Gene Summary

Gene:IL1RN; interleukin 1 receptor antagonist
Aliases: DIRA, IRAP, IL1F3, IL1RA, MVCD4, IL-1RN, IL-1ra, IL-1ra3, ICIL-1RA
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This protein inhibits the activities of interleukin 1, alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), and modulates a variety of interleukin 1 related immune and inflammatory responses. This gene and five other closely related cytokine genes form a gene cluster spanning approximately 400 kb on chromosome 2. A polymorphism of this gene is reported to be associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures and gastric cancer. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Helicobacter pylori and cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Chromosome 2
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Promoter Regions
  • Interleukin-6
  • Adolescents
  • Thailand
  • Xenograft Models
  • Polymorphism
  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
  • Interleukin-1
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Smoking
  • Interleukin-10
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genotype
  • TNF
  • Haplotypes
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Odds Ratio
  • Helicobacter Infections
  • Sweden
  • Risk Factors
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Sialoglycoproteins
  • Alleles
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Cytokines
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Minisatellite Repeats
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Vulvar Cancer
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL1RN (cancer-related)

Münch NS, Fang HY, Ingermann J, et al.
High-Fat Diet Accelerates Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett's Esophagus via Interleukin 8 and Alterations to the Gut Microbiome.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 157(2):492-506.e2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Progression from BE to cancer is associated with obesity, possibly due to increased abdominal pressure and gastroesophageal reflux disease, although this pathogenic mechanism has not been proven. We investigated whether environmental or dietary factors associated with obesity contribute to the progression of BE to EAC in mice.
METHODS: Tg(ED-L2-IL1RN/IL1B)#Tcw mice (a model of BE, called L2-IL1B mice) were fed a chow (control) or high-fat diet (HFD) or were crossbred with mice that express human interleukin (IL) 8 (L2-IL1B/IL8 mice). Esophageal tissues were collected and analyzed for gene expression profiles and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Organoids were established from BE tissue of mice and cultured with serum from lean or obese individuals or with neutrophils from L2-IL1B mice. Feces from mice were analyzed by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing and compared to 16s sequencing data from patients with dysplasia or BE. L2-IL1B were mice raised in germ-free conditions.
RESULTS: L2-IL1B mice fed an HFD developed esophageal dysplasia and tumors more rapidly than mice fed the control diet; the speed of tumor development was independent of body weight. The acceleration of dysplasia by the HFD in the L2-IL1B mice was associated with a shift in the gut microbiota and an increased ratio of neutrophils to natural killer cells in esophageal tissues compared with mice fed a control diet. We observed similar differences in the microbiomes from patients with BE that progressed to EAC vs patients with BE that did not develop into cancer. Tissues from dysplasias of L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD contained increased levels of cytokines that are produced in response to CXCL1 (the functional mouse homolog of IL8, also called KC). Serum from obese patients caused organoids from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice to produce IL8. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD and from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice contained increased numbers of myeloid cells and cells expressing Cxcr2 and Lgr5 messenger RNAs (epithelial progenitors) compared with mice fed control diets. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice raised in germ-free housing had fewer progenitor cells and developed less dysplasia than in L2-IL1 mice raised under standard conditions; exposure of fecal microbiota from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD to L2-IL1B mice fed the control diet accelerated tumor development.
CONCLUSIONS: In a mouse model of BE, we found that an HFD promoted dysplasia by altering the esophageal microenvironment and gut microbiome, thereby inducing inflammation and stem cell expansion, independent of obesity.

Wang T, Feng Y, Zhao Z, et al.
IL1RN Polymorphisms Are Associated with a Decreased Risk of Esophageal Cancer Susceptibility in a Chinese Population.
Chemotherapy. 2019; 64(1):28-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that IL1RN (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) polymorphisms increased the susceptibility to cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate whether IL1RN was related to esophageal cancer susceptibility in a Northwest Han Chinese population.
METHODS: The case-control study was conducted on 384 esophageal cancer patients and 499 healthy controls. We successfully genotyped four SNPs distributed in IL1RN. The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database was used to observe the expression of IL1RN in esophageal cancer tissues and normal tissues. RegulomeDB and HaploReg v4.1 were used to calculate possible functional effects of the polymorphisms. We also used genetic models to detect any potential association between IL1RN variants and esophageal cancer risk.
RESULTS: In our study, rs3181052 was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal cancer in the codominant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.93, p = 0.040), the dominant (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.99, p = 0.041), and the overdominant (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.93, p = 0.012) model. The rs452204 was associated with a 0.76-fold (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99; p = 0.043) decreased esophageal cancer risk under the overdominant model without adjustment. We also found that rs3181052 had a negative effect on esophageal cancer under the overdominant model (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97, p = 0.033) adjusted for age and gender. In stratified analyses by age >55 years, rs3181052 reduced the risk of esophageal cancer in the dominant and overdominant models. In addition, rs315919 had a remarkable influence on esophageal cancer risk in females, while the association was not significant between rs3181052 and esophageal cancer risk in males.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided the first evidence that IL1RN rs3181052, rs452204, and rs315919 are correlated with a decreased risk of esophageal cancer in a Northwest Han Chinese population. These findings may be useful for the development of early prognostics for esophageal cancer. However, further larger studies on different ethnic populations are warranted to verify these findings.

