Gene Summary

Gene:REG1A; regenerating family member 1 alpha
Aliases: P19, PSP, PTP, REG, ICRF, PSPS, PSPS1
Summary:This gene is a type I subclass member of the Reg gene family. The Reg gene family is a multigene family grouped into four subclasses, types I, II, III and IV, based on the primary structures of the encoded proteins. This gene encodes a protein that is secreted by the exocrine pancreas. It is associated with islet cell regeneration and diabetogenesis and may be involved in pancreatic lithogenesis. Reg family members REG1B, REGL, PAP and this gene are tandemly clustered on chromosome 2p12 and may have arisen from the same ancestral gene by gene duplication. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: REG1A (cancer-related)

Zhang BD, Li YR, Ding LD, et al.
Loss of PTPN4 activates STAT3 to promote the tumor growth in rectal cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2258-2272 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor. Many genetic factors have been proved to show high association with the occurrence and development of CRC and many mutations are detected in CRC. PTPN4/PTP-MEG1 is a widely expressed non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase. Over the past three decades, PTPN4 has been demonstrated in the literature to participate in many biological processes. In this study, we identified a nonsense mutation of PTPN4 with a mutation ratio of 90.90% from 1 case of rectal cancer, leading to loss of function in PTPN4 gene. Several somatic mutations occurred in 5/137 rectal cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas Rectum Adenocarcinoma (TCGA READ) database. Interestingly, we found that PTPN4 negative cytoplasm staining was more prone to lymphatic metastasis (N = 50, P = 0.0153) and low expression of PTPN4 in rectal cancer was highly associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of PTPN4 suppressed the cell growth, and moreover, the loss of PTPN4 accelerated cell growth and boosted clonogenicity of CRC cells. Furthermore, we revealed that the deletion of PTPN4 promoted the tumor formation of NCM460 cells in vivo. In terms of the molecular mechanism, we demonstrated that PTPN4 dephosphorylates pSTAT3 at the Tyr705 residue with a direct interaction and suppresses the transcriptional activity of STAT3. In summary, our study revealed a novel mechanism that the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer might be caused by the loss of PTPN4 through activating STAT3, which will broaden the therapy strategy for anti-rectal cancer in the future.

Udesen PB, Sørensen AE, Joglekar MV, et al.
Levels of circulating insulin cell-free DNA in women with polycystic ovary syndrome - a longitudinal cohort study.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2019; 17(1):34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) present a heterogeneous reproductive and metabolic profile with an increased lifetime risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Early biomarkers of these metabolic disturbances in PCOS women have not been identified. The abundance of circulating insulin gene promotor cell-free DNA (INS cfDNA) was shown to be valuable as a predictive biomarker of β-cell death in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as with gestational diabetes. Since β-cell death is common to the development of T1D as well as in T2D, we aimed to investigate if insulin-coding DNA is more abundant in circulation of PCOS women (vs Controls) and if their levels change after 6 yr. follow-up as a potential measure to predict future T2D.
METHODS: A cohort of 40 women diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and eight healthy controls were examined at baseline and 6 years follow-up. Clinical measurements for evaluation of glucose homeostasis as well as blood/serum samples were obtained at each visit. Methylated and unmethylated INS cfDNA were quantified using droplet digital PCR. Differences between groups were assessed using Kruskall-Wallis test and Wilcoxon Signed rank test.
RESULTS: At baseline, there was no detectable difference in copy number (copies/μL) of methylated (p = 0.74) or unmethylated INS cfDNA (p = 0.34) between PCOS and Control groups. At follow up, neither methylated (p = 0.50) nor unmethylated INScfDNA levels (p = 0.48) differed significantly between these groups. Likewise, when pooling the groups, there was no difference between baseline and follow up, in terms of copies of methylated or unmethylated INS cfDNA (p = 0.38 and p = 0.52, respectively). There were no significant correlations between counts of unmethylated or methylated cfDNA and the clinical measurements of β-cell function and pre-diabetes.
CONCLUSION: The circulating level of unmethylated and methylated INScfDNA is similar between PCOS and Controls and cannot be used to predict islet β-cell loss and progression to Type 2 diabetes in a 6-year follow-up.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection Agency (REG-31-2016. Approval: 01-12-2015) and by the Danish Scientific Ethical committee of Region Zealand (Journal no. SJ-525. Approval: 13-06-2016),, ( NCT03142633 , registered 1. March, 2017, Retrospectively registered).

