Gene Summary

Gene:MT2A; metallothionein 2A
Aliases: MT2, MT-2, MT-II
Summary:This gene is a member of the metallothionein family of genes. Proteins encoded by this gene family are low in molecular weight, are cysteine-rich, lack aromatic residues, and bind divalent heavy metal ions, altering the intracellular concentration of heavy metals in the cell. These proteins act as anti-oxidants, protect against hydroxyl free radicals, are important in homeostatic control of metal in the cell, and play a role in detoxification of heavy metals. The encoded protein interacts with the protein encoded by the homeobox containing 1 gene in some cell types, controlling intracellular zinc levels, affecting apoptotic and autophagy pathways. Some polymorphisms in this gene are associated with an increased risk of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Down-Regulation
  • Metallothionein
  • Zinc
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Poland
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Genotype
  • Zinc Sulfate
  • Phosphorylation
  • Epigenetics
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosome 16
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Young Adult
  • Breast Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Staging
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Nasopharyngeal Cancer
  • Survival Rate
  • Alleles
  • Copper
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MT2A (cancer-related)

Xu XH, Kou LC, Wang HM, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of melatonin receptors 1A and 1B may result in disordered lipid metabolism in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(3):2220-2230 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman's levels of the sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) are out of balance, leading to the growth of ovarian cysts. PCOS can affect the menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function and even appearance of women. Therefore, we aimed to explore the genetic polymorphism of the melatonin receptors 1A and 1B in obese patients with PCOS to identify a new theoretical basis for its treatment. Patients presenting with PCOS (n=359) were enrolled and classified into an obese OB‑PCOS group [body mass index (BMI) of PCOS patients ≥25 kg/m2] or a nonobese NOB‑PCOS group, and 215 oviduct infertile patients who experienced normal ovulation were used as the control group. All baseline characteristics, endocrine hormone levels, lipid and glucose metabolism, and insulin indices were measured. The genotypes of rs2119882 within the MTNR1A gene and of rs10830963 within the MTNR1B gene were determined by PCR‑RFLP; the genotype frequency and the difference in the distribution of allele frequency were compared. For rs2119882, C allele carriers who were not diagnosed with PCOS had an increased risk of developing PCOS, and C allele carriers with PCOS had an increased risk of developing OB‑PCOS. For rs10830963, G allele carriers who were not diagnosed with PCOS had an increased risk of developing PCOS. The TT genotype in rs2119882 and the CC genotype in rs10830963 were protective factors for OB‑PCOS, and increased levels of LH, testosterone, and estradiol and abnormal menstruation were key risk factors for PCOS. Furthermore, the TT genotype at the rs2119882 site was the key protective factor for OB‑PCOS patients. Our study found that MTNR1A rs2119882 and MTNR1B rs10830963 could increase the risk for PCOS and cause glycolipid metabolism disorder in PCOS patients.

Nomura H, Umekita K, Hashikura Y, et al.
Diversity of cell phenotypes among MT-2 cell lines affects the growth of U937 cells and cytokine production.
Hum Cell. 2019; 32(2):185-192 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported the diversity of structure and integration sites of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) provirus among different MT-2 cell lines. This raised the question as to whether cell phenotypes also differed among MT-2 cell lines. The influence of two different MT-2 cell lines (MT-2J and MT-2B) on the growth of the promonocytic leukemia cell line, U937, was investigated. Protein levels and mRNA expression of cytokines were also investigated. In addition, Western blot analysis of HTLV-1 regulatory proteins, Tax and HBZ, was also performed. Culture supernatant from MT-2B, but not MT-2J, cells showed marked suppressive effects on U937 cell growth. MT-2B showed high tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β, and interferon (IFN)-γ both in protein levels of the culture supernatant and mRNA levels of the cells. Analysis using recombinant cytokines indicated that the suppressive effects of MT-2B were due, at least in part, to high levels of TNF-β and its synergic effects with IFN-γ in the culture supernatant. Protein levels of HTLV-1 Tax and HBZ were higher in MT-2B than those in MT-2J cells. These molecules have been reported to affect the cytokine production of HTLV-1 infected cells; therefore, the difference in these molecules may have accounted for the differences in cytokine production between MT-2J and MT-2B cells. Furthermore, because MT-2 cells showed a large variation of integrated HTLV-1 proviruses as well as cell phenotypes, it is important to exercise caution in the assessment and interpretation of experimental data from MT-2 cells.

