Gene Summary

Gene:DMBT1; deleted in malignant brain tumors 1
Aliases: GP340, muclin
Summary:Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancers. The gene DMBT1 was originally isolated based on its deletion in a medulloblastoma cell line. DMBT1 is expressed with transcripts of 6.0, 7.5, and 8.0 kb in fetal lung and with one transcript of 8.0 kb in adult lung, although the 7.5 kb transcript has not been characterized. The DMBT1 protein is a glycoprotein containing multiple scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains separated by SRCR-interspersed domains (SID). Transcript variant 2 (8.0 kb) has been shown to bind surfactant protein D independently of carbohydrate recognition. This indicates that DMBT1 may not be a classical tumor suppressor gene, but rather play a role in the interaction of tumor cells and the immune system. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Brain and CNS TumoursDMBT1 and Brain Stem Glioma View Publications34
Brain and CNS TumoursDMBT1 and Brain Tumours
Chromosome 10q losses are frequently seen in CNS tumours, particularly in glioblastoma multiforme. Mollenhauer (1997) identidied a novel candidate gene, DMBT1, deleted at 10q25.3-26.1 in a medulloblastoma cell line. They cloned the gene and identified intragenic homozygous deletions were detected in 2/20 medulloblastomas and in 9/39 glioblastomas multiformes.
View Publications33
Brain and CNS TumoursDMBT1 and Brain, Astrocytoma View Publications18
Brain and CNS TumoursDMBT1 and Glioblastoma View Publications14
Lung CancerDMBT1 and Lung Cancer View Publications7
Breast CancerDMBT1 and Breast Cancer View Publications6
Esophageal CancerDMBT1 supression in Esophageal Cancer? View Publications3
Skin CancerDMBT1 and Skin Cancer View Publications2
Stomach CancerDMBT1 and Stomach Cancer View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DMBT1 (cancer-related)

Higashi K, Asano K, Yagi M, et al.
Expression of the clustered NeuAcα2-3Galβ O-glycan determines the cell differentiation state of the cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(37):25833-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent stem cells from early embryos, and their self-renewal capacity depends on the sustained expression of hESC-specific molecules and the suppressed expression of differentiation-associated genes. To discover novel molecules expressed on hESCs, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies against undifferentiated hESCs and evaluated their ability to mark cancer cells, as well as hESCs. MAb7 recognized undifferentiated hESCs and showed a diffuse band with molecular mass of >239 kDa in the lysates of hESCs. Although some amniotic epithelial cells expressed MAb7 antigen, its expression was barely detected in normal human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, or endothelial cells. The expression of MAb7 antigen was observed only in pancreatic and gastric cancer cells, and its levels were elevated in metastatic and poorly differentiated cancer cell lines. Analyses of MAb7 antigen suggested that the clustered NeuAcα2-3Galβ O-linked oligosaccharides on DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) were critical for MAb7 binding in cancer cells. Although features of MAb7 epitope were similar with those of TRA-1-60, distribution of MAb7 antigen in cancer cells was different from that of TRA-1-60 antigen. Exposure of a histone deacetylase inhibitor to differentiated gastric cancer MKN74 cells evoked the expression of MAb7 antigen, whereas DMBT1 expression remained unchanged. Cell sorting followed by DNA microarray analyses identified the down-regulated genes responsible for the biosynthesis of MAb7 antigen in MKN74 cells. In addition, treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer cells with MAb7 significantly abrogated the adhesion to endothelial cells. These results raised the possibility that MAb7 epitope is a novel marker for undifferentiated cells such as hESCs and cancer stem-like cells and plays a possible role in the undifferentiated cells.

Srivastava M, Khurana P, Sugadev R
Lung cancer signature biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of digital differential display (DDD) data.
BMC Res Notes. 2012; 5:617 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD) rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used 'Gene Ontology semantic similarity score' to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal) and disease (cancer) sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability.
RESULTS: Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95) identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1-4). Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1), chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2), hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3) and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4).
CONCLUSIONS: Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3), HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1) are significantly down regulated. All down regulated genes in this panel were highly up regulated in most other types of cancers. These panels of proteins may represent signature biomarkers for lung cancer and will aid in lung cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring as well as in the prediction of responses to therapeutics.

