Gene Summary

Gene:CAV1; caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa
Aliases: CGL3, PPH3, BSCL3, LCCNS, VIP21, MSTP085
Summary:The scaffolding protein encoded by this gene is the main component of the caveolae plasma membranes found in most cell types. The protein links integrin subunits to the tyrosine kinase FYN, an initiating step in coupling integrins to the Ras-ERK pathway and promoting cell cycle progression. The gene is a tumor suppressor gene candidate and a negative regulator of the Ras-p42/44 mitogen-activated kinase cascade. Caveolin 1 and caveolin 2 are located next to each other on chromosome 7 and express colocalizing proteins that form a stable hetero-oligomeric complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcripts encode alpha and beta isoforms of caveolin 1.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CAV1 (cancer-related)

Hall DP, Cost NG, Hegde S, et al.
TRPM3 and miR-204 establish a regulatory circuit that controls oncogenic autophagy in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(5):738-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/11/2015 Related Publications
Autophagy promotes tumor growth by generating nutrients from the degradation of intracellular structures. Here we establish, using shRNAs, a dominant-negative mutant, and a pharmacologic inhibitor, mefenamic acid (MFA), that the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 3 (TRPM3) channel promotes the growth of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and stimulates MAP1LC3A (LC3A) and MAP1LC3B (LC3B) autophagy. Increased expression of TRPM3 in RCC leads to Ca(2+) influx, activation of CAMKK2, AMPK, and ULK1, and phagophore formation. In addition, TRPM3 Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) fluxes inhibit miR-214, which directly targets LC3A and LC3B. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) represses TRPM3 directly through miR-204 and indirectly through another miR-204 target, Caveolin 1 (CAV1).

Kortum RL, Fernandez MR, Costanzo-Garvey DL, et al.
Caveolin-1 is required for kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1)-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation, H-RasV12-induced senescence, and transformation.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(18):3461-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The molecular scaffold kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) regulates the activation of the Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathway. KSR1 disruption in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) abrogates growth factor-induced ERK activation, H-Ras(V12)-induced replicative senescence, and H-Ras(V12)-induced transformation. Caveolin-1 has been primarily described as a major component of the coating structure of caveolae, which can serve as a lipid binding adaptor protein and coordinates the assembly of Ras, Raf, MEK, and ERK. In this study, we show that KSR1 interacts with caveolin-1 and is responsible for MEK and ERK redistribution to caveolin-1-rich fractions. The interaction between KSR1 and caveolin-1 is essential for optimal activation of ERK as a KSR1 mutant unable to interact with caveolin-1 does not efficiently mediate growth factor-induced ERK activation at the early stages of pathway activation. Furthermore, abolishing the KSR1-caveolin-1 interaction increases growth factor demands to promote H-Ras(V12)-induced proliferation and has adverse effects on H-Ras(V12)-induced cellular senescence and transformation. These data show that caveolin-1 is necessary for optimal KSR1-dependent ERK activation by growth factors and oncogenic Ras.

Chanvorachote P, Pongrakhananon V, Chunhacha P
Prolonged nitric oxide exposure enhances anoikis resistance and migration through epithelial-mesenchymal transition and caveolin-1 upregulation.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:941359 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Nitric oxide (NO) in tumor microenvironment may have a significant impact on metastatic behaviors of cancer. Noncytotoxic doses of NO enhanced anoikis resistance and migration in lung cancer H23 cells via an increase in lamellipodia, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including vimentin and snail, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). However, the induction of EMT was found in Cav-1-knock down cells treated with NO, suggesting that EMT was through Cav-1-independent pathway. These effects of NO were consistently observed in other lung cancer cells including H292 and H460 cells. These findings highlight the novel role of NO on EMT and metastatic behaviors of cancer cells.

Jin Z, Wang L, Cao Z, et al.
Temporal evolution in caveolin 1 methylation levels during human esophageal carcinogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:345 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer ranks eighth among frequent cancers worldwide. Our aim was to investigate whether and at which neoplastic stage promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 is involved in human esophageal carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP), we examined CAV1 promoter hypermethylation in 260 human esophageal tissue specimens. Real-time RT-PCR and qMSP were also performed on OE33 esophageal cancer cells before and after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC).
RESULTS: CAV1 hypermethylation showed highly discriminative ROC curve profiles, clearly distinguishing esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) from normal esophagus (NE) (EAC vs. NE, AUROC = 0.839 and p < 0.0001; ESCC vs. NE, AUROC = 0.920 and p < 0.0001). Both CAV1 methylation frequency and normalized methylation value (NMV) were significantly higher in Barrett's metaplasia (BE), low-grade and high-grade dysplasia occurring in BE (D), EAC, and ESCC than in NE (all p < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, among 41 cases with matched NE and EAC or ESCC, CAV1 NMVs in EAC and ESCC (mean = 0.273) were significantly higher than in corresponding NE (mean = 0.146; p < 0.01, Student's paired t-test). Treatment of OE33 EAC cells with 5-Aza-dC reduced CAV1 methylation and increased CAV1 mRNA expression.
CONCLUSIONS: CAV1 promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in human esophageal carcinomas and is associated with early neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus.