Lv J, Guo L, Wang JH, et al.
Biomarker identification and trans-regulatory network analyses in esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(2):233-244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive disease with high mortality and an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of EAC, and patients with BE have a persistent and excessive risk of EAC over time. Individuals with BE are up to 30-125 times more likely to develop EAC than the general population. Thus, early detection of EAC and BE could significantly improve the 5-year survival rate of EAC. Due to the limitations of endoscopic surveillance and the lack of clinical risk stratification strategies, molecular biomarkers should be considered and thoroughly investigated.
AIM: To explore the transcriptome changes in the progression from normal esophagus (NE) to BE and EAC.
METHODS: Two datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) in NCBI Database ( were retrieved and used as a training and a test dataset separately, since NE, BE, and EAC samples were included and the sample sizes were adequate. This study identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the R/Bioconductor project and constructed trans-regulatory networks based on the Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database and Cytoscape software. Enrichment of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) terms was identified using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. The diagnostic potential of certain DEGs was assessed in both datasets.
RESULTS: In the GSE1420 dataset, the number of up-regulated DEGs was larger than that of down-regulated DEGs when comparing EAC
CONCLUSION: After the construction and analyses of the trans-regulatory networks in EAC and BE, the results indicate that COL1A1 and MMP1 could be potential biomarkers for EAC and BE, respectively.

Wang G, Cheng L, Chen M, et al.
Comparative Analysis of Expression Profiles of Reg Signaling Pathways-Related Genes Between AHF and HCC.
Biochem Genet. 2019; 57(3):382-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
Regenerating islet-derived protein (Reg) could participate in the occurrence of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, tumors, and other diseased or damaged tissues. However, the correlation of Reg with acute hepatic failure (AHF) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly defined. To reveal the expression profiles of Reg family and their possible regulatory roles in AHF and HCC, rat models of HCC and AHF were separately established, and Rat Genome 230 2.0 was used to detect expression profiles of Reg-mediated signaling pathways-associated genes from liver tissues in AHF and HCC. The results showed that a total of 79 genes were significantly changed. Among these genes, 67 genes were the AHF-specific genes, 45 genes were the HCC-specific genes, and 33 genes were the common genes. Then, K-means clustering classified these genes into 4 clusters based on the gene expression similarity, and DAVID analysis showed that the above altered genes were mainly associated with stress response, inflammatory response, and cell cycle regulation. Thereafter, IPA software was used to analyze potential effects of these genes, and the predicted results suggested that the Reg-mediated JAK/STAT, NF-κB, MAPK (ERK1/2, P38 and JNK), PLC, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways may account for the activated inflammation and cell proliferation, and the attenuated apoptosis and cell death during the occurrence of AHF and HCC.

Neurath MF
IL-23 in inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2019; 45:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies in recent years have identified a pivotal role of the cytokine IL-23 in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn´s disease, ulcerative colitis) and colitis-associated colon cancer. Genetic studies revealed that subgroups of IBD patients have single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-23R gene suggesting that IL-23R signaling affects disease susceptibility. Furthermore, increased production of IL-23 by macrophages, dendritic cells or granulocytes has been observed in various mouse models of colitis, colitis-associated cancer and IBD patients. Moreover, in several murine models of colitis, suppression of IL-12/IL-23 p40, IL-23 p19 or IL-23R function led to marked suppression of gut inflammation. This finding was associated with reduced activation of IL-23 target cells such as T helper 17 cells, innate lymphoid cells type 3, granulocytes and natural killer cells as well as with impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines. Based on these findings, targeting of IL-23 emerges as important concept for suppression of gut inflammation and inflammation-associated cancer growth. Consistently, neutralizing antibodies against IL-12/IL-23 p40 and IL-23 p19 have been successfully used in clinical trials for therapy of Crohn´s disease and pilot studies in ulcerative colitis are ongoing. These findings underline the crucial regulatory role of IL-23 in chronic intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated cancer and indicate that therapeutic strategies aiming at IL-23 blockade may be of key relevance for future therapy of IBD patients.

Gao Y, Yang F, Su Z, et al.
β1,6 GlcNAc branches-modified protein tyrosine phosphatase Mu attenuates its tyrosine phosphatase activity and promotes glioma cell migration through PLCγ-PKC pathways.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(2):569-577 [PubMed] Related Publications
The metastatic potential of malignant tumor has been shown to be correlated with the increased expression of tri- and tetra-antennary β1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (β1,6-GlcNAc) N-glycans. In this study, We found that GnT-V expression was negatively correlated with receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase type μ(RPTPμ) in human glioma tissues. To study whether RPTPμ is a novel substance of GnT-V which further affect RPTPμ's downstream dephosphorylation function, we preform lentiviral infection with GnT-V gene to construct stably transfected GnT-V glial cell lines. We found RPTPμ undergone severer cleavage in GnT-V transfected glioma cells compare to Mock cells. RPTPμ intracellular domain fragments increased while β1,6-GlcNAc-branched N-glycans increased, in consistent with the decrease of RPTPμ's catalytic activity. The results showed that abnormal glycosylation could decrease the phosphorylation activity of PTP μ, and affect PLCγ-PKC pathways. Both protease inhibitor Furin and N-glycan biosynthesis inhibitor swainsonine could decrease cell mobility in GnT-V-U87 transfectants and other glioma cell lines. All results above suggest increased post-translational modification of RPTPμ N-glycans by GnT-V attenuates its tyrosine phosphatase activity and promotes glioma cell migration through PLCγ-PKC pathways, and that the β1,6-GlcNAc-branched N-glycans of RPTPμ play a crucial role in glioma invasivity.