Gao C, Devarajan K, Zhou Y, et al.
Identifying breast cancer risk loci by global differential allele-specific expression (DASE) analysis in mammary epithelial transcriptome.
BMC Genomics. 2012; 13:570 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The significant mortality associated with breast cancer (BCa) suggests a need to improve current research strategies to identify new genes that predispose women to breast cancer. Differential allele-specific expression (DASE) has been shown to contribute to phenotypic variables in humans and recently to the pathogenesis of cancer. We previously reported that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) could lead to DASE of BRCA1/2, which is associated with elevated susceptibility to breast cancer. In addition to truncation mutations, multiple genetic and epigenetic factors can contribute to DASE, and we propose that DASE is a functional index for cis-acting regulatory variants and pathogenic mutations, and that global analysis of DASE in breast cancer precursor tissues can be used to identify novel causative alleles for breast cancer susceptibility.
RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, we employed the Illumina(®) Omni1-Quad BeadChip in paired genomic DNA (gDNA) and double-stranded cDNA (ds-cDNA) samples prepared from eight BCa patient-derived normal mammary epithelial lines (HMEC). We filtered original array data according to heterozygous genotype calls and calculated DASE values using the Log ratio of cDNA allele intensity, which was normalized to the corresponding gDNA. We developed two statistical methods, SNP- and gene-based approaches, which allowed us to identify a list of 60 candidate DASE loci (DASE ≥ 2.00, P ≤ 0.01, FDR ≤ 0.05) by both methods. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of DASE loci revealed one major breast cancer-relevant interaction network, which includes two known cancer causative genes, ZNF331 (DASE = 2.31, P = 0.0018, FDR = 0.040) and USP6 (DASE = 4.80, P = 0.0013, FDR = 0.013), and a breast cancer causative gene, DMBT1 (DASE=2.03, P = 0.0017, FDR = 0.014). Sequence analysis of a 5' RACE product of DMBT1 demonstrated that rs2981745, a putative breast cancer risk locus, appears to be one of the causal variants leading to DASE in DMBT1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated for the first time that global DASE analysis is a powerful new approach to identify breast cancer risk allele(s).

Ibarra Sierra E, Díaz Chávez J, Cortés-Malagón EM, et al.
Differential gene expression between skin and cervix induced by the E7 oncoprotein in a transgenic mouse model.
Virology. 2012; 433(2):337-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
HPV16 E7 oncoprotein expression in K14E7 transgenic mice induces cervical cancer after 6 months of treatment with the co-carcinogen 17β-estradiol. In untreated mice, E7 also induces skin tumors late in life albeit at low penetrance. These findings indicate that E7 alters cellular functions in cervix and skin so as to predispose these organs to tumorigenesis. Using microarrays, we determined the global genes expression profile in cervical and skin tissue of young adult K14E7 transgenic mice without estrogen treatment. In these tissues, the E7 oncoprotein altered the transcriptional pattern of genes involved in several biological processes including signal transduction, transport, metabolic process, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell differentiation, immune response and inflammatory response. Among the E7-dysregulated genes were ones not previously known to be involved in cervical neoplasia including DMBT1, GLI1 and 17βHSD2 in cervix, as well as MMP2, 12, 14, 19 and 27 in skin.

Motomura K, Mittelbronn M, Paulus W, et al.
DMBT1 homozygous deletion in diffuse astrocytomas is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012; 71(8):702-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary glioblastomas develop with a short clinical history, without evidence for less malignant precursor lesions, while secondary glioblastomas slowly develop via progression from diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II) or anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III). The time until progression and the clinical outcome of diffuse astrocytomas vary significantly. We have shown that IDH1 mutations reliably distinguish between primary glioblastomas (without IDH1 mutations) and secondary glioblastomas (with IDH1 mutations). The most frequent genetic alteration shared by primary and secondary glioblastomas is loss of heterozygosity at 10q (up to 60% of cases). Here, we first assessed The Cancer Genome Atlas data to identify gene loss at 10q in glioblastomas with or without IDH1 mutations. Using log-ratio thresholds of -1.0, 10 genes were identified; with the log-ratio thresholds of -2.0, only the DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1) gene at 10q26.13 remained as a deleted gene in glioblastomas with or without IDH1 mutations (12.5% vs 8.0%). We then analyzed a total of 404 gliomas by differential polymerase chain reaction and found a DMBT1 homozygous deletion at a similar frequency in primary and secondary glioblastomas (19.6% vs 20.8%). A fraction (11.3%) of diffuse astrocytomas showed a DMBT1 homozygous deletion that was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (52.8 vs 84.0 months; p = 0.003). These results indicate that a DMBT1 homozygous deletion is present in a fraction of diffuse astrocytomas and that it is associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome.

Frau M, Simile MM, Tomasi ML, et al.
An expression signature of phenotypic resistance to hepatocellular carcinoma identified by cross-species gene expression analysis.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2012; 35(3):163-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocarcinogenesis is under polygenic control. We analyzed gene expression patterns of dysplastic liver nodules (DNs) and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) chemically-induced in F344 and BN rats, respectively susceptible and resistant to hepatocarcinogenesis.
METHODS: Expression profiles were performed by microarray and validated by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot.
RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed two distinctive gene expression patterns, the first of which included normal liver of both strains and BN nodules, and the second one F344 nodules and HCC of both strains. We identified a signature predicting DN and HCC progression, characterized by highest expression of oncosuppressors Csmd1, Dmbt1, Dusp1, and Gnmt, in DNs, and Bhmt, Dmbt1, Dusp1, Gadd45g, Gnmt, Napsa, Pp2ca, and Ptpn13 in HCCs of resistant rats. Integrated gene expression data revealed highest expression of proliferation-related CTGF, c-MYC, and PCNA, and lowest expression of BHMT, DMBT1, DUSP1, GADD45g, and GNMT, in more aggressive rat and human HCC. BHMT, DUSP1, and GADD45g expression predicted patients' survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results disclose, for the first time, a major role of oncosuppressor genes as effectors of genetic resistance to hepatocarcinogenesis. Comparative functional genomic analysis allowed discovering an evolutionarily conserved gene expression signature discriminating HCC with different propensity to progression in rat and human.

