MMP12

Gene Summary

Gene:MMP12; matrix metallopeptidase 12
Aliases: ME, HME, MME, MMP-12
Location:11q22.3
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene is cleaved at both ends to yield the active enzyme, but this processing has not been fully described. The enzyme degrades soluble and insoluble elastin. It may play a role in aneurysm formation and studies in mice suggest a role in the development of emphysema. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:macrophage metalloelastase
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP12 (cancer-related)

Chung IC, Chen LC, Chung AK, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase 12 is induced by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and promotes migration and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:348 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a DNA/RNA binding protein, is associated with metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the mechanisms underlying hnRNP K-mediated metastasis is unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in hnRNP K-mediated metastasis in NPC.
METHODS: We studied hnRNP K-regulated MMPs by analyzing the expression profiles of MMP family genes in NPC tissues and hnRNP K-knockdown NPC cells using Affymetrix microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. The association of hnRNP K and MMP12 expression in 82 clinically proven NPC cases was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The hnRNP K-mediated MMP12 regulation was determined by zymography and Western blot, as well as by promoter, DNA pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The functional role of MMP12 in cell migration and invasion was demonstrated by MMP12-knockdown and the treatment of MMP12-specific inhibitor, PF-356231.
RESULTS: MMP12 was overexpressed in NPC tissues, and this high level of expression was significantly correlated with high-level expression of hnRNP K (P = 0.026). The levels of mRNA, protein and enzyme activity of MMP12 were reduced in hnRNP K-knockdown NPC cells. HnRNP K interacting with the region spanning -42 to -33 bp of the transcription start site triggered transcriptional activation of the MMP12 promoter. Furthermore, inhibiting MMP12 by MMP12 knockdown and MMP12-specific inhibitor, PF-356231, significantly reduced the migration and invasion of NPC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of MMP12 was significantly correlated with hnRNP K in NPC tissues. HnRNP K can induce MMP12 expression and enzyme activity through activating MMP12 promoter, which promotes cell migration and invasion in NPC cells. In vitro experiments suggest that NPC metastasis with high MMP12 expression may be treated with PF-356231. HnRNP K and MMP12 may be potential therapeutic markers for NPC, but additional validation studies are warranted.

Wen Y, Cai L
[Research progress of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in non-small cell lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2014; 17(1):30-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world wide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80% of lung cancers, its pathogenesis have not been elucidated. Recently, researches have shown that dysregulation and excessive activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with many pathologies. Some results suggest that the matrix metalloproteinases 12 (MMP-12) participates in the invasion and metastasis of NSCLC. The expression of MMP-12 in non-small cell lung cancer is significantly higher than in adjacent tissues. And studies have shown that the MMP-12 has important prognostic significance in NSCLC. Therefore this article will briefly summarize the research progresses of MMP-12 in NSCLC.

Silva SD, Alaoui-Jamali MA, Hier M, et al.
Cooverexpression of ERBB1 and ERBB4 receptors predicts poor clinical outcome in pN+ oral squamous cell carcinoma with extranodal spread.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(3):307-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of members of the ErbB receptor family is common in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC); however, their prognostic value for aggressive OSCC has been debated. Extranodal spread to cervical lymph nodes is the most significant prognostic indicator in OSCC. In the present study, we investigated the clinical significance of single versus paired overexpression of members of the ErbB receptor family in 82 OSCC patients with lymph nodes metastasis, with or without capsular rupture (CR) followed by at least 10 years. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a common overexpression of ErbB1 (P = 0.021), ErbB2 (P = 0.001), ErbB4 (P = 0.048), as well as MMP-2 (P = 0.043) in OSCC cases with CR+. Increased expression of ErbB1 was associated with MMP-2 in tumors with advanced clinical stages, including poorly differentiated (grade III) tumors (P < 0.050). Vascular embolization was associated with MMP-2 (P = 0.021) and MMP-13 (P = 0.010) overexpression. Survival analysis revealed a lower survival probability in tumors overexpressing ErbB1 (P = 0.038), ErbB4 (P = 0.043), and MMP-12 (P = 0.050). As well a strong association was observed in cases with high risk of recurrence and strong immunostaining for ErbB1 (P = 0.017), ErbB4 (P = 0.008), MMP-1 (P = 0.003), MMP-2 (P = 0.016), MMP-10 (P = 0.041), and MMP-13 (P = 0.005). Stratified multivariate survival analysis revealed a strong prognostic interdependence of ErbB1 and ErbB4 cooverexpression in predicting the worst overall and disease-free survivals (P = 0.0013 and P = 0.0004, respectively). Taken together, these results support a cooperation of ErbB1, ErbB4, and members of the MMP family in predicting OSCC invasion and poor clinical outcomes.

Kim SJ, Sohn I, Do IG, et al.
Gene expression profiles for the prediction of progression-free survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: results of a DASL assay.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(3):437-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed the whole genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection and ligation assay with 164 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples to develop robust prognostic gene expression profiles in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The prognostic gene expression profiles were developed and validated by a gradient lasso and leave-one-out cross-validation process. We identified a set of genes whose expression provided prognostic indicators from whole data set (PRKCDBP, CASP10, FAM3C, KCNK12, MAN1A2, PRND, RAB1A, TMEM39B, SLC6A6, MMP12, FEM1B, C3orh37, RBP1, HK1, LOC400464, KIAA0746, and SLC25A23). This gene expression profile-based risk model could classify patients into two cross-validated risk groups with a significant difference in 5-year progression-free survival rates (71.1 vs. 45.5 %) and with a hazard ratio for recurrence of 2.45 (95 % CI, 1.44-4.16, P = 0.001). This model provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI), and discriminated high-risk group from patients belong to high/high-intermediate risk of IPI and activated B cell-like type. Thus, gene expression profiling from FFPE could provide additional prognostic information for diffuse large B cell lymphoma and our data underscore the need for development of risk-adapted treatment strategies based on gene expression profiles.