Warnke E, Pietsch J, Wehland M, et al.
Spheroid formation of human thyroid cancer cells under simulated microgravity: a possible role of CTGF and CAV1.
Cell Commun Signal. 2014; 12:32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) formed scaffold-free under microgravity are of high interest for research and medicine. Their formation mechanism can be studied in space in real microgravity or on Earth using ground-based facilities (GBF), which simulate microgravity. On Earth, these experiments are more cost-efficient and easily performable. However, each GBF might exert device-specific and altered superimposingly gravity-dependent effects on the cells.
RESULTS: FTC-133 human thyroid cancer cells were cultivated on a 2D clinostat (CN) and a random positioning machine (RPM) and compared with corresponding 1 g control cells. Harvested cell samples were investigated by microscopy, quantitative realtime-PCR and Multi-Analyte Profiling. Spheroid formation and growth occurred during 72 h of cultivation on both devices. Cytokine secretion and gene activation patterns frequently altered in different ways, when the cells were cultured either on the RPM or the CN. A decreased expression of CAV1 and CTGF in MCTS compared to adherent cells was observed after cultivation on both machines.
CONCLUSION: The development of MCTS proceeds similarly on the RPM and the CN resembling the situation observed under real microgravity conditions, while no MCTS formation was observed at 1 g under identical experimental conditions. Simultaneously, changes in the regulation of CTGF and CAV1 appeared in a comparable manner on both machines. A relationship between these molecules and MCTS formation is discussed.

Ma W, Wang DD, Li L, et al.
Caveolin-1 plays a key role in the oleanolic acid-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):293-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study found that caveolin-1 (CAV-1) protein expression is upregulated during oleanolic acid (OA)-induced inhibition of proliferation and promotion of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. CAV-1 is the main structural protein component of caveolae, playing important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development. It has been shown that cav-1 expression is lower in leukemia cancer cell lines SUP-B15, HL-60, THP-1 and K562 and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary (CLP) cells when compared with normal white blood cells, with the lowest cav-1 expression level found in HL-60 cells. To study the effects of cav-1 in HL-60 cells and the effects of cav-1 overexpression on OA drug efficacy, cav-1 was overexpressed in HL-60 cells using lentiviral-mediated transfection combined with OA treatment. The results showed that cav-1 overexpression inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase and inhibited activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overexpression of CAV-1 also increased HL-60 cell sensitivity to OA. To further verify whether OA affects HL-60 cells via the activation of downstream signaling pathways by CAV-1, cav-1 gene expression was silenced using RNAi, and the cells were treated with OA to examine its efficacy. The results showed that after cav-1 silencing, OA had little effect on cell activity, apoptosis, the cell cycle and phosphorylation of HL-60 cells. This study is the first to show that CAV-1 plays a crucial role in the effects of OA on HL-60 cells.

Xu L, Qu X, Li H, et al.
Src/caveolin-1-regulated EGFR activation antagonizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):318-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer cells are insensitive to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and we recently showed that lipid raft-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation antagonized TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, it is not clear whether caveolin-1, an essential structural constituent of lipid rafts, regulates lipid raft-mediated EGFR activation. We report here that TRAIL induced the translocation of EGFR into lipid rafts and its activation in gastric cancer SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells. Simultaneously, caveolin-1 was also activated. Knockdown of caveolin-1 partially prevented EGFR activation and increased TRAIL sensitivity. Moreover, TRAIL promoted the translocation of Src into lipid rafts and its activation, as well as the interaction of Src with both EGFR and caveolin-1. A Src inhibitor prevented these interactions and the activation of caveolin-1 and EGFR, and thus enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that Src activates EGFR through the interaction of both Src-EGFR and Src-caveolin-1, and then antagonizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

Wang X, Liu T, Bai Y, et al.
Polymerase I and transcript release factor acts as an essential modulator of glioblastoma chemoresistance.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93439 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study is to investigate if polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) acts as a modulator in glioblastoma (GBM) chemoresistance.
METHODS: Multidrug resistant (MDR) GBM cell line U251AR was established by exposing the U251 cell line to imatinib. The 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were performed on U251 and U251AR cell lines to screen MDR-related proteins. The expression of PTRF was determined by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses.
RESULTS: When compared with the parental U251 cells, expression of 21 proteins was significantly altered in U251AR cells. Among the 21 differentially expressed proteins, the expression of PTRF was up-regulated by 2.14 folds in U251AR cells when compared with that in the parental U251 cells. Knockdown of PTRF in GBM cell lines significantly increased chemosensitivity of cells to various chemical drugs and decreased the expression levels of caveolin1, a major structural component of caveolae. Expression levels of PTRF and caveolin1 were significantly up-regulated in the relapsed GBM patients. The mRNA level of PTRF and caveolin1 showed a positive correlation in the same GBM specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that PTRF acts as a modulator in GBM chemoresistance.

Fischer E, Beuschlein F
Novel genes in primary aldosteronism.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014; 21(3):154-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Novel high-throughput genetic techniques have increased the pace of discoveries in the field of primary aldosteronism. Mutations in the potassium channel gene KCNJ5 are a cause of familial and sporadic forms of primary aldosteronism with around 30-40% of aldosterone-producing adenomas being affected by somatic mutations.
RECENT FINDINGS: Exome sequencing of tumors without KCNJ5 mutations revealed genetic alterations in the ATPases ATP1A1 and ATP2B3, with a combined prevalence of 5-7%. Mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Ca channel Cav1.3 (CACNA1D) were described with a prevalence of 5-8%. In addition, a new syndrome consisting of primary aldosteronism, seizures, and neuromuscular disease with germline CACNA1D mutations could be identified. All these genetic variants enhance Ca-mediated signalling and steroidogenesis in affected glomerulosa cells and provide the molecular basis for autonomous aldosterone secretion. Furthermore, the pattern of genetic alterations allows for subgrouping of patient cohorts with potentially distinct clinical features including sex and age distribution as well as endocrine and cardiovascular endpoints.
SUMMARY: Altogether in around 50% of aldosterone-producing adenomas, a somatic point mutation can be identified as the underlying genetic cause. These findings will provide the framework for potential identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets of this most common form of secondary hypertension.

