PTCH1

Gene Summary

Gene:PTCH1; patched 1
Aliases: PTC, BCNS, HPE7, PTC1, PTCH, NBCCS, PTCH11
Location:9q22.3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the patched gene family. The encoded protein is the receptor for sonic hedgehog, a secreted molecule implicated in the formation of embryonic structures and in tumorigenesis, as well as the desert hedgehog and indian hedgehog proteins. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations of this gene have been associated with basal cell nevus syndrome, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, trichoepitheliomas, transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder, as well as holoprosencephaly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described, but their full length sequences and biological validity cannot be determined currently. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein patched homolog 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Skin, Basal Cell CarcinomaPTCH1 and Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) - Skin View Publications89
Basal Cell Nevus SyndromePTCH1 mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome View Publications76
MedulloblastomaPTCH1 and Medulloblastoma
In an exome sequencing study (Pugh et al, 2012) reported PTCH1 as one of 12 genes mutated at significant levels: with PTCH1 mutations in 7/92 patients (8%). In an ICGC deep sequencing study of 125 medulloblastoma tumour-normal pairs, (Jones DTW et al, 2012) reported PTCH1 in 8 (6%) of cases.
View Publications20
-PTCH1 and Cerebellar Neoplasms View Publications12
Stomach CancerPTCH1 and Stomach Cancer View Publications11
Cervical CancerPTCH1 and Cervical Cancer View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTCH1 (cancer-related)

Smith MJ, Beetz C, Williams SG, et al.
Germline mutations in SUFU cause Gorlin syndrome-associated childhood medulloblastoma and redefine the risk associated with PTCH1 mutations.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(36):4155-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations are causative of Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma), but detection rates > 70% have rarely been reported. We aimed to define the causative mutations in individuals with Gorlin syndrome without PTCH1 mutations.
METHODS: We undertook exome sequencing on lymphocyte DNA from four unrelated individuals from families with Gorlin syndrome with no PTCH1 mutations found by Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), or RNA analysis.
RESULTS: A germline heterozygous nonsense mutation in SUFU was identified in one of four exomes. Sanger sequencing of SUFU in 23 additional PTCH1-negative Gorlin syndrome families identified a SUFU mutation in a second family. Copy-number analysis of SUFU by MLPA revealed a large heterozygous deletion in a third family. All three SUFU-positive families fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Gorlin syndrome, although none had odontogenic jaw keratocysts. Each SUFU-positive family included a single case of medulloblastoma, whereas only two (1.7%) of 115 individuals with Gorlin syndrome and a PTCH1 mutation developed medulloblastoma.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate convincing evidence that SUFU mutations can cause classical Gorlin syndrome. Our study redefines the risk of medulloblastoma in Gorlin syndrome, dependent on the underlying causative gene. Previous reports have found a 5% risk of medulloblastoma in Gorlin syndrome. We found a < 2% risk in PTCH1 mutation-positive individuals, with a risk up to 20× higher in SUFU mutation-positive individuals. Our data suggest childhood brain magnetic resonance imaging surveillance is justified in SUFU-related, but not PTCH1-related, Gorlin syndrome.

Chung JH, Larsen AR, Chen E, Bunz F
A PTCH1 homolog transcriptionally activated by p53 suppresses Hedgehog signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(47):33020-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/11/2015 Related Publications
The p53-mediated responses to DNA damage and the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are each recurrently dysregulated in many types of human cancer. Here we describe PTCH53, a p53 target gene that is homologous to the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 and can function as a repressor of Hh pathway activation. PTCH53 (previously designated PTCHD4) was highly responsive to p53 in vitro and was among a small number of genes that were consistently expressed at reduced levels in diverse TP53 mutant cell lines and human tumors. Increased expression of PTCH53 inhibited canonical Hh signaling by the G protein-coupled receptor SMO. PTCH53 thus delineates a novel, inducible pathway by which p53 can repress tumorigenic Hh signals.