VAN Nguyen S, Skarstedt M, Löfgren S, et al.
Gene polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-12 and -13 and association with colorectal cancer in Swedish patients.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(8):3247-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been widely reported that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have fundamental roles in pathological processes in cancer through degradation of basal membranes and extracellular matrix. For MMP12 and MMP13, a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been detected -82A →G (rs2276109) and -77A →G (rs2252070), respectively. These SNPs are suggested to have an influence on different diseases. The present study evaluated the association between these SNPs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and healthy controls.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the TaqMan system, these SNPs were screened in 385 patients with CRC and 619 controls.
RESULTS: No significant difference in genotype distribution or in allelic frequencies was found between the two groups. However, we showed that the AA MMP-12 genotype is connected with a higher risk of disseminated CRC (Odds Ratio=1.77; 95% Confidence Interval=1.11-2.81, p=0.018).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the -82A →G (rs2276109) polymorphism of the MMP12 gene reflects clinical outcome of patients with CRC.

Wieczorek E, Reszka E, Jablonowski Z, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MPs (TIMPs), and bladder cancer susceptibility.
BJU Int. 2013; 112(8):1207-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate genetic polymorphisms of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP1 (rs1799750), MMP2 (rs243865), MMP9 (rs3918242), MMP12 (rs2276109) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) TIMP1 (rs2070584) and TIMP3 (rs9619311) genes that may be involved in susceptibility to bladder cancer (BC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 241 patients with BC and 199 controls. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood and polymorphisms were analysed by high-resolution melting analysis and by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan fluorescent probes.
RESULTS: Of the six evaluated polymorphisms of MMPs and TIMPs, only one was found to be associated with BC risk. There was a significant difference for MMP1 (rs1799750) 2G/1G+1G/1G genotype (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.98; P = 0.042). Additionally, there was a joint effect of this genotype on BC risk among 'ever smokers' (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.89; P = 0.019), but not in 'never smokers'. The combined genotype MMP2 -1306C/T (rs243865) allele T with MMP9 -1562C/T (rs3918242) allele T was found to increase BC risk (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.10-3.62; P = 0.022).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic variations in five polymorphisms of MMPs and TIMPs are not associated with a high risk of BC. Only MMP1 polymorphism may be related to the risk of BC, notably in 'ever smokers'. Our study suggests that the effects of polymorphisms of MMPs and TIMPs on BC risk deserve further investigation.

Grudny J, Kołakowski J, Kruszewski M, et al.
Association of genetic dependences between lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2013; 81(4):308-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in patients with bronchial obstructive changes, including patients with COPD. It seems that there are common factors of pathogenesis of both diseases associated with oxidative stress. In the present paper the genes linked to the repair of oxidative damage of DNA, associated with cancer, of iron metabolism and coding proteolytic enzymes were assessed.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in two groups of patients: 53 patients with non-small cell lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 54 patients only with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The polymorphisms of the single nucleotide were determined in the case of the majority of genes using the PCR-RFLP method. The statistical analysis of quantitative variables was executed using the Mann-Withney U-test and the test of medians; the analysis of genetic variables was executed using the chi² test.
RESULTS: Regarding the polymorphisms of genes involved in iron metabolism, statistically significant differences between the two groups have been demonstrated only in the case of haptoglobin gene HP1/2. A higher incidence of form 1/1 was found in patients with COPD and a higher incidence of form 1/2 in patients with lung cancer and COPD. Analysis of gene polymorphisms of proteolytic enzymes and inhibitors of the enzyme gene showed statistically significant differences between the two groups only for the MMP3 gene 6A/5A. In the case of the MMP12 gene polymorphism (A-82G) a tendency toward differences in the occurrence of specific alleles was identified.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that patients with coincidence of COPD and lung cancer have disorders of the genes involved in iron metabolism, and they have different genetic polymorphisms of proteolytic enzymes comparing to COPD patients.

Chen L, Chen XR, Chen FF, et al.
MicroRNA-107 inhibits U87 glioma stem cells growth and invasion.
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2013; 33(5):651-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to be critical for resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and for tumor recurrence after surgery in glioma patients. Identification of new therapeutic strategies that can target GSCs may thus be critical for improving patient survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. In this study, we confirmed that miR-107 was down-regulated in GSCs. To investigate the role of miR-107 in tumorigenesis of GSCs, a lentiviral vector over-expressing miR-107 in U87GSCs was constructed. We found that over-expression of miR-107 suppressed proliferation and down-regulated Notch2 protein and stem cell marker (CD133 and Nestin) expression in U87GSCs. Furthermore, enhanced miR-107 expression significantly inhibited U87GSC invasion and reduced matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression. miR-107 also suppressed U87GSCs xenograft growth in vivo. These findings suggest that miR-107 is involved in U87GSCs growth and invasion and may provide a potential therapeutic target for glioma treatment.