Dodurga Y, Avci CB, Yilmaz S, et al.
Evaluation of deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) gene expression in bladder carcinoma cases: preliminary study.
Biomarkers. 2011; 16(7):610-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of DMBT1 in bladder cancer and its correlation with clinico-pathological parameters analyzed in bladder carcinoma patients. We investigated DMBT1 in 56 paraffin embedded specimens of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. We assessed DMBT1 gene expression at mRNA level by RT-PCR. Our results show 100% expression of DMBT1 in bladder carcinoma samples. Due to this preliminary results; gene expression was compared to tumor grade, and a significant difference was detected between grade 1 and 3 (p = 0.028). The down-regulation of DMBT1 gene expression in carcinomas suggests the possible role in bladder cancer.

Dodurga Y, Avcı CB, Satiroglu-Tufan NL, et al.
Detection of deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and runt-related transcription factor 3 gene expressions in bladder carcinoma.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(4):4691-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer is the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, where the majority of tumors are transitional cell carcinoma. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) gene is located at chromosome 10q25.3-q26.1. DMBT1 gene expression has yet to be investigated in patients with bladder cancer. Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which is localized on the chromosome 1p36. RUNX3 gene expression in bladder carcinogenesis is particularly unknown. We aimed to evaluate DMBT1 and RUNX3 gene expression profiles in bladder cancer and how their expressions could be related to carcinogenesis in the bladder and their correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Fifty-six paraffin embedded specimens of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were used. Total RNA was extracted from bladder specimens and cDNA was synthesized. The quantification of DMBT1 and RUNX3 mRNAs were succeeded according to the manufacturers' instructions by using RT-PCR. DMBT1 and RUNX3 gene expressions were identified in 100% of bladder carcinoma samples. No significant association was found in these genes expression levels when compared to sex and age. RUNX3 gene expression was decreased non-significantly in high-grade tumors. When DMBT1 gene expression was compared to tumor grades, a significant decrease was detected between grade I and III (P = 0.028). Disruption of expression in relation to tumor suppressors like DMBT1 and RUNX3 genes was associated with bladder cancer. Furthermore, detailed studies including these genes should be performed in protein levels and used more patient specimens in a large scale study.

Alvarez H, Opalinska J, Zhou L, et al.
Widespread hypomethylation occurs early and synergizes with gene amplification during esophageal carcinogenesis.
PLoS Genet. 2011; 7(3):e1001356 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
Although a combination of genomic and epigenetic alterations are implicated in the multistep transformation of normal squamous esophageal epithelium to Barrett esophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma, the combinatorial effect of these changes is unknown. By integrating genome-wide DNA methylation, copy number, and transcriptomic datasets obtained from endoscopic biopsies of neoplastic progression within the same individual, we are uniquely able to define the molecular events associated progression of Barrett esophagus. We find that the previously reported global hypomethylation phenomenon in cancer has its origins at the earliest stages of epithelial carcinogenesis. Promoter hypomethylation synergizes with gene amplification and leads to significant upregulation of a chr4q21 chemokine cluster and other transcripts during Barrett neoplasia. In contrast, gene-specific hypermethylation is observed at a restricted number of loci and, in combination with hemi-allelic deletions, leads to downregulatation of selected transcripts during multistep progression. We also observe that epigenetic regulation during epithelial carcinogenesis is not restricted to traditionally defined "CpG islands," but may also occur through a mechanism of differential methylation outside of these regions. Finally, validation of novel upregulated targets (CXCL1 and 3, GATA6, and DMBT1) in a larger independent panel of samples confirms the utility of integrative analysis in cancer biomarker discovery.

Du J, Guan M, Fan J, Jiang H
Loss of DMBT1 expression in human prostate cancer and its correlation with clinical progressive features.
Urology. 2011; 77(2):509.e9-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate alterations of DMBT1 in prostate cancer and determine the correlation of its alterations to the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer. DMBT1 has been proposed as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for epithelial cancer.
METHODS: The alterations of DMBT1 expression after treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in 2 prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3) were analyzed by genome microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 36 prostate cancer tissues and 16 benign prostatic tissues were evaluated with reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry for DMBT1 expression.
RESULTS: Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reactivated expression of DMBT1 in PC3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. Downregulation or loss of DMBT1 mRNA and protein expression was observed in prostate cancer, but not in benign tissues. Immunostaining analysis showed DMBT1 protein was absent in 14 cancer samples with Gleason score of 8-10 and weakly stained in 16 cancer samples with Gleason score of 4-7, compared with strong immunostaining in all 15 benign prostatic tissues. Loss of DMBT1 expression was correlated with local invasion (P = .048) and bone metastasis (P = .039) but was not correlated with patient age, prostate-specific antigen level, or tumor grade at diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that loss of DMBT1 expression is associated with prostate cancer, suggesting that DMBT1 may function as a tumor suppressor gene in prostate carcinogenesis.

