Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)


Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (also known as Gorlin Syndrome) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by the appearance of basal cell carcinomas, together with skeletal abnormalities, odontogenic keratocysts and increased risk of Medulloblastoma. Medulloblastoma develops in about 5 out of every 100 children with the syndrome.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Medulloblastoma
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Tumor Markers
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Chromosome 9
  • Mutation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymorphism
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Jaw Cysts
  • Adolescents
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
  • Cancer DNA
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Base Sequence
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Exons
  • Frameshift Mutation
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) - Skin
  • Multiple Abnormalities
  • Missense Mutation
  • Gene Deletion
  • Codon, Nonsense
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Infant
  • SUFU
  • Alleles
  • Phenotype
  • Cerebellar Neoplasms
  • Genetic Markers
  • Heterozygote
Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (4)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

PTCH1 9q22.3 PTC, BCNS, HPE7, PTC1, PTCH, NBCCS, PTCH11 Germline
-PTCH1 mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
SMO 7q32.3 Gx, SMOH, FZD11 -SMO and Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
SUFU 10q24.32 SUFUH, SUFUXL, PRO1280 Germline
-SUFU mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
-SUFU germline mutations in Medulloblastoma associated with Gorlin Syndrome
PTCH2 1p34.1 PTC2 Germline
-PTCH2 mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications

Škodrić-Trifunović V, Stjepanović M, Savić Ž, et al.
Novel patched 1 mutations in patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome--case report.
Croat Med J. 2015; 56(1):63-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas, keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the jaws, and diverse developmental defects. This disorder is associated with mutations in tumor suppressor gene Patched 1 (PTCH1). We present two patients with Gorlin syndrome, one sporadic and one familial. Clinical examination, radiological and CT imaging, and mutation screening of PTCH1 gene were performed. Family members, as well as eleven healthy controls were included in the study. Both patients fulfilled the specific criteria for diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome. Molecular analysis of the first patient showed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 6 of PTCH1gene (c.903delT). Additionally, a somatic frameshift mutation in exon 21 (c.3524delT) along with germline mutation in exon 6 was detected in tumor-derived tissue sample of this patient. Analysis of the second patient, as well as two affected family members, revealed a novel nonsense germline mutation in exon 8 (c.1148 C>A).

Murnyák B, Szepesi R, Hortobágyi T
[Molecular genetics of familial tumour syndromes of the central nervous system].
Orv Hetil. 2015; 156(5):171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although most of the central nervous system tumours are sporadic, rarely they are associated with familial tumour syndromes. These disorders usually present with an autosomal dominant inheritance and neoplasia develops at younger age than in sporadic cases. Most of these tumours are bilateral, multiplex or multifocal. The causative mutations occur in genes involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth, differentiation and DNA repair. Studying these hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes associated with nervous system tumours can facilitate the deeper understanding of the molecular background of sporadic tumours and the development of novel therapeutic agents. This review is an update on hereditary tumour syndromes with nervous system involvement with emphasis on molecular genetic characteristics and their clinical implications.

Mizuochi H, Fujii K, Shiohama T, et al.
Hedgehog signaling is synergistically enhanced by nutritional deprivation and ligand stimulation in human fibroblasts of Gorlin syndrome.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 457(3):318-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hedgehog signaling is a pivotal developmental pathway that comprises hedgehog, PTCH1, SMO, and GLI proteins. Mutations in PTCH1 are responsible for Gorlin syndrome, which is characterized by developmental defects and tumorigenicity. Although the hedgehog pathway has been investigated extensively in Drosophila and mice, its functional roles have not yet been determined in human cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism by which transduction of the hedgehog signal is regulated in human tissues, we employed human fibroblasts derived from three Gorlin syndrome patients and normal controls. We investigated GLI1 transcription, downstream of hedgehog signaling, to assess native signal transduction, and then treated fibroblasts with a recombinant human hedgehog protein with or without serum deprivation. We also examined the transcriptional levels of hedgehog-related genes under these conditions. The expression of GLI1 mRNA was significantly higher in Gorlin syndrome-derived fibroblasts than in control cells. Hedgehog stimulation and nutritional deprivation synergistically enhanced GLI1 transcription levels, and this was blocked more efficiently by vismodegib, a SMO inhibitor, than by the natural compound, cyclopamine. Messenger RNA profiling revealed the increased expression of Wnt signaling and morphogenetic molecules in these fibroblasts. These results indicated that the hedgehog stimulation and nutritional deprivation synergistically activated the hedgehog signaling pathway in Gorlin syndrome fibroblasts, and this was associated with increments in the transcription levels of hedgehog-related genes such as those involved in Wnt signaling. These fibroblasts may become a significant tool for predicting the efficacies of hedgehog molecular-targeted therapies such as vismodegib.