Larson SR, Zhang X, Dumpit R, et al.
Characterization of osteoblastic and osteolytic proteins in prostate cancer bone metastases.
Prostate. 2013; 73(9):932-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately 90% of patients who die of Prostate Cancer (PCa) have bone metastases, which promote a spectrum of osteoblastic, osteolytic or mixed bone responses. Numerous secreted proteins have been reported to promote osteoblastic or osteolytic bone responses. We determined whether previously identified and/or novel proteins were associated with the osteoblastic or osteolytic response in clinical specimens of PCa bone metastases.
METHODS: Gene expression was analyzed on 14 PCa metastases from 11 patients by microarray profiling and qRT-PCR, and protein expression was analyzed on 33 PCa metastases from 30 patients by immunohistochemistry on highly osteoblastic and highly osteolytic bone specimens.
RESULTS: Transcript and protein levels of BMP-2, BMP-7, DKK-1, ET-1, and Sclerostin were not significantly different between osteoblastic and osteolytic metastases. However, levels of OPG, PGK1, and Substance P proteins were increased in osteoblastic samples. In addition, Emu1, MMP-12, and sFRP-1 were proteins identified with a novel role of being associated with either the osteoblastic or osteolytic bone response.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed analysis of bone remodeling proteins in human specimens of PCa bone metastases. Three proteins not previously shown to be involved may have a role in the PCa bone response. Furthermore, our data suggests that the relative expression of numerous, rather than a single, bone remodeling proteins determine the bone response in PCa bone metastases.

Li ML, Zhang JC, Li SG, et al.
Characteristic gene expression profiles in the progression from normal gastric epithelial cells to moderate gastric epithelial dysplasia and to gastric cancer.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012; 125(10):1777-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer ranks high among the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. This study was designed to explore key genes involved in the progression of normal gastric epithelial cells to moderate gastric epithelial dysplasia (mGED) and to gastric cancer.
METHODS: Twelve pairs of mGED tissues, gastric cancer tissues, and normal gastric tissues were collected by gastroscopy. Total RNA was then extracted and purified. After the addition of fluorescent tags, hybridization was carried out on a Gene chip microarray slide. Significance analysis of microarrays was performed to determine significant differences in gene expression between the different tissue types.
RESULTS: Microarray data analysis revealed totally 34 genes that were expressed differently: 18 highly expressed (fold change > 2; P < 0.01) and 16 down-regulated (fold change > 2; P < 0.01). Of the 34 genes, 24 belonged to several different functional categories such as structural molecule activity, extracellular regions, structural formation, cell death, biological adhesion, developmental processes, locomotion, and biological regulation that were associated with cancer. The remaining 10 genes were not involved in cancer research. Of these genes, the expression levels of Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12), Caspase-associated recruitment domain 14 (CARD14), and Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. A two-way clustering algorithm divided the 36 samples into three categories and the overall correct classification efficiency was 80.6% (29/36). Almost all of these genes (31/34) showed constant changes in the process of normal gastric epithelial cells to mGED to gastric cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provided global gene expression profiles during the development and progression from normal gastric epithelial cells to mGED to gastric cancer. These data may provide new insights into the molecular pathology of gastric cancer which may be useful for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

Yang XS, Liu SA, Liu JW, Yan Q
Fucosyltransferase IV enhances expression of MMP-12 stimulated by EGF via the ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB pathways in A431 cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(4):1657-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) has been implicated in cell adhesion, motility, and tumor progression in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. We previously reported that it promotes cell proliferation through the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying FUT4- induced cell invasion remain unknown. In this study we determined the effect of FUT4 on expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 induced by EGF in A431 cells. Treatment with EGF resulted in an alteration of cell morphology and induced an increase in the expression of MMP-12. EGF induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and resulted in phosphorylation of IκBα in a time-dependent manner. In addition, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK were shown to play a crucial role in mediating EGF-induced NF-κB translocation and phosphorylation of IκBα when treated with the MAPK inhibitors, PD98059 and SB203580, which resulted in increased MMP-12 expression. Importantly, we showed that FUT4 up-regulated EGF-induced MMP-12 expression by promoting the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, thereby inducing phosphorylation/ degradation of IκBα, NF-κB activation. Base on our data, we propose that FUT4 up-regulates expression of MMP-12 via a MAPK-NF-κB-dependent mechanism.

Hayashi H, Taniai E, Morita R, et al.
Threshold dose of liver tumor promoting effect of β-naphthoflavone in rats.
J Toxicol Sci. 2012; 37(3):517-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
To determine the threshold dose of β-Naphthoflavone (BNF) that induces hepatocellular tumor promoting effects, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) formation, and drug-metabolizing enzymes that protect against ROS generation, two-stage liver carcinogenesis model was used. Partial hepatectomized rats (n = 11 to 12) were fed diets containing 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.125 or 0.25% BNF for 6 weeks after an intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis. Histopathologically, glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci significantly increased in rats given 0.25% BNF. No marked changes in ROS production and TBARS contents were observed between the BNF treated and DEN alone groups. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and Nqo1 significantly increased in the groups given 0.03% BNF or more, but Ugt1a6, Akr7a3 and Gstm1 significantly increased in the groups given 0.125% BNF or more. Gpx2 and Yc2 significantly increased in the groups given 0.06% BNF or more and 0.25% BNF, respectively. Inflammation-related genes such as Ccl2, Mmp12, Serpine1 and Cox-2 significantly increased in the 0.25% BNF group. In immunohistochemistry, the number of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-positive cells increased in rats given 0.25% BNF. These results suggest that 0.25% BNF is the threshold dose for liver tumor promotion, and the fact that inflammation-related genes and COX-2 protein increased in the 0.25% BNF group strongly suggests that inflammation is involved in the liver tumor promoting effect of BNF in rats.

Zhan Y, Abi Saab WF, Modi N, et al.
Mixed lineage kinase 3 is required for matrix metalloproteinase expression and invasion in ovarian cancer cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2012; 318(14):1641-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) that activates MAPK signaling pathways and regulates cellular responses such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Here we report high levels of total and phospho-MLK3 in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to immortalized nontumorigenic ovarian epithelial cell lines. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing, we determined that MLK3 is required for the invasion of SKOV3 and HEY1B ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, mlk3 silencing substantially reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -9 and -12 gene expression and MMP-2 and -9 activities in SKOV3 and HEY1B ovarian cancer cells. MMP-1, -2, -9 and-12 expression, and MLK3-induced activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 requires both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activities. In addition, inhibition of activator protein-1 (AP-1) reduced MMP-1, MMP-9 and MMP-12 gene expression. Collectively, these findings establish MLK3 as an important regulator of MMP expression and invasion in ovarian cancer cells.