Fukui H, Sekikawa A, Tanaka H, et al.
DMBT1 is a novel gene induced by IL-22 in ulcerative colitis.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011; 17(5):1177-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-22 is a recently identified cytokine that is suggested to play pivotal roles in various inflammatory diseases. Although the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) is restrictively expressed in epithelial cells in the colon, the role of IL-22 in colonic diseases still remains unclear. In this study microarray analyses revealed that deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) is a novel upregulated gene in IL-22-stimulated colon cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of DMBT1 and IL-22 in ulcerative colitis (UC) tissues and examined the mechanism regulating the expression of DMBT1 in response to IL-22 stimulation.
METHODS: Changes of gene expression in IL-22-stimulated SW403 cells were investigated by microarray analyses. The effects of IL-22 on DMBT1 expression were examined in SW403 cells using a small interfering RNA (si)RNA for STAT3 or inhibitors for MEK, PI3K, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). The element responsible for IL-22-induced DMBT1 promoter activation was determined by a promoter deletion and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Expression of IL-22, IL-22R1, and DMBT1 in UC tissues was analyzed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: IL-22 treatment enhanced the expression of DMBT1 through STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in colon cancer cells. The IL-22-responsive element was located between -187 and -179 in the DMBT1 promoter region. In the UC mucosa the levels of DMBT1 and IL-22 mRNA expression were significantly enhanced and positively correlated, the numbers of IL-22-positive lymphocytes were increased, and the expression of IL-22R1 and DMBT1 was enhanced in the inflamed epithelium.
CONCLUSIONS: The IL-22/DMBT1 axis may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of UC.

Helmke BM, Zahel T, Breinig M, et al.
Her2 overexpression is a rare event in anorectal melanoma.
Melanoma Res. 2010; 20(5):431-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anorectal melanomas (AMs) are very rare and highly malignant tumors that are often diagnosed in advanced stages. After the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and AM on the molecular level based on the presence of BRAF mutations, further modes of differentiation opened up, such as the recently discovered immunohistologically relevant protein deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1). Over the past several years, increasingly specific therapies have been developed on the basis of new therapy principles. Tyrosin kinase receptors such as Her2 and EGFR have been awarded a large role in this context. The goal of this study was to examine AMs for a possible expression or overexpression of these markers. Expression analyses of Her2 and EGFR were performed immunohistologically on 25 primary AMs. An overexpression of Her2 (score: 3+) was found in one AM from a 68-year-old female patient among these samples. In contrast, EGFR expression was not found in any of the AMs. The results presented here show that isolated cases of AM may benefit from an additive Her2-directed therapy, as the overexpression of Her2 was found in one of our AM patients.

Wang DH, Clemons NJ, Miyashita T, et al.
Aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal Hedgehog signaling characterizes Barrett's metaplasia.
Gastroenterology. 2010; 138(5):1810-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The molecular mechanism underlying epithelial metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus remains unknown. Recognizing that Hedgehog signaling is required for early esophageal development, we sought to determine if the Hedgehog pathway is reactivated in Barrett's esophagus, and if genes downstream of the pathway could promote columnar differentiation of esophageal epithelium.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze clinical specimens, human esophageal cell lines, and mouse esophagi. Human esophageal squamous epithelial (HET-1A) and adenocarcinoma (OE33) cells were subjected to acid treatment and used in transfection experiments. Swiss Webster mice were used in a surgical model of bile reflux injury. An in vivo transplant culture system was created using esophageal epithelium from Sonic hedgehog transgenic mice.
RESULTS: Marked up-regulation of Hedgehog ligand expression, which can be induced by acid or bile exposure, occurs frequently in Barrett's epithelium and is associated with stromal expression of the Hedgehog target genes PTCH1 and BMP4. BMP4 signaling induces expression of SOX9, an intestinal crypt transcription factor, which is highly expressed in Barrett's epithelium. We further show that expression of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1, the human homologue of the columnar cell factor Hensin, occurs in Barrett's epithelium and is induced by SOX9. Finally, transgenic expression of Sonic hedgehog in mouse esophageal epithelium induces expression of stromal Bmp4, epithelial Sox9, and columnar cytokeratins.
CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial Hedgehog ligand expression may contribute to the initiation of Barrett's esophagus through induction of stromal BMP4, which triggers reprogramming of esophageal epithelium in favor of a columnar phenotype.

Tchatchou S, Riedel A, Lyer S, et al.
Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity.
Hum Mutat. 2010; 31(1):60-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C>T, rs2981745, located in the DMBT1 promoter; and DMBT1 c.124A>C, p.Thr42Pro, rs11523871(odds ratio [OR]=1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.21-2.29, P=0.0017; and OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.21-2.28, P=0.0016, respectively), based on 1,195 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative German breast cancer families and 1,466 unrelated German controls. Promoter studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the risk-increasing DMBT1 -93T allele displays significantly decreased promoter activity compared to the DMBT1 -93C allele, resulting in a loss of promoter activity. The data suggest that DMBT1 polymorphisms in the 5'-region are associated with increased breast cancer risk. In accordance with previous results, these data link decreased DMBT1 levels to breast cancer risk.