Reichrath J, Rass K
Ultraviolet damage, DNA repair and vitamin D in nonmelanoma skin cancer and in malignant melanoma: an update.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 810:208-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Skin exposure with UV radiation (UV) is the main cause of skin cancer development. Epidemiological data indicate that excessive or cumulative UV exposure takes place years and decades before the resulting malignancies arise. The most important defense mechanisms that protect human skin against UV radiation involve melanin synthesis and active repair mechanisms. DNA is the major target of direct or indirect UV-induced cellular damage. Low pigmentation capacity in white Caucasians and rare congenital defects in DNA repair are mainly responsible for protection failures. The important function of nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) to protect against skin cancer becomes obvious by the rare genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum, in which diverse NER genes are mutated. In animal models, it has been demonstrated that UVB is more effective to induce skin cancer than UVA. UV-induced DNA photoproducts are able to cause specific mutations (UV-signature) in susceptible genes for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In SCC development, UV-signature mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common event, as precancerous lesions reveal -80% and SCCs > 90% UV-specific p53 mutations. Mutations in Hedgehog pathway related genes, especially PTCH1, are well known to represent the most significant pathogenic event in BCC. However, specific UV-induced mutations can be found only in -50% of sporadic BCCs. Thus, cumulative UVB radiation cannot be considered to represent the only etiologic risk factor for BCC development. During the last decades, experimental animal models, including genetically engineered mice, the Xiphophorus hybrid fish, the South American oppossum and human skin xenografts, have further elucidated the important role of the DNA repair system in the multi-step process of UV-induced melanomagenesis. An increasing body of evidence now indicates that nucleotide excision repair is not the only DNA repair pathway that is involved in UV-induced tumorigenesis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. An interesting new perspective in DNA damage and repair research lies in the participation of mammalian mismatch repair (MMR) in UV damage correction. As MMR enzyme hMSH2 displays a p53 target gene, is induced by UVB radiation and is involved in NER pathways, studies have now been initiated to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological role of MMR in malignant melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer development. Interestingly, increasing evidence now demonstrates an important function of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for prevention of BCC, SCC and melanoma, identifying the vitamin D receptor as a tumor suppressor in the skin.

Palmer CJ, Galan-Caridad JM, Weisberg SP, et al.
Zfx facilitates tumorigenesis caused by activation of the Hedgehog pathway.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(20):5914-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway regulates normal development and cell proliferation in metazoan organisms, but its aberrant activation can promote tumorigenesis. Hh-induced tumors arise from various tissues and they may be indolent or aggressive, as is the case with skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or cerebellar medulloblastoma, respectively. Little is known about common cell-intrinsic factors that control the development of such diverse Hh-dependent tumors. Transcription factor Zfx is required for the self-renewal of hematopoietic and embryonic stem cells, as well as for the propagation of acute myeloid and T-lymphoblastic leukemias. We report here that Zfx facilitates the development of experimental BCC and medulloblastoma in mice initiated by deletion of the Hh inhibitory receptor Ptch1. Simultaneous deletion of Zfx along with Ptch1 prevented BCC formation and delayed medulloblastoma development. In contrast, Zfx was dispensable for tumorigenesis in a mouse model of glioblastoma. We used genome-wide expression and chromatin-binding analysis in a human medulloblastoma cell line to characterize direct, evolutionarily conserved targets of Zfx, identifying Dis3L and Ube2j1 as two targets required for the growth of the human medulloblastoma cells. Our results establish Zfx as a common cell-intrinsic regulator of diverse Hh-induced tumors, with implications for the definition of new therapeutic targets in these malignancies.