Fujisawa T, Rubin B, Suzuki A, et al.
Cysteamine suppresses invasion, metastasis and prolongs survival by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases in a mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e34437 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cysteamine, an anti-oxidant aminothiol, is the treatment of choice for nephropathic cystinosis, a rare lysosomal storage disease. Cysteamine is a chemo-sensitization and radioprotection agent and its antitumor effects have been investigated in various tumor cell lines and chemical induced carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated whether cysteamine has anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects in transplantable human pancreatic cancer, an aggressive metastatic disease.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cysteamine's anti-invasion effects were studied by matrigel invasion and cell migration assays in 10 pancreatic cancer cell lines. To study mechanism of action, we examined cell viability and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity in the cysteamine-treated cells. We also examined cysteamine's anti-metastasis effect in two orthotopic murine models of human pancreatic cancer by measuring peritoneal metastasis and survival of animals. Cysteamine inhibited both migration and invasion of all ten pancreatic cancer cell lines at concentrations (<25 mM) that caused no toxicity to cells. It significantly decreased MMPs activity (IC(50) 38-460 µM) and zymographic gelatinase activity in a dose dependent manner in vitro and in vivo; while mRNA and protein levels of MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-14 were slightly increased using the highest cysteamine concentration. In vivo, cysteamine significantly decreased metastasis in two established pancreatic tumor models, although it did not affect the size of primary tumors. Additionally, cysteamine prolonged survival of mice in a dose-dependent manner without causing any toxicity. Similar to the in vitro results, MMP activity was significantly decreased in animal tumors treated with cysteamine. Cysteamine had no clinical or preclinical adverse effects in the host even at the highest dose.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that cysteamine, an agent with a proven safety profile, may be useful for inhibition of metastasis and prolonging the survival of a host with pancreatic cancer.

Cheung WY, Zhai R, Bradbury P, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the matrix metalloproteinase gene family and the frequency and duration of gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(11):2478-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteins mediates various cellular pathways, including apoptosis and angiogenesis. Polymorphisms of MMP genes are associated with increased esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) risk. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an established EAC risk factor. We examined whether MMP polymorphism-EAC risk is modified by GERD. In total, 309 EAC patients and 279 frequency-matched healthy controls underwent MMP1 1G/2G, MMP3 6A/5A, MMP12 -82A/G and MMP12 1082A/G genotyping. Questionnaires collected GERD history. EAC risk was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusted for key covariates and stratified by GERD. Joint effects models explored GERD severity and duration, whereas additional models explored genotype-GERD interactions in EAC risk. We determined that each MMP1 and MMP3 minor (variant) allele was independently associated with increased EAC risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-5.1, p < 0.001 and AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.7, p = 0.01, respectively) only among those with GERD but not in GERD-free individuals (all p = nonsignificant). There were significant interactions between the MMP1 variants and the presence of GERD (p = 0.002) and between MMP3 variants and GERD (p = 0.04). There was an equally strong interaction between cumulative GERD severity and MMP1 (p = 0.002). The AOR of each variant allele was 14.9 (95% CI 1.6-136) for individuals with severe GERD, 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-2.7) for mild-moderate GERD and 0.98 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) for those without GERD. This was further reflected in separate analyses of frequency and duration of GERD. In conclusion, MMP1 1G/2G (and possibly MMP3 6A/5A) polymorphisms alter EAC risk differentially for GERD and GERD-free individuals.

Upadhyaya M, Spurlock G, Thomas L, et al.
Microarray-based copy number analysis of neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1)-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors reveals a role for Rho-GTPase pathway genes in NF1 tumorigenesis.
Hum Mutat. 2012; 33(4):763-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is associated with the growth of benign and malignant tumors. Approximately 15% of NF1 patients develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), underlining the need to identify specific diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers associated with MPNST development. The Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Array 6.0 was used to perform SNP genotyping and copy number alteration (CNA), loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), and copy number neutral-LOH (CNN-LOH) analyses of DNA isolated from 15 MPNSTs, five benign plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs), and patient-matched lymphocyte DNAs. MPNSTs exhibited high-level CNN-LOH, with recurrent changes occurring in MPNSTs but not PNFs. CNN-LOH was evident in MPNSTs but occurred less frequently than genomic deletions. CNAs involving the ITGB8, PDGFA, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) (7p21-p22), PDGFRL (8p22-p21.3), and matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP12) (11q22.3) genes were specific to MPNSTs. Pathway analysis revealed the MPNST-specific amplification of seven Rho-GTPase pathway genes and several cytoskeletal remodeling/cell adhesion genes. In knockdown experiments employing short-hairpin RAC1, ROCK2, PTK2, and LIMK1 RNAs to transfect both control and MPNST-derived cell lines, cell adhesion was significantly increased in the MPNST cell lines, whereas wound healing, cell migration, and invasiveness were reduced, consistent with a role for these Rho-GTPase pathway genes in MPNST development and metastasis. These results suggest new targets for therapeutic intervention in relation to MPNSTs.