Bayo J, Fiore E, Aquino JB, et al.
Increased migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells by autocrine motility factor (AMF) resulted in enhanced recruitment towards hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95171 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several reports described the migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) towards tumor-released factors. Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is produced by several tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to analyze AMF involvement on MSC migration towards human HCC.
METHODS: Production of AMF by HCC tumors was evaluated by western analysis. The effects of AMF on MSCs from different sources (bone marrow, adipose tissue and perivascular cells from umbilical cord) were analyzed using in vitro migration assay; metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity and expression of critical genes were studied by zymography and qRT-PCR, respectively. To assess AMF involvement on the in vivo MSC migration, noninvasive fluorescence imaging was performed. To test the effect of AMF-primed MSCs on tumor development, in vitro proliferation and spheroids growth and in vivo tumor volume were evaluated.
RESULTS: AMF produced by HCC was found to induce migration of different MSCs in vitro and to enhance their MMP2 activity. Stimulation of MSCs with recombinant AMF (rAMF) also induced the in vitro adhesion to endothelial cells in coincidence with changes in the expression levels of MMP3, AMF receptor, caveolin-1, and -2 and GDI-2. Importantly, stimulation of MSCs with rAMF increased the in vivo migration of MSCs towards experimental HCC tumors. AMF-priming of MSCs did not induce a pro-tumorigenic effect on HCC cells neither in vivo nor in vitro.
CONCLUSION: AMF plays a role in MSC recruitment towards HCC. However, its ability to increase MSC migration to HCC for therapeutic purposes merits further evaluation.

Wang R, Li Z, Guo H, et al.
Caveolin 1 knockdown inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human breast cancer BT474 cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(5):1723-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have demonstrated that caveolin 1 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, however, few studies have demonstrated that caveolin 1 also serves as a tumor promoter in breast cancer. In the present study, caveolin 1 small interfering RNA was used to knock down caveolin 1 expression in order to investigate the association between caveolin 1 and the proliferation and metastatic abilities of human breast cancer BT474 cells. The results revealed that cell proliferation, migration and invasion were attenuated by caveolin 1 knockdown in BT474 cells. Furthermore, caveolin 1 knockdown in BT474 cells arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase and decreased the number of cells in the S phase. In addition, caveolin 1 knockdown decreased the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway and inhibited the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins (cyclin D1, c-Fos and β-catenin), whilst the expression of E-cadherin was increased. Furthermore, the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 and -1 was also inhibited by caveolin 1 knockdown. In combination, these results demonstrated that caveolin 1 knockdown had a tumor suppressing effect on BT474 cells.

Jonsdottir K, Assmus J, Slewa A, et al.
Prognostic value of gene signatures and proliferation in lymph-node-negative breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90642 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The overall survival rate is good for lymph-node-negative breast cancer patients, but they still suffer from serious over- and some undertreatments. Prognostic and predictive gene signatures for node-negative breast cancer have a high number of genes related to proliferation. The prognostic value of gene sets from commercial gene-expression assays were compared with proliferation markers.
METHODS: Illumina WG6 mRNA microarray analysis was used to examine 94 fresh-frozen tumour samples from node-negative breast cancer patients. The patients were divided into low- and high-risk groups for distant metastasis based on the MammaPrint-related genes, and into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups based on the recurrence score algorithm with genes included in Oncotype DX. These data were then compared to proliferation status, as measured by the mitotic activity index, the expressions of phosphohistone H3 (PPH3), and Ki67.
RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for distant-metastasis-free survival revealed that patients with weak and strong PPH3 expressions had 14-year survival rates of 87% (n=45), and 65% (n=49, p=0.014), respectively. Analysis of the MammaPrint classification resulted in 14-year survival rates of 80% (n=45) and 71% (n=49, p=0.287) for patients with low and high risks of recurrence, respectively. The Oncotype DX categorization yielded 14-year survival rates of 83% (n=18), 79% (n=42) and 68% (n=34) for those in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively (p=0.52). Supervised hierarchical cluster analysis for distant-metastasis-free survival in the subgroup of patients with strong PPH3 expression revealed that the genes involved in Notch signalling and cell adhesion were expressed at higher levels in those patients with distant metastasis.
CONCLUSION: This pilot study indicates that proliferation has greater prognostic value than the expressions of either MammaPrint- or Oncotype-DX-related genes. Furthermore, in the subgroup of patients with high proliferation, Notch signalling pathway genes appear to be expressed at higher levels in patients who develop distant metastasis.