Abbasian MH, Abbasi B, Ansarinejad N, et al.
Association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphism with risk of gastric and colorectal cancers in an Iranian population.
Iran J Immunol. 2018; 15(4):321-328 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is associated with neoplasms and several types of cancer. Therefore, polymorphisms in the inflammation-related genes could modify the cancer susceptibility.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between IL-1RN VNTR and rs419598 polymorphisms in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and colorectal cancer (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC) in an Iranian population.
METHODS: In this study, 126 cancer cases (91 CRC and 35 GC) and 97 healthy controls were included. Genotyping of IL-1RN VNTR and rs419598 was performed by PCR amplification and PCR-RFLP, respectively. Logistic regression was applied to identify the independent risk factors for colorectal and gastric cancers by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software.
RESULTS: There were significant differences between cancer groups and control group concerning the frequency of A1/A2 genotypes in IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism. The carrier status of IL-1RN* 2 allele was associated with increased risk of CRC (p = 0.0003; OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.491-0.85) and GC (p = 0.0006; OR = 0.106; 95% CI: 0.321-0.035). Also, the homozygous ILRN *2/*2 genotype was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (p = 0.04; OR = 0.133; 95% CI: 0.020-0.908). There was no association between different alleles of rs419598 and CRC and GC.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association between the carrier status of IL-1RN* 2 and CRC and GC in an Iranian population.

Norelli M, Camisa B, Barbiera G, et al.
Monocyte-derived IL-1 and IL-6 are differentially required for cytokine-release syndrome and neurotoxicity due to CAR T cells.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(6):739-748 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the clinic, chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR T) cell therapy is frequently associated with life-threatening cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. Understanding the nature of these pathologies and developing treatments for them are hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. Herein, we describe a mouse model recapitulating key features of CRS and neurotoxicity. In humanized mice with high leukemia burden, CAR T cell-mediated clearance of cancer triggered high fever and elevated IL-6 levels, which are hallmarks of CRS. Human monocytes were the major source of IL-1 and IL-6 during CRS. Accordingly, the syndrome was prevented by monocyte depletion or by blocking IL-6 receptor with tocilizumab. Nonetheless, tocilizumab failed to protect mice from delayed lethal neurotoxicity, characterized by meningeal inflammation. Instead, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra abolished both CRS and neurotoxicity, resulting in substantially extended leukemia-free survival. These findings offer a therapeutic strategy to tackle neurotoxicity and open new avenues to safer CAR T cell therapies.

Tak KH, Yu GI, Lee MY, Shin DH
Association Between Polymorphisms of Interleukin 1 Family Genes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:3488-3495 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies occurring worldwide and is most frequent type of liver cancer. The risk for developing HCC increases with the severity of inflammation and fibrosis. The members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family are primarily proinflammatory cytokines due to their ability to stimulate the expression of genes associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Several studies have suggested that some proinflammatory cytokines, such as the IL-1 family (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist) are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study aimed to determine whether polymorphisms in the IL-1 family of genes are associated with HCC. We analyzed 178 HCC patients and 397 controls to investigate the association between polymorphisms in IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) genes and HCC in the Korean population. All subjects were genotyped for the selected SNPs in IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1RA genes by Golden-Gate SNP Genotyping Assay. RESULTS Statistical analysis revealed a significant association at IL-1β between HCC and controls. Three individual polymorphisms (rs1143633, rs3917356, and rs1143627) were found to be associated with HCC. The SNPs of IL-1b gene (rs1143633A>G and rs1143627T>C) protected against HCC in the dominant model (p=0.027, OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94; p=0.019, OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.34-0.91). The SNP of IL-1β gene (rs3917356G>A) increased the risk of HCC in the recessive model (p<0.001, OR=2.58, 95% CI=1.53-4.33), whereas other SNPs in IL-1α and IL-1RA showed no significant association between HCC patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that IL-1β in the IL-1 family contributes to HCC susceptibility.

Seshachalam VP, Sekar K, Hui KM
Insights into the etiology-associated gene regulatory networks in hepatocellular carcinoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 33(12):2037-2047 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus, alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the major known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There have been very few studies comparing the underlying biological mechanisms associated with the different etiologies of HCC. In this study, we hypothesized the existence of different regulatory networks associated with different liver disease etiologies involved in hepatocarcinogenesis.
METHODS: Using upstream regulatory analysis tool in ingenuity pathway analysis software, upstream regulators (URs) were predicted using differential expressed genes for HCC to facilitate the interrogation of global gene regulation.
RESULTS: Analysis of regulatory networks for HBV HCC revealed E2F1 as activated UR, regulating genes involved in cell cycle and DNA replication, and HNF4A and HNF1A as inhibited UR. In hepatitis C virus HCC, interferon-γ, involved in cellular movement and signaling, was activated, while IL1RN, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 involved in interleukin 22 signaling and immune response, was inhibited. In alcohol consumption HCC, ERBB2 involved in inflammatory response and cellular movement was activated, whereas HNF4A and NUPR1 were inhibited. For HCC derived from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, miR-1249-5p was activated, and NUPR1 involved in cell cycle and apoptosis was inhibited. The prognostic value of representative genes identified in the regulatory networks for HBV HCC can be further validated by an independent HBV HCC dataset established in our laboratory with survival data.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified functionally distinct candidate URs for HCC developed from different etiologic risk factors. Further functional validation studies of these regulatory networks could facilitate the management of HCC towards personalized medicine.

Han C, Bellone S, Siegel ER, et al.
A novel multiple biomarker panel for the early detection of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 149(3):585-591 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Since the majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. There is no single biomarker with the sensitivity and specificity required for effective cancer screening; therefore, we investigated a panel of novel biomarkers for the early detection of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
METHODS: Twelve serum biomarkers with high differential gene expression and validated antibodies were selected: IL-1Ra, IL-6, Dkk-1, uPA, E-CAD, ErbB2, SLPI, HE4, CA125, LCN2, MSLN, and OPN. They were tested using Simple Plex™, a multi-analyte immunoassay platform, in samples collected from 172 patients who were either healthy, had benign gynecologic pathologies, or had high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, ROC area under the curve (AUC), and standard error (SE) of the AUC were obtained. Univariate ROC analyses and multivariate ROC analyses with the combination of multiple biomarkers were performed.
RESULTS: The 4-marker panel consisting of CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6 had the highest ROC AUC. When evaluated for the ability to distinguish early stage ovarian cancer from a non-cancer control, not only did this 4-marker panel (AUC=0.961) performed better than CA 125 alone (AUC=0.851; P=0.0150) and HE4 alone (AUC=0.870; P=0.0220), but also performed significantly better than the 2- marker combination of CA125+HE4 (AUC=0.922; P=0.0278). The 4-marker panel had the highest average sensitivity under the region of its ROC curve corresponding to specificity ranging from 100% down to ~95%.
CONCLUSION: The four-marker panel, CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6, shows potential in detecting serous ovarian cancer at earlier stages. Additional validation studies using the biomarker combination in ovarian cancer patients are warranted.