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T
Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:257-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify key molecular mechanisms of adaptogenic plants traditionally used to treat stress and aging-related disorders, i.e., Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Bryonia alba.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptogens, we conducted RNA sequencing to profile gene expression alterations in T98G neuroglia cells upon treatment of adaptogens and analyzed the relevance of deregulated genes to adaptive stress-response signaling pathways using in silico pathway analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At least 88 of the 3516 genes regulated by adaptogens were closely associated with adaptive stress response and adaptive stress-response signaling pathways (ASRSPs), including neuronal signaling related to corticotropin-releasing hormone, cAMP-mediated, protein kinase A, and CREB; pathways related to signaling involving CXCR4, melatonin, nitric oxide synthase, GP6, Gαs, MAPK, neuroinflammation, neuropathic pain, opioids, renin-angiotensin, AMPK, calcium, and synapses; and pathways associated with dendritic cell maturation and G-coupled protein receptor-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells. All samples tested showed significant effects on the expression of genes encoding neurohormones CRH, GNRH, UCN, G-protein-coupled and other transmembrane receptors TLR9, PRLR, CHRNE, GP1BA, PLXNA4, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor RORA, transmembrane channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), and other proteins, all of which modulate numerous life processes, playing key roles in several canonical pathways involved in defense response and regulation of homeostasis in organisms. It is for the first time we report that the molecular mechanism of actions of melatonin and plant adaptogens are alike, all adaptogens tested activated the melatonin signaling pathway by acting through two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and upregulation of the ligand-specific nuclear receptor RORA, which plays a role in intellectual disability, neurological disorders, retinopathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cancer, which are common in aging. Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which were commonly regulated by all adaptogens tested. We conclude that melatonin is an adaptation hormone playing an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Adaptogens presumably worked as eustressors ("stress-vaccines") to activate the cellular adaptive system by inducing the expression of ASRSPs, which then reciprocally protected cells from damage caused by distress. Functional investigation by interactive pathways analysis demonstrated that adaptogens activated ASRSPs associated with stress-induced and aging-related disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular health, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.

Zhang Y, Yang W, Li D, et al.
Toward the precision breast cancer survival prediction utilizing combined whole genome-wide expression and somatic mutation analysis.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(Suppl 5):104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of invasive cancer in woman. It accounts for approximately 18% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is well known that somatic mutation plays an essential role in cancer development. Hence, we propose that a prognostic prediction model that integrates somatic mutations with gene expression can improve survival prediction for cancer patients and also be able to reveal the genetic mutations associated with survival.
METHOD: Differential expression analysis was used to identify breast cancer related genes. Genetic algorithm (GA) and univariate Cox regression analysis were applied to filter out survival related genes. DAVID was used for enrichment analysis on somatic mutated gene set. The performance of survival predictors were assessed by Cox regression model and concordance index(C-index).
RESULTS: We investigated the genome-wide gene expression profile and somatic mutations of 1091 breast invasive carcinoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified 118 genes with high hazard ratios as breast cancer survival risk gene candidates (log rank p <  0.0001 and c-index = 0.636). Multiple breast cancer survival related genes were found in this gene set, including FOXR2, FOXD1, MTNR1B and SDC1. Further genetic algorithm (GA) revealed an optimal gene set consisted of 88 genes with higher c-index (log rank p <  0.0001 and c-index = 0.656). We validated this gene set on an independent breast cancer data set and achieved a similar performance (log rank p <  0.0001 and c-index = 0.614). Moreover, we revealed 25 functional annotations, 15 gene ontology terms and 14 pathways that were significantly enriched in the genes that showed distinct mutation patterns in the different survival risk groups. These functional gene sets were used as new features for the survival prediction model. In particular, our results suggested that the Fanconi anemia pathway had an important role in breast cancer prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that the expression levels of the gene signatures remain the effective indicators for breast cancer survival prediction. Combining the gene expression information with other types of features derived from somatic mutations can further improve the performance of survival prediction. The pathways that were associated with survival risk suggested by our study can be further investigated for improving cancer patient survival.

Nasrabadi NN, Sargazi F, Shokrzadeh M, et al.
Expression of MT1 receptor in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and its relationship with clinicopathological features.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2018; 39(2):111-118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer accounts 8% of the total cancer cases leading to 10% of total cancer deaths worldwide. The indoleamine N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, better known as melatonin, is the principal hormone produced by the pineal gland. Recently, it has been well documented some anti-cancer roles of melatonin in some malignancies as breast and colon cancer; as well as some its protective roles in the GI tract that have been known as free radical scavenger, antimitogenic and apoptotic properties. According to the anti-cancer effects of melatonin, wide distribution of this neurohormone in GI tract and some proposed physiologic and pharmacologic roles for this neurohormone and following our previous study which has shown expression of MT2 receptor in gastric adenocarcinoma, this study initially scheduled to determine the expression of melatonin receptor MT1 in tissue samples of adenocarcinoma cancer patients. A total of 10 gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 10 normal individuals were examined for MT1 gene expression by real-time PCR. Additionally, for screening of different alleles of MT1 in our samples, the SSCP-PCR procedure was developed. Our results have shown interestingly high expression for MT1 receptor in cancer and marginal cancer groups comparing with normal group. Our findings also have shown that a remarkable association between MT1 receptor mRNA levels and grade in individuals over age 50. PCR-SSCP analysis results showed a variation between individuals which may be effective on their gene expression patterns. According to our knowledge, for the first time this study evaluated the expression of MT1 receptor gene in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues which consistent with our previous study but with some difference in comparisons between kind of tissue expression and difference in polymorphisms. Moreover, these results show the defending role of melatonin in the GI system.

Białkowska K, Marciniak W, Muszyńska M, et al.
Association of zinc level and polymorphism in MMP-7 gene with prostate cancer in Polish population.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies among men in Western populations. Evidence reported in the literature suggests that zinc may be related to prostate cancer. In this study we evaluated the association of serum zinc levels and polymorphisms in genes encoding zinc-dependent proteins with prostate cancer in Poland.
METHODS: The study group consisted of 197 men affected with prostate cancer and 197 healthy men. Serum zinc levels were measured and 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms in MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-13, MT2A genes were genotyped.
RESULTS: The mean serum zinc level was higher in prostate cancer patients than in healthy controls (898.9±12.01 μg/l vs. 856.6±13.05 μg/l, p<0.01). When compared in quartiles a significant association of higher zinc concentration with the incidence of prostate cancer was observed. The highest OR (OR = 4.41, 95%CI 2.07-9.37, p<0.01) was observed in 3rd quartile (>853.0-973.9 μg/l). Among five analyzed genetic variants, rs11568818 in MMP-7 appeared to be correlated with 2-fold increased prostate cancer risk (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.19-4.82, p = 0.015).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a significant correlation of higher serum zinc levels with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The polymorphism rs11568818 in MMP-7 gene was also associated with an increased prostate cancer risk in Poland.