Smith MJ, Beetz C, Williams SG, et al.
Germline mutations in SUFU cause Gorlin syndrome-associated childhood medulloblastoma and redefine the risk associated with PTCH1 mutations.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(36):4155-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations are causative of Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma), but detection rates > 70% have rarely been reported. We aimed to define the causative mutations in individuals with Gorlin syndrome without PTCH1 mutations.
METHODS: We undertook exome sequencing on lymphocyte DNA from four unrelated individuals from families with Gorlin syndrome with no PTCH1 mutations found by Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), or RNA analysis.
RESULTS: A germline heterozygous nonsense mutation in SUFU was identified in one of four exomes. Sanger sequencing of SUFU in 23 additional PTCH1-negative Gorlin syndrome families identified a SUFU mutation in a second family. Copy-number analysis of SUFU by MLPA revealed a large heterozygous deletion in a third family. All three SUFU-positive families fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Gorlin syndrome, although none had odontogenic jaw keratocysts. Each SUFU-positive family included a single case of medulloblastoma, whereas only two (1.7%) of 115 individuals with Gorlin syndrome and a PTCH1 mutation developed medulloblastoma.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate convincing evidence that SUFU mutations can cause classical Gorlin syndrome. Our study redefines the risk of medulloblastoma in Gorlin syndrome, dependent on the underlying causative gene. Previous reports have found a 5% risk of medulloblastoma in Gorlin syndrome. We found a < 2% risk in PTCH1 mutation-positive individuals, with a risk up to 20× higher in SUFU mutation-positive individuals. Our data suggest childhood brain magnetic resonance imaging surveillance is justified in SUFU-related, but not PTCH1-related, Gorlin syndrome.

Mazzuoccolo LD, Martínez MF, Muchnik C, et al.
[Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with corpus callosum agenesis, PTCH1 mutation and absence of basal cell carcinoma].
Medicina (B Aires). 2014; 74(4):307-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly due to PTCH1 gene mutations, that comprises a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The presence of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is a cardinal sign in NBCCS, therefore cases in which BCCs are absent entails a delay in the diagnosis.We present a 14 years old boy with a clinical diagnosis of NBCCS by the presence of odontogenic cysts, hypertelorism, macrocephaly, and corpus callosum agenesia, but with absence of skin lesions. His 43 years old mother has NBCCS diagnosis and no history of BCCs. For a deeper study, PTCH1 mutation screening from peripheral blood samples were performed by both bidirectional sequencing and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques. The proband and his mother carry 25 pb duplication in exon 10 (c.1375dupl25bp) that causes a reading frameshift with a premature stop codon. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that this mutation results in a truncated protein shorter than normal. Our results suggest that complete clinical and genealogical studies accompanied by genetic analysis are essential in the early detection of the NBCCS cases such the one presented here.

Athar M, Li C, Kim AL, et al.
Sonic hedgehog signaling in Basal cell nevus syndrome.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):4967-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2015 Related Publications
The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to be a major signal transduction pathway during embryonic development, but it usually shuts down after birth. Aberrant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) activation during adulthood leads to neoplastic growth. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is driven by this pathway. Here, we summarize information related to the pathogenesis of this neoplasm, discuss pathways that crosstalk with Shh signaling, and the importance of the primary cilium in this neoplastic process. The identification of the basic/translational components of Shh signaling has led to the discovery of potential mechanism-driven druggable targets and subsequent clinical trials have confirmed their remarkable efficacy in treating BCCs, particularly in patients with nevoid BCC syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder in which patients inherit a germline mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene Patched (Ptch). Patients with NBCCS develop dozens to hundreds of BCCs due to derepression of the downstream G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened (SMO). Ptch mutations permit transposition of SMO to the primary cilium followed by enhanced expression of transcription factors Glis that drive cell proliferation and tumor growth. Clinical trials with the SMO inhibitor, vismodegib, showed remarkable efficacy in patients with NBCCS, which finally led to its FDA approval in 2012.