Thomas-Jardin SE, Kanchwala MS, Jacob J, et al.
Identification of an IL-1-induced gene expression pattern in AR
Prostate. 2018; 78(8):595-606 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In immunosurveillance, bone-derived immune cells infiltrate the tumor and secrete inflammatory cytokines to destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells have evolved mechanisms to usurp inflammatory cytokines to promote tumor progression. In particular, the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tissue and serum, and promotes PCa bone metastasis. IL-1 also represses androgen receptor (AR) accumulation and activity in PCa cells, yet the cells remain viable and tumorigenic; suggesting that IL-1 may also contribute to AR-targeted therapy resistance. Furthermore, IL-1 and AR protein levels negatively correlate in PCa tumor cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that IL-1 reprograms AR positive (AR
METHODS: LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells were treated with IL-1β or HS-5 bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) conditioned medium and analyzed by RNA sequencing and RT-QPCR. To verify genes identified by RNA sequencing, LNCaP, MDA-PCa-2b, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines were treated with the IL-1 family members, IL-1α or IL-1β, or exposed to HS-5 BMSC in the presence or absence of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RA). Treated cells were analyzed by western blot and/or RT-QPCR.
RESULTS: Comparative analysis of sequencing data from the AR
CONCLUSIONS: Our data supports that IL-1 reprograms AR

Wang LX, Li Y, Chen GZ
Network-based co-expression analysis for exploring the potential diagnostic biomarkers of metastatic melanoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190447 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer and is one of the global malignancies with high mortality and morbidity. It is essential to identify and verify diagnostic biomarkers of early metastatic melanoma. Previous studies have systematically assessed protein biomarkers and mRNA-based expression characteristics. However, molecular markers for the early diagnosis of metastatic melanoma have not been identified. To explore potential regulatory targets, we have analyzed the gene microarray expression profiles of malignant melanoma samples by co-expression analysis based on the network approach. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by the EdgeR package of R software. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used for the identification of DEGs in the special gene modules and hub genes. Subsequently, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed to extract hub genes associated with gene modules. Finally, twenty-four important hub genes (RASGRP2, IKZF1, CXCR5, LTB, BLK, LINGO3, CCR6, P2RY10, RHOH, JUP, KRT14, PLA2G3, SPRR1A, KRT78, SFN, CLDN4, IL1RN, PKP3, CBLC, KRT16, TMEM79, KLK8, LYPD3 and LYPD5) were treated as valuable factors involved in the immune response and tumor cell development in tumorigenesis. In addition, a transcriptional regulatory network was constructed for these specific modules or hub genes, and a few core transcriptional regulators were found to be mostly associated with our hub genes, including GATA1, STAT1, SP1, and PSG1. In summary, our findings enhance our understanding of the biological process of malignant melanoma metastasis, enabling us to identify specific genes to use for diagnostic and prognostic markers and possibly for targeted therapy.

Jin T, Cao W, Zuo X, et al.
IL-1RN gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk in a Chinese Han population.
J Gene Med. 2017; 19(12) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The interleukins (ILs) are a large family of endogenous cytokines that are crucial in the regulation of inflammation and immunological responses. The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) has been found to be associated with risk breast cancer (BC) in Korean and Indian women. However, little information is found about the polymorphisms of IL-1RN in Chinese Han BC patients.
METHODS: We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1RN and BC risk in a case-control study that included 530 BC cases and 628 healthy controls. Six tag SNPs in IL-1RN were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, CA, USA). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and sex.
RESULTS: In the allele model, we found that the frequency of the 'T' allele of rs928940 was significantly lower in BC cases than in controls (OR = 0.776, 95% CI = 0.611-0.985, p = 0.037). In the genetic model analysis, five susceptibility SNPs were found to be associated with BC risk: the minor allele 'G' of rs315919, rs3181052 and rs452204 were associated with a decreased risk of BC under dominant model (p < 0.05), whereas the minor alleles 'T' and 'C' of rs928940 and rs4252019 were associated with a decreased risk of BC under both the codominant and dominant models (p < 0.05), which suggested these SNPs may play a protective role against BC risk. The haplotype 'TAGC' constructed by rs928940, rs3181052, rs452204 and rs4252019 was associated with a decreased risk of BC (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12-0.94; p = 0.038).
CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained in the present study shed new light on the association between genetic polymorphisms of IL-1RN and BC susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

Broer PN, Aung T, Heidekrueger PI, et al.
Divisive influence of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist polymorphisms in melanoma patients.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2017; 67(3-4):319-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) contributes to tumor survival and progression in multiple cancer entities. IL-1RA polymorphisms influence IL-1RA expression patterns and function. A known polymorphism was correlated with clinical outcomes in melanoma patients with particularly aggressive disease.
METHODS: DNA of 343 controls and 97 melanoma patients with poor prognostic indicators (time from diagnosis to death, nodal status, metastasis) was analyzed for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms (VNTR) of the IL-1RA gene. Five alleles containing two (allele 2), three (allele 4), four (allele 1), five (allele 3) or six (allele 5) 86-bp repeats were targeted via PCR amplification.
RESULTS: Genotype 1/2 is less common in the melanoma patient group vs. the control (28.8% vs. 39.6%; p = 0.06). Significant was the stage of the melanoma in order to predict the survivability (p = 0.008). The 1/1 and 1/2 genotype appeared to have lower hazards ratios than the 2/2 genotype (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, the distribution of alleles coding for IL-1RA is different in melanoma patients. This alteration and the potential impact on tumor protein function and systemic inflammatory response may warrant further investigation.