Stepanenko AA, Chekhonin VP
A compendium of adenovirus genetic modifications for enhanced replication, oncolysis, and tumor immunosurveillance in cancer therapy.
Gene. 2018; 679:11-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this review, we specifically focus on genetic modifications of oncolytic adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based vectors that enhance replication, oncolysis/spread, and virus-mediated tumor immunosurveillance. The finding of negative regulation of minor core protein V by SUMOylation led to the identification of amino acid residues, which when mutated increase adenovirus replication and progeny yield. Suppression of Dicer and/or RNAi pathway with shRNA or p19 tomato bushy stunt protein also results in significant enhancement of adenovirus replication and progeny yield. Truncation mutations in E3-19K or i-leader sequence or overexpression of adenovirus death protein (ADP) potently increase adenovirus progeny release and spread without affecting virus yield. Moreover, E3-19K protein, which was found to inhibit both major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) and MHC-I chain-related A and B proteins (MICA/MICB) expression on the cell surface, protecting infected cells from T-lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell attack, may be tailored to selectively target only MHCI or MICA/MICB, or to lose the ability to downregulate both. At last, E3-19K protein may be exploited to deliver tumor-associated epitopes directly to the endoplasmic reticulum for loading MHCI in the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-deregulated cells.

Hussein UK, Park HS, Bae JS, et al.
Expression of oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatase and γH2AX predicts poor survival of gastric carcinoma patients.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):836 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress induces various intracellular damage, which might be correlated with tumorigenesis. Accumulated oxidative stresses might inactivate protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) by oxidizing it, and inducing the phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX) in response to DNA damage.
METHODS: We evaluated the clinical significance of the expression of oxidized-PTP and γH2AX in 169 gastric carcinomas.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of nuclear oxidized-PTP, cytoplasmic oxidized-PTP, and γH2AX expression were significantly associated with each other, and their expressions predicted shorter survival of gastric carcinoma patients. In multivariate analysis, nuclear oxidized-PTP (overall survival; p <  0.001, relapse-free survival; P <  0.001) was an independent indicator of poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma patients. In addition, co-expression patterns of nuclear oxidized-PTP and γH2AX were independent indicators of poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma patients (overall survival; P <  0.001, relapse-free survival; P <  0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that oxidative stress-mediated oxidation of PTP might be involved in the progression of gastric carcinomas. In addition, this study suggests that individual and co-expression pattern of nuclear oxidized-PTP and γH2AX might be used as a prognostic marker of gastric carcinomas.

Liu Y, Song Z, Zheng N, et al.
Systemic siRNA delivery to tumors by cell-penetrating α-helical polypeptide-based metastable nanoparticles.
Nanoscale. 2018; 10(32):15339-15349 [PubMed] Related Publications
Systemic, non-viral siRNA delivery for cancer treatment is mainly achieved via condensation by cationic materials (e.g., lipids and cationic polymers), which nevertheless, suffers from poor serum stability, non-specific tissue interaction, and unsatisfactory membrane activity against efficient in vivo gene knockdown. Here, we report the design of a metastable, cancer-targeting siRNA delivery system based on two functional polymers, PVBLG-8, a cationic, helical cell-penetrating polypeptide, and poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLG), an anionic random-coiled polypeptide. PVBLG-8 with rigid, linear structure showed weak siRNA condensation capability, and PLG with flexible chains was incorporated as a stabilizer which provided sufficient molecular entanglement with PVBLG-8 to encapsulate the siRNA within the polymeric network. The obtained PVBLG-8/siRNA/PLG nanoparticles (PSP NPs) with positive charges were sequentially coated with additional amount of PLG, which reversed the surface charge from positive to negative to yield the metastable PVBLG-8/siRNA/PLG@PLG (PSPP) NPs. The PSPP NPs featured desired serum stability during circulation to enhance tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Upon acidification in the tumor extracellular microenvironment and intracellular endosomes, the partial protonation of PLG on PSPP NPs surface would lead to dissociation of PLG coating from NPs, exposure of the highly membrane-active PVBLG-8, and surface charge reversal from negative to positive, which subsequently promoted tumor penetration, selective cancer cell internalization, and efficient endolysosomal escape. When siRNA against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was encapsulated, the PSPP NPs showed excellent tumor penetration capability, tumor cell uptake level, EGFR silencing efficiency, and tumor growth inhibition efficacy in U-87 MG glioblastoma tumor spheroids in vitro and in xenograft tumor-bearing mice in vivo, outperforming the PSP NPs and several commercial reagents such as Lipofectamine 2000 and poly(l-lysine) (PLL). This study therefore demonstrates a facile and unique design approach of metastable and charge reversal NPs, which overcomes multiple biological barriers against systemic siRNA delivery toward anti-cancer treatment.