Lee H, Lee HJ, Jung JH, et al.
Melatonin disturbs SUMOylation-mediated crosstalk between c-Myc and nestin via MT1 activation and promotes the sensitivity of paclitaxel in brain cancer stem cells.
J Pineal Res. 2018; 65(2):e12496 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here the underlying antitumor mechanism of melatonin and its potency as a sensitizer of paclitaxel was investigated in X02 cancer stem cells. Melatonin suppressed sphere formation and induced G2/M arrest in X02 cells expressing nestin, CD133, CXCR4, and SOX-2 as biomarkers of stemness. Furthermore, melatonin reduced the expression of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and c-Myc and upregulated cyclin B1 in X02 cells. Notably, genes of c-Myc related mRNAs were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated X02 cells by microarray analysis. Consistently, melatonin reduced the expression of c-Myc at mRNA and protein levels, which was blocked by MG132. Of note, overexpression of c-Myc increased the expression of nestin, while overexpression of nestin enhanced c-Myc through crosstalk despite different locations, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Interestingly, melatonin attenuated small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) more than SUMO-2 or SUMO-3 and disturbed nuclear translocation of nestin for direct binding to c-Myc by SUMOylation of SUMO-1 protein by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Also, melatonin reduced trimethylated histone H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 more than dimethylation in X02 cells by Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Notably, melatonin upregulated MT1, not MT2, in X02 cells and melatonin receptor inhibitor luzindole blocked the ability of melatonin to decrease the expression of nestin, p-c-Myc(S62), and c-Myc. Furthermore, melatonin promoted cytotoxicity, sub-G1 accumulation, and apoptotic body formation by Paclitaxcel in X02 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin inhibits stemness via suppression of c-Myc, nestin, and histone methylation via MT1 activation and promotes anticancer effect of Paclitaxcel in brain cancer stem cells.

Fan T, Pi H, Li M, et al.
Inhibiting MT2-TFE3-dependent autophagy enhances melatonin-induced apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
J Pineal Res. 2018; 64(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy modulation is a potential therapeutic strategy for tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Melatonin possesses significant anticarcinogenic activity. However, whether melatonin induces autophagy and its roles in cell death in TSCC are unclear. Herein, we show that melatonin induced significant apoptosis in the TSCC cell line Cal27. Apart from the induction of apoptosis, we demonstrated that melatonin-induced autophagic flux in Cal27 cells as evidenced by the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta, and the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of SQSTM1/P62. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blockage of autophagy enhanced melatonin-induced apoptosis, indicating a cytoprotective role of autophagy in melatonin-treated Cal27 cells. Mechanistically, melatonin induced TFE3

Krizkova S, Kepinska M, Emri G, et al.
An insight into the complex roles of metallothioneins in malignant diseases with emphasis on (sub)isoforms/isoforms and epigenetics phenomena.
Pharmacol Ther. 2018; 183:90-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metallothioneins (MTs) belong to a group of small cysteine-rich proteins that are ubiquitous throughout all kingdoms. The main function of MTs is scavenging of free radicals and detoxification and homeostating of heavy metals. In humans, 16 genes localized on chromosome 16 have been identified to encode four MT isoforms labelled by numbers (MT-1-MT-4). MT-2, MT-3 and MT-4 proteins are encoded by a single gene. MT-1 comprises many (sub)isoforms. The known active MT-1 genes are MT-1A, -1B, -1E, -1F, -1G, -1H, -1M and -1X. The rest of the MT-1 genes (MT-1C, -1D, -1I, -1J and -1L) are pseudogenes. The expression and localization of individual MT (sub)isoforms and pseudogenes vary at intra-cellular level and in individual tissues. Changes in MT expression are associated with the process of carcinogenesis of various types of human malignancies, or with a more aggressive phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Hence, MT (sub)isoform profiling status could be utilized for diagnostics and therapy of tumour diseases. This review aims on a comprehensive summary of methods for analysis of MTs at (sub)isoforms levels, their expression in single tumour diseases and strategies how this knowledge can be utilized in anticancer therapy.

Wojtczak B, Pula B, Gomulkiewicz A, et al.
Metallothionein Isoform Expression in Benign and Malignant Thyroid Lesions.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(9):5179-5185 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metallothioneins (MTs) are involved in numerous cell processes such as binding and transport of zinc and copper ions, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, therefore contributing to carcinogenesis. Scarce data exist on their expression in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: mRNA expression of functional isoforms of MT genes (MT1A, MT1B, MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1X, MT2A, MT4) was studied in 17 nodular goiters (NG), 12 follicular adenomas (FA) and 26 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in mRNA expression levels of MT1A (p<0.05), MT1E (p<0.005), MT1F (p<0.0001), MT1G (p<0.005), MT1X (p<0.0005) and MT2A (p<0.005) in the analyzed samples. Post hoc analysis confirmed a significantly lower expression of MT1A mRNA in PTC compared to NG (p<0.05). Significant down-regulation was also noted for other MT isoforms in PTC in comparison to NG: MT1E (p<0.05), MT1F (p<0.0001), MT1G (p<0.005), MT1X (p<0.0005) and MT2A (p<0.05). In addition, significant down-regulation of MT1F and MT1G in FA compared to NG was observed (p<0.005 and p<0.05, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Expression of functional MT isoforms may contribute to thyroid carcinogenesis and potentially serve as a diagnostic marker in distinguishing benign and malignant lesions.