Fortis SP, Mahaira LG, Anastasopoulou EA, et al.
Immune profiling of melanoma tumors reflecting aggressiveness in a preclinical model.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017; 66(12):1631-1642 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma, like most solid tumors, is highly heterogeneous in terms of invasive, proliferative, and tumor-initiating potential. This heterogeneity is the outcome of differential gene expression resulting from conditions in the tumor microenvironment and the selective pressure of the immune system. To investigate possible signatures combining immune-related gene expression and lymphocyte infiltration, we established a preclinical model using B16.F1-derived clones, in the context of melanoma aggressiveness. Combinatorial analyses revealed that tumors concomitantly expressing low levels of Tnf-a, Pd-1, Il-10, Il-1ra, Ccl5, Ido, high Il-9, and with low infiltration by CD45

Mesiano G, Zini R, Montagner G, et al.
Analytic and Dynamic Secretory Profile of Patient-Derived Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells.
Mol Med. 2017; 23:235-246 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Adoptive immunotherapy with Cytokine Induced Killer (CIK) cells has shown antitumor activity against several kinds of cancers in preclinical models and clinical trials. CIK cells are a subset of ex vivo expanded T lymphocytes with T-NK phenotype and MHC-unrestricted antitumor activity. Literature provides scanty information on cytokines, chemokines and growth factors secreted by CIK cells. Therefore, we investigated the secretory profile of CIK cells generated from tumor patients. The secretome analysis was performed at specific time points (day 1, day 14 and day 21) of CIK cells expansion. Mature CIK cells (day 21) produce a great variety of interleukins and secreted proteins that can be divided into 3 groups based on their secretion quantity: high (IL-13, RANTES, MIP-1α and 1β), medium (IL-1Ra, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IP-10, INF-γ, VEGF and GMCSF) and low (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IL-12, IL-15, Eotaxin, PDGF-bb, FGF basic, G-CSF and MCP-1) secreted. Moreover, comparing PBMC (day 1) and mature CIK cells (day 14 and 21) secretome, we observed that IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF, VEGF resulted greatly up-regulated, while IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-17, eotaxin, MCP-1, and RANTES were down-regulated. We also performed a gene expression profile analysis of patient-derived CIK cells showing that mRNA for the different cytokines and secreted proteins were modulated during PBMC to CIK differentiation. We highlighted previously unknown secretory properties and provided for the first time a comprehensive molecular characterization of CIK cells. Our findings provide rationale to explore the functional implications and possible therapeutic modulation of CIK secretome.

Rashid N, Nigam A, Saxena P, et al.
Association of IL-1β, IL-1Ra and FABP1 gene polymorphisms with the metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Inflamm Res. 2017; 66(7):621-636 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a highly prevalent endocrinopathy is currently being designated as chronic low grade inflammatory state. IL-1β, IL-1Ra and FABP1 are critical mediators of inflammatory processes and are speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The aim of this study was to study the association of IL-β, IL-1Ra and FABP1 gene polymorphisms with PCOS and related metabolic features.
SUBJECTS: 95 PCOS and 45 age matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study.
METHODS: Polymorphism in genes IL-1β, IL-1Ra and FABP1 was studied by PCR, PCR-RFLP and sequencing methods, respectively. Hormonal and lipid profiles were evaluated for all the subjects.
RESULTS: Hormonal and lipid profiles showed significant differences between PCOS and control subjects. Allele and genotype frequencies of IL-1β, IL-1Ra and FABP1 gene polymorphisms did not vary between the control and PCOS group. However, T allele of C[-511]T variant of IL-1β, allele II in intron 2 of IL-1Ra and A allele of A/G variant of FABP1 (rs2197076) showed significant association with many metabolic features associated with PCOS.
CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphism in genes encoding cytokines and proteins involved in lipid metabolism can provide insights into the genetics of the disease and may contribute to assess the associated risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with PCOS.

Raza Y, Khan A, Khan AI, et al.
Combination of Interleukin 1 Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection: an Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer in Pakistani Population.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2017; 23(4):873-880 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori is one of the major risk factors involved in the development ofgastritis and gastric cancer (GC). H. pylori infection leads to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the host. Carriage of specific polymorphisms in cytokine genes may be associated with host susceptibility to the development of GC. We investigated the role of host genetic factors including polymorphisms of IL-1B and IL-1RN in correlation with gastritis and GC in H. pylori infected Pakistani population. A total of 230 gastritis cases and 100 GC cases were genotyped for IL 1B-511 and IL-1RN penta-allelic variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs). A combination of IL-1B-511*T and IL-1RN*2 alleles (OR 19.064; 95% CI 2.319-156.7; p = 0.001) in H. pylori infected individuals had markedly increased risk of GC development. In Pakistani population, an increased risk of GC development is associated with the carriage of IL-1B-511*T and IL-1RN*2 alleles. Synergistic effect of H. pylori infection and IL-1B-511*T/IL-1RN*2 genotypes was also observed in association with significantly higher risk of developing GC. Further prospective and large scale studies are needed to establish the clinical impact of these findings.