Boulay JL, Ionescu MC, Sivasankaran B, et al.
The 10q25.3-26.1 G protein-coupled receptor gene GPR26 is epigenetically silenced in human gliomas.
Int J Oncol. 2009; 35(5):1123-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the entire chromosome 10 is the most frequent genetic alteration in human glioblastoma (GBM). In addition to PTEN/MMAC1 on 10q23.3, clustering of partial deletion break-points on 10q25.3-26.1 points to a second suppressor locus. The proposed target gene DMBT1 was not confirmed. By somatic deletion mapping of this region, we identified the complementary DNA encoding the human homologue of rat orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR26. GPR26 is highly expressed in fetal and adult brain, but frequently reduced or absent in glioma cells and biopsies, due to de novo methylation of its 5' CpG island. Silencing of GPR26 was reversed with 5-aza-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Furthermore, overexpression of GPR26 in HEK and in U87 glioma cells increased intracellular cAMP concentration which is considered to induce astrocytic differentiation. Interestingly, we observed concomitant silencing of GPR26 with O6-methylguanine-DNA methyl transferase (MGMT), a DNA repair gene co-localized on 10q25.3-26.1 (p=0.0001). We conclude that epigenetic silencing is a common mechanism in malignant gliomas that simultaneously inactivates MGMT and GPR26. The 10q25.3-26.1 region may contain an important epigenetic pathway in brain tumorigenesis.

Helmke BM, Renner M, Poustka A, et al.
DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma.
Histopathology. 2009; 54(2):233-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Anorectal melanoma (AM) forms a rare but highly malignant subset of mucosal melanoma with an extremely poor prognosis. Although AMs display histological and immunohistochemical features very similar to cutaneous melanoma (CM), no association exists either with exposure to ultraviolet light or with melanocytic naevi. While AMs are clearly distinguished from CM by displaying few BRAF mutations, they are commonly indistinguishable from CM at the level of gene expression. The aim was to carry out expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers and of the protein deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and CM.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers (S100, HMB45, Melan A and MiTF) and of the protein DMBT1 were carried out in 27 cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and 26 cases of CM. All AM cases analysed showed expression of at least three of the classical markers for melanoma. However, immunohistochemistry showed 19 out of 27 AM to be positive for DMBT1, which represented a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0009) compared with CM (six out of 26), which more commonly are negative for DMBT1 expression.
CONCLUSION: These results identify DMBT1 as a molecular feature that may allow distinction between AM and CM and support the notion that AM represents an entity molecularly distinct from CM.

Cheung W, Darfler MM, Alvarez H, et al.
Application of a global proteomic approach to archival precursor lesions: deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and tissue transglutaminase 2 are upregulated in pancreatic cancer precursors.
Pancreatology. 2008; 8(6):608-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is an almost uniformly fatal disease, and early detection is a critical determinant of improved survival. A variety of noninvasive precursor lesions of pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, which provide a unique opportunity for intervention prior to onset of invasive cancer. Biomarker discovery in precursor lesions has been hampered by the ready availability of fresh specimens, and limited yields of proteins suitable for large scale screening.
METHODS: We utilized Liquid Tissue, a novel technique for protein extraction from archival formalin-fixed material, and mass spectrometry to conduct a global proteomic analysis of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Tissue microarrays comprised of 38 IPMNs were used for validation of candidate proteins.
RESULTS: The proteomic analysis of the IPMN Liquid Tissue lysate resulted in identification of 1,534 peptides corresponding to 523 unique proteins. A subset of 25 proteins was identified that had previously been reported as upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis for two of these, deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) and tissue transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), confirmed their overexpression in IPMNs.
CONCLUSION: Global proteomics analysis using the Liquid Tissue workflow is a feasible approach for unbiased biomarker discovery in limited archival material, particularly applicable to precursor lesions of cancer.

Hoischen A, Ehrler M, Fassunke J, et al.
Comprehensive characterization of genomic aberrations in gangliogliomas by CGH, array-based CGH and interphase FISH.
Brain Pathol. 2008; 18(3):326-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gangliogliomas are generally benign neuroepithelial tumors composed of dysplastic neuronal and neoplastic glial elements. We screened 61 gangliogliomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grade I] for genomic alterations by chromosomal and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Aberrations were detected in 66% of gangliogliomas (mean +/- SEM = 2.5 +/- 0.5 alterations/tumor). Frequent gains were on chromosomes 7 (21%), 5 (16%), 8 (13%), 12 (12%); frequent losses on 22q (16%), 9 (10%), 10 (8%). Recurrent partial imbalances comprised the minimal overlapping regions dim(10)(q25) and enh(12)(q13.3-q14.1). Unsupervised cluster analysis of genomic profiles detected two major subgroups (group I: complete gain of 7 and additional gains of 5, 8 or 12; group II: no major recurring imbalances, mainly losses). A comparison with low-grade gliomas (astrocytomas WHO grade II) showed chromosome 5 gain to be significantly more frequent in gangliogliomas. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified the aberrations to be contained in a subpopulation of glial but not in neuronal cells. Two gangliogliomas and their anaplastic recurrences (WHO grade III) were analyzed. Losses of CDKN2A/B and DMBT1 or a gain/amplification of CDK4 found in the anaplastic tumors were already present in the respective gangliogliomas by array CGH and interphase FISH. In summary, genomic profiling in a large series of gangliogliomas could distinguish genetic subgroups even in this low-grade tumor.