Sadowski CE, Kohlstedt D, Meisel C, et al.
BRCA1/2 missense mutations and the value of in-silico analyses.
Eur J Med Genet. 2017; 60(11):572-577 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The clinical implications of genetic variants in BRCA1/2 in healthy and affected individuals are considerable. Variant interpretation, however, is especially challenging for missense variants. The majority of them are classified as variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). Computational (in-silico) predictive programs are easy to access, but represent only one tool out of a wide range of complemental approaches to classify VUS. With this single-center study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of in-silico analyses in a spectrum of different BRCA1/2 missense variants.
METHODS: We conducted mutation analysis of BRCA1/2 in 523 index patients with suspected hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). Classification of the genetic variants was performed according to the German Consortium (GC)-HBOC database. Additionally, all missense variants were classified by the following three in-silico prediction tools: SIFT, Mutation Taster (MT2) and PolyPhen2 (PPH2).
RESULTS: Overall 201 different variants, 68 of which constituted missense variants were ranked as pathogenic, neutral, or unknown. The classification of missense variants by in-silico tools resulted in a higher amount of pathogenic mutations (25% vs. 13.2%) compared to the GC-HBOC-classification. Altogether, more than fifty percent (38/68, 55.9%) of missense variants were ranked differently. Sensitivity of in-silico-tools for mutation prediction was 88.9% (PPH2), 100% (SIFT) and 100% (MT2).
CONCLUSION: We found a relevant discrepancy in variant classification by using in-silico prediction tools, resulting in potential overestimation and/or underestimation of cancer risk. More reliable, notably gene-specific, prediction tools and functional tests are needed to improve clinical counseling.

Casado J, Iñigo-Chaves A, Jiménez-Ruiz SM, et al.
AA-NAT, MT1 and MT2 Correlates with Cancer Stem-Like Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer: Study of the Influence of Stage and p53 Status of Tumors.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The characterization of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) may help to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. p53 loss increases the pool of CSCs in colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent reports suggest that the oncostatic effects of melatonin could be related to its ability to kill CSCs. Although there are no data linking the loss of p53 function and melatonin synthesis or signaling in cancer, melatonin does activate the p53 tumor-suppressor pathway in this disease. In this work, we analyze whether the expression of melatonin synthesis and signaling genes are related to the expression of CSC markers and the implication of p53 status in samples from patients with CRC. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), MT1, and MT2 expression decreased in tumor samples versus normal mucosa samples in mutated p53 (mtp53) tumors versus those with wild-type p53 (wtp53). Further, AA-NAT and MT2 expression were lower in advanced stages of the disease in wtp53 tumors. On the contrary, CD44 and CD66c expression was higher in tumor versus normal mucosa in wtp53 tumors. Additionally, CD44 expression was higher in advanced stages of the disease regardless of the p53 status. Patients with CD44

Shin CH, Lee MG, Han J, et al.
Identification of XAF1-MT2A mutual antagonism as a molecular switch in cell-fate decisions under stressful conditions.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(22):5683-5688 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) is a tumor suppressor that is commonly inactivated in multiple human neoplasms. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its proapoptotic function remains largely undefined. Here, we report that XAF1 induction by heavy metals triggers an apoptotic switch of stress response by destabilizing metallothionein 2A (MT2A). XAF1 directly interacts with MT2A and facilitates its lysosomal degradation, resulting in the elevation of the free intercellular zinc level and subsequent activation of p53 and inactivation of XIAP. Intriguingly, XAF1 is activated as a unique transcription target of metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) in signaling apoptosis, and its protein is destabilized via the lysosomal pathway by MTF-1-induced MT2A under cytostatic stress conditions, indicating the presence of mutual antagonism between XAF1 and MT2A. The antagonistic interplay between XAF1 and MT2A acts as a key molecular switch in MTF-1-mediated cell-fate decisions and also plays an important role in cell response to various apoptotic and survival factors. Wild-type (WT) XAF1 but not MT2A binding-deficient mutant XAF1 increases the free intracellular zinc level and accelerates WT folding of p53 and degradation of XIAP. Consistently, XAF1 evokes a more drastic apoptotic effect in

Justiniano R, Perer J, Hua A, et al.
A Topical Zinc Ionophore Blocks Tumorigenic Progression in UV-exposed SKH-1 High-risk Mouse Skin.
Photochem Photobiol. 2017; 93(6):1472-1482 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the United States representing a considerable public health burden. Pharmacological suppression of skin photocarcinogenesis has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies, but more efficacious photochemopreventive agents are needed. Here, we tested feasibility of harnessing pharmacological disruption of intracellular zinc homeostasis for photochemoprevention in vitro and in vivo. Employing the zinc ionophore and FDA-approved microbicidal agent zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), used worldwide in over-the-counter (OTC) topical consumer products, we first demonstrated feasibility of achieving ZnPT-based intracellular Zn