Hernandez L, Magalhaes MA, Coniglio SJ, et al.
Opposing roles of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in breast cancer metastasis.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(6):R128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling has been shown to play a role in breast cancer progression by enhancing tumor growth, angiogenesis, triggering cancer cell invasion in vitro, and guiding cancer cells to their sites of metastasis. However, CXCR7 also binds to CXCL12 and has been recently found to enhance lung and breast primary tumor growth, as well as metastasis formation. Our goal was to dissect the contributions of CXCR4 and CXCR7 to the different steps of metastasis - in vivo invasion, intravasation and metastasis formation.
METHODS: We overexpressed CXCR4, CXCR7 or both in the rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line MTLn3. Stable expressors were used to form tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, and in vivo invasiveness, intravital motility, intravasation, and metastasis were measured.
RESULTS: We found that CXCR4 overexpression increased the chemotactic and invasive behavior of MTLn3 cells to CXCL12, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as in vivo motility and intravasation. CXCR7 overexpression enhanced primary tumor growth and angiogenesis (as indicated by microvessel density and VEGFA expression), but decreased in vivo invasion, intravasation, and metastasis formation. In vitro, expression of CXCR7 alone had no effect in chemotaxis or invasion to CXCL12. However, in the context of increased CXCR4 expression, CXCR7 enhanced chemotaxis to CXCL12 but decreased invasion in response to CXCL12 in vitro and in vivo and impaired CXCL12 stimulated matrix degradation. The changes in matrix degradation correlated with expression of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12).
CONCLUSIONS: We find that CXCR4 and CXCR7 play different roles in metastasis, with CXCR4 mediating breast cancer invasion and CXCR7 impairing invasion but enhancing primary tumor growth through angiogenesis.

Balli D, Ren X, Chou FS, et al.
Foxm1 transcription factor is required for macrophage migration during lung inflammation and tumor formation.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(34):3875-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Macrophages have a key role in tumor-associated pulmonary inflammation that supports the proliferation of tumor cells and promotes lung tumor growth. Although increased numbers of tumor-associated macrophages are linked to poor prognosis in lung cancer patients, little is known regarding the transcriptional mechanisms controlling recruitment of macrophages during lung tumorigenesis. Forkhead Box m1 (Foxm1) transcription factor is induced in multiple cell types within tumor lesions and its increased expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinomas. To determine the role of Foxm1 in recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages, a mouse line with macrophage-specific Foxm1 deletion was generated (macFoxm1(-/-)). Lung tumorigenesis was induced using a 3-methylcholanthrene/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene) tumor initiation/promotion protocol. Ablation of Foxm1 in macrophages reduced the number and size of lung tumors in macFoxm1(-/-) mice. Decreased tumorigenesis was associated with diminished proliferation of tumor cells and decreased recruitment of macrophages during the early stages of tumor formation. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory genes iNOS, Cox-2, interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and IL-6, as well as the migration-related genes macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α), MIP-2 and MMP-12, were decreased in macrophages isolated from macFoxm1(-/-) mice. Migration of Foxm1-deficient macrophages was reduced in vitro. The chemokine receptors responsible for monocyte recruitment to the lung, CX(3)CR1 and CXCR4, were decreased in Foxm1-deficient monocytes. In co-transfection experiments, Foxm1 directly bound to and transcriptionally activated the CX(3)CR1 promoter. Adoptive transfer of wild-type monocytes to macFoxm1(-/-) mice restored BHT-induced pulmonary inflammation to the levels observed in control mice. Expression of Foxm1 in macrophages is required for pulmonary inflammation, recruitment of macrophages into tumor sites and lung tumor growth.

Valdivia A, Peralta R, Matute-González M, et al.
Co-expression of metalloproteinases 11 and 12 in cervical scrapes cells from cervical precursor lesions.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2011; 4(7):674-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The metalloproteinases (MMP) 11 and 12 have been shown to be expressed in cervical cancer (CC). In order to extend our previous results, these MMPs were evaluated in cervical precursor lesions. One hundred seventeen cervical scrapes: thirty-six normal, thirty-six low grade squamous lesions (LSIL), thirty-six high grade (HSIL), nine CC; and, also ninety-nine paraffin-embedded cervical lesions: fifteen normal cervices, thirty eight LSIL, sixteen HSIL, and five CC were collected. The samples were analyzed for relative expression by real time RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry assay. We were able to identify a relative increased expression of MMP11 in 75% and 78% from LSIL and HSIL samples, respectively. While MMP12 expression was 64% and 75% in LSIL and HSIL, respectively. Positive samples for MMP11 expression were also positive for MMP12 expression and also increased according to illness progression. In the tissues, MMP11 or MMP12 expression was observed in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells, while in the normal epithelium was absent. The reaction was always stronger for MMP12 than MMP11. MMP11 expression was present in 77% and 66% of LSIL and HSIL, while MMP12 expression was 73% and 68%. There was a relationship between MMP11 or MMP12 expression and HPV infection. Our data are showing a relationship between diagnostic of precursor lesions and the MMP11 and 12 expressions, suggesting that their expression could be an early event in the neoplastic lesions of the cervix and could have clinical significance.

Kim M, Kim HJ, Choi BY, et al.
Identification of potential serum biomarkers for gastric cancer by a novel computational method, multiple normal tissues corrected differential analysis.
Clin Chim Acta. 2012; 413(3-4):428-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genes specifically expressed in one or a few tissues and upregulated in tumors are potentially good serum biomarkers.
METHODS: By applying a recently developed computational method, called multiple normal tissues corrected differential analysis (MNTDA), we identified genes that are likely to be upregulated in the blood of gastric cancer patients as compared to normal controls.
RESULTS: We identified four genes (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-12, and CXCL5) as potential serum biomarkers for gastric cancer. Of these four genes, only MMP-1 was significantly upregulated in the sera of 40 gastric cancer patients, as compared to 40 control sera. The same pattern was observed in the second cohort of 80 gastric cancer patients and 80 controls. In a combined analysis, the level of serum MMP-1 in gastric cancer patients was significantly higher than the level in control samples (P<0.0001). The use of MMP-1 was 62.5% sensitive and 62.5% specific in detecting gastric cancer patients. Patients with high serum levels of MMP-1 had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low serum MMP-1 levels. Finally, we determined that preoperative serum MMP-1 levels were prognostic, independent of tumor stage.
CONCLUSIONS: MMP-1 is a potential prognostic marker for gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy.