Ross JS, Wang K, Rand JV, et al.
Next-generation sequencing of adrenocortical carcinoma reveals new routes to targeted therapies.
J Clin Pathol. 2014; 67(11):968-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
AIMS: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) carries a poor prognosis and current systemic cytotoxic therapies result in only modest improvement in overall survival. In this retrospective study, we performed a comprehensive genomic profiling of 29 consecutive ACC samples to identify potential targets of therapy not currently searched for in routine clinical practice.
METHODS: DNA from 29 ACC was sequenced to high, uniform coverage (Illumina HiSeq) and analysed for genomic alterations (GAs).
RESULTS: At least one GA was found in 22 (76%) ACC (mean 2.6 alterations per ACC). The most frequent GAs were in TP53 (34%), NF1 (14%), CDKN2A (14%), MEN1 (14%), CTNNB1 (10%) and ATM (10%). APC, CCND2, CDK4, DAXX, DNMT3A, KDM5C, LRP1B, MSH2 and RB1 were each altered in two cases (7%) and EGFR, ERBB4, KRAS, MDM2, NRAS, PDGFRB, PIK3CA, PTEN and PTCH1 were each altered in a single case (3%). In 17 (59%) of ACC, at least one GA was associated with an available therapeutic or a mechanism-based clinical trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Next-generation sequencing can discover targets of therapy for relapsed and metastatic ACC and shows promise to improve outcomes for this aggressive form of cancer.

Ma C, Nong K, Wu B, et al.
miR-212 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway receptor patched-1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of miR-212 on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its target protein.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-212 in PDAC tissues and pancreatic cancer cell lines. miR-212 mimic, miR-212 inhibitor and negative control were transfected into pancreatic cancer cells and the effect of miR-212 up-regulation and down-regulation on the proliferation, migration and invasion of cells were investigated. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of Patched-1(PTCH1) were measured. Meanwhile, luciferase assays were performed to validate PTCH1 as miR-212 target in PDAC.
RESULTS: miR-212 was up-regulated in PDAC tissues and cells.Using both gain-of function and loss-of function experiments, a pro-oncogenic function of miR-212 was demonstrated in PDAC. Moreover, up-regulated of PTCH1 could attenuate the effect induced by miR-212.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that miR-212 could facilitate PDAC progression and metastasis through targeting PTCH1, implicating a novel mechanism for the progression of PDAC.

Rao PJ, Vardhini NV, Parvathi MV, et al.
Prevalence of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 gene rearrangements in Chennai population and its correlation with clinical parameters.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):9539-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world. In India, about 42 million people suffer from various thyroid disorders. However, based on population-based cancer registry (PBCR) and Chennai cancer registry, thyroid cancer is emerging as a common cancer particularly in Chennai. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is considered as the most prevalent cancer constituting about 80-85 % of thyroid malignancies. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) gene rearrangements are one of the major genetic alterations found in papillary thyroid carcinoma. This present study aims at estimating the frequency of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 gene rearrangements in Chennai population and investigating the correlation between RET/PTC gene expressions with clinical parameters. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues obtained from 30 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were analyzed. Initially, to differentiate classic and follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma samples, immunohistochemistry was performed. Thereafter, total RNA was isolated, and quantitative evaluation of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 gene rearrangements by real-time PCR was performed. Chi-square test was performed to understand the correlation between positive and negative mutations of RET/PTC messenger RNA (mRNA) expression with clinical parameters. RET/PTC3 gene rearrangements were identified in 26/30 (86.67 %) cases, and none of the patient in our series had RET/PTC1 gene rearrangements. There was no statistically significant difference observed between positive and negative mutations of RET/PTC3 mRNA expression with clinic pathological parameters. Our results indicate that RET/PTC3 gene rearrangements are the most prevalent form of rearrangements in PTCs of Chennai population.

Dessinioti C, Plaka M, Stratigos AJ
Vismodegib for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma: results and implications of the ERIVANCE BCC trial.
Future Oncol. 2014; 10(6):927-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The need for effective treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC), in conjunction with major advances in the elucidation of the molecular basis of this tumor has led to the advent of new targeted therapies - namely, hedgehog inhibitors. The rationale for their use in patients with advanced BCC is based on their inhibitory effect on the hedgehog pathway, which is aberrantly activated in BCCs due to mutations of its primary components, PTCH1 and SMO genes. Vismodegib (GDC-0449) is an orally bioavailable hedgehog pathway inhibitor that selectively inhibits SMO. The ERIVANCE BCC study is a Phase II, international, multicenter clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of vismodegib 150 mg once daily in patients with locally advanced or metastatic BCC. Vismodegib has been approved for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic BCC, or with locally advanced BCC that has recurred following surgery or who are not candidates for surgery or radiation therapy. This article will outline the rationale, design and available results from the ERIVANCE BCC study and discuss the clinical implications of vismodegib in the management of patients with BCC. Challenges regarding vismodegib use include the recurrence of BCC after drug discontinuation, the development of acquired resistance, the dramatic efficacy in patients with Gorlin syndrome, and class-related drug toxicity. Ongoing clinical trials aim to explore the role of vismodegib in the neoadjuvant setting prior to surgery, the potential use of alternate dosing regimens in order to limit chronic adverse events, as well as the identification of patients with BCC that are more likely to respond to this targeted therapy based on genotypic and/or phenotypic characteristics.