Ye X, Zhao K, Wu C, et al.
Associations between genetic variants in immunoregulatory genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a Chinese population.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(6):10450-10457 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
We undertook a hospital-based case-control study to examine the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected immunoregulatory genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk in a Chinese population. One hundred and sixty-nine NHL patients diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2001 standard and 421 controls were recruited. Nine SNPs in three genes (IL-10, IL-1RN, and TNF-α) were selected based on predicted functions and previous study findings. Genetic association analysis was performed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test and multiple logistic regression. Four SNPs were associated with an increased risk of overall NHL: odds ratio per minor allele [ORper-minor-allele] and 95% confidence interval [CI] were 2.64 (1.75-3.98) for IL-10 rs1800893, 2.67 (1.72-4.16) for IL-1RN rs4251961, 1.80 (1.24-2.63) for TNF- α rs1800630, and 1.55 (1.02-2.37) for TNF- α rs2229094. These SNPs were also associated with an increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In addition, another SNP (TNF- α rs1041981) was associated with an increased risk of DLBCL (ORper-minor-allele=1.73, 95% CI 1.14-2.61). The findings provide evidence on the role of these immunoregulatory gene variants in NHL etiology.

Shen L, Zhao L, Tang J, et al.
Key Genes in Stomach Adenocarcinoma Identified via Network Analysis of RNA-Seq Data.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2017; 23(4):745-752 [PubMed] Related Publications
RNA-seq data of stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) were analyzed to identify critical genes in STAD. Meanwhile, relevant small molecule drugs, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were also investigated. Gene expression data of STAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis was performed with package edgeR. Relationships with correlation coefficient > 0.6 were retained in the gene co-expression network. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for the genes in the network with DAVID and KOBASS 2.0. Modules were identified using Cytoscape. Relevant small molecules drugs, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were revealed by using CMAP and WebGestalt databases. A total of 520 DEGs were identified between 285 STAD samples and 33 normal controls, including 244 up-regulated and 276 down-regulated genes. A gene co-expression network containing 53 DEGs and 338 edges was constructed, the genes of which were significantly enriched in focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction and vascular smooth muscle contraction pathways. Three modules were identified from the gene co-expression network and they were associated with skeletal system development, inflammatory response and positive regulation of cellular process, respectively. A total of 20 drugs, 9 TFs and 6 miRNAs were acquired that may regulate the DEGs. NFAT-COL1A1/ANXA1, HSF2-FOS, SREBP-IL1RN and miR-26-COL5A2 regulation axes may be important mechanisms for STAD.

Antoneeva II, Abakumova TV, Dolgova DR, et al.
Cytokine Status of Serum in Ovarian Cancer Patients with Different Tumor Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2017; 17(9):1251-1255 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polychemotherapy in ovarian cancer (OC) is the second major component of treatment. However, treatment with cytostatics is stopped in 25% of cases because of significant side effects. It is shown that concentration of certain cytokines and their balance is largely formed in accordance with a genetic polymorphism.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the cytokine status of blood serum of patients with ovarian cancer with different tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).
METHOD: Patients received 2 courses NACT according to the scheme AP. The levels of IL-1β and IL-1Ra, IL-10, TNF-α in blood serum were determined by solid phase ELISA. For molecular genetic studies we selected polymorphic variants in the promoters of the gene represented in dbS`NP NCBI and SNP500 Cancer databases.
RESULTS: The sharply declined in patients with ovarian cancer compared with the normal, level of IL-1β correlates with increased levels of IL-1RA. It is found that 75% of patients who had progression of the disease after NACT bear CT genotype of gene IL-1β associated with a low expression of the cytokine, while the TT genotype, providing a high level of the expression of IL-1β gene had met only 25% among patients in this group. At the same time 70% of patients with a complete response are the carriers of the T allele, while a complete response was associated with a higher level of IL-1β than in the progression group. Low secretion of TNF-α in all types of tumor response when testing TNF-α G-308A gene polymorphisms was associated with carriage of GA and AA genotypes, which are associated with low production of this cytokine. Increased compared to the control IL-10 production in patients with ovarian cancer associated with genotype replacement at position 1082 G/A IL-10 gene, which occured in 10% of patients with a complete response and 25% of patients with tumor progression after NACT.
CONCLUSION: All the studied polymorphisms of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α genes in patients with OC are associated with the level of these cytokines and tumor NACT response.

Huang J, Woods P, Normolle D, et al.
Downregulation of estrogen receptor and modulation of growth of breast cancer cell lines mediated by paracrine stromal cell signals.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 161(2):229-243 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancers have a poorer prognosis if estrogen receptor expression was lost during recurrence. It is unclear whether this conversion is cell autonomous or whether it can be promoted by the microenvironment during cancer dormancy. We explored the ability of marrow-derived stromal cell lines to arrest co-cultured breast cancer cells and suppress estrogen receptor alpha (ER) expression during arrest, facilitating the emergence of estrogen-independent breast cancer clones.
METHODS: Cancer cell growth, ER protein, microRNA, and mRNA levels were measured in breast cancer cell lines exposed to conditioned medium from marrow stromal lines in the presence and absence of estrogen and of signaling pathway modulators.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that paracrine signaling from the stromal cell line HS5 downregulated ER in T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. This occurred at the mRNA level and also through decreased ER protein stability. Additionally, conditioned medium (CM) from HS5 arrested the breast cancer cells in G0/G1 in part through interleukin-1 (IL1) and inhibited cancer cell growth despite the activation of proliferative pathways (Erk and AKT) by the CM. Similar findings were observed for CM from the hFOB 1.19 osteoblastic cell line but not from two other fibroblastic marrow lines, HS27A and KM101. HS5-CM inhibition of MCF7 proliferation could not be restored by exogenous ER, but was restored by the IL1-antagonist IL1RA. In the presence of IL1RA, HS5-CM activation of AKT and Erk enabled the outgrowth of breast cancer cells with suppressed ER that were fulvestrant-resistant and estrogen-independent.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that marrow-derived stromal cells can destabilize estrogen receptor protein to convert the ER status of growth-arrested ER+ breast cancer cell lines. The balance between stromal pro- and anti-proliferative signals controlled the switch from a dormant phenotype to estrogen-independent cancer cell growth.