Al-Ansari MM, Aboussekhra A
Caffeine mediates sustained inactivation of breast cancer-associated myofibroblasts via up-regulation of tumor suppressor genes.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90907 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Active cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) or myofibroblasts play important roles not only in the development and progression of breast carcinomas, but also in their prognosis and treatment. Therefore, targeting these cells through suppressing their supportive procarcinogenic paracrine effects is mandatory for improving the current therapies that are mainly targeting tumor cells. To this end, we investigated the effect of the natural and pharmacologically safe molecule, caffeine, on CAF cells and their various procarcinogenic effects.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have shown here that caffeine up-regulates the tumor suppressor proteins p16, p21, p53 and Cav-1, and reduces the expression/secretion of various cytokines (IL-6, TGF-β, SDF-1 and MMP-2), and down-regulates α-SMA. Furthermore, caffeine suppressed the migratory/invasiveness abilities of CAF cells through PTEN-dependent Akt/Erk1/2 inactivation. Moreover, caffeine reduced the paracrine pro-invasion/-migration effects of CAF cells on breast cancer cells. These results indicate that caffeine can inactivate breast stromal myofibroblasts. This has been confirmed by showing that caffeine also suppresses the paracrine pro-angiogenic effect of CAF cells through down-regulating HIF-1αand its downstream effector VEGF-A. Interestingly, these effects were sustained in absence of caffeine.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings provide a proof of principle that breast cancer myofibroblasts can be inactivated, and thereby caffeine may provide a safe and effective prevention against breast tumor growth/recurrence through inhibition of the procarcinogenic effects of active stromal fibroblasts.

Alevizos L, Kataki A, Derventzi A, et al.
Breast cancer nodal metastasis correlates with tumour and lymph node methylation profiles of Caveolin-1 and CXCR4.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(5):511-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation is the best characterised epigenetic change so far. However, its role in breast cancer metastasis has not as yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the methylation profiles characterising primary tumours and their corresponding positive or negative for metastasis lymph nodes (LN) and correlate these with tumour metastatic potential. Methylation signatures of Caveolin-1, CXCR4, RAR-β, Cyclin D2 and Twist gene promoters were studied in 30 breast cancer primary lesions and their corresponding metastasis-free and tumour-infiltrated LN with Methylation-Specific PCR. CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 expression was further studied by immunohistochemistry. Tumours were typified by methylation of RAR-β and hypermethylation of Cyclin-D2 and Twist gene promoters. Tumour patterns were highly conserved in tumour-infiltrated LN. CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 promoter methylation patterns differentiated between node-negative and metastatic tumours. Nodal metastasis was associated with tumour and lymph node profiles of extended methylation of Caveolin-1 and lack of CXCR4 hypermethylation. Immunodetection studies verified CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 hypermethylation as gene silencing mechanism. Absence of Caveolin-1 expression in stromal cells associated with tumour aggressiveness while strong Caveolin-1 expression in tumour cells correlated with decreased 7-year disease-free survival. Methylation-mediated activation of CXCR4 and inactivation of Caveolin-1 was linked with nodal metastasis while intratumoral Caveolin-1 expression heterogeneity correlated with disease progression. This evidence contributes to the better understanding and, thereby, therapeutic management of breast cancer metastasis process.

Arkhipova KA, Sheyderman AN, Laktionov KK, et al.
Simultaneous expression of flotillin-1, flotillin-2, stomatin and caveolin-1 in non-small cell lung cancer and soft tissue sarcomas.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: At the present time, there is a lack of data about the involvement of flotillins and stomatin in the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Moreover, changes in expression of members of different families of the microdomain-forming proteins (caveolins and SPFH-domain containing family) are usually investigated independently of each other. In this study we performed a combined analysis of flotillins, stomatin, and caveolin-1 expression in these pathologies and evaluated correlations between generated data and clinicopathological characteristics of the specimens.
METHODS: The protein and mRNA expression was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively, in tissue specimens of patients undergoing surgery for non-small cell lung cancer and soft tissue sarcomas. Association between expression of studied proteins and patient clinicopathological characteristics or outcome was evaluated.
RESULTS: Stomatin protein expression was down-regulated in 80% of NSCLC samples and this decrease significantly associated with presence of lymph node metastases. Flotillin-2 protein expression was up-regulated in the majority of NSCLC samples whereas caveolin-1α expression was decreased. We revealed a strong correlation between STOM and FLOT-1 mRNA expression in both pathologies, although the gene expression changes were diverse.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time that expression of stomatin, a poorly studied microdomain-forming protein, significantly changes in human tumors, thus pointing to its importance in the progression of NSCLC. We also suggest the existence of some relationship between the expression of these proteins.

Hägglöf C, Hammarsten P, Strömvall K, et al.
TMPRSS2-ERG expression predicts prostate cancer survival and associates with stromal biomarkers.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e86824 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is found in approximately half of all prostate cancers. The functional and prognostic significance of TMPRSS2-ERG is, however, not fully understood. Based on a historical watchful waiting cohort, an association between TMPRSS2-ERG, evaluated as positive immune staining, and shorter survival of prostate cancer patients was identified. Expression of ERG was also associated with clinical markers such as advanced tumor stage, high Gleason score, presence of metastasis and prognostic tumor cell markers such as high Ki67, pEGFR and pAkt. Novel associations between TMPRSS2-ERG and alterations in the tumor stroma, for example, increased vascular density, hyaluronan and PDGFRβ and decreased Caveolin-1, all known to be associated with an aggressive disease, were found. The present study suggests that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene is associated with a more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype, supported by changes in the tumor stroma.