Ligtenberg AJ, Veerman EC, Nieuw Amerongen AV, Mollenhauer J
Salivary agglutinin/glycoprotein-340/DMBT1: a single molecule with variable composition and with different functions in infection, inflammation and cancer.
Biol Chem. 2007; 388(12):1275-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary agglutinin (SAG), lung glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) are three names for identical proteins encoded by the dmbt1 gene. DMBT1/SAG/gp-340 belongs to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins, a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. On the one hand, DMBT1 may represent an innate defence factor acting as a pattern recognition molecule. It interacts with a broad range of pathogens, including cariogenic streptococci and Helicobacter pylori, influenza viruses and HIV, but also with mucosal defence proteins, such as IgA, surfactant proteins and MUC5B. Stimulation of alveolar macrophage migration, suppression of neutrophil oxidative burst and activation of the complement cascade point further to an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. On the other hand, DMBT1 has been demonstrated to play a role in epithelial and stem cell differentiation. Inactivation of the gene coding for this protein may lead to disturbed differentiation, possibly resulting in tumour formation. These data strongly point to a role for DMBT1 as a molecule linking innate immune processes with regenerative processes.

Blackburn AC, Hill LZ, Roberts AL, et al.
Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk.
Am J Pathol. 2007; 170(6):2030-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk twofold (P = 0.002). Dmbt1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) was identified as a candidate modifier gene within the SuprMam1 interval because it was differentially expressed in mammary tissues from BALB/c-Trp53(+/-) and C57BL/6-Trp53(+/-) mice. Dmbt1 mRNA and protein was reduced in mammary glands of the susceptible BALB/c mice. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that DMBT1 protein expression was also significantly reduced in normal breast tissue from women with breast cancer (staining score, 1.8; n = 46) compared with cancer-free controls (staining score, 3.9; n = 53; P < 0.0001). These experiments demonstrate the use of Trp53(+/-) mice as a sensitized background to screen for low-penetrance modifiers of cancer. The results identify a novel mammary tumor susceptibility locus in mice and support a role for DMBT1 in suppression of mammary tumors in both mice and women.

Conde AR, Martins AP, Brito M, et al.
DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types.
Int J Oncol. 2007; 30(6):1441-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved in cell differentiation and protection and has been proposed as a candidate tumour suppressor for brain and epithelial cancer. One study reported a loss of DMBT1 expression in 12.5% (5/40) of gastric cancer samples. Here, we examined in more detail DMBT1 protein and mRNA expression in 78 primary gastric tumour samples and corresponding normal gastric mucosa. DMBT1 was expressed in all non-tumour gastric mucosa tissues. Eleven out of 71 (15%) gastric tumours were negative for the DMBT1 protein in immunohistochemical analyses. Lack of DMBT1 expression was significantly more frequently found in well-differentiated gastric tumours (6/18 well-differentiated tumours vs. 5/53 other subtypes; P=0.025). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed a downregulation of the DMBT1 mRNA for 8/21 (38%) cases, while the remaining 13 cases (62%) displayed a substantial upregulation. Our data suggest that a loss of DMBT1 expression may preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types.

Vijayakumar S, Takito J, Gao X, et al.
Differentiation of columnar epithelia: the hensin pathway.
J Cell Sci. 2006; 119(Pt 23):4797-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelia, the most common variety of cells in complex organisms exist in many shapes. They are sheets of polarized cells that separate two compartments and selectively transport materials from one to the other. After acquiring these general characteristics, they differentiate to become specialized types such as squamous columnar or transitional epithelia. High density seeding converts a kidney-derived cell line from flat ;generic' epithelial cells to columnar cells. The cells acquire all the characteristics of differentiated columnar cells, including microvilli, and the capacity for apical endocytosis. The high seeding density induces the deposition of a new protein termed hensin and polymerization of hensin is the crucial event that dictates changes in epithelial phenotype. Hensin is widely expressed in most epithelia. Its deletion in mice leads to embryonic lethality at the time of generation of the first columnar epithelium, the visceral endoderm. Moreover many human cancers have deletions in the hensin gene, which indicates that it is a tumor suppressor.

van Nifterik KA, Elkhuizen PH, van Andel RJ, et al.
Genetic profiling of a distant second glioblastoma multiforme after radiotherapy: Recurrence or second primary tumor?
J Neurosurg. 2006; 105(5):739-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECT: In nearly all patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) a local recurrence develops within a short period of time. In this paper the authors describe two patients in whom a second GBM developed after a relatively long time interval at a site remote from the primary tumor. The genetic profiles of the tumors were compared to discriminate between distant recurrence and a second primary tumor.
METHODS: Both patients harboring a supratentorial GBM were treated with surgery and local high-dose radiotherapy. Local control of the disease at the primary tumor site was achieved. Within 2 years, a second GBM developed in both patients, not only outside the previously irradiated target areas but infratentorially in one patient and in the opposite hemisphere in the other. The tumors were examined for the presence of several genetic alterations that are frequently found in GBMs--a loss of heterozygosity at chromosome regions 1p36, 10pl5, 19q13, and 22q13, and at the CDKN2A, PTEN, DMBT1, and TP53 gene regions; a TP53 mutation; and EGFR amplification. In the first patient, genetic profiling revealed that the primary tumor had an allelic imbalance for markers in several chromosome regions for which the second tumor displayed a complete loss. In the second patient, genetic profiling demonstrated the presence of genetic changes in the second tumor that were identical with and additional to those found in the primary tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the similarities between the genetic profiles of the primary and the second tumors in these patients, the authors decided that in each case the second distant GBM was a distant recurrence rather than a second independent primary tumor.