de Alencar JB, Alves HV, Elpidio LN, et al.
Polymorphisms of Cytokine Genes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Review.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2016; 14(10):468-474 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the endocrinopathy that affects women in their reproductive age. The physiopathology involves multifactorial mechanisms, including cytokine gene regulation.
METHODS: The review was conducted in the database PubMed, with articles published between 2005 and 2015. The selected studies evaluated the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokines genes in association with PCOS. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and showed the SNPs of cytokines that were associated or not with PCOS.
RESULTS: The disease susceptibility was associated with interleukin (IL) 1A, IL1B, IL1RN, and IL6 alleles and genotypes. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -1032 C/T genotype and C allele were risk factors and T/T genotype was a protector marker to disease. The IL18 SNPs were not associated with PCOS per se, but IL18-137 C and G alleles were related to the protection of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, respectively. One research found association between TGFB1 and PCOS. However, the TNF -308, IL10, and interferon (IFN) SNPs did not appear to influence PCOS genetic susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS: This study sought to contribute and clarify the SNPs in cytokine genes that influence the development of PCOS. Most studies occurred in Asia; most SNPs studied were in IL1B -511, TNF -1031, and IL6-174; and most of them were associated with the susceptibility to PCOS development. Nevertheless, further investigations based on genome-wide association studies and cytokine gene SNPs are needed to better characterize the risk factors to PCOS.

Stanam A, Gibson-Corley KN, Love-Homan L, et al.
Interleukin-1 blockade overcomes erlotinib resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(46):76087-76100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Erlotinib has demonstrated poor clinical response rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to date and the majority of respondents acquire resistance to erlotinib relatively quickly. To elucidate novel pathways involved in erlotinib resistance, we compared the gene expression profiles of erlotinib-resistant (ER) vs. erlotinib-sensitive (ES) HNSCC cell lines. Enrichment analysis of microarray data revealed a deregulation of the IL-1 signaling pathway in ER versus ES-HNSCC cells. Gene expression of interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) were significantly upregulated by > 2 fold in ER-SQ20B and ER-CAL 27 cells compared to their respective ES-cells. Secretion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was significantly reduced in ER-cells compared to ES-cells. Blockade of IL-1 signaling using a recombinant IL-1R antagonist (anakinra) was able to inhibit the growth of ER-SQ20B and ER-CAL 27 but not ES-SQ20B and ES-CAL 27 xenografts as a single agent and in combination with erlotinib. ER-SQ20B xenografts treated with anakinra ± erlotinib were found to be less vascularized than ER-SQ20B xenografts treated with water or erlotinib. Mice bearing ER-SQ20B xenografts had significantly lesser circulating levels of G-CSF and IL-1β when treated with anakinra ± erlotinib compared to those treated with water or erlotinib alone. Furthermore, augmented mRNA levels of IL1A or interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) were associated with shortened survival in HNSCC patients. Altogether, blockade of the IL-1 pathway using anakinra overcame erlotinib resistance in HNSCC xenografts and may represent a novel strategy to overcome EGFR inhibitor resistance for treatment of HNSCC patients.

Chen X, Lv Q, Hong Y, et al.
IL-1β maintains the redox balance by regulating glutaredoxin 1 expression during oral carcinogenesis.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2017; 46(5):332-339 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic cancer-inflammation-linked cytokine which has been reported upregulated in many cancers. In our previous study, IL-1β was found to be one of the key node genes during oral malignant transformation, and glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) was identified as one of the downstream genes of IL-1β in tumor microenvironment. Grx1 is ubiquitous oxidoreductase which is necessary for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the intracellular redox balance maintenance.
METHODS: Tissues from different stages of mucosal malignant transformation were obtained from 4NQO-induced rat oral carcinogenesis model and human mucosa for Grx1 expression detection by immunohistochemical staining. The intracellular ROS levels and Grx1 mRNA level of oral squamous carcinoma cell CAL27 were detected after IL-1β treatment with or without pretreatment of IL-1Ra or NAC, respectively. The ROS levels were detected in Leti-si-IL-1β and Leti-si-NC CAL27 cells after IL-1β stimulation. The invasion and migration abilities of CAL27 cells were tested by transwell assay after IL-1β stimulation with or without pretreatment of IL-1Ra.
RESULTS: Grx1 expression was associated with the malignant transformation process in vivo. Exogenous IL-1β upregulated the intracellular ROS level and the expression of Grx1 in CAL27 cells, which could be counteracted by IL-1Ra. The intracellular ROS accumulation induced by exogenous IL-1β was responsible for the Grx1 upregulation. Endogenous IL-1β acted as a switch in regulating the ROS level by modulating Grx1 expression, which was involved in the invasion and migration of OSCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-1β finely orchestrated the redox balance during carcinogenesis by modulating Grx1 expression.