Rodrigues AL, Carvalho A, Cabral R, et al.
Multiple nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome associated with congenital orbital teratoma, caused by a PTCH1 frameshift mutation.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(3):5654-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressivity. The syndrome is characterized by developmental abnormalities or neoplasms and is diagnosed with 2 major criteria, or with 1 major and 2 minor criteria. Here, we report a new clinical manifestation associated with this syndrome in a boy affected by NBCCS who had congenital orbital teratoma at birth. Later, at the age of 15 years, he presented with 4 major and 4 minor criteria of NBCCS, including multiple basal cell carcinoma and 2 odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw, both confirmed by histology, more than 5 palmar pits, calcification of the cerebral falx, extensive meningeal calcifications, macrocephaly, hypertelorism, frontal bosses, and kyphoscoliosis. PTCH1 mutation analysis revealed the heterozygous germline mutation c.290dupA. This mutation generated a frameshift within exon 2 and an early premature stop codon (p.Asn97LysfsX43), predicting a truncated protein with complete loss of function. Identification of this mutation is useful for genetic counseling. Although the clinical symptoms are well-known, our case contributes to the understanding of phenotypic variability in NBCCS, highlighting that PTCH1 mutations cannot be used for predicting disease burden and reinforces the need of a multidisciplinary team in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of NBCCS patients.

Ponti G, Ruini C, Pastorino L, et al.
Skeletal and cranio-facial signs in Gorlin syndrome from ancient Egypt to the modern age: sphenoid asymmetry in a patient with a novel PTCH1 mutation.
Future Oncol. 2014; 10(6):917-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder linked to PTCH1 mutation, identified by a collection of clinical and radiologic signs. We describe the case of a family in which father and son fulfilled clear cut diagnostic criteria for Gorlin syndrome including multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, atypical skeletal anomalies and a novel PTCH1 germline mutation (c.1041delAA). Craniofacial and other skeletal anomalies displayed at 3D and helical CT scan were: macrocephaly, positional plagiocephaly, skull base and sphenoid asymmetry, bifidity of multiple ribs and giant multilocular odontogenic jaw cysts. Extensive multilamellar calcifications were found in falx cerebri, tentorium, falx cerebelli and in the atlanto-occipital ligament. The inclusion of bifid ribs as a novel major criteri may be useful for the recognition and characterization of misdiagnosed cases.

Kraft S, Granter SR
Molecular pathology of skin neoplasms of the head and neck.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(6):759-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Skin neoplasms include the most common malignancies affecting humans. Many show an ultraviolet (UV)-induced pathogenesis and often affect the head and neck region.
OBJECTIVE: To review literature on cutaneous neoplasms that show a predilection for the head and neck region and that are associated with molecular alterations.
DATA SOURCES: Literature review.
CONCLUSIONS: Common nonmelanoma skin cancers, such as basal and squamous cell carcinomas, show a UV-induced pathogenesis. Basal cell carcinomas are characterized by molecular alterations of the Hedgehog pathway, affecting patched and smoothened genes. While squamous cell carcinomas show UV-induced mutations in several genes, driver mutations are only beginning to be identified. In addition, certain adnexal neoplasms also predominantly affect the head and neck region and show interesting, recently discovered molecular abnormalities, or are associated with hereditary conditions whose molecular genetic pathogenesis is well understood. Furthermore, recent advances have led to an increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma. Certain melanoma subtypes, such as lentigo maligna melanoma and desmoplastic melanoma, which are more often seen on the chronically sun-damaged skin of the head and neck, show differences in their molecular signature when compared to the other more common subtypes, such as superficial spreading melanoma, which are more prone to occur at sites with acute intermittent sun damage. In summary, molecular alterations in cutaneous neoplasms of the head and neck are often related to UV exposure. Their molecular footprint often reflects the histologic tumor type, and familiarity with these changes will be increasingly necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.