Monteiro LF, Ferruzo PYM, Russo LC, et al.
DUSP3/VHR: A Druggable Dual Phosphatase for Human Diseases.
Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2019; 176:1-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), discovered in the 1970s, have been considered master regulators of biological processes with high clinical significance as targets for human diseases. Their actions are countered by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP), enzymes yet underrepresented as drug targets because of the high homology of their catalytic domains and high charge of their catalytic pocket. This scenario is still worse for some PTP subclasses, for example, for the atypical dual-specificity phosphatases (ADUSPs), whose biological functions are not even completely known. In this sense, the present work focuses on the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3), also known as VH1-related phosphatase (VHR), an uncommon regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. DUSP3 expression and activities are suggestive of a tumor suppressor or tumor-promoting enzyme in different types of human cancers. Furthermore, DUSP3 has other biological functions involving immune response mediation, thrombosis, hemostasis, angiogenesis, and genomic stability that occur through either MAPK-dependent or MAPK-independent mechanisms. This broad spectrum of actions is likely due to the large substrate diversity and molecular mechanisms that are still under scrutiny. The growing advances in characterizing new DUSP3 substrates will allow the development of pharmacological inhibitors relevant for possible future clinical trials. This review covers all aspects of DUSP3, since its gene cloning and crystallographic structure resolution, in addition to its classical and novel substrates and the biological processes involved, followed by an update of what is currently known about the DUSP3/VHR-inhibiting compounds that might be considered potential drugs to treat human diseases.

Li Q, Zhang L, Ma L, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits STAT5 activation through the induction of SHP-1 and SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatases in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.
Anticancer Drugs. 2018; 29(7):646-651 [PubMed] Related Publications
STAT5 is an important transcription factor that is constitutively activated in various types of malignancies, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Whether the antitumor effects of resveratrol (RES) are linked to its capability to inhibit STAT5 activation in CML cells was investigated. We found that RES inhibited STAT5 activation in K562 and KU812 cell lines; RES also reduced the STAT5 concentration in the nucleus of K562 and KU812 cells. Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, sodium pervanadate, reversed the RES-induced downregulation of STAT5, suggesting the involvement of a PTP. Indeed, we observed that RES decreased the expression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2; moreover, the deletion of SHP-1 and SHP-2 genes by siRNA abolished the ability of RES to inhibit STAT5 activation, which suggested the critical role of both SHP-1 and SHP-2 in its possible mechanism of action. RES downregulated the expression of STAT5-regulated gene products such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Cyclin D1, and Mcl-1, and increased the expression of Bax. This correlated with the suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Overall, our results suggest that RES is a blocker of STAT5 activation and thus may be potentially useful for the treatment of CML.

Dong Z, Zhu X, Li Y, et al.
Oncogenomic analysis identifies novel biomarkers for tumor stage mycosis fungoides.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(21):e10871 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) developing tumors or extracutaneous lesions usually have a poor prognosis with no cure has so far been available. To identify potential novel biomarkers for MF at the tumor stage, a genomic mapping of 41 cutaneous lymphoma biopsies was used to explore for significant genes.The gene expression profiling datasets of MF were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO). Gene modules were simulated using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and the top soft-connected genes (hub genes) were filtrated with a threshold (0.5). Subsequently, module eigengenes were calculated and significant biological pathways were enriched based on the KEGG database.Four genetic modules were simulated with 3263 genes collected from the whole genomic profile based on cutoff values. Significant diseases genetic terminologies associated with tumor stage MF were found in black module. Subsequently, 13 hub genes including CFLAR, GCNT2, IFNG, IL17A, IL22, MIP, PLCG1, PTH, PTPN6, REG1A, SNAP25, SUPT7L, and TP63 were shown to be related to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL).In summary, in addition to the reported genes (IL17F, PLCG1, IFNG, and PTH) in CTCL/ATLL, the other high instable genes may serve as novel biomarkers for the regulation of the biological processes and molecular mechanisms of CTLT (MF/SS).

Suguna E, Farhana R, Kanimozhi E, et al.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Diagnosis and Management Based on Current Molecular Genetics Approach.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2018; 18(3):199-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of ≥20% myeloid premature blast cells in the bone marrow and they are most often found in the peripheral blood. AML is generally classified based on either French-American-British (FAB) or World Health Organization (WHO) systems. For better clinical management, cytogenetic finding in AML is necessary and in patients with normal karyotypes - molecular, epigenetic and proteomic biomarkers are very important in choosing which drugs to prescribe. Mutations of certain genes like NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, RUNX1 and MLL play a crucial role in the risk management and clinical stratification of AML patients. We reviewed the literature for the current trends of clinical practice based on laboratory based diagnostic tests in AML. Outcome and Result: We listed in AML chromosomal aberrations (translocations, fusions or RUNX1, CBFB, MYHI1, MLL, EVI1, PML-RARA), genes and mutations (NPM1, FLT3, CEPBA, MLL) epigenetic factors (DNMT34, TET2) and proteomic biomarkers (PTP, PTK, PIP) and analysed how on the basis of these factors medical risk was stratified and accordingly managed.
CONCLUSION: AML is genetically and functionally a heterogenous malignant disease. In the western world, leukemia is one of the most common among all cancers. India is ranked 3rd in cancer disease after United States of America and China. Cytogenetic analysis, molecular/proteomic biomarkers and epigenetic factors assist in determining the management strategies and prognosis of the disease. A number of targeted drugs in pre-clinical and clinical trials based on molecular factors and epigenetic mechanisms have been reported to have promising results in AML patients.