Gai X, Lu Z, Tu K, et al.
Caveolin-1 is up-regulated by GLI1 and contributes to GLI1-driven EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84551 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been recently identified to be over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote HCC cell motility and invasion ability via inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanism of aberrant overexpression of Cav-1 remains vague. Here, we observed that Cav-1 expression was positively associated with GLI1 expression in HCC tissues. Forced expression of GLI1 up-regulated Cav-1 in Huh7 cells, while knockdown of GLI1 decreased expression of Cav-1 in SNU449 cells. Additionally, silencing Cav-1 abolished GLI1-induced EMT of Huh7 cells. The correlation between GLI1 and Cav-1 was confirmed in tumor specimens from HCC patients and Cav-1 was found to be associated with poor prognosis after hepatic resection. The relationship between protein expression of GLI1 and Cav-1 was also established in HCC xenografts of nude mice. These results suggest that GLI1 may be attributed to Cav-1 up-regulation which plays an important role in GLI1-driven EMT phenotype in HCC.

Faggi F, Mitola S, Sorci G, et al.
Phosphocaveolin-1 enforces tumor growth and chemoresistance in rhabdomyosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84618 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) can ambiguously behave as either tumor suppressor or oncogene depending on its phosphorylation state and the type of cancer. In this study we show that Cav-1 was phosphorylated on tyrosine 14 (pCav-1) by Src-kinase family members in various human cell lines and primary mouse cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft-tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. Cav-1 overexpression in the human embryonal RD or alveolar RH30 cells yielded increased pCav-1 levels and reinforced the phosphorylation state of either ERK or AKT kinase, respectively, in turn enhancing in vitro cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness and chemoresistance. In contrast, reducing the pCav-1 levels by administration of a Src-kinase inhibitor or through targeted Cav-1 silencing counteracted the malignant in vitro phenotype of RMS cells. Consistent with these results, xenotransplantation of Cav-1 overexpressing RD cells into nude mice resulted in substantial tumor growth in comparison to control cells. Taken together, these data point to pCav-1 as an important and therapeutically valuable target for overcoming the progression and multidrug resistance of RMS.

Bennett NC, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC
Expression profiles and functional associations of endogenous androgen receptor and caveolin-1 in prostate cancer cell lines.
Prostate. 2014; 74(5):478-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer (PCa) patients, the protein target for androgen deprivation and blockade therapies is androgen receptor (AR). AR interacts with many proteins that function to either co-activate or co-repress its activity. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is not found in normal prostatic epithelium, but is found in PCa, and may be an AR co-regulator protein.
METHODS: We investigated cell line-specific signatures and associations of endogenous AR and Cav-1 in six PCa cell lines of known androgen sensitivity: LNCaP (androgen sensitive); 22Rv1 (androgen responsive); PC3, DU145, and ALVA41 (androgen non-reliant); and RWPE1 (non-malignant). Protein and mRNA expression profiles were compared and electron microscopy used to identify cells with caveolar structures. For cell lines expressing both AR and Cav-1, knockdown techniques using small interfering RNA against AR or Cav-1 were used to test whether diminished expression of one affected the other. Co-sedimentation of AR and Cav-1 was used to test their association. A reporter assay for AR genomic activity was utilized following Cav-1 knockdown.
RESULTS: AR-expressing LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells had low endogenous Cav-1 mRNA and protein. Cell lines that expressed little or no AR (DU145, PC3, ALVA41, and RWPE1) expressed high endogenous levels of Cav-1. AR knockdown in LNCaP cells had little effect on Cav-1, but Cav-1 knockdown inhibited AR expression and genomic activity.
CONCLUSIONS: These data show endogenous AR and Cav-1 mRNA and protein expression is inversely related in PCa cells, with Cav-1 acting on the androgen/AR signaling axis possibly as an AR co-activator, demonstrated by diminished AR genomic activity following Cav-1 knockdown.

Christgen M, Geffers R, Kreipe H, Lehmann U
IPH-926 lobular breast cancer cells are triple-negative but their microarray profile uncovers a luminal subtype.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(12):1726-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human primary breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines are classified by microarray-defined molecular subtypes, which reflect differentiation characteristics. Estrogen receptor (ER) expression is indicative of the luminal molecular subtype. We have previously established IPH-926, the first well-characterized cell line from infiltrating lobular breast cancer. IPH-926 displays an ER/PR/ErbB2 triple-negative immunophenotype, which is due to a loss of ER expression in its in vivo clonal ancestry. Loss of ER might indicate a fundamental change of cellular differentiation and it is unclear whether a luminal subtype is preserved beyond ER conversion. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis, seven different classifier gene lists (PAM305, DISC256, TN1288, PAM50, UNC1300, LAB704, INT500) and a background population of 50 common mammary carcinoma cell lines, we have now determined the molecular subtype of IPH-926. Strikingly, the IPH-926 expression profile is highly consistent with a luminal subtype. It is nearest to luminal/ER-positive breast cancer cell lines and far apart from basal breast cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed enhanced expression of luminal marker genes (AGR2, CLU, CA12, EMP2, CLDN3) and low or absent expression of basal marker genes (KRT5, CD44, CAV1, VIM). Moreover, IPH-926 lacked androgen receptor (AR) expression, a transcription factor previously associated with luminal-like gene expression in a subset of triple-negative or molecular apocrine breast cancers. In conclusion, IPH-926 is triple-negative but belongs to the luminal subtype. Luminal differentiation characteristics can be preserved beyond ER conversion and might not require a compensatory expression of AR.