Sun Y, Wang Y, Fan C, et al.
Estrogen promotes stemness and invasiveness of ER-positive breast cancer cells through Gli1 activation.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:137 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although long-term estrogen (E2) exposure is associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk, and E2 appears to sustain growth of BC cells that express functional estrogen receptors (ERs), its role in promoting BC stem cells (CSCs) remains unclear. Considering that Gli1, part of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) developmental pathway, has been shown to mediate CSCs, we investigated whether E2 and Gli1 could promote CSCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ER+ BC cell lines.
METHODS: We knocked down Gli1 in several BC cells using a doxycycline-controlled vector, and compared Gli1-knockdown cells and Gli1+ cells in behavior and expression of ER, Gli1, ALDH1 (BC-CSC marker), Shh, Ptch1 (Shh receptor) and SOX2, Nanog and Bmi-1 (CSC-associated transcriptions factors), using PCR; tissue microarrays, western blot; chromatin immunoprecipitation q-PCR, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy; fluorescence-activated cell sorting; annexin-flow cytometry (for apoptosis); mammosphere culture; and colony formation, immunohistochemistry, Matrigel and wound-scratch assays.
RESULTS: Both mRNA and protein expressions of ER correlated with those of Gli1 and ALDH1. E2 induced Gli1 expression only in ER+ BC cells. E2 promoted CSC renewal, invasiveness and EMT in ER+/Gli1+ cells but not in Gli1-knockdown cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that estrogen acts via Gli1 to promote CSC development and EMT in ER+ BC cells. These findings also imply that Gli1 mediates cancer stem cells, and thus could be a target of a novel treatment for ER+ breast cancer.

Pöschl J, Stark S, Neumann P, et al.
Genomic and transcriptomic analyses match medulloblastoma mouse models to their human counterparts.
Acta Neuropathol. 2014; 128(1):123-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonal brain tumor with highly variable outcome. In order to study the biology of this tumor and to perform preclinical treatment studies, a lot of effort has been put into the generation of appropriate mouse models. The usage of these models, however, has become debatable with the advances in human medulloblastoma subgrouping. This study brings together multiple relevant mouse models and matches genetic alterations and gene expression data of 140 murine tumors with 423 human medulloblastomas in a global way. Using AGDEX analysis and k-means clustering, we show that the Blbp-cre::Ctnnb1(ex3)(Fl/+)Trp53 (Fl/Fl) mouse model fits well to human WNT medulloblastoma, and that, among various Myc- or Mycn-based mouse medulloblastomas, tumors in Glt1-tTA::TRE-MYCN/Luc mice proved to be most specific for human group 3 medulloblastoma. None of the analyzed models displayed a significant match to group 4 tumors. Intriguingly, mice with Ptch1 or Smo mutations selectively modeled SHH medulloblastomas of adulthood, although such mutations occur in all human age groups. We therefore suggest that the infantile or adult gene expression pattern of SHH MBs are not solely determined by specific mutations. This is supported by the observation that human medulloblastomas with PTCH1 mutations displayed more similarities to PTCH1 wild-type tumors of the same age group than to PTCH1-mutated tumors of the other age group. Together, we provide novel insights into previously unrecognized specificity of distinct models and suggest these findings as a solid basis to choose the appropriate model for preclinical studies on medulloblastoma.