Stott-Miller M, Houck JR, Lohavanichbutr P, et al.
Tumor and salivary matrix metalloproteinase levels are strong diagnostic markers of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(12):2628-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) cause degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and thus may play a key role in cancer development.
METHODS: In our search for biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), we compared primary OSCC, oral dysplasia and control subjects with respect to: (i) expression of MMP1, MMP3, MMP10, and MMP12 in oral epithelial tissue using Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip arrays, followed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) for MMP1, and (ii) determination of MMP1 and MMP3 concentrations in saliva.
RESULTS: MMP1 expression in primary OSCC (n = 119) was >200-fold higher (P = 7.16 × 10(-40)) compared with expression levels in nonneoplastic oral epithelium from controls (n = 35). qRT-PCR results on 30 cases and 22 controls confirmed this substantial differential expression. The exceptional discriminatory power to separate OSCC from controls was validated in two independent testing sets (AUC% = 100; 95% CI: 100-100 and AUC% = 98.4; 95% CI: 95.6-100). Salivary concentrations of MMP1 and MMP3 in OSCC patients (33 stage I/II, 26 stage III/IV) were 6.2 times (95% CI: 3.32-11.73) and 14.8 times (95% CI: 6.75-32.56) higher, respectively, than in controls, and displayed an increasing trend with higher stage disease.
CONCLUSION: Tumor and salivary MMPs are robust diagnostic biomarkers of OSCC.
IMPACT: The capacity of MMP gene expression to identify OSCC provides support for further investigation into MMPs as potential markers for OSCC development. Detection of MMP proteins in saliva in particular may provide a promising means to detect and monitor OSCC noninvasively.

Chu JH, Lazarus R, Carey VJ, Raby BA
Quantifying differential gene connectivity between disease states for objective identification of disease-relevant genes.
BMC Syst Biol. 2011; 5:89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Network modeling of whole transcriptome expression data enables characterization of complex epistatic (gene-gene) interactions that underlie cellular functions. Though numerous methods have been proposed and successfully implemented to develop these networks, there are no formal methods for comparing differences in network connectivity patterns as a function of phenotypic trait.
RESULTS: Here we describe a novel approach for quantifying the differences in gene-gene connectivity patterns across disease states based on Graphical Gaussian Models (GGMs). We compare the posterior probabilities of connectivity for each gene pair across two disease states, expressed as a posterior odds-ratio (postOR) for each pair, which can be used to identify network components most relevant to disease status. The method can also be generalized to model differential gene connectivity patterns within previously defined gene sets, gene networks and pathways. We demonstrate that the GGM method reliably detects differences in network connectivity patterns in datasets of varying sample size. Applying this method to two independent breast cancer expression data sets, we identified numerous reproducible differences in network connectivity across histological grades of breast cancer, including several published gene sets and pathways. Most notably, our model identified two gene hubs (MMP12 and CXCL13) that each exhibited differential connectivity to more than 30 transcripts in both datasets. Both genes have been previously implicated in breast cancer pathobiology, but themselves are not differentially expressed by histologic grade in either dataset, and would thus have not been identified using traditional differential gene expression testing approaches. In addition, 16 curated gene sets demonstrated significant differential connectivity in both data sets, including the matrix metalloproteinases, PPAR alpha sequence targets, and the PUFA synthesis pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that GGM can be used to formally evaluate differences in global interactome connectivity across disease states, and can serve as a powerful tool for exploring the molecular events that contribute to disease at a systems level.

Qu P, Yan C, Du H
Matrix metalloproteinase 12 overexpression in myeloid lineage cells plays a key role in modulating myelopoiesis, immune suppression, and lung tumorigenesis.
Blood. 2011; 117(17):4476-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) is a macrophage-secreting proteinase. To fully understand the function of MMP12 in myeloid lineage cells, a myeloid-specific c-fms-rtTA/(TetO)₇-CMV-MMP12 bitransgenic mouse model was created. In this bitransgenic system, induction of MMP12 abnormally elevated frequencies and numbers of common myeloid progenitor (CMP) and granulocyte/macrophage progenitor (GMP) populations, and decreased the frequency and number of the megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) population in the bone marrow (BM). The CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) immature cell population was systemically increased in multiple organs. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed an immunosuppressive function on T-cell proliferation and function by CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) immature cells from MMP12-overexpressing bitransgenic mice. MMP12 directly stimulated lineage-negative (Lin⁻) progenitor cells to differentiate into CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) immature cells that showed immunosuppression on T-cell proliferation and function in vitro. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased. In the lung, the concentration of IL-6 was increased, which aberrantly activated oncogenic Stat3 and increased expression of Stat3 downstream genes in epithelial tumor progenitor cells. Spontaneous emphysema and lung adenocarcinoma were sequentially developed after MMP12 overexpression. BM chimeras confirmed that the MMP12-induced myeloid cell autonomous defect led to abnormal myelopoiesis, immune suppression, and lung adenocarcinoma.