Lee SH, Woo TG, Lee SJ, et al.
Extracellular p53 fragment re-enters K-Ras mutated cells through the caveolin-1 dependent early endosomal system.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(12):2523-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
K-Ras mutation is detected in over 30% of human malignancies. In particular, 90% of human pancreatic cancers are initiated by K-Ras mutation. Thus, selective elimination of K-Ras mutated cells would be a plausible strategy to prevent or cure the malignancies. In our previous reports, it has been revealed that oncogenic K-Ras promotes the exocytosis of p53 with Snail. In this study, we have followed the final destination of extracellular p53, which is secreted by the Snail complex. Here we provide evidences that p53, exported from K-Ras-mutated cells, is specifically re-endocytosed by oncogenic K-Ras-containing cancer cells. The p53 DNA-binding domain directly associates with caveolin-1 and enters K-Ras mutated cells through early endosome-mediated endocytosis. Using a serial deletion approach, we revealed that a fragment of human p53 extending from 93-143 amino acids (AA) is responsible for binding with caveolin-1 and for endocytosis. In contrast, p53-Snail binding occurs at the 143-193 aa region. Finally, through in vivo study, we confirmed that injected recombinant p53 could be up-taken by tumor tissues, constructed by oncogenic K-Ras transformed MEF cells. In contrast, the tumors formed by H-Ras mutated MEF cells did not accumulate the injected p53 protein. These results indicate that the p53 fragment might be useful as a specific delivery tool into K- Ras mutated cells as well as a diagnostic method.

Wongvaranon P, Pongrakhananon V, Chunhacha P, Chanvorachote P
Acquired resistance to chemotherapy in lung cancer cells mediated by prolonged nitric oxide exposure.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(12):5433-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The effect of extended exposure of cancer cells to nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous mediator frequently found increased in tumors, is largely unknown. In the present study, the effect of long-term NO exposure on chemotherapeutic resistance was investigated in lung cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of long-term exposure of human lung cancer cells to NO on susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents-induced apoptosis was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, co-staining of Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI), and Annexin V detection. The expression of survival-related proteins was analyzed by western blot. Gene manipulation was used for evaluation of the effect of expression proteins on susceptibility of the cells to chemotherapeutic agent-mediated death.
RESULTS: Long-term NO exposure for 7-14 days rendered the lung cancer cells resistant to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and etoposide dose- and time-dependently. The underlying mechanism was found to involve the adaptive responses of the cells, by increasing survival due to increase in the level of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2), and up-regulation of activated protein kinase B (AKT). The gene manipulation study revealed that the increase of activated AKT and BCL2 was responsible for the resistance to all tested drugs, while the up-regulation of CAV1 only attenuated cell death mediated by doxorubicin and etoposide. Interestingly, NO-mediated drug resistance was found to be reversible when cells were further cultured in the absence of NO for five days.
CONCLUSION: These findings reveal the novel role of NO in the tumor environment, in attenuating chemotherapeutic susceptibility and this could be beneficial in contriving strategies to treat the disease.

Paskaš S, Janković J, Marečko I, et al.
Caveolin-1 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathological parameters and BRAF mutation status.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014; 150(2):201-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of caveolin-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma pathogenesis.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review.
SETTING: Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the expression of caveolin-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by Western blot (WB) and compared the findings with immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of both epithelial and stromal caveolin-1 on the corresponding histological specimens. The results were related to clinicopathological features and BRAF mutation status.
RESULTS: Caveolin-1 expression was found in malignant thyroid epithelium and more abundantly in tumor stroma but varied in both compartments within and between PTC subtypes. Caveolin-1 expression in the epithelium was more intense in classical PTC than in the other histological types. On the contrary, stromal caveolin-1 expression was stronger in the follicular, solid, and trabecular PTC variants than in classical PTC. Trends for down-regulation of caveolin-1 expression in epithelium and up-regulation in stroma from the classical via follicular to the solid variant were observed. The relation of WB and IHC results with clinicopathological parameters showed lower caveolin-1 tissue content in BRAF mutated tumors (P < .05), a positive correlation of epithelial caveolin-1 expression with lymph node metastasis (P < .05), and a negative association of stromal caveolin-1 expression with the degree of neoplastic infiltration and BRAF status.
CONCLUSION: Altered expression of caveolin-1 in the thyroid epithelial and stromal compartments may be involved in the pathogenesis of PTC. The potential clinical significance of caveolin-1 expression, as well as its relation to BRAF mutation status, deserves further investigation.