Larsen AK, Mikkelsen DB, Hertz JM, Bygum A
Manifestations of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
Dan Med J. 2014; 61(5):A4829 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an uncommon hereditary condition caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene causing a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits and jaw cysts are cardinal features. Many clinicians are unfamiliar with the different manifestations and the fact that patients are especially sensitive to ionizing radiation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome seen at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre or at Department of Plastic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, in the period from 1994 to 2013.
RESULTS: A total of 17 patients from eight families fulfilled the diagnostic criteria. In all, 14 patients had basal cell carcinomas, 12 patients had jaw cysts and ten patients had calcification of the falx cerebri. Other clinical features were frontal bossing, kyphoscoliosis, rib anomalies, coalitio, cleft lip/palate, eye anomalies, milia and syndactyly. In one family, medulloblastoma and astrocytoma occurred. Traditional treatment principles of basal cell carcinomas were used including radiotherapy performed in six patients. PTCH1 mutations were identified in five families and none of these mutations had previously been described.
CONCLUSION: The patient cohort illustrates classic and rare disease manifestations. It is necessary to remind clinicians that radiation therapy in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is relatively contraindicated. Today, mutation analysis can be used for confirmation of the diagnosis and for predictive genetic testing. Patients should be offered genetic counselling and life-long surveillance.
FUNDING: not relevant.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

Shahi MH, Holt R, Rebhun RB
Blocking signaling at the level of GLI regulates downstream gene expression and inhibits proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96593 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
The Hedgehog-GLI signaling pathway is active in a variety of human malignancies and is known to contribute to the growth and survival of human osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we examined the expression and regulation of GLI transcription factors in multiple canine osteosarcoma cell lines and analyzed the effects of inhibiting GLI with GANT61, a GLI-specific inhibitor. Compared with normal canine osteoblasts, real-time PCR showed that GLI1 and GLI2 were highly expressed in two out of three cell lines and correlated with downstream target gene expression of PTCH1and PAX6. Treatment of canine osteosarcoma cells with GANT61 resulted in decreased expression of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and PAX6. Furthermore, GANT61 inhibited proliferation and colony formation in all three canine osteosarcoma cell lines. The finding that GLI signaling activity is present and active in canine osteosarcoma cells suggests that spontaneously arising osteosarcoma in dogs might serve as a good model for future preclinical testing of GLI inhibitors.

Minna E, Romeo P, De Cecco L, et al.
miR-199a-3p displays tumor suppressor functions in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(9):2513-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
Thyroid cancer incidence is rapidly increasing. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most frequent hystotype, usually displays good prognosis, but no effective therapeutic options are available for the fraction of progressive PTC patients. BRAF and RET/PTC are the most frequent driving genetic lesions identified in PTC. We developed two complementary in vitro models based on RET/PTC1 oncogene, starting from the hypothesis that miRNAs modulated by a driving PTC-oncogene are likely to have a role in thyroid neoplastic processes. Through this strategy, we identified a panel of deregulated miRNAs. Among these we focused on miR-199a-3p and showed its under-expression in PTC specimens and cell lines. We demonstrated that miR-199a-3p restoration in PTC cells reduces MET and mTOR protein levels, impairs migration and proliferation and, more interesting, induces lethality through an unusual form of cell death similar to methuosis, caused by macropinocytosis dysregulation. Silencing MET or mTOR, both involved in survival pathways, does not recapitulate miR-199a-3p-induced cell lethality, thus suggesting that the cooperative regulation of multiple gene targets is necessary. Integrated analysis of miR-199a-3p targets unveils interesting networks including HGF and macropinocytosis pathways. Overall our results indicate miR-199a-3p as a tumor suppressor miRNA in PTC.