Zhangyuan G, Yin Y, Zhang W, et al.
Prognostic Value of Phosphotyrosine Phosphatases in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 46(6):2335-2346 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: During the occurrence and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are usually described as tumor suppressors or proto-oncogenes, and to some degree are correlated with the prognosis of HCC.
METHODS: A total of 321 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and 180 patients from our validated cohort with hepatocellular carcinoma were recruited in this study. Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate the risk factors for survival. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were applied to detect the expression levels of PTP genes.
RESULTS: After screening the data of TCGA, we identified five PTPs as HCC overall survival related PTP genes, among which only three (PTPN12, PTPRN, PTPN18) exhibited differential expression levels in our 180 paired HCC and adjacent tissues (P< 0.001). Further analysis revealed that expression of PTPN18 was positively, but PTPRN was negatively associated with prognosis of HCC both in TCGA cohort and our own cohort. As to PTPN12, results turned out to be opposite according to HBV status. In detail, higher expression of PTPN12 was associated with better outcome in HBV group but worse prognosis in Non-HBV group.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that PTPN12, PTPRN and PTPN18 were independent prognostic factors in HCC.

Chen Z, Kapus A, Khatri I, et al.
Cell membrane-bound CD200 signals both via an extracellular domain and following nuclear translocation of a cytoplasmic fragment.
Leuk Res. 2018; 69:72-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
In previous studies we had reported that the immunosuppressive cell membrane bound molecule CD200 is released from the cell following cleavage by matrix metalloproteases, with the released soluble CD200 acting as an immunosuppressant following binding to, and signaling through, its cognate receptor CD200R expressed on target cells. We now show that although the intracellular cytoplasmic tail (CD200

Zhang N, Chai D, Du H, et al.
Expression of Reg IV and SOX9 and their correlation in human gastric cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):344 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reg IV is a member of the regenerating gene family and has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in gastric cancer. However, the functional mechanism of Reg IV in gastric cancer is still unclear.
METHODS: Expression of Reg IV and SOX9 were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time PCR, and the correlation between the expression of Reg IV and SOX9 was analyzed in gastric cancer tissues. Reg IV expression vectors and a siRNA of Reg IV and SOX9 were transfected into human gastric cancer cells and the protein and mRNA levels of Reg IV and SOX9 were investigated by western blot and real-time PCR. The invasion and migration ability of gastric cancer cells with overexpressed Reg IV and with gene silence of Reg IV and SOX9 were examined by transwell chambers and wound healing assay.
RESULTS: The Reg IV and SOX9 protein expression levels were both significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues (p = 0.022, p = 0.003). Reg IV protein expression significantly correlated with tumor invasion depth (p <  0.001), but had no significant correlations with age, clinical stage or lymph node metastasis. SOX9 protein expression also had no significant correlations with age, clinical stage, tumor invasion depth or lymph node metastasis. Reg IV transcript expression demonstrated a significant correlation with invasion depth and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.005, p <  0.001) and no significant correlations with age, clinical stage, tumor tissue differentiation or tumor size. SOX9 transcript expression demonstrated a significant correlation with invasion depth and tumor tissue differentiation (p = 0.044, p = 0.007) and no significant correlations with age, clinical stage or tumor size. The Reg IV expression showed a positive correlation with the SOX9 expression (p <  0.000, p = 0.008). Overexpression of Reg IV could upregulate SOX9 expression and promote invasiveness and migration of tumor cells, and silencing of Reg IV could downregulate SOX9 and inhibit invasiveness and migration of tumor cells in MKN-45 and AGS cells. On the other hand, silencing of SOX9 could upregulate Reg IV protein expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that Reg IV positively regulates the expression of SOX9 and is involved in tumor cell invasion and migration in gastric cancer.

Meng Q, Wu S, Wang Y, et al.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(10):2760-2769 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myeloperoxidase (

Senis YA, Barr AJ
Targeting Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases with Biotherapeutics: Is Outside-in Better than Inside-Out?
Molecules. 2018; 23(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), of the receptor and non-receptor classes, are key signaling molecules that play critical roles in cellular regulation underlying diverse physiological events. Aberrant signaling as a result of genetic mutation or altered expression levels has been associated with several diseases and treatment via pharmacological intervention at the level of PTPs has been widely explored; however, the challenges associated with development of small molecule phosphatase inhibitors targeting the intracellular phosphatase domain (the "inside-out" approach) have been well documented and as yet there are no clinically approved drugs targeting these enzymes. The alternative approach of targeting receptor PTPs with biotherapeutic agents (such as monoclonal antibodies or engineered fusion proteins; the "outside-in" approach) that interact with the extracellular ectodomain offers many advantages, and there have been a number of exciting recent developments in this field. Here we provide a brief overview of the receptor PTP family and an update on the emerging area of receptor PTP-targeted biotherapeutics for CD148, vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), receptor-type PTPs σ, γ, ζ (RPTPσ, RPTPγ, RPTPζ) and CD45, and discussion of future potential in this area.