Chang WS, Lin SS, Li FJ, et al.
Significant association of caveolin-1 (CAV1) genotypes with upper urothelial tract cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(11):4907-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Upper urothelial tract cancer is unusually of high incidence in Taiwan and it is valuable to study the specificity of this disease in Taiwan and compare the corresponding findings with those of Western countries. In the literature, it has been reported that single nucleotide variation of caveolin-1 gene (CAV1) plays an important role in risk of several types of cancer, such as hepatoma, leukemia, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, oral, breast, bladder and prostate cancer, but we are not aware of any reports on upper urothelial tract cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of six polymorphic genotypes of CAV1 with upper urothelial tract cancer within a Taiwanese population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 218 patients with upper urothelial tract cancer and 580 healthy controls in central Taiwan were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for six CAV1 polymorphic genotypes, C521A (rs1997623), G14713A (rs3807987), G21985A (rs12672038), T28608A (rs3757733), T29107A (rs7804372), and G32124A (rs3807992), and their association with upper urothelial tract cancer susceptibility was examined.
RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes of CAV1 rs3807987 and rs7804372 were significantly different between cancer patient and control groups (p=0.0188 and 0.0090, respectively), while those for CAV1 rs1997623, rs12672038, rs3757733 and rs3807992 were not significant (p>0.05). The haplotype analysis of the two polymorphic genotypes showed that compared with the GG/AT, and GG/AA haplotypes of CAV1 rs3807987/rs7804372, those carrying GG/TT, AG/TT and AA/TT variants have a significantly increased risk of upper urothelial tract cancer (odds ratio=1.61, 1.50 and 2.67, 95% confidence interval=1.05-2.47, 1.18-1.90, and 1.37-5.18, respectively). On the contrary, other haplotype variants conferred non-significant elevated risk.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that individual and combined CAV1 rs3807987/rs7804372 genotypes are involved in predisposition to upper urothelial tract cancer in the Taiwanese population.

Luo T, Wu S, Shen X, Li L
Network cluster analysis of protein-protein interaction network identified biomarker for early onset colorectal cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(12):6561-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. However, the genetic alterations and molecular mechanism of the early onset CRCs are not fully investigated. The present study aimed to characterize early onset CRC by analyzing its gene expression compared with normal controls and to identify network-based biomarkers of early onset CRC. The gene expression profiles of early onset CRC were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CRC patients were identified. Then, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and the clusters in PPI were analyzed by ClusterONE. Furthermore, the gene ontology functional analysis and pathway enrichment analysis were conducted to the modules in PPI network. A systems biology approach integrating microarray data and PPI was further applied to construct a PPI network in CRC. Total 631 DEGs were identified from the early onset CRC compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in several biological processes, including cell communication, cell proliferation, cell shape and apoptosis. Five functional modules which may play important roles in the initiation of early onset CRC were identified from the PPI network. Functional annotation revealed that these five modules were involved in the pathways of signal transduction, carcinogenesis and metastasis. The hub nodes of these five modules, CDC42, TEX11, QKI, CAV1 and FN1, may serve as the biomarkers of early onset CRC and have the potential to be targets for therapeutic intervention. However, further investigations are still needed to confirm our findings.

Wang NN, Zhao LJ, Wu LN, et al.
Mechanistic analysis of taxol-induced multidrug resistance in an ovarian cancer cell line.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(9):4983-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To establish a taxol-resistant cell line of human ovarian carcinoma (A2780/Taxol) and investigate its biological features.
METHODS: The drug-resistant cell line (A2780/Taxol) was established by continuous stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of Taxol. Cell morphology was assessed by microscopy and growth curves were generated with in vitro and in vivo tumor xenograft models. With rhodamine123 (Rh123) assays, cell cycle distribution and the apoptotic rate were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Drug resistance-related and signal associated proteins, including P-gp, MRPs, caveolin-1, PKC-α, Akt, ERK1/2, were detected by Western blotting.
RESULTS: A2780/Taxol cells were established with stable resistance to taxol. The drug resistance index (RI) was 430.7. Cross-resistance to other drugs was also shown, but there was no significant change to radioresistance. Compared with parental cells, A2780/Taxol cells were significantly heteromorphous, with a significant delay in population doubling time and reduced uptake of Rh123 (p < 0.01). In vivo, tumor take by A2780 cells was 80%, and tumor volume increased gradually. In contrast, with A2780/Taxol cells in xenograft models there was no tumor development. FCM analysis revealed that A2780/Taxol cells had a higher percentage of G0/G1 and lower S phase, but no changes of G2 phase and the apoptosis rate. Expression of P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP, LRP, caveolin-1, PKC-α, Phospho-ERK1/2 and Phospho-JNK protein was significantly up-regulated, while Akt and p38 MARK protein expression was not changed in A2780/Taxol cells.
CONCLUSION: The A2780/Taxol cell line is an ideal model to investigate the mechanism of muti-drug resistance related to overexpression of drug-resistance associated proteins and activation of the PKC-α/ERK (JNK) signaling pathway.

Zhan Y, Wang L, Liu J, et al.
Choline plasmalogens isolated from swine liver inhibit hepatoma cell proliferation associated with caveolin-1/Akt signaling.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77387 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Plasmalogens play multiple roles in the structures of biological membranes, cell membrane lipid homeostasis and human diseases. We report the isolation and identification of choline plasmalogens (ChoPlas) from swine liver by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/MS. The growth and viability of hepatoma cells (CBRH7919, HepG2 and SMMC7721) was determined following ChoPlas treatment comparing with that of human normal immortal cell lines (HL7702). Result indicated that ChoPlas inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation with an optimal concentration and time of 25 μmol/L and 24 h. To better understand the mechanism of the ChoPlas-induced inhibition of hepatoma cell proliferation, Caveolin-1 and PI3K/Akt pathway signals, including total Akt, phospho-Akt(pAkt) and Bcl-2 expression in CBRH7919 cells, were determined by western blot. ChoPlas treatment increased Caveolin-1 expression and reduced the expression of phospho-Akt (pAkt) and Bcl-2, downstream targets of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Further cell cycle analysis showed that ChoPlas treatment induced G1 and G1/S phase transition cell cycle arrest. The expression of essential cell cycle regulatory proteins involved in the G1 and G1/S phase transitions, cyclin D, CDK4, cyclin E and CDK2, were also analyzed by western blot. ChoPlas reduced CDK4, cyclin E and CDK2 expression. Taken together, the results indicate that swine liver-derived natural ChoPlas inhibits hepatoma cell proliferation associated with Caveolin-1 and PI3K/Akt signals.