Komohara Y, Ma C, Yano H, et al.
Cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) expressed on adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells is not involved in the interaction with macrophages.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2017; 57(1):15-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is a cell adhesion molecule that is expressed in brain, liver, lung, testis, and some kinds of cancer cells including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CADM1 in cell-cell contact between cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and virus infected cells. We previously reported that cell-cell interaction between lymphoma cells and macrophages induces lymphoma cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether CADM1 is associated with cell-cell interaction between several human lymphoma cell lines and macrophages.CADM1 expression was observed in the ATLL cell lines, ATN-1, ATL-T, and ATL-35T, and in the B cell lymphoma cell lines, TL-1, DAUDI, and SLVL, using western blotting. Significant cell-cell interaction between macrophages and ATN-1, ATL-T, ATL-35T and MT-2, DAUDI, and SLVL cells, as assessed by induction of cell proliferation, was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis of human biopsy samples indicated CADM1 expression in 10 of 14 ATLL cases; however, no case of follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positive for CADM1. Finally, the interaction of macrophages with cells of the CADM1-negative ED ATLL cell line and CADM1-transfected ED cells was tested. However, significant cell-cell interaction between macrophage and CADM1-transfected ED cells was not observed. We conclude that CADM1 was not associated with cell-cell interaction between lymphoma cells and macrophages, although CADM1 may be a useful marker of ATLL for diagnostic procedures.

Osanai K, Kobayashi Y, Otsu M, et al.
Ramelteon, a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, suppresses the proliferation and invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells.
Hum Cell. 2017; 30(3):209-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of endometrial cancer is increasing, making it the fifth most common cancer worldwide. To date, however, there is no standard therapy for patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in various tumor types. Although melatonin is available as a supplement, it has not been approved for cancer treatment. Ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor type 1 and 2 (MT1/MT2) receptor agonist, has been approved to treat sleep disorders, suggesting that ramelteon may be effective in the treatment of endometrial cancer. To determine whether this agent may be effective in the treatment of endometrial cancer, this study investigated the ability of ramelteon to suppress the proliferation and invasiveness of HHUA cells, an estrogen receptor-positive endometrial cancer cell line. Ramelteon at 10

Liu D, Wang M, Tian T, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms (rs10636 and rs28366003) in metallothionein 2A increase breast cancer risk in Chinese Han population.
Aging (Albany NY). 2017; 9(2):547-555 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms of

Marikar FM, Jin G, Sheng W, et al.
Metallothionein 2A an interactive protein linking phosphorylated FADD to NF-κB pathway leads to colorectal cancer formation.
Chin Clin Oncol. 2016; 5(6):76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in the incidence rate of colorectal cancer has led to the search and identification of biomarkers that can predict risk for and future behavior of this malignancy and management. To study the biological role of the phosphorylated Fas associated death domain (pFADD) gene in colorectal cancer, we performed a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid screening of a human heart cDNA library.
METHODS: A series of two yeast hybrid method was used to identification of protein-protein interaction. It was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull down assay and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). Three channeled fluorescence microscopy further confirmed the interaction in cellular level. Xenograft in vivo model was developed and knockdown relevant genes by RNAi techniques and confirmed the relationship which leads to colorectal cancer.
RESULTS: Using the FADD cDNA as bait, we identified six putative clones as associated proteins. The interaction of pFADD and metallothionein 2A (MT2A) was confirmed by GST pull-down assays in vitro and co-IP experiments in vivo. FADD co-localized with MT2A mostly to nuclei and slightly to cytoplasm, as shown by three channel fluorescence microscopy. Co-transfection of pFADD with MT2A gene inhibited cell apoptosis and induced cell proliferation in colorectal cancer cells compared with control groups. When we used antisense MT2A and pFADD which is serine 194 in the C terminal of FADD gene that has been reported to be phosphorylated to interdict the effect of respective genes the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis were significantly enhanced in animal model.
CONCLUSIONS: Further in this study we identify non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling up regulated and it was directly linked with the tumor necrosis with MT2A and pFADD genes. pFADD with MT2A can inhibit the apoptosis and promote proliferation, of colorectal cancer cells, and antisense sequence of MT2A and pFADD approaches which might swell the combination of deregulated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis.

Wang Y, Jiang T, Li Z, et al.
Analysis of differentially co-expressed genes based on microarray data of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Neoplasma. 2017; 64(2):216-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although great progress in diagnosis and management of HCC have been made, the exact molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The study aims to identify potential biomarkers for HCC progression, mainly at transcription level. In this study, chip data GSE 29721 was utilized, which contains 10 HCC samples and 10 normal adjacent tissue samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two sample types were selected by t-test method. Following, the differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) and differentially co-expressed Links (DCLs) were identified by DCGL package in R with the threshold of q < 0.25. Afterwards, pathway enrichment analysis of the DCGs was carried out by DAVID. Then, DCLs were mapped to TRANSFAC database to reveal associations between relevant transcriptional factors (TFs) and their target genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed for TFs or genes of interest. As a result, a total of 388 DCGs and 35,771 DCLs were obtained. The predominant pathways enriched by these genes were Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, ECM-receptor interaction and TGF-β signaling pathway. Three TF-target interactions, LEF1-NCAM1, EGR1-FN1 and FOS-MT2A were predicted. Compared with control, expressions of the TF genes EGR1, FOS and ETS2 were all up-regulated in the HCC cell line, HepG2; while LEF1 was down-regulated. Except NCAM1, all the target genes were up-regulated in HepG2. Our findings suggest these TFs and genes might play important roles in the pathogenesis of HCC and may be used as therapeutic targets for HCC management.