Liczbiński P, Bukowska B
Molecular mechanism of amygdalin action in vitro: review of the latest research.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2018; 40(3):212-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amygdalin, named as 'laetrile' and 'vitamin B-17' was initially supposed to be a safe drug for cancer treatment and was recognized by followers of natural medicine since it has been considered to be hydrolyzed only in cancer cells releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and thus destroying them. Unfortunately, current studies have shown that HCN is also released in normal cells, therefore it may not be safe for human organism. However, there have still been research works conducted on anti-cancer properties of this compound. In vitro experiments have shown induction of apoptosis by amygdalin as a result of increased expression of Bax protein and caspase-3 and reduced expression of antiapoptotic BcL-2protein. Amygdalin has also been shown to inhibit the adhesion of breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells and bladder cancer cells by decreased expression of integrin's, reduction of catenin levels and inhibition of the Akt-mTOR pathway, which may consequently lead to inhibition of metastases of cancer cells. It has also been revealed that amygdalin in renal cancer cells increased expression of p19 protein resulting in inhibition of cell transfer from G1-phase to S-phase, and thus inhibited cell proliferation. Other studies have indicated that amygdalin inhibits NF-kβ and NLRP3 signaling pathways, and consequently has anti-inflammatory effect due to reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as pro-IL-1β. Moreover, the effect of amygdalin on TGFβ/CTGF pathway, anti-fibrous activity and expression of follistatin resulting in activation of muscle cells growth has been reported. This compound might be applicable in the treatment of various cancer cell types.

Zhou H, Cai Y, Liu D, et al.
Pharmacological or transcriptional inhibition of both HDAC1 and 2 leads to cell cycle blockage and apoptosis via p21
Cell Prolif. 2018; 51(3):e12447 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are commonly dysregulated in cancer and represent promising therapeutic targets. However, global HDAC inhibitors have shown limited efficacy in the treatment of solid tumours, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of selectively inhibiting HDAC1 and 2 in HCC.
METHODS: HDAC1 inhibitor Tacedinaline (CI994), HDAC2 inhibitor Santacruzamate A (CAY10683), HDAC1/2 common inhibitor Romidepsin (FK228) and global HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA) were used to treat HCC cells. Cell cycle, apoptosis and the protein levels of CDKs and CDKNs were performed to evaluate HCC cell growth. Inhibition of HDAC1/2 by RNAi was further investigated.
RESULTS: Combined inhibition of HDAC1/2 led to HCC cell morphology changes, growth inhibition, cell cycle blockage and apoptosis in vitro and suppressed the growth of subcutaneous HCC xenograft tumours in vivo. p21
CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological or transcriptional inhibition of HDAC1/2 increases p19

Spalinger MR, Manzini R, Hering L, et al.
PTPN2 Regulates Inflammasome Activation and Controls Onset of Intestinal Inflammation and Colon Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2018; 22(7):1835-1848 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Variants in the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) are associated with inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. The anti-inflammatory role of PTPN2 is highlighted by the fact that PTPN2-deficient mice die a few weeks after birth because of systemic inflammation and severe colitis. However, the tissues, cells, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to this phenotype remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that myeloid cell-specific deletion of PTPN2 in mice (PTPN2-LysMCre) promotes intestinal inflammation but protects from colitis-associated tumor formation in an IL-1β-dependent manner. Elevated levels of mature IL-1β production in PTPN2-LysMCre mice are a consequence of increased inflammasome assembly due to elevated phosphorylation of the inflammasome adaptor molecule ASC. Thus, we have identified a dual role for myeloid PTPN2 in directly regulating inflammasome activation and IL-1β production to suppress pro-inflammatory responses during colitis but promote intestinal tumor development.

Hendriks W, Bourgonje A, Leenders W, Pulido R
Proteinaceous Regulators and Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases.
Molecules. 2018; 23(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Proper control of the phosphotyrosine content in signal transduction proteins is essential for normal cell behavior and is lost in many pathologies. Attempts to normalize aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation levels in disease states currently involve either the application of small compounds that inhibit tyrosine kinases (TKs) or the addition of growth factors or their mimetics to boost receptor-type TK activity. Therapies that target the TK enzymatic counterparts, the multi-enzyme family of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), are still lacking despite their undisputed involvement in human diseases. Efforts to pharmacologically modulate PTP activity have been frustrated by the conserved structure of the PTP catalytic core, providing a daunting problem with respect to target specificity. Over the years, however, many different protein interaction-based regulatory mechanisms that control PTP activity have been uncovered, providing alternative possibilities to control PTPs individually. Here, we review these regulatory principles, discuss existing biologics and proteinaceous compounds that affect PTP activity, and mention future opportunities to drug PTPs via these regulatory concepts.