Yu FY, Hong YY, Qu JF, et al.
The large intracellular loop of ptch1 mediates the non-canonical Hedgehog pathway through cyclin B1 in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 34(2):507-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the transmembrane receptor patched homolog 1 (Homo sapiens) (ptch1) are responsible for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder that causes developmental abnormalities and predisposes the affected individuals to cancer. Many of these mutations, including mutations in the C-terminus of the large intracellular loop (ICL) of ptch1 (p.C727VfsX745 and p.S733IfsX736), result in the premature truncation of the protein. The ptch1‑C727VfsX745 and ptch1-S733IfsX736 mutations have been identified in patients with NBCCS‑associated keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs). In the present study, we found that the molecular mechanisms regulated by the non-canonical Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway through cyclin B1 are involved in the pathogenesis of NBCCS-associated KCOTs. In contrast to wild-type ptch1, ptch1-C727VfsX745 and ptch1‑S733IfsX736 clearly exhibited reduced binding to cyclin B1. Moreover, the cells expressing these two mutations demonstrated an increase in cell cycle progression and these two mutation constructs failed to inhibit cell proliferation. In addition, the mutants enhanced the activity of glioma-associated oncogene family zinc finger 1 (GLI1), a downstream reporter of Hh signaling. Thus, our data suggest that the non-canonical Hh pathway mediated through ptch1 and cyclin B1 is involved in the pathogenesis of NBCCS-associated KCOTs. The C-terminus of ICL in ptch1 may also be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of this disease.

Torrelo A, Vicente A, Navarro L, et al.
Early-onset acral basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome.
Br J Dermatol. 2014; 171(5):1227-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two patients are reported in whom early-onset, distal papules with a histopathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma were the first manifestation of Gorlin syndrome (GS). These lesions showed no progression and remained stable through follow-up. Two different PTCH1 gene mutations were detected in the two patients, and thus a phenotype-genotype correlation of this manifestation of GS was not possible.

Larsen AK, Mikkelsen DB, Hertz JM, Bygum A
Manifestations of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
Dan Med J. 2014; 61(5):A4829 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an uncommon hereditary condition caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene causing a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits and jaw cysts are cardinal features. Many clinicians are unfamiliar with the different manifestations and the fact that patients are especially sensitive to ionizing radiation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome seen at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre or at Department of Plastic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, in the period from 1994 to 2013.
RESULTS: A total of 17 patients from eight families fulfilled the diagnostic criteria. In all, 14 patients had basal cell carcinomas, 12 patients had jaw cysts and ten patients had calcification of the falx cerebri. Other clinical features were frontal bossing, kyphoscoliosis, rib anomalies, coalitio, cleft lip/palate, eye anomalies, milia and syndactyly. In one family, medulloblastoma and astrocytoma occurred. Traditional treatment principles of basal cell carcinomas were used including radiotherapy performed in six patients. PTCH1 mutations were identified in five families and none of these mutations had previously been described.
CONCLUSION: The patient cohort illustrates classic and rare disease manifestations. It is necessary to remind clinicians that radiation therapy in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is relatively contraindicated. Today, mutation analysis can be used for confirmation of the diagnosis and for predictive genetic testing. Patients should be offered genetic counselling and life-long surveillance.
FUNDING: not relevant.

De Craene S, Batteauw A, Van Lint M, et al.
Subconjunctival epidermoid cysts in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
Orbit. 2014; 33(4):280-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

Roncalés-Samanes P, Peña-Segura JL, Fernando-Martínez R, et al.
[Gorlin syndrome in the paediatric age].
Rev Neurol. 2014; 58(7):303-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gorlin syndrome (GS) is a disorder transmitted by dominant autosomal inheritance associated to mutations in PTCH1, the main characteristic of which is the appearance of basal cell carcinomas, together with skeletal abnormalities, odontogenic keratocysts and intracranial tumours.
CASE REPORT: A girl aged 3 years and 10 months, who was admitted due to acute ataxia. Some of the more striking features in the patient's personal history include psychomotor retardation and a family history of suspected GS in the mother as a result of a maxillary cyst. An examination revealed macrocephaly with a prominent forehead and hypertelorism, as well as nevus. A genetic study for GS was requested, in which mutation c.930delC was detected in exon 6 of the PTCH1 gene in heterozygosis.
CONCLUSIONS: In GS there is an increase in the likelihood of developing basal cell carcinomas and strict dermatological monitoring is necessary. A clinical neurological follow-up and also magnetic resonance imaging scans are needed for an early diagnosis of intracranial tumours, especially in the case of medulloblastomas. Odontogenic keratocysts, other skin disorders, and cardiac and ovarian fibromas are characteristic, as are skeletal abnormalities, which require regular clinical and neuroimaging controls and treatment if needed, but radiation must be avoided. GS is a rare disorder, but it must be suspected in the presence of characteristic alterations. It requires a multidisciplinary follow-up, and it is also necessary to establish a protocol on how to act so as to allow early diagnosis and treatment of the potentially severe complications deriving from this disease.