Wu G, Lu X, Wang Y, et al.
Epigenetic high regulation of ATAD2 regulates the Hh pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(1):351-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATAD2 is associated with many cellular progresses such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Some studies suggest ATAD2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. In our previous studies, we found that ATAD2 is highly expressed in HCC tissues, compared with adjacent normal tissues, and patients with high expression of ATAD2 had a poorer prognosis. Moreover, we found mir-372 can regulate the expression of ATAD2 in HCC cell lines. We also detected a relationship between the mRNA expression of ATAD2 and Ptch1 by gene microarray. Here, we completed the function studies of ATAD2 in vivo and in vitro, and tested whether ATAD2 could regulate the Hh pathway. ATAD2 and Hh pathway protein expressions in 80 HCC specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The mRNA expression of ATAD2 and Hh pathway members in paired-HCC tissues and cell lines were, respectively, analyzed using quantitative PCR. ATAD2‑RNAi was transduced into HCCLM3 and Huh7 cells, using a lentiviral vector. The effect of ATAD2 in HCC cell lines on cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Tumorigenicity experiments in nude mice were performed to test the function of ATAD2 in vivo. Pharmacological regulation of Hh signaling was performed to test the relation between the ATAD2 and Hh pathways and C-myc. We found that ATAD2 and Ptch1 were both highly expressed in HCC tissues, compared with paired normal hepatic tissues. In addition, we found that ATAD2 could affect the expression of the Hh pathway by PCR and western blot anaysis in HCC cell lines, by observing the outcome before and after transfection. We speculate that ATAD2 cooperates with the MYC gene to regulate the expression of SMO and Gli, activating the Hh pathway and inducing an active feedback of the Hh pathway.

Villegas VE, Rahman MF, Fernandez-Barrena MG, et al.
Identification of novel non-coding RNA-based negative feedback regulating the expression of the oncogenic transcription factor GLI1.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(5):912-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Non-coding RNAs are a complex class of nucleic acids, with growing evidence supporting regulatory roles in gene expression. Here we identify a non-coding RNA located head-to-head with the gene encoding the Glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1), a transcriptional effector of multiple cancer-associated signaling pathways. The expression of this three-exon GLI1 antisense (GLI1AS) RNA in cancer cells was concordant with GLI1 levels. siRNAs knockdown of GLI1AS up-regulated GLI1 and increased cellular proliferation and tumor growth in a xenograft model system. Conversely, GLI1AS overexpression decreased the levels of GLI1, its target genes PTCH1 and PTCH2, and cellular proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that GLI1 knockdown reduced GLI1AS, while GLI1 overexpression increased GLI1AS, supporting the role of GLI1AS as a target gene of the GLI1 transcription factor. Activation of TGFβ and Hedgehog signaling, two known regulators of GLI1 expression, conferred a concordant up-regulation of GLI1 and GLI1AS in cancer cells. Finally, analysis of the mechanism underlying the interplay between GLI1 and GLI1AS indicates that the non-coding RNA elicits a local alteration of chromatin structure by increasing the silencing mark H3K27me3 and decreasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to this locus. Taken together, the data demonstrate the existence of a novel non-coding RNA-based negative feedback loop controlling GLI1 levels, thus expanding the repertoire of mechanisms regulating the expression of this oncogenic transcription factor.

Abedi-Ardekani B, Hainaut P
Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract: a review of somatic mutation distributions.
Arch Iran Med. 2014; 17(4):286-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract (UGIT) comprise esophageal, esophago-gastric junction, stomach and duodenal cancers. Together, these cancers represent over 1.5 million cases and are the cause of about 1.25 million deaths annually. This group of cancers encompasses diseases with marked disparities in etiology, geographic distribution, histopathological features and frequency. Based on histological origin, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), which arises through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence within the squamous mucosa, is a completely different cancer than junction, stomach and duodenal cancers, which develop within glandular epithelia through cascades involving inflammation, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma. At the frontline between these two histological domains, cancers of the esophago-gastric junction constitute a mixed group of glandular tumors including distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and cancers arising within the most proximal part of the stomach - the cardia. Most of UGIT cancers are sporadic, although familial susceptibility genes have been identified for stomach and rare cases of ESCC. We have used the COSMIC database (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/) to identify genes commonly mutated in UGIT cancers. Regardless of etiology and histopathology, three genes are mutated in at least 5% of UGIT cancers: TP53, CDKN2a and PIK3CA. Another three genes, NFE2L2, PTCH1 and NOTCH1, are mutated in ESCC only. Conversely, genes of the RAS family and of the CDH1/APC/CTNNB1 pathway are mutated only in non-squamous cancers, with differences in mutated genes according to topography. We review the potential functional significance of these observations for understanding mechanisms of UGIT carcinogenesis.