Li H, Lu YF, Chen H, Liu J
Dysregulation of metallothionein and circadian genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Chronobiol Int. 2017; 34(2):192-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major threat to human health, and disruption of circadian clock genes is implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. This study examined the dysregulation of metallothioneins and circadian genes in achieved human HCC (n = 24), peri-HCC tissues (n = 24) as compared with normal human livers (n = 36). Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. Real-time RT-qPCR was performed to determine the expression of genes of interest. The results demonstrated the downregulation of metallothionein-1 (MT-1), MT-2, and metal transcription factor-1 (MFT-1) in human HCC as compared with Peri-HCC and normal tissues. MTs are a biomarker for HCC and have typical circadian rhythms; the expression of major circadian clock genes was also determined. HCC produced a dramatic decrease in the expression of core clock genes, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock) and brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (Bmal1), and decreased the expression of the clock feedback control genes, Periods (Per1, Per2) and Cryptochromes (Cry1, Cry2). On the other hand, the expression of clock target genes nuclear orphan receptor factor protein (Nr1d1) and D-box-binding protein (Dbp) was upregulated as compared with Peri-HCC and normal livers. Peri-HCC also had mild alterations in these gene expressions. In summary, the present study clearly demonstrated the dysregulation of MTs and circadian clock genes in human HCC, which could provide the information of targeting MT and circadian clock in HCC management.

Lee S, Matsuzaki H, Maeda M, et al.
Accelerated cell cycle progression of human regulatory T cell-like cell line caused by continuous exposure to asbestos fibers.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(1):66-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Asbestos exposure causes malignant tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Based on our hypothesis in which continuous exposure to asbestos of immune cells cause reduction of antitumor immunity, the decrease of natural killer cell killing activity with reduction of NKp46 activating receptor expression, inhibition of cytotoxic T cell clonal expansion, reduced CXCR3 chemokine receptor expression and production of interferon-γ production in CD4+ T cells were reported using cell line models, freshly isolated peripheral blood immune cells from health donors as well as asbestos exposed patients such as pleural plaque and mesothelioma. In addition to these findings, regulatory T cells (Treg) showed enhanced function through cell-cell contact and increased secretion of typical soluble factors, interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, in a cell line model using the MT-2 human polyclonal T cells and its sublines exposed continuously to asbestos fibers. Since these sublines showed a remarkable reduction of FoxO1 transcription factor, which regulates various cell cycle regulators in asbestos-exposed sublines, the cell cycle progression in these sublines was examined and compared with that of the original MT-2 cells. Results showed that cyclin D1 expression was markedly enhanced, and various cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitors were reduced with increased S phases in the sublines. Furthermore, the increase of cyclin D1 expression was regulated by FoxO1. The overall findings indicate that antitumor immunity in asbestos-exposed individuals may be reduced in Treg through changes in the function and volume of Treg.

Söderquist F, Janson ET, Rasmusson AJ, et al.
Melatonin Immunoreactivity in Malignant Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumours.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0164354 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are derived from enterochromaffin cells. After demonstrating melatonin in enterochromaffin cells, we hypothesized that SI-NETs may express and secrete melatonin, which may have an impact on clinical factors and treatment response.
METHODS: Tumour tissue from 26 patients with SI-NETs, representing paired sections of primary tumour and metastasis, were immunohistochemically stained for melatonin and its receptors, MT1 and MT2. Plasma melatonin and immunoreactivity (IR) for melatonin, MT1 and MT2 in tumour cells were compared to other tumour markers and clinical parameters. Melatonin was measured at two time points in fasting morning plasma from 43 patients with SI-NETs.
RESULTS: Melatonin IR was found in all SI-NETS. Melatonin IR intensity in primary tumours correlated inversely to proliferation index (p = 0.022) and patients reported less diarrhoea when melatonin IR was high (p = 0.012). MT1 IR was low or absent in tumours. MT2 expression was medium to high in primary tumours and generally reduced in metastases (p = 0.007). Plasma-melatonin ranged from 4.5 to 220.0 pg/L. Higher levels were associated with nausea at both time points (p = 0.027 and p = 0.006) and flush at the second sampling. In cases with disease stabilization or remission (n = 34), circulating melatonin levels were reduced in the second sample (p = 0.038).
CONCLUSION: Immunoreactive melatonin is present in SI-NETs. Circulating levels of melatonin in patients with SI-NETs are reduced after treatment. Our results are congruent with recent understanding of melatonin's endocrine and paracrine functions and SI-NETs may provide a model for further studies of melatonin function.