Elkahloun AG, Powers JF, Nyska A, et al.
Gene expression profiling of rat pheochromocytoma.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1073:290-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sporadic and syndrome-associated human pheochromocytomas exhibit a spectrum of common and distinctive phenotypic markers. Animal models may contribute to understanding of common denominators leading to development and progression of pheochromocytoma, and to mechanisms that underlie distinctive phenotypes. Rat pheochromocytomas are common, in contrast to their human counterparts, and their frequency is increased by a variety of genotoxic or nongenotoxic agents. Toxicological studies of rats are therefore a potentially rich source of information on pheochromocytoma biology. To compare the molecular profiles of rat and human pheochromocytomas and to identify pathways potentially involved in pathogenesis of rat pheochromocytomas, we conducted a gene expression profiling study comparing 31 pheochromocytomas obtained from the National Toxicology Program to normal adult rat adrenal medulla. The microarray chips were generated from 31,769-oligomer set representing over 27,200 unique Mouse Ensembl genes. The analysis showed over 1,900 genes that were up- or downregulated in the tumors. More than half of the former are involved in protein synthesis and signal transduction, including oncogenes of the RAS family and several heat shock proteins and chaperones. Downregulated genes included receptors and tumor-suppressor genes, including NF2 and Dmbt1. Specific genes related to neuroendocrine function were either upregulated or downregulated in subsets of tumors. Cross-comparison with a human pheochromocytoma database showed greater than 60% correlation. Results of this study reveal both generic and specific parallels between rat and human pheochromocytomas.

Muñoz J, Castresana JS
Silencing of DMBT1 in neuroblastoma cell lines is not due to methylation of CCWGG motifs on its promoter.
Neoplasma. 2006; 53(1):15-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
DMBT1 is one of the putative suppressor genes on 10q25-qter, which frequently lacks expression in many different kind of tumors, such as glioblastoma, and lung, esophageal and colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the reasons for this lack of expression in neoplasia. In a previous report, our group demonstrated how MC-IXC, a neuroblastoma cell line which lacked DMBT1 expression, restored it after a 5-Aza-2'-deoxycitidine treatment. So, we wondered whether DMBT1 aberrant promoter methylation could be responsible for DMBT1 silencing in several tumor cell lines, in spite of the fact that there is no CpG island near the 5' end of the gene. We studied the possibility that methylation in CCWGG sequences of the DMBT1 promoter (where "W" means "A" or "T") is able to silence the gene, as had previously been reported for TP53 in leukemia. We digested genomic DNA by the methylation sensitive restriction enzyme EcoR II (C|CWGG), and made two PCRs to amplify the three CCWGG domains placed in the 1 kb upstream DMBT1 5' end. After the PCRs, we could not find correlation between methylation in CCWGG domains and DMBT1 lack of expression. A positive regulator of DMBT1 might be silenced by aberrant methylation.

Robbe C, Paraskeva C, Mollenhauer J, et al.
DMBT1 expression and glycosylation during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colorectal cancer.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2005; 33(Pt 4):730-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumour-1) has been proposed to play a role in brain and epithelial cancer, but shows unusual features for a classical tumour-suppressor gene. On the one hand, DMBT1 has been linked to mucosal protection, whereas, on the other, it potentially plays a role in epithelial differentiation. Thus its function in a particular tissue is of mechanistic importance for its role in cancer. Because the former function requires secretion to the lumen and the latter function may depend on its presence in the extracellular matrix, we decided to investigate DMBT1 expression, location and its mode of secretion during malignant transformation in colorectal cancer. Using human colorectal PC/AA cell lines and tissue sections from individual patients, we have examined the expression of DMBT1 and its glycosylation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence leading to the adenocarcinoma phenotype.

Kang W, Nielsen O, Fenger C, et al.
Induction of DMBT1 expression by reduced ERK activity during a gastric mucosa differentiation-like process and its association with human gastric cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2005; 26(6):1129-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormalities in the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) have been implicated in the development of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers of the alimentary tract, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, using the gastric cell line AGS, we identified two intracellular signaling molecules protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). They mediated both the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) downregulation of DMBT1 expression and the initiation of cell differentiation, which was measured by cell cycle withdrawal and the induction of the tissue-specific marker trefoil factor 1 (TFF1). A time-course study showed that following the PMA activation of ERK kinase, the induction of TFF1 and the reduction of DMBT1 were detected at the same time point. We then demonstrated a minimal level of DMBT1 in proliferating AGS cells seeded at low density, where ERK activity was high. Reduction of ERK activity, either by an ERK inhibitor PD98059 or by high-density seeding, significantly reduced AGS cell growth judged by CFSE labeling. This cellular effect was elicited by cyclin D/p21 (Cip/Waf1) and G(0)/G(1) arrest, and was accompanied by a marked increase in DMBT1-expressing cells. Finally, we showed that siRNA directed against DMBT1 had no effect on the induction of a cell growth arrest marker, gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor (GKLF), but reduced the PMA induction of TFF1. Along with its upregulation coinciding with G(0)/G(1) arrest, and its attenuation in differentiated cells, these results suggest that the transient induction of DMBT1 is apparently specific at an early stage of gastric epithelial differentiation-like process, when it may play a role in cell fate decision. Consistent with such a potential function, we detected frequent abnormalities of the DMBT1 expression in the specimens of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