Shimato S, Anderson LM, Asslaber M, et al.
Inhibition of caveolin-1 restores myeloid cell function in human glioblastoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77397 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor in both children and adults. The prognosis for glioblastoma (GBM), the most common type of malignant glioma, has remained dismal, with median survival a little over one year despite maximal therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Although immunotherapy has become increasingly successful against many systemic tumors, clinical efficacy against brain tumors has been limited. One reason for this is an incomplete understanding of the local immunologic tumor microenvironment, particularly the function of large numbers of infiltrating myeloid derived cells. Monocytes/microglia are myeloid derived immunomodulatory cells, and they represent the predominant infiltrating immune cell population in gliomas. Our group has previously demonstrated using complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches that GBM tumor cells polarize tumor-associated myeloid cells (TAMs) and suppress their immunostimulatory function.
METHODS AND RESULTS: To better understand the mechanisms responsible for this immunosuppression, we used gene expression profiling of stimulated monocytes in the presence or absence of GBM tumor cells. Our analysis identified caveolin-1 (CAV1), a plasma membrane molecule with pleiotropic functions, as significantly up-regulated in monocytes in the presence of GBMs. We validated these findings ex vivo by confirming up-regulation of CAV1 in TAMs isolated from GBMs immediately after surgical resection. Finally, we demonstrate that siRNA inhibition of CAV1 restores myeloid cell function, as measured by TNF-alpha secretion, in the presence of GBMs.
CONCLUSIONS: Restoration of TAM function through pharmacologic blockage of CAV1 may facilitate more successful immunotherapeutic strategies directed against a variety of solid human tumors infiltrated by TAMs.

Campbell L, Al-Jayyoussi G, Gutteridge R, et al.
Caveolin-1 in renal cell carcinoma promotes tumour cell invasion, and in co-operation with pERK predicts metastases in patients with clinically confined disease.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:255 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of patients initially diagnosed with clinically-confined renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and who undergo curative surgery will nevertheless relapse with metastatic disease (mRCC) associated with poor long term survival. The discovery of novel prognostic/predictive biomarkers and drug targets is needed and in this context the aim of the current study was to investigate a putative caveolin-1/ERK signalling axis in clinically confined RCC, and to examine in a panel of RCC cell lines the effects of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) on pathological processes (invasion and growth) and select signalling pathways.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry we assessed the expression of both Cav-1 and phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) in 176 patients with clinically confined RCC, their correlation with histological parameters and their impact upon disease-free survival. Using a panel of RCC cell lines we explored the functional effects of Cav-1 knockdown upon cell growth, cell invasion and VEGF-A secretion, as well Cav-1 regulation by cognate cell signalling pathways.
RESULTS: We found a significant correlation (P = 0.03) between Cav-1 and pERK in a cohort of patients with clinically confined disease which represented a prognostic biomarker combination (HR = 4.2) that effectively stratified patients into low, intermediate and high risk groups with respect to relapse, even if the patients' tumours displayed low grade and/or low stage disease. In RCC cell lines Cav-1 knockdown unequivocally reduced cell invasive capacity while also displaying both pro-and anti-proliferative effects; targeted knockdown of Cav-1 also partially suppressed VEGF-A secretion in VHL-negative RCC cells. The actions of Cav-1 in the RCC cell lines appeared independent of both ERK and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways.
CONCLUSION: The combined expression of Cav-1 and pERK serves as an independent biomarker signature with potential merit in RCC surveillance strategies able to predict those patients with clinically confined disease who will eventually relapse. In a panel of in-vitro RCC cells Cav-1 promotes cell invasion with variable effects on cell growth and VEGF-A secretion. Cav-1 has potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of mRCC.

Ko FC, Ping Yam JW
Regulation of deleted in liver cancer 1 tumor suppressor by protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(2):264-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) tumor suppressor is an important RhoGTP activating protein (RhoGAP) that plays a crucial role in many types of human cancers. Small GTPases regulate normal cellular processes but aberrant expression and activation of GTPases contribute to tumorigenesis. RhoGAP suppresses Rho activity. DLC1's RhoGAP activity and the focal adhesion localization are critical to the tumor suppressor functions of DLC1. Frequent DLC1 underexpression is commonly seen in human cancers and has been ascribed to genomic deletion and epigenetic inactivation. Somatic mutation has been shown to deregulate the RhoGAP activity of DLC1. Deregulation of DLC1 in cells results in the elevation of active Rho. Compelling studies of the molecular mechanisms of DLC1 action have identified various interacting partners of DLC1 such as tensins and caveolin-1, and revealed the associated signaling pathways. DLC1 has been shown to be a promiscuous interacting protein. Recent interest has also focused on the phosphorylation of DLC1. The upstream kinases such as PKA, PKB/Akt and PKC, and the effects of phosphorylation on the biological activities of DLC1 have been demonstrated. Although DLC1 is a RhoGAP, RhoGAP-independent pathways have been involved via its interacting partners and upon phosphorylation regulation. Recent studies of DLC1 point to the complexity of the signaling pathways it regulates. This review summarizes the current understanding of the interacting potentials of DLC1 and phosphorylation of DLC1.

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