Gomes DC, Leal LF, Mermejo LM, et al.
Sonic hedgehog signaling is active in human adrenal cortex development and deregulated in adrenocortical tumors.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1209-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway plays a key role in rodent adrenal cortex development and is involved in tumorigenesis in several human tissues, but data in human adrenal glands are limited.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to analyze the involvement of the SHH pathway in human adrenal development and tumorigenesis and the effects of SHH inhibition on an adrenocortical tumor (ACT) cell line.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of SHH pathway components was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 51 normal adrenals (33 fetal) and 34 ACTs (23 pediatric) and by quantitative PCR in 81 ACTs (61 pediatric) and 19 controls (10 pediatric). The effects of SHH pathway inhibition on gene expression and cell viability in the NCI-H295A adrenocortical tumor cell line after cyclopamine treatment were analyzed.
RESULTS: SHH pathway proteins were present in fetal and postnatal normal adrenals and showed distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression throughout development. Adult adrenocortical carcinomas presented with higher expression of PTCH1, SMO, GLI3, and SUFU compared with normal adult adrenal cortices. Conversely, pediatric ACTs showed lower mRNA expression of SHH, PTCH1, SMO, GLI1, and GLI3 compared with normal pediatric adrenal cortices. In vitro treatment with cyclopamine resulted in decreased GLI3, SFRP1, and CTNNB1 mRNA expression and β-catenin staining as well as decreased cell viability.
CONCLUSIONS: The SHH pathway is active in human fetal and postnatal adrenals, up-regulated in adult adrenocortical carcinomas, and down-regulated in pediatric ACTs. SHH pathway antagonism impaired cell viability. The SHH pathway is deregulated in ACTs and might provide a new target therapy to be explored.

Riester M, Wei W, Waldron L, et al.
Risk prediction for late-stage ovarian cancer by meta-analysis of 1525 patient samples.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(5) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer causes more than 15000 deaths per year in the United States. The survival of patients is quite heterogeneous, and accurate prognostic tools would help with the clinical management of these patients.
METHODS: We developed and validated two gene expression signatures, the first for predicting survival in advanced-stage, serous ovarian cancer and the second for predicting debulking status. We integrated 13 publicly available datasets totaling 1525 subjects. We trained prediction models using a meta-analysis variation on the compound covariable method, tested models by a "leave-one-dataset-out" procedure, and validated models in additional independent datasets. Selected genes from the debulking signature were validated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in two further independent cohorts of 179 and 78 patients, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The survival signature stratified patients into high- and low-risk groups (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.84 to 2.61) statistically significantly better than the TCGA signature (P = .04). POSTN, CXCL14, FAP, NUAK1, PTCH1, and TGFBR2 were validated by qRT-PCR (P < .05) and POSTN, CXCL14, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were validated by immunohistochemistry (P < .001) as independent predictors of debulking status. The sum of immunohistochemistry intensities for these three proteins provided a tool that classified 92.8% of samples correctly in high- and low-risk groups for suboptimal debulking (area under the curve = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.93).
CONCLUSIONS: Our survival signature provides the most accurate and validated prognostic model for early- and advanced-stage high-grade, serous ovarian cancer. The debulking signature accurately predicts the outcome of cytoreductive surgery, potentially allowing for stratification of patients for primary vs secondary cytoreduction.