Komatsubara M, Hara T, Hosoya T, et al.
Melatonin regulates catecholamine biosynthesis by modulating bone morphogenetic protein and glucocorticoid actions.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017; 165(Pt B):182-189 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melatonin is functionally involved in the control of circadian rhythm and hormonal secretion. In the present study, we investigated the roles of melatonin in the interaction of catecholamine synthesis with adrenocortical steroids by focusing on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 expressed in the adrenal medulla using rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced the mRNA expression of catecholamine synthases, including the rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase expressed in PC12 cells. In accordance with changes in the expression levels of enzymes, dopamine production and cAMP synthesis determined in the culture medium and cell lysate were also suppressed by melatonin. The MT1 receptor, but not the MT2 receptor, was expressed in PC12 cells, and luzindole treatment reversed the inhibitory effect of melatonin on Th expression, suggesting that MT1 is a functional receptor for the control of catecholamine synthesis. Interestingly, melatonin enhanced the inhibitory effect of BMP-4 on Th mRNA expression in PC12 cells. Melatonin treatment accelerated BMP-4-induced phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and transcription of the BMP target gene Id1. Of note, melatonin significantly upregulated Alk2 and Bmpr2 mRNA levels but suppressed inhibitory Smad6/7 expression, leading to the enhancement of SMAD1/5/8 signaling in PC12 cells, while BMP-4 did not affect Mt1 expression. Regarding the interaction with adrenocortical steroids, melatonin preferentially enhanced glucocorticoid-induced Th mRNA through upregulation of the glucocorticoid receptor and downregulation of Bmp4 expression, whereas melatonin repressed Th mRNA expression induced by aldosterone or androgen without affecting expression levels of the receptors for mineralocorticoid and androgen. Collectively, the results indicate that melatonin plays a modulatory role in catecholamine synthesis by cooperating with BMP-4 and glucocorticoid in the adrenal medulla.

Ohsugi T, Wakamiya M, Morikawa S, Fujita M
Expression of DOK1, 2, and 3 genes in HTLV-1-infected T cells.
Acta Virol. 2016; 60(2):211-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause an aggressive malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). The Tax protein encoded by the pX region of the HTLV-1 genome appears to be a key element in the early stage of ATLL development. In this study, we examined the expression of the downstream of tyrosine kinase (DOK) family members DOK1, DOK2 and DOK3, recently reported to be tumor suppressors, in HTLV-1-transformed T cells (MT-2 and HUT-102) and TL-Om1 cells derived from ATLL leukemic cells. DOK2 and DOK3 expression was significantly reduced in MT-2, HUT-102, and TL-Om1 cells compared with their expression in uninfected T cells, and the expression of DOK3 was reduced by the induction of Tax expression in T cells.

Matsuzaki H, Lee S, Maeda M, et al.
FoxO1 regulates apoptosis induced by asbestos in the MT-2 human T-cell line.
J Immunotoxicol. 2016; 13(5):620-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Asbestos is known to cause malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. Recent studies implicate tumor immunity in the development of various tumors, including malignant mesothelioma. In order to establish an in vitro T-cell model to clarify the effects of long-term exposure of asbestos on tumor immunity, in this study, human T-cell line MT-2 cells were cultured with asbestos for longer than 8 months and the resultant cells (MT-2Rst) were assessed for the expression of forkhead transcription factor FoxO1. Gene expression analysis revealed that the amount of FoxO1 mRNA decreased after long-term exposure of the MT-2 cells to asbestos. In accordance with this reduction in FoxO1, pro-apoptotic Foxo1 target genes Puma, Fas ligand and Bim were also seen to be down-regulated in MT-2Rst cells. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated knock-down of FoxO1 reduced the number of apoptotic parental MT-2 cells after treatment with asbestos. On the other hand, over-expression of FoxO1 did not affect asbestos-induced apoptosis in MT-2Rst cells. These results suggested that FoxO1 played an important role in regulating asbestos-induced apoptosis and confirmed the presence of multiple pathways regulating resistance to asbestos in MT-2Rst cells.

Shinkai K, Nakano K, Cui L, et al.
Nuclear expression of Y-box binding protein-1 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer and its knockdown inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in mice tumor models.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(2):433-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to examine the implication of Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) for the aggressive phenotypes, prognosis and therapeutic target in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). YB-1 expression in PDAC, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and normal pancreas specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and its correlation with clinicopathological features was assessed in patients with PDAC. The effects of YB-1 on proliferation, invasion and expressions of cell cycle-related proteins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were analyzed by WST-8, cell cycle and Matrigel invasion assays, Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR in PDAC cells transfected with YB-1-siRNAs. To verify the significance of YB-1 for tumor progression in vivo, the growth and metastasis were monitored after intrasplenic implantation of ex vivo YB-1 siRNA-transfected PDAC cells, and YB-1-targeting antisense oligonucleotides were intravenously administered in nude mice harboring subcutaneous tumor. The intensity of YB-1 expression and positivity of nuclear YB-1 expression were higher in PDAC than PanIN and normal pancreatic tissues. Nuclear YB-1 expression was significantly associated with dedifferentiation, lymphatic/venous invasion and unfavorable prognosis. YB-1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest by S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 downregulation and consequent p27 accumulation, and decreased the invasion due to downregulated membranous-type 2 MMP expression in PDAC cells. Tumor growth and liver metastasis formation were significantly suppressed in nude mice after implantation of YB-1-silenced PDAC cells, and the YB-1 targeting antisense oligonucleotide significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous tumors. In conclusion, YB-1 may be involved in aggressive natures of PDAC and a promising therapeutic target.