Delassus GS, Cho H, Eliceiri GL
New signaling pathways from cancer progression modulators to mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases in breast cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2011; 226(12):3378-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
We observed previously that each of seven cancer progression inhibitors suppresses the mRNA expression of some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), but stimulates that of others, in breast cancer cells. In the present study we tested the effect of overexpressing other cancer modulators on MMP expression. The MMPs tested are MMP1, MMP2, MMP7, MMP13, MMP14, MMP16, MMP19, and MMP25. The proteins that were overexpressed are cancer inhibitors (NME, DRG1, IL10), enhancers (SOD2, FAK, IL17, and CREB), and proteins that suppress cancer progression in cells of some cancers and promote it in others (FUT1, integrin beta3, serpin E1, TIAM1, and claudin 4). Unexpectedly, all of them only lowered MMP mRNA expression, mainly of MMP16, MMP2, and MMP13, in breast cancer cells. Signaling from SOD2 uncoupled the accumulation of two MMP16 mRNA splice variants, suggesting signaling to a late step in MMP16 mRNA accumulation, such as MMP16 mRNA stabilization or late mRNA processing. Signaling that modulates MMP expression differed widely among the total population of MDA-MB-231 cells and single-cell progenies cloned from that population. It also differed substantially between cells of two metastatic breast basal adenocarcinomas, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. The present study detected 37 new signaling pathways from cancer progression modulators located upstream of MMP mRNA expression in human breast cancer cells. Our siRNA-induced MMP knockdown data support the interpretation that signaling from MMP19, MMP1, MMP7, MMP12, MMP14, and MMP11 each stimulates the mRNA expression of other MMPs in breast cancer cells.

Schröpfer A, Kammerer U, Kapp M, et al.
Expression pattern of matrix metalloproteinases in human gynecological cancer cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:553 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of protein components of the extracellular matrix and thus play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Their expression is related to the progression of gynecological cancers (e.g. endometrial, cervical or ovarian carcinoma). In this study we investigated the expression pattern of the 23 MMPs, currently known in humans, in different gynecological cancer cell lines.
METHODS: In total, cell lines from three endometrium carcinomas (Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, AN3 CA), three cervical carcinomas (HeLa, Caski, SiHa), three chorioncarcinomas (JEG, JAR, BeWo), two ovarian cancers (BG-1, OAW-42) and one teratocarcinoma (PA-1) were examined. The expression of MMPs was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and gelatin zymography.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that the cell lines examined can constitutively express a wide variety of MMPs on mRNA and protein level. While MMP-2, -11, -14 and -24 were widely expressed, no expression was seen for MMP-12, -16, -20, -25, -26, -27 in any of the cell lines. A broad range of 16 MMPs could be found in the PA1 cells and thus this cell line could be used as a positive control for general MMP experiments. While the three cervical cancer cell lines expressed 10-14 different MMPs, the median expression in endometrial and choriocarcinoma cells was 7 different enzymes. The two investigated ovarian cancer cell lines showed a distinctive difference in the number of expressed MMPs (2 vs. 10).
CONCLUSIONS: Ishikawa, Caski, OAW-42 and BeWo cell lines could be the best choice for all future experiments on MMP regulation and their role in endometrial, cervical, ovarian or choriocarcinoma development, whereas the teratocarcinoma cell line PA1 could be used as a positive control for general MMP experiments.

Zeidler-Erdely PC, Kashon ML, Li S, Antonini JM
Response of the mouse lung transcriptome to welding fume: effects of stainless and mild steel fumes on lung gene expression in A/J and C57BL/6J mice.
Respir Res. 2010; 11:70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Debate exists as to whether welding fume is carcinogenic, but epidemiological evidence suggests that welders are an at risk population for the development of lung cancer. Recently, we found that exposure to welding fume caused an acutely greater and prolonged lung inflammatory response in lung tumor susceptible A/J versus resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mice and a trend for increased tumor incidence after stainless steel (SS) fume exposure. Here, our objective was to examine potential strain-dependent differences in the regulation and resolution of the lung inflammatory response induced by carcinogenic (Cr and Ni abundant) or non-carcinogenic (iron abundant) metal-containing welding fumes at the transcriptome level.
METHODS: Mice were exposed four times by pharyngeal aspiration to 5 mg/kg iron abundant gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS), Cr and Ni abundant GMA-SS fume or vehicle and were euthanized 4 and 16 weeks after the last exposure. Whole lung microarray using Illumina Mouse Ref-8 expression beadchips was done.
RESULTS: Overall, we found that tumor susceptibility was associated with a more marked transcriptional response to both GMA-MS and -SS welding fumes. Also, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that gene regulation and expression in the top molecular networks differed between the strains at both time points post-exposure. Interestingly, a common finding between the strains was that GMA-MS fume exposure altered behavioral gene networks. In contrast, GMA-SS fume exposure chronically upregulated chemotactic and immunomodulatory genes such as CCL3, CCL4, CXCL2, and MMP12 in the A/J strain. In the GMA-SS-exposed B6 mouse, genes that initially downregulated cellular movement, hematological system development/function and immune response were involved at both time points post-exposure. However, at 16 weeks, a transcriptional switch to an upregulation for neutrophil chemotactic genes was found and included genes such as S100A8, S100A9 and MMP9.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate that lung tumor susceptibility may predispose the A/J strain to a prolonged dysregulation of immunomodulatory genes, thereby delaying the recovery from welding fume-induced lung inflammation. Additionally, our results provide unique insight into strain- and welding fume-dependent genetic factors involved in the lung response to welding fume.