Cordeiro BM, Oliveira ID, Alves MT, et al.
SHH, WNT, and NOTCH pathways in medulloblastoma: when cancer stem cells maintain self-renewal and differentiation properties.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2014; 30(7):1165-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Infant medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant neuroepithelial embryonal tumor of the cerebellum, believed to derive from precursor granule cells with stem or progenitor cells appearance, and caused by a change in expression profile of genes related to the development. This work aims to study the expression profile of these genes in MB tumors, correlating with clinicopathological characteristics.
METHODS: We quantified, by qPCR in 40 MB tumor samples, the expression of genes in HH (PTCH1, PTCH2, and GLI1), WNT (APC, CTNNB1, WIF1, and DKK2), and NOTCH pathways (NOTCH2 and HES1), which have a crucial role in development, and genes as MYCC, MYCN, and TERT, correlating this findings to patient's clinicopathological characteristics.
RESULTS: Considering the universal RNA as our control sample, and considering the median of gene expression in the control samples as our cutoff, we observed that HES1 gene showed decreased expression compared to control (p = 0.0059), but patients with HES1 overexpression were directly related to a shorter survival (p = 0.0165). Individuals with higher GLI1 gene expression had significant shorter survival (p = 0.0469), and high expression was prevalent in patients up to 5 years old (p = 0.0479). Patients showing high PTCH2 expression were related to worse survival (p = 0.0426), and it was correlated with GLI1 high expression (p = 0.0094). We also observed a concomitant overexpression of WIF1 and DKK2 genes in a subgroup of MB samples (n = 11, p = 0.0118).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the presence of activated developmental signaling pathways in MB, which are important for cell proliferation and maintenance, and that may be targeted for novel therapeutic options.

Roncalés-Samanes P, Peña-Segura JL, Fernando-Martínez R, et al.
[Gorlin syndrome in the paediatric age].
Rev Neurol. 2014; 58(7):303-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gorlin syndrome (GS) is a disorder transmitted by dominant autosomal inheritance associated to mutations in PTCH1, the main characteristic of which is the appearance of basal cell carcinomas, together with skeletal abnormalities, odontogenic keratocysts and intracranial tumours.
CASE REPORT: A girl aged 3 years and 10 months, who was admitted due to acute ataxia. Some of the more striking features in the patient's personal history include psychomotor retardation and a family history of suspected GS in the mother as a result of a maxillary cyst. An examination revealed macrocephaly with a prominent forehead and hypertelorism, as well as nevus. A genetic study for GS was requested, in which mutation c.930delC was detected in exon 6 of the PTCH1 gene in heterozygosis.
CONCLUSIONS: In GS there is an increase in the likelihood of developing basal cell carcinomas and strict dermatological monitoring is necessary. A clinical neurological follow-up and also magnetic resonance imaging scans are needed for an early diagnosis of intracranial tumours, especially in the case of medulloblastomas. Odontogenic keratocysts, other skin disorders, and cardiac and ovarian fibromas are characteristic, as are skeletal abnormalities, which require regular clinical and neuroimaging controls and treatment if needed, but radiation must be avoided. GS is a rare disorder, but it must be suspected in the presence of characteristic alterations. It requires a multidisciplinary follow-up, and it is also necessary to establish a protocol on how to act so as to allow early diagnosis and treatment of the potentially severe complications deriving from this disease.

Kool M, Jones DT, Jäger N, et al.
Genome sequencing of SHH medulloblastoma predicts genotype-related response to smoothened inhibition.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(3):393-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors recently entered clinical trials for sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB). Clinical response is highly variable. To understand the mechanism(s) of primary resistance and identify pathways cooperating with aberrant SHH signaling, we sequenced and profiled a large cohort of SHH-MBs (n = 133). SHH pathway mutations involved PTCH1 (across all age groups), SUFU (infants, including germline), and SMO (adults). Children >3 years old harbored an excess of downstream MYCN and GLI2 amplifications and frequent TP53 mutations, often in the germline, all of which were rare in infants and adults. Functional assays in different SHH-MB xenograft models demonstrated that SHH-MBs harboring a PTCH1 mutation were responsive to SMO inhibition, whereas tumors harboring an SUFU mutation or MYCN amplification were primarily resistant.

Valdivielso-Ramos M, Solera J, Mauleon C, et al.
Novel mutation in the PTCH1 gene in a patient with Gorlin syndrome with prominent clinical features.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2014; 39(3):406-7 [PubMed] Related Publications

Campbell VT, Nadesan P, Ali SA, et al.
Hedgehog pathway inhibition in chondrosarcoma using the smoothened inhibitor IPI-926 directly inhibits sarcoma cell growth.