Imai MA, Moriya T, Imai FL, et al.
Down-regulation of DMBT1 gene expression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2005; 15(4):585-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) gene was recently isolated on chromosome 10q25.3-26.1 and has been proposed as a putative candidate tumor suppressor for brain, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancer. However, little is known about the association of DMBT1 with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To study the role of DMBT1 gene in OSCC oncogenesis, we examined 9 OSCC derived cell lines and 45 primary OSCC tissue specimens with respective normal tissues. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed down-regulation or deletion of DMBT1 expression in all of the 9 cell lines and in 18 (40%) of 45 primary OSCC tissues. Additionally, 57 OSCC tissue specimens were examined by immunohistochemical staining of protein showing down-regulation of DMBT1 protein in 31 (56.1%) of the 57 primary OSCC tissue specimens. To assess restoration of DMBT1 expression by demethylation of promoter region, the 9 cell lines were treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-C), one of the DNA demethylating agents. Six (66.7%) of 9 cell lines demonstrated restoration of DMBT1 expression after 5-Aza-C treatment. These results suggest that DMBT1 gene is involved in OSCC oncogenesis and/or progression and that methylation of promoter region is one of the important mechanisms suppressing the DMBT1 gene expression.

Suzuki T, Maruno M, Wada K, et al.
Genetic analysis of human glioblastomas using a genomic microarray system.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2004; 21(1):27-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic microarray systems can simultaneously provide substantial genetic and chromosomal information in a relatively short time. We have analyzed genomic DNA from frozen sections of 30 cases of primary glioblastomas by GenoSensor Array 300 in order to characterize gene amplifications, gene deletions, and chromosomal information in the whole genome. Genes that were frequently amplified included RFC2/CYLN2 (63.3%), EGFR (53.3%), IL6 (53.3%), ABCB1 (MDR1) (36.7%), and PDGFRA (26.7%). Genes that were frequently deleted included (56.7%), FGFR2 (66.7%), MTAP (60.0%), DMBT1 CDKN2A (p16)/MTAP (50.0%), PIK3CA (43.3%), and EGR2 (43.3%), but deletion of RB1 or TP53 was rarely detected. Chromosomal gains were observed frequently for 7q (33.3%), 7p (20.0%), and 17q (13.3%). Loss of the 10q was frequently detected in 13 of 30 cases (46.7%). Loss of the entire chromosome 10 was seen in 9 of 30 cases (30.0%), and was often accompanied by EGFR amplification (7 cases, 77.8%). The GenoSensor Array 300 proved to be useful for identification of genome-wide molecular changes in glioblastomas. The obtained microarray profile can also yield valuable insight into the molecular events underlying carcinogenesis of brain tumors and may provide clues about clinical correlations, including response to treatment.

Zakrzewska M, Rieske P, Debiec-Rychter M, et al.
Molecular abnormalities in pediatric embryonal brain tumors--analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1, 5, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17 and 22.
Clin Neuropathol. 2004 Sep-Oct; 23(5):209-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Embryonal tumors, the most common group of malignant brain tumors in childhood, are heterogeneous and have been associated with a large number of genetic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on regions harboring suppressor genes (PTCH2, PTCH1, APC, PTEN, DMBT1, SUFU, AXIN1, hSNF5/INI1) and to study chromosomal regions in which deletions have been described most frequently (1p, 1q, 11p, 16p, 17p). Twenty-nine children (17 male and 12 female), aged from 1 year 13 years were included in this study. There were 24 medulloblastomas (MB) and 5 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET). Tissue samples from 29 primary and 11 recurrent tumors were analyzed according to the LOH standard procedures, which were extended to include fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of isochromosome 17q (i(17q)) and direct sequencing ofTP53 exon 4. LOH on 17p was found in 15 out of 29 tumors. FISH analysis identified the presence of i(17q) in 16 tumors. Comparison of LOH analysis and the FISH data indicated that alterations of 17p were related to be the introduction of an i(17q) formation. LOH on 10q and 9q was observed in 4 and 2 cases, respectively, and was associated with alterations of chromosome 17. These results indicated a connection between alterations of PTCH/SHH genes and abnormalities of chromosome 17. A deleted region on 22q, covering the hSNF5/INI1 locus, was observed in 3 tumors. Progression of the molecular changes occurred in 1 case of recurrent medulloblastoma. LOH on 10q and 17p was found in both primary and recurrent tumor, while losses on 11p, 16p, and 16q occurred only in the recurrent tumor. No evidence of alteration in TP53 exon 4 was identified.

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