Bholah Z, Smith MJ, Byers HJ, et al.
Intronic splicing mutations in PTCH1 cause Gorlin syndrome.
Fam Cancer. 2014; 13(3):477-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple early-onset basal cell carcinoma, odontogenic keratocysts and skeletal abnormalities. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in the tumour suppressor PTCH1. Routine clinical genetic testing, by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome, identifies a mutation in 60-90 % of cases. We undertook RNA analysis on lymphocytes from ten individuals diagnosed with Gorlin syndrome, but without known PTCH1 mutations by exonic sequencing or MLPA. Two altered PTCH1 transcripts were identified. Genomic DNA sequence analysis identified an intron 7 mutation c.1068-10T>A, which created a strong cryptic splice acceptor site, leading to an intronic insertion of eight bases; this is predicted to create a frameshift p.(His358Alafs*12). Secondly, a deep intronic mutation c.2561-2057A>G caused an inframe insertion of 78 intronic bases in the cDNA transcript, leading to a premature stop codon p.(Gly854fs*3). The mutations are predicted to cause loss of function of PTCH1, consistent with its tumour suppressor function. The findings indicate the importance of RNA analysis to detect intronic mutations in PTCH1 not identified by routine screening techniques.

Wu C, Gudivada RC, Aronow BJ, Jegga AG
Computational drug repositioning through heterogeneous network clustering.
BMC Syst Biol. 2013; 7 Suppl 5:S6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Given the costly and time consuming process and high attrition rates in drug discovery and development, drug repositioning or drug repurposing is considered as a viable strategy both to replenish the drying out drug pipelines and to surmount the innovation gap. Although there is a growing recognition that mechanistic relationships from molecular to systems level should be integrated into drug discovery paradigms, relatively few studies have integrated information about heterogeneous networks into computational drug-repositioning candidate discovery platforms.
RESULTS: Using known disease-gene and drug-target relationships from the KEGG database, we built a weighted disease and drug heterogeneous network. The nodes represent drugs or diseases while the edges represent shared gene, biological process, pathway, phenotype or a combination of these features. We clustered this weighted network to identify modules and then assembled all possible drug-disease pairs (putative drug repositioning candidates) from these modules. We validated our predictions by testing their robustness and evaluated them by their overlap with drug indications that were either reported in published literature or investigated in clinical trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Previous computational approaches for drug repositioning focused either on drug-drug and disease-disease similarity approaches whereas we have taken a more holistic approach by considering drug-disease relationships also. Further, we considered not only gene but also other features to build the disease drug networks. Despite the relative simplicity of our approach, based on the robustness analyses and the overlap of some of our predictions with drug indications that are under investigation, we believe our approach could complement the current computational approaches for drug repositioning candidate discovery.

Hettmer S, Teot LA, Kozakewich H, et al.
Myogenic tumors in nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015; 37(2):147-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
In mice, activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling induces tumors with myogenic differentiation. In humans, hyperactive Hh signaling due to germline PATCHED1 (PTCH1) mutations has been linked to nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). We report an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a 16-month-old girl with NBCCS and review the literature on myogenic neoplasms in NBCCS, including 8 fetal rhabdomyomas and 3 rhabdomyosarcomas. Of note, 3 population studies, including 255 individuals with NBCCS aged 4 months to 87 years, did not identify any myogenic tumors. Thus, myogenic tumors in NBCCS are rare and include both rhabdomyosarcomas and fetal rhabdomyomas.

Ponti G, Bertazzoni G, Pastorino L, et al.
Proteomic analysis of PTCH1+/- fibroblast lysate and conditioned culture media isolated from the skin of healthy subjects and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:794028 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis underlying the increased predisposition to the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the context of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is linked to molecular mechanisms that differ from sporadic BCCs. Patients with Gorlin syndrome tend to develop multiple BCCs at an early age and present with tumors of non-sun-exposed skin. The aim of this study was to compare the proteomic profile of cultured fibroblast and fibroblast conditioned culture media of PTCH1+ and nonmutated fibroblasts.
RESULTS: Proteomic analysis was performed using Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry in PTCH1+ fibroblast conditioned media isolated from not affected sun-protected skin areas of Gorlin patients and from healthy subjects. 12 protein cluster peaks, >5 kDa, had significant differences in their peak intensities between PTCH1+ and PTCH1- subject groups. We detected a strongly MMP1 overexpression in PTCH1+ fibroblasts obtained from NBCCS patients with respect to healthy donors.
CONCLUSION: Protein profiles in the fibroblast conditioned media revealed statistically significant differences between two different types (missense versus nonsense) of PTCH1 mutations. These differences could be useful as signatures to identify PTCH1 gene carriers at high risk for the development of NBCCS-associated malignancies and to develop novel experimental molecular tailored therapies based on these druggable targets.