Lakshmi TV, Bale S, Khurana A, Godugu C
Tankyrase as a Novel Molecular Target in Cancer and Fibrotic Diseases.
Curr Drug Targets. 2017; 18(10):1214-1224 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tankyrases belong to a group of enzymes called poly ADP ribosyl polymerases (PARPs). With the advent of a new class of small molecule inhibitors of PARP for clinical use like OLAPARIB; that gained accelerated approval by the USFDA in treating ovarian and breast cancers, the horizons of the PARPs as a novel target in various disease conditions has risen. Tankyrases (PARP 5) are yet another class of PARPs that perform poly ADP ribosylation on different substrate proteins aiding in progression of many diseases like cancer, fibrosis, diabetes and neurological disorders even. Few of the substrates of Tankyrases are Telomeric Repeat binding Factor protein (TRF1), Axis Inhibitory protein (AXIN 1&2), Insulin Responsive Amino Peptidase (IRAP), Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus protein (NuMa), that become aberrantly active due to the apparent overexpression of the enzyme during hyper proliferative disease conditions like cancer, fibrosis and metabolic disorders like diabetes. Tankyrases intervene in many physiological processes like cell growth and survival by affecting the Wnt signaling pathways. On the other hand, these functions are overdone during cancer and fibrosis especially. The development of novel therapies for cancer is a never ending process pertaining to several issues associated with current anticancer drugs like development of drug resistance and toxicity. A fibrotic disease like lung fibrosis is a debilitating condition with limited treatment options and survival rate. Tankyrase inhibition by specific small molecule inhibitors can therefore become a good combinatorial or single treatment strategy in treating hyper proliferative diseases and diabetes. In light of all these concerns, this article aims to brief the role of Tankyrase and the relevance of its inhibition to overcome the hurdles faced by current treatment regimens.

Wang Y, Kong H, Zeng X, et al.
Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome enhances the proliferation and migration of A549 lung cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2053-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and it is widely accepted that chronic inflammation is an important risk for the development of lung cancer. Now, it is recognized that the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptors (NLRs)-containing inflammasomes are involved in cancer-related inflammation. This study was designed to investigate the effects of NLR family pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome on the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay, scratch assay, and Transwell migration assay, we showed that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by LPS+ATP enhanced the proliferation and migration of A549 cells. Western blot analysis showed that activation of phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, CREB and the expression of Snail increased, while the expression of E-cadherin decreased after the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, these effects were inhibited by the following treatments: i) downregulating the expression of NLRP3 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference, ii) inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome with a caspase-1 inhibitor, iii) blocking the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 signal transduction with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Collectively, these results indicate that NLRP3 inflammasome plays a vital role in regulating the proliferation and migration of A549 cells and it might be a potential target for the treatment of lung cancer.

Chen X, Xu Y, Cao X, et al.
Associations of Il-1 Family-Related Polymorphisms With Gastric Cancer Risk and the Role of Mir-197 In Il-1f5 Expression.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(47):e1982 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
To explore whether the roles of IL-1 family single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the microRNA binding sites (miR-SNPs) in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of their target genes in the progression of gastric cancer (GC) and verify the relationship between miR-197 with chronic inflammatory gene-IL1-F5 by microRNA target prediction, a case-control study which consisted of 500 cases and 500 frequency-matched healthy controls was conducted. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). Association between SNPs and GC risk was evaluated by adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in unconditional logistic regression analyses. Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR assay and Western Blot analyses were performed to analyze the miR-197 expression and the IL1-F5 expression. The variant homozygote and heterozygote genotype of rs9005 in IL-1RN were significantly associated with increased risks of GC (ORadjusted [95%CI]: 1.71[1.04-2.81] and ORadjusted[95%CI]: 1.36 [1.04-1.78]). Compared with the wild heterozygote genotype, the variant heterozygote genotype of rs2472188 and rs2515401 in IL-1F5 polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased GC risks (ORadjusted [95%CI]: 1.51[1.15-1.99] and ORadjusted[95%CI]: 1.36[1.04-1.76]), but no significant differences existed in other 7 IL-1 family SNPs (rs2856836 in IL-1A, rs3732131 in IL-1R1, rs1135354 and rs3771157 in IL-18RA, rs3180235, rs957201 and rs2515402 in IL-1F5) with GC. The recombinant plasmid-pGenesil-1-miR-197 could upregulate the expression of miR-197 and downregulate the expression of IL-1F5 in human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells after transfection, and the miR-197 inhibitor could facilitate the expression of IL1-F5 after transfecting the same cell lines. These results suggested that SNPs in the IL-1 family genes play important roles in the development of GC and the IL-1F5 might be the target gene of miR-197, and miR-197 might negatively regulate its expression.

Lee CH, Syu SH, Liu KJ, et al.
Interleukin-1 beta transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor via the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis in oral cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(36):38866-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Hyperactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways and chronic inflammation are common characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we reported that OSCC cells secrete interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which promotes the proliferation of the oral premalignant cell line, DOK, and stimulates DOK and OSCC cells to produce the chemokine CXCL1. CXCL1 functions through CXCR2, a G protein-coupled receptor that transactivates EGFR in ovarian and lung cancers. We hypothesized that IL-1β transactivates EGFR through the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis in OSCC. In this study, we demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR is crucial for the IL-1β-mediated proliferation and subsequent bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation of DOK cells because the EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and erlotinib inhibit these abilities in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of IL-1β instantly enhanced CXCL1 expression and secretion (within 15 min) in the DOK and OSCC cell lines. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly enhanced in DOK (1 h) and OSCC (20 min) cell lines after IL-1β treatment, and both cell lines were inhibited on the addition of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). CXCL1 treatment resulted in EGFR phosphorylation, whereas the knockdown of CXCL1 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA or the addition of the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 dramatically reduced IL-1β-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and proliferation of DOK cells. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-1β or CXCL1 markedly inhibited the constitutive or IL-1β-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR in OSCC cells. IL-1β transactivates EGFR through the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis, revealing a novel molecular network in OSCC that is associated with autocrine IL-1β and EGFR signaling.