Jobe NP, Živicová V, Mifková A, et al.
Fibroblasts potentiate melanoma cells in vitro invasiveness induced by UV-irradiated keratinocytes.
Histochem Cell Biol. 2018; 149(5):503-516 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma represents a malignant disease with steadily increasing incidence. UV-irradiation is a recognized key factor in melanoma initiation. Therefore, the efficient prevention of UV tissue damage bears a critical potential for melanoma prevention. In this study, we tested the effect of UV irradiation of normal keratinocytes and their consequent interaction with normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from melanoma, respectively. Using this model of UV influenced microenvironment, we measured melanoma cell migration in 3-D collagen gels. These interactions were studied using DNA microarray technology, immunofluorescence staining, single cell electrophoresis assay, viability (dead/life) cell detection methods, and migration analysis. We observed that three 10 mJ/cm

Kim B, Park B
Saffron carotenoids inhibit STAT3 activation and promote apoptotic progression in IL-6-stimulated liver cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(4):1883-1891 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in the survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. In addition, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be closely related to STAT3 activity. In the present study, we investigated whether crocin, a major glycosylated carotenoid derived from saffron, can modulate the IL-6/STAT3 pathway to induce growth inhibition and sensitivity to cancer cell apoptosis. We determined that crocin inhibited STAT3 activation induced by IL-6 in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inactivation of Janus kinase 1/2(JAK1, JAK2) and Src kinase in both liver cancer cell lines. Furthermore, crocin induced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SHP-1, which led to STAT3 dephosphorylation. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by siRNA recovered the inhibitory effects of crocin, suggesting an important role for SHP-1. Moreover, crocin downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, survivin), proliferative (cyclin D1), invasive (CXCR4) and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins. Conversely, crocin increased the pro-apoptotic (BAX) protein, which was correlated with the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Overall, these results provide evidence that crocin has the potential for anticancer activity through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, especially in liver cancer.

Long T, Liu Z, Shang J, et al.
Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides play anti-cancer effect through TLR4-MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 111:813-821 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-cancer effect of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSP) and the underlying mechanism.
METHODS: Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) group, adriamycin (ADM) group, PSP group and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group. RAW264.7 cells were pre-treated with or without TLR4 inhibitor or MyD88 inhibitor. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expressions, respectively. ELISA and Griess reaction was used to measure cytokines and NO levels. Flow cytometry was employed to examine T-lymphocyte subset and CCK-8 assay was used for cell viability.
RESULTS: The in vivo experiment found that PSP inhibited tumor growth and improved the spleen index, thymus index, the cytokines secretion and CD4
CONCLUSION: The immunoenhancement effect of PSP against lung cancer is mediated by TLR4-MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.

Youssef O, Sarhadi V, Ehsan H, et al.
Gene mutations in stool from gastric and colorectal neoplasia patients by next-generation sequencing.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(47):8291-8299 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To study cancer hotspot mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in stool DNA from patients with different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) neoplasms.
METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 87 Finnish patients diagnosed with various gastric and colorectal neoplasms, including benign tumors, and from 14 healthy controls. DNA was isolated from stools by using the PSP
RESULTS: NGS was successful in assaying 72 GIT samples and 13 healthy controls, with success rates of the assay being 78% for stomach neoplasia and 87% for colorectal tumors. In stool specimens from patients with gastric neoplasia, five hotspot mutations were found in
CONCLUSION: Our results show that in addition to colorectal neoplasms, mutations can also be assayed from stool specimens of patients with gastric neoplasms.

Fodor M, Price E, Wang P, et al.
Dual Allosteric Inhibition of SHP2 Phosphatase.
ACS Chem Biol. 2018; 13(3):647-656 [PubMed] Related Publications
SHP2 is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded by the PTPN11 gene and is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Recently, we reported an allosteric mechanism of inhibition that stabilizes the auto-inhibited conformation of SHP2. SHP099 (1) was identified and characterized as a moderately potent, orally bioavailable, allosteric small molecule inhibitor, which binds to a tunnel-like pocket formed by the confluence of three domains of SHP2. In this report, we describe further screening strategies that enabled the identification of a second, distinct small molecule allosteric site. SHP244 (2) was identified as a weak inhibitor of SHP2 with modest thermal stabilization of the enzyme. X-ray crystallography revealed that 2 binds and stabilizes the inactive, closed conformation of SHP2, at a distinct, previously unexplored binding site-a cleft formed at the interface of the N-terminal SH2 and PTP domains. Derivatization of 2 using structure-based design resulted in an increase in SHP2 thermal stabilization, biochemical inhibition, and subsequent MAPK pathway modulation. Downregulation of DUSP6 mRNA, a downstream MAPK pathway marker, was observed in KYSE-520 cancer cells. Remarkably, simultaneous occupation of both allosteric sites by 1 and 2 was possible, as characterized by cooperative biochemical inhibition experiments and X-ray crystallography. Combining an allosteric site 1 inhibitor with an allosteric site 2 inhibitor led to enhanced pharmacological pathway inhibition in cells. This work illustrates a rare example of dual allosteric targeted protein inhibition, demonstrates screening methodology and tactics to identify allosteric inhibitors, and enables further interrogation of SHP2 in cancer and related pathologies.

