cancer-specific and inter-chromosomal fusion gene CDKN2D-WDFY2 that occurs at a frequency of 20% among sixty high-grade serous cancer samples but is absent in non-cancerous ovary and fallopian tube samples. This is the most frequent recombinant event identified so far in high-grade serous cancer implying a major cellular lineage in this highly heterogeneous cancer. In addition, the same fusion transcript was also detected in OV-90, an established high-grade serous type cell line. The genomic breakpoint was identified in intron 1 of CDKN2D and intron 2 of WDFY2 in patient tumor, providing direct evidence that this is a fusion gene. The parental gene, CDKN2D, is a cell-cycle modulator that is also involved in DNA repair, while WDFY2 is known to modulate AKT interactions with its substrates. Transfection of cloned fusion construct led to loss of wildtype CDKN2D and wildtype WDFY2 protein expression, and a gain of a short WDFY2 protein isoform that is presumably under the control of the CDKN2D promoter. The expression of short WDFY2 protein in transfected cells appears to alter the PI3K/AKT pathway that is known to play a role in oncogenesis. CDKN2D-WDFY2 fusion could be an important molecular signature for understanding and classifying sub-lineages among heterogeneous high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.

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