Wright AT, Magnaldo T, Sontag RL, et al.
Deficient expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 is consistent with increased sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome patients to radiation carcinogenesis.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(6):473-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of the pathways/networks that contribute to pathophysiological outcomes. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced inducible tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol reactive probes to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent Gorlin syndrome patients, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and ALDH1A1 protein deficiency in GDFs was confirmed by Western blot. A number of additional protein thiol differences in GDFs were identified, including radiation responsive annexin family members and lamin A/C. Collectively, candidates identified in our study have plausible implications for radiation health effects and cancer susceptibility.

Guo YY, Zhang JY, Li XF, et al.
PTCH1 gene mutations in Keratocystic odontogenic tumors: a study of 43 Chinese patients and a systematic review.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77305 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive cystic jaw lesion that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). PTCH1, the gene responsible for NBCCS, may play an important role in sporadic KCOTs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the distribution pattern of PTCH1 mutations in patients with sporadic and NBCCS-associated KCOTs.
METHODS: We detected PTCH1 mutations in 14 patients with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 29 patients with sporadic KCOTs by direct sequencing. In addition, five electronic databases were searched for studies detecting PTCH1 mutations in individuals with NBCCS-associated or sporadic KCOTs, published between January 1996 and June 2013 in English language.
RESULTS: We identified 15 mutations in 11 cases with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 19 mutations in 13 cases with sporadic KCOTs. In addition, a total of 204 PTCH1 mutations (187 mutations from 210 cases with NBCCS-associated and 17 mutations from 57 cases with sporadic KCOTs) were compiled from 78 published papers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that mutations in transmembrane 2 (TM2) are closely related to the development of sporadic KCOTs. Moreover, for the early diagnosis of NBCCS, a genetic analysis of the PTCH1 gene should be included in the new diagnostic criteria.

Garavelli L, Piemontese MR, Cavazza A, et al.
Multiple tumor types including leiomyoma and Wilms tumor in a patient with Gorlin syndrome due to 9q22.3 microdeletion encompassing the PTCH1 and FANC-C loci.
Am J Med Genet A. 2013; 161A(11):2894-901 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant condition mainly characterized by the development of mandibular keratocysts which often have their onset during the second decade of life and/or multiple basal cell carcinoma (BCC) normally arising during the third decade. Cardiac and ovarian fibromas can be found. Patients with NBCCS develop the childhood brain malignancy medulloblastoma (now often called primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor [PNET]) in 5% of cases. The risk of other malignant neoplasms is not clearly increased, although lymphoma and meningioma can occur in this condition. Wilms tumor has been mentioned in the literature four times. We describe a patient with a 10.9 Mb 9q22.3 deletion spanning 9q22.2 through 9q31.1 that includes the entire codifying sequence of the gene PTCH1, with Wilms tumor, multiple neoplasms (lung, liver, mesenteric, gastric and renal leiomyomas, lung typical carcinoid tumor, adenomatoid tumor of the pleura) and a severe clinical presentation. We propose including leiomyomas among minor criteria of the NBCCS.

Suzuki M, Nagao K, Hatsuse H, et al.
Molecular pathogenesis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors developing in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013; 116(3):348-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) that developed in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients.
STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed germline and somatic mutations of the PTCH1 and its related genes, SMO and SUFU in 10 KCOTs that developed in 8 unrelated NBCCS patients. Methylation status of the PTCH1 promoter was also investigated by bisulfite sequencing.
RESULTS: Somatic mutations of PTCH1 were detected in 3 KCOTs. Two out of 3 somatic mutations were either identified as a polymorphism or located on the same allele as the germline mutation. Neither abnormal methylation of the PTCH1 promoter, loss of PTCH1, nor somatic mutation of SMO or SUFU was detected in any of the samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the tumorigenesis of most KCOTs associated with NBCCS cannot be explained by the classical 2-hit theory.