Ishibashi M, Yamaguchi H, Hirotani Y, et al.
Contradictory intrahepatic immune responses activated in high-load hepatitis C virus livers compared with low-load livers.
Arch Virol. 2018; 163(4):855-865 [PubMed] Related Publications
We found a HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gene, DQ alpha 1 chain (HLA-DQA1), that was expressed more than 9-fold higher in high-load hepatitis C virus (HCV) livers than low-load HCV livers using transcriptomics of chronic HCV-infected livers. To further investigate this finding, we examined which cells were positive for HLA-DQA1 and what liver immune responses were different between HCV-high and -low livers. HLA-DQA1-positive cells were significantly increased in the HCV-high group, and most positive cells were identified as non-parenchymal sinusoid cells and lymphocytic infiltrates in the portal area. Parenchymal hepatocytes were negative for HLA-DQA1. HLA-DQA1-positive cells in the liver sinusoid were positive for CD68 (macrophages or Kupffer cells); those in the lymphocytic infiltrates were positive for CD20 (B cells) or CD3 (T cells). mRNA levels of antigen-presenting cell (APC) markers such as CD68 and CD11c were significantly upregulated in the HCV-high group and were correlated with HLA-DQA mRNA levels. CD8B mRNA (CD8

Fan X, Lin L, Wang J, et al.
Genome profile in a extremely rare case of pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma presenting with diffusely-scattered nodules in the right lung.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(1):13-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma (PSP) typically presents solitary and peripheral mass, while only rarely cases display unusual multiple lesions. We reported a extremely rare case of PSP with diffusely-scattered nodules in the right lung.
CASE PRESENTATION: Diffusely round-shaped nodular shadows in the right lung were found by CT scan in a 31-year-old Chinese woman. The patient undergone the right pneumnectomy. Grossly, numerous small nodules, up to 2.5 cm in greatest dimension were identified in the upper, middle and lower lobes of the right lung. Histologically, the tumor presented the typical features of PSP, with a variable proportion of solid, sclerotic and papillary patterns. Immunohistochemical staining further revealed that cuboidal surface epithelial cells were positive for TTF-1, EMA, AE1/3 and vimentin (partially), and round or polygonal cells expressed TTF-1, vimentin, EMA (weakly), synaptophysin (partially), progesterone receptor (partially), and estrogen receptor (scatteredly). The patient has been followed up for 83 months after surgery by annual chest CT and no new lesions are detected in her left lung and other organs. The whole-exome sequencing identified 15 somatic mutations genes (MEGF6, DNAH5, AKT1, GPRIN2, PIK3AP1, FBXO40, HERC1, VPS16, MORN1, ZNF474, CTNNB1, ZNF251, TSC1, ATM, KDR). Pathway analysis showed possible pathways like the components of CTNNB1, AKT1, and TSC1 mutations in the PI3K/AKT signalings and AKT1, KDR and ATM in VEGF signaling pathway and AKT1 activation seemed closely related with these pathways.
CONCLUSION: According to our and previous data, PSP with diffuse or multiple lesions is very rare, and the patients are most commonly seen in women in Asian countries. The misdiagnosis rate by clinical and intraoperative frozen-section assessment is high because of the multiple nodules in the lung and its confusing histological features. Long time follow up indicates surgical resection should not be considered as the preferred strategy for treating multiple PSP in the intralobar sites. AKT1 activation may contribute to the development of PSP while the pathogenesis of diffuse or multiple PSP still needs to be further analyzed.

Qiu YS, Liao GJ, Jiang NN
DNA Methylation-Mediated Silencing of Regenerating Protein 1 Alpha (REG1A) Affects Gastric Cancer Prognosis.
Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23:5834-5843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. The clinical trials still lack the effective methods to treat or monitor the disease progression. In this research, the biological function and the underlying molecular mechanism of regenerating protein 1 alpha (REG1A) in GC were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Gene expression omnibus (GEO), KMplot datasets and GC tissue microarray (n=164) were used to analyze the expression of REG1A and related patient prognoses in GC. Transwell matrigel assay, flow cytometry analysis and CCK8 cell viability assay were performed to detect the biological functions of REG1A. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect the REG1A expression and PI3K/Akt related signaling. RESULTS It was found that the expression of REG1A was significantly downregulated in GC and closely related with clinicopathological findings or patient prognoses. REG1A overexpression could suppress the invasion, cell viability and promote the apoptosis of GC cells. Moreover, we found that the epigenetic methylation suppressed the expression level of REG1A in GC, and REG1A overexpression could suppress the phosphorylation of Akt or GSK3β signaling. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, REG1A regulates cell invasion, apoptosis and viability in GC through activating PI3K/Akt-GSK3β signaling. REG1A may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for GC.

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