Nielsen KR, Steffensen R, Bendtsen MD, et al.
Inherited Inflammatory Response Genes Are Associated with B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Risk and Survival.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139329 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant B-cell clones are affected by both acquired genetic alterations and by inherited genetic variations changing the inflammatory tumour microenvironment.
METHODS: We investigated 50 inflammatory response gene polymorphisms in 355 B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) samples encompassing 216 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 139 follicular lymphoma (FL) and 307 controls. The effect of single genes and haplotypes were investigated and gene-expression analysis was applied for selected genes. Since interaction between risk genes can have a large impact on phenotype, two-way gene-gene interaction analysis was included.
RESULTS: We found inherited SNPs in genes critical for inflammatory pathways; TLR9, IL4, TAP2, IL2RA, FCGR2A, TNFA, IL10RB, GALNT12, IL12A and IL1B were significantly associated with disease risk and SELE, IL1RN, TNFA, TAP2, MBL2, IL5, CX3CR1, CHI3L1 and IL12A were, associated with overall survival (OS) in specific diagnostic entities of B-NHL. We discovered noteworthy interactions between DLBCL risk alleles on IL10 and IL4RA and FL risk alleles on IL4RA and IL4. In relation to OS, a highly significant interaction was observed in DLBCL for IL4RA (rs1805010) * IL10 (rs1800890) (HR = 0.11 (0.02-0.50)). Finally, we explored the expression of risk genes from the gene-gene interaction analysis in normal B-cell subtypes showing a different expression of IL4RA, IL10, IL10RB genes supporting a pathogenetic effect of these interactions in the germinal center.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings support the importance of inflammatory genes in B-cell lymphomas. We found association between polymorphic sites in inflammatory response genes and risk as well as outcome in B-NHL and suggest an effect of gene-gene interactions during the stepwise oncogenesis.

Sousa H, Mesquita L, Ribeiro J, et al.
Polymorphisms in host immune response associated genes and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma development in Portugal.
Immunobiology. 2016; 221(2):145-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Host genetic susceptibility markers in immune response associated genes may contribute to identify individuals with high risk of developing viral infection and viral-associated cancers. We aimed to characterize different polymorphisms in immune response associated genes and evaluate its association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development.
METHODS: We have developed a hospital-based case-control study selecting 134 patients with NPC (cases) and 732 healthy individuals (controls) from the Northern Region of Portugal. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were selected: -56C>T IFNGR1 (rs2234711), +4854G>T IL1A (rs17561), +3954C>T IL1B (rs1143634), +1902A>G IL4RA (rs1801275), -1082G>A IL10 (rs1800896), +2018T>C IL1RN (rs419598), HLA-A locus A>T (rs2530388), HCGA9 locus A>T (rs6457110). All polymorphisms were analysed by real-time methodology using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays.
RESULTS: The overall analysis revealed no statistical significant differences between genotypes distributions in all of studied polymorphisms (p>0.05). However, the results for HCGA9 rs6457110 polymorphism showed a tendency for an increased risk of NPC development among TT carriers with an almost of 2-fold increased risk (OR=1.86; 95%CI 1.00-3.65).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to characterize these polymorphisms in NPC patients in Portugal. Our study indicates that HCGA9 rs6457110 polymorphism might represent a risk marker for NPC development in our population and that other SNPs should be further studied in larger populations to clarify the evidences. This data reinforces the need for more studies, especially in NPC low-prevalent populations.

Kalmár A, Wichmann B, Galamb O, et al.
Gene-expression analysis of a colorectal cancer-specific discriminatory transcript set on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:126 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A recently published transcript set is suitable for gene expression-based discrimination of normal colonic and colorectal cancer (CRC) biopsy samples. Our aim was to test the discriminatory power of the CRC-specific transcript set on independent biopsies and on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.
METHODS: Total RNA isolations were performed with the automated MagNA Pure 96 Cellular RNA Large Volume Kit (Roche) from fresh frozen biopsies stored in RNALater (CRC (n = 15) and healthy colonic (n = 15)), furthermore from FFPE specimens including CRC (n = 15) and normal adjacent tissue (NAT) (n = 15) specimens next to the tumor. After quality and quantity measurements, gene expression analysis of a colorectal cancer-specific marker set with 11 genes (CA7, COL12A1, CXCL1, CXCL2, CHI3L1, GREM1, IL1B, IL1RN, IL8, MMP3, SLC5A7) was performed with array real-time PCR using Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Roche) and RealTime ready assays on LightCycler480 System (Roche). In situ hybridization for two selected transcripts (CA7, CXCL1) was performed on NAT (n = 3), adenoma (n = 3) and CRC (n = 3) FFPE samples.
RESULTS: Although analytical parameters of automatically isolated RNA samples showed differences between fresh frozen biopsy and FFPE samples, both quantity and the quality enabled their application in gene expression analyses. CRC and normal fresh frozen biopsy samples could be distinguished with 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity and FFPE samples with 96.7 and 70.0%, respectively. In situ hybridization could confirm the upregulation of CXCL1 and downregulation of CA7 in colorectal adenomas and tumors compared to healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: According to our results, gene expression analysis of the analyzed colorectal cancer-specific marker set can also be performed from FFPE tissue material. With the addition of an automated workflow, this marker set may enhance the objective classification of colorectal neoplasias in the routine procedure in the future.

Saeki N, Ono H, Sakamoto H, Yoshida T
Down-regulation of Immune-related Genes by PSCA in Gallbladder Cancer Cells Implanted into Mice.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2619-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: In previous work, we found that prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene, encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, is a presumable tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and gallbladder cancer (GBC). The introduction of PSCA cDNA into GBC cell lines significantly suppressed tumorigenecity of cells in mice. The PSCA protein is thought to be involved in some form of intracellular signaling that remains to be elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microarrays, we conducted gene-expression profiling on tumors generated by a GBC cell line TGBC-1TKB, with and without expression of PSCA, which was implanted into mice. Genes whose expression was down-regulated by PSCA were selected, and their down-regulation was confirmed by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: We identified several immune-related genes down-regulated by PSCA, including interleukin 8 (IL8), IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 (S100A8) and A9 (S100A9).
CONCLUSION: PSCA signaling may suppress tumor growth in vivo by modulating immunological characteristics of GBC cells.

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