Pan Y, Lin S, Xing R, et al.
Epigenetic Upregulation of Metallothionein 2A by Diallyl Trisulfide Enhances Chemosensitivity of Human Gastric Cancer Cells to Docetaxel Through Attenuating NF-κB Activation.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016; 24(15):839-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Metallothionein 2A (MT2A) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) are both involved in carcinogenesis and cancer chemosensitivity. We previously showed decreased expression of MT2A and IκB-α in human gastric cancer (GC) associated with poor prognosis of GC patients. The present study investigated the effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic-derived compound, and docetaxel (DOC) on regulation of MT2A in relation to NF-κB in GC cells.
RESULTS: DATS attenuated NF-κB signaling in GC cells, resulting in G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, culminating in the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in nude mice. The anti-GC effect of DATS was attributable to its capacity to epigenetically upregulate MT2A, which in turn enhanced transcription of IκB-α to suppress NF-κB activation in GC cells. The combination of DATS with DOC exhibited a synergistic anti-GC activity accompanied by MT2A upregulation and NF-κB inactivation. Histopathologic analysis of GC specimens from patients showed a significant increase in MT2A expression following DOC treatment. GC patients with high MT2A expression in tumor specimens showed significantly improved response to chemotherapy and prolonged survival compared with those with low MT2A expression in tumors.
INNOVATION AND CONCLUSION: We conclude that DATS exerts its anti-GC activity and enhances chemosensitivity of GC to DOC by epigenetic upregulation of MT2A to attenuate NF-κB signaling. Our findings delineate a mechanistic basis of MT2A/NF-κB signaling for DATS- and DOC-mediated anti-GC effects, suggesting that MT2A may be a chemosensitivity indicator in GC patients receiving DOC-based treatment and a promising target for more effective treatment of GC by combination of DATS and DOC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 839-854.

Ziółko E, Kokot T, Skubis A, et al.
The profile of melatonin receptors gene expression and genes associated with their activity in colorectal cancer: a preliminary report.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Oct-Dec; 29(4):823-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin (MLT) have been demonstrated in a variety of neoplasms including colorectal cancer (CRC). In humans and other mammals, MLT acts on target tissues through membrane and retinoid nuclear receptors. The aim of this study was to evaluate transcription activity of melatonin receptors and genes associated with regulation of their activity in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues in relation to clinical stage of cancer. A total of 24 pairs of surgically removed tumoral and healthy (marginal) tissue samples from colorectal cancer patients at clinical stages I-II and III-IV were collected. As an additional control, twenty normal samples were tak¬en from people whose large intestine tissues were reported as non-tumoral after colonoscopy. Expression of mRNA genes was studied by microarray HG-U133A analysis. The analysis of gene expression profile was performed using commercially available oligonucleotide microarrays of HG-U133A. High increase of MT1 mRNA expression levels in all cancerous samples vs non-cancerous tissues was observed. The MT2 mRNA expression levels increased slightly in marginal and malignant samples. Among the genes participating in the cascade of signal transfer in cells activated by MLT via melatonin receptors, we found encoding genes (GNA11, OXTR, TPH1) only for differentiating stage III - IV of CRC. Monitoring the expression levels of genes that are related to melatonin receptors may offer a strategy to anticipate tumour development and estimate the molecular changes that occur during carcinogenesis. The mechanism behind this association needs further elucidation.

Polanska H, Heger Z, Gumulec J, et al.
Effect of HPV on tumor expression levels of the most commonly used markers in HNSCC.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7193-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 90 % of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and the overall 5-year survival rate is not higher than 50 %. There is much evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may influence the expression of commonly studied HNSCC markers. Our study was focused on the possible HPV-specificity of molecular markers that could be key players in important steps of cancerogenesis (MKI67, EGF, EGFR, BCL-2, BAX, FOS, JUN, TP53, MT1A, MT2A, VEGFA, FLT1, MMP2, MMP9, and POU5F). qRT-PCR analysis of these selected genes was performed on 74 biopsy samples of tumors from patients with histologically verified HNSCC (22 HPV-, 52 HPV+). Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to determine the relevance of these selected markers for HNSCC prognosis. In conclusion, our study confirms the impact of HPV infection on commonly studied HNSCC markers MT2A, MMP9, FLT1, VEGFA, and POU5F that were more highly expressed in HPV-negative HNSCC patients and also shows the relevance of studied markers in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC patients.

Sasaki R, Ito S, Asahi M, Ishida Y
YM155 suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell death in human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(12):1473-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of peripheral T cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The prognosis of patients with aggressive ATL remains poor because ATL cells acquire resistance to conventional cytotoxic agents. Therefore, development of novel agents is urgently needed. We examined the effects of YM155, sepantronium bromide, on cell proliferation and survival of ATL or HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, S1T, MT-1, and MT-2. We found that YM155 suppressed cell proliferation in these cells and induced cell death in S1T and MT-1 cells. Both real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed suppression of survivin expression in S1T, MT-1, and MT-2 cells. In addition, we observed the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in YM155-treated S1T and MT-1 cells, indicating that YM155 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. To clarify the mechanism of drug tolerance of MT-2 cells in terms of YM155-induced cell death, we examined intracellular signaling status in these cells. We found that STAT3, STAT5, and AKT were constitutively phosphorylated in MT-2 cells but not in S1T and MT-1 cells. Treatment with YM155 combined with the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 significantly suppressed cell proliferation compared to that with either YM155 or S3I-201 in MT-2 cells, indicating that STAT3 may play a role in tolerance of MT-2 cells to YM155 and that STAT3 may therefore be a therapeutic target for YM155-resistant ATL cells. These results suggest that YM155 presents potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via suppression of survivin in ATL cells in which STAT3 is not constitutively phosphorylated. YM155 merits further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ATL.

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