Jia J, Kang S, Zhao J, et al.
[Association of functional polymorphisms on MMP-12 and MMP-13 gene promoter region with epithelial ovarian carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2010; 27(2):209-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of MMP-12 (-82A/G) and MMP-13(-77A/G) are associated with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).
METHODS: The MMP-12 -82A/G and MMP-13 -77A/G were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 300 epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients and 300 control women.
RESULTS: The A/G genotype frequency of the MMP-12 gene was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (P= 0.003); similarly, the frequency of MMP-12 -82G allele was higher in the patient group (P= 0.004). Compared with the A/A genotype, the A/G genotype carriers significantly increased the risk of EOC development (OR= 2.81, 95%CI: 1.38-5.74). No overall association between the MMP-13 -77A/G polymorphism and EOC(P= 0.15) was observed. However, the A/A genotype carriers in the MMP-13 -77A/G locus had significantly higher risk of developing serous-papillary and mucinous ovarian cancer (OR= 1.93, 95% CI: 1.05-3.53; OR= 5.16, 95% CI: 1.62-16.44, respectively), comparing with the G/G genotype carriers. Combining the two SNPs, the haplotype distributions in patients were not significantly different from that in control women (P= 0.06).
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that individuals with MMP-12 -82A/G and MMP-13 -77A/A might have higher risk of overall or special histological type of EOC development.

Velinov N, Poptodorov G, Gabrovski N, Gabrovski S
[The role of matrixmetalloproteinases in the tumor growth and metastasis].
Khirurgiia (Sofiia). 2010; (1):44-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many authors have described the role ofmatrixmetalloproteinases (MMP) in tumor invasion. MMPs are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which through degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the basal membrane induce tumor spread and metastasis. There are more than 20 enzymes classified into 6 groups: Collagenases (MMP-1,-8,-13 and -18), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9, Stromelysins (MMP-3,-7,-10,-11,-26,-27), Elastases (MMP-12), Membrane type specific MMPs (MMP-14,-15,-16,-17,-24 H -25) and other MMPs (MMP-19,-20,-28,-21,-22,-23). Many authors have demonstrated a positive correlation between the pattern of MMP expression and the tumor invasive and metastatic potential including: rectal and gastric cancer, lung carcinoma, breast, ovarian, prostate, thyroid cancer and brain tumors. The increased expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPS (TIMPs) is a response against the tumor progression leading to suppression of the MMP-activity and preservation of the ECM integrity. Due to the dual role of TIMPs, which together with MT1-MMP activate pro-MMPs it is possible that the correlation between activator/inhibitor is the one defining the tumor growth and metastasis.

Sun Y, Wang L, Jiang M, et al.
Secreted phosphoprotein 1 upstream invasive network construction and analysis of lung adenocarcinoma compared with human normal adjacent tissues by integrative biocomputation.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2010; 56(2-3):59-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to set up single molecular secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) upstream invasive network of lung adenocarcinoma. This paper proposed an integrated method based on linear programming and a decomposition procedure with integrated analysis of the significant function cluster using Kappa statistics and fuzzy heuristic clustering. Our study proved that only modules appearing in lung adenocarcinoma include cytokine module (CXCL13, GREM1_2 inhibition), cell adhesion module (COL11A1_2 activation; CDH3 inhibition), and receptor binding module (NMU activation; CXCL13, GREM1_2 inhibition), which increase the invasion of cancer cell. We compared skeletal development, signal, biological regulation, sequence variant modules between human normal adjacent tissues and lung adenocarcinoma. SPP1 skeletal development module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (COL11A1_1 activation; COL10A1 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (COL11A1_2, COL1A2 activation); signal module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (COL11A1_1, CXCL13, MMP11, SPINK1 activation; COL10A1, COL3A1 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (COL11A1_2, COL1A2, MMP12 activation; CDH3, CXCL13, GREM1_2, MMP11, SPINK1 inhibition); biological regulation module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (CXCL13, MKI67, PYCR1 activation; NEK2, SPDEF, TOP2A_2, TOX3_1 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (HMGB3, MKI67, NMU, PYCR1, TOX3_2 activation; CXCL13, SPDEF, TOP2A_2 inhibition); sequence variant module appears in human normal adjacent tissues (COL11A1_1, MKI67, MMP11 activation; ASPM, COL10A1, COL3A1, NEK2, TMPRSS4, TOP2A_2 inhibition), whereas in lung adenocarcinoma (COL11A1_2, COL1A2, HMMR, MKI67, MMP12 activation; ABCC3, ASPM, CDH3, MMP11, TOP2A_2 inhibition). It can be deduced that modules above in human normal adjacent tissues reflect the invasive inhibition of normal cells, whereas in lung adenocarcinoma increase the invasion of cancer cell. Our study of SPP1 upstream invasive network may be useful to identify novel and potentially targets for prognosis and therapy of lung adenocarcinoma.

Abraham D, Zins K, Sioud M, et al.
Stromal cell-derived CSF-1 blockade prolongs xenograft survival of CSF-1-negative neuroblastoma.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(6):1339-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular mechanisms of tumor-host interactions that render neuroblastoma (NB) cells highly invasive are unclear. Cancer cells upregulate host stromal cell colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) production to recruit tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and accelerate tumor growth by affecting extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. By coculturing NB with stromal cells in vitro, we showed the importance of host CSF-1 expression for macrophage recruitment to NB cells. To examine this interaction in NB in vivo, mice bearing human CSF-1-expressing SK-N-AS and CSF-1-negative SK-N-DZ NB xenografts were treated with intratumoral injections of small interfering RNAs directed against mouse CSF-1. Significant suppression of both SK-N-AS and SK-N-DZ NB growth by these treatments was associated with decreased TAM infiltration, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-12 levels and angiogenesis compared to controls, while expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs increased following mouse CSF-1 blockade. Furthermore, Tie-2-positive and -negative TAMs recruited by host CSF-1 were identified in NB tumor tissue by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. However, host-CSF-1 blockade prolonged survival only in CSF-1-negative SK-N-DZ NB. These studies demonstrated that increased CSF-1 production by host cells enhances TAM recruitment and NB growth and that the CSF-1 phenotype of NB tumor cells adversely affects survival.

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