Been RA, Ross JA, Nagel CW, et al.
Perigestational dietary folic acid deficiency protects against medulloblastoma formation in a mouse model of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Nutr Cancer. 2013; 65(6):857-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Hereditary nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is caused by PTCH1 gene mutations that result in diverse neoplasms including medulloblastoma (MB). Epidemiological studies report reduced pediatric brain tumor risks associated with maternal intake of prenatal vitamins containing folic acid (FA) and FA supplements specifically. We hypothesized that low maternal FA intake during the perigestational period would increase MB incidence in a transgenic NBCCS mouse model, which carries an autosomal dominant mutation in the Ptch1 gene. Female wild-type C57BL/6 mice (n = 126) were randomized to 1 of 3 diets with differing FA amounts: 0.3 mg/kg (low), 2.0 mg/kg (control), and 8.0 mg/kg (high) 1 mo prior to mating with Ptch1 (+/-) C57BL/6 males. Females were maintained on the diet until pup weaning; the pups were then aged for tumor development. Compared to the control group, offspring MB incidence was significantly lower in the low FA group (Hazard Ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.80) at 1 yr. No significant difference in incidence was observed between the control and high FA groups. Low maternal perigestational FA levels may decrease MB incidence in mice genetically predisposed to tumor development. Our results could have implications for prenatal FA intake recommendations in the presence of cancer syndromes.

Feng W, Choi I, Clouthier DE, et al.
The Ptch1(DL) mouse: a new model to study lambdoid craniosynostosis and basal cell nevus syndrome-associated skeletal defects.
Genesis. 2013; 51(10):677-89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Mouse models provide valuable opportunities for probing the underlying pathology of human birth defects. By using an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-based screen for recessive mutations affecting craniofacial anatomy, we isolated a mouse strain, Dogface-like (DL), with abnormal skull and snout morphology. Examination of the skull indicated that these mice developed craniosynostosis of the lambdoid suture. Further analysis revealed skeletal defects related to the pathology of basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) including defects in development of the limbs, scapula, ribcage, secondary palate, cranial base, and cranial vault. In humans, BCNS is often associated with mutations in the Hedgehog receptor PTCH1 and genetic mapping in DL identified a point mutation at a splice donor site in Ptch1. By using genetic complementation analysis we determined that DL is a hypomorphic allele of Ptch1, leading to increased Hedgehog signaling. Two aberrant transcripts are generated by the mutated Ptch1(DL) gene, which would be predicted to reduce significantly the levels of functional Patched1 protein. This new Ptch1 allele broadens the mouse genetic reagents available to study the Hedgehog pathway and provides a valuable means to study the underlying skeletal abnormalities in BCNS. In addition, these results strengthen the connection between elevated Hedgehog signaling and craniosynostosis.

Berdelou A, Hartl D, Al Ghuzlan A, et al.
[Medullary thyroid carcinoma in children].
Bull Cancer. 2013 Jul-Aug; 100(7-8):780-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is rare in children. MTC is almost always inherited and occurs as part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and B, due to germline mutation in the RET proto-oncogene. MTC in the pediatric population is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. But when the child is the proband, a de novo mutation is most often founded. The main aim is to treat MTC before extrathyroidal extension occurs because when distant metastases are present, it is rarely curable. Treatment is based on total thyroidectomy with cervical lymph node dissection.

Torrelo A, Hernández-Martín A, Bueno E, et al.
Molecular evidence of type 2 mosaicism in Gorlin syndrome.
Br J Dermatol. 2013; 169(6):1342-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a 12-year-old girl with a family history of Gorlin syndrome who had unilateral, segmentally arranged basaloid skin tumours present since birth, ipsilateral, palmoplantar pits of rather large size distributed along Blaschko lines, and an ipsilateral odontogenic keratocyst. The patient and her father were heterozygous for a germline mutation in the form of a single-base substitution in exon 18 of the PTCH1 gene. In the patient's lesional skin, a microdeletion in exon 3 of PTCH1 was detected, giving rise to a truncated protein. This additional mutation was ruled out in the contralateral skin and in blood lymphocytes, thus confirming its mosaic state. In this way we provide for the first time molecular proof of a type 2 segmental involvement of this autosomal dominant trait.

Lam C, Ou JC, Billingsley EM
"PTCH"-ing it together: a basal cell nevus syndrome review.
Dermatol Surg. 2013; 39(11):1557-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) has existed at least since Dynastic Egyptian times. In 1960, Gorlin and Goltz first described the classic clinical triad: multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw keratocysts, and bifid ribs. As an autosomal-dominant disorder, it is characterized by tumorigenesis and developmental defects.
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on BCNS, including reports on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, management, treatment, and prognosis.
METHODS: A literature review of currently available articles related to BCNS.
RESULTS: Individuals with a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 are predisposed to tumorigenesis and developmental defects. Clinical features include BCCs, often with onset in adolescence, jaw keratocysts, bifid ribs, craniofacial defects, palmar-plantar pits, and ectopic intracranial calcification. Despite high cure rates for individual lesions and various treatment modalities including excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, photodynamic therapy, and topical imiquimod, management of BCCs is challenging. The development of an oral hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, has added a new dimension to current treatment algorithms.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents and young adults with BCC should be evaluated for BCNS. Early diagnosis of BCNS is critical for possible prevention of the devastating effects of BCCs and establishment of multidisciplinary care.

Fujii K, Ohashi H, Suzuki M, et al.
Frameshift mutation in the PTCH2 gene can cause nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Fam Cancer. 2013; 12(4):611-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental defects and tumorigenesis. The gene responsible for NBCCS is PTCH1, encoding a receptor for the secreted protein, sonic hedgehog. Recently, a Chinese family with NBCCS carrying a missense mutation in PTCH2, a close homolog of PTCH1, was reported. However, the pathological significance of missense mutations should be discussed cautiously. Here, we report a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with NBCCS based on multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors and rib anomalies carrying a frameshift mutation in the PTCH2 gene (c.1172_1173delCT). Considering the deleterious nature of the frameshift mutation, our study further confirmed a causative role for the PTCH2 mutation in NBCCS. The absence of typical phenotypes in this case such as palmar/plantar pits, macrocephaly, falx calcification, hypertelorism and coarse face, together with previously reported cases, suggested that individuals with NBCCS carrying a PTCH2 mutation may have a milder phenotype than those with a PTCH1 mutation.

Kiwilsza M, Sporniak-Tutak K
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome--a medical condition requiring a multidisciplinary approach.
Med Sci Monit. 2012; 18(9):RA145-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic condition showing a variable expressiveness. It is inherited in a dominant autosomal way. The strongest characteristic of the disease includes multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar and plantar pits, skeletal abnormalities and other developmental defects. Owing to the fact that the condition tends to be a multisystemic disorder, familiarity of various medical specialists with its manifestations may reduce the time necessary for providing a diagnosis. It will also enable them to apply adequate methods of treatment and secondary prevention. In this study, we present symptoms of the disease, its diagnostic methods and currently used treatments. We searched 2 scientific databases: Medline (EBSCO) and Science Direct, for the years 1996 to 2011. In our search of abstracts, key words included nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. We examined 287 studies from Medline and 80 from Science Direct, all published in English. Finally, we decided to use 60 papers, including clinical cases and literature reviews. Patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome need particular multidisciplinary medical care. Knowledge of multiple and difficult to diagnose symptoms of the syndrome among professionals of various medical specialties is crucial. The consequences of the disease pose a threat to the health and life of patients. Therefore, an early diagnosis creates an opportunity for effective prevention and treatment of the disorder. Prevention is better than cure.

Shimada Y, Morita K, Kabasawa Y, et al.
Clinical manifestations and treatment for keratocystic odontogenic tumors associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a study in 25 Japanese patients.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2013; 42(3):275-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder and is characterized by tumorigenesis and physical deformity. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) of the jaws are a common manifestation of this syndrome. This study involved a pooled analysis of Japanese individuals with NBCCS and was performed with the aim of analyzing the clinical features of NBCCS and the patterns of occurrence and recurrence of KCOTs in Japanese individuals.
METHODS: This study included 25 patients. The relative frequencies of the major symptoms in these patients were compared with those reported in the literature. We also investigated 11 patients with KCOTs (40 lesions) initially treated at Tokyo Medical and Dental University.
RESULTS: KCOTs (100%) and palmar and/or plantar pits (n = 19; 76.0%) were the most frequently observed manifestations. Eleven patients (44.0%) had a radiologically confirmed rib anomaly. Nineteen patients (76.0%) had a family history of the syndrome within first-degree relatives. Japanese patients had a relatively low frequency of basal cell carcinoma (n = 7; 28.0%) and falx calcification (n = 7; 28.0%) compared with that reported in other populations. Twelve of the total 40 KCOTs (30.0%) that were followed up for 6 months or more recurred. All recurrent cases had undergone conservative treatment, whereas no recurrences occurred in cases that had undergone radical treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence of KCOTs associated with NBCCS is frequently encountered, and further investigations are required to confirm the optimal treatment that will ensure a complete cure improving the patient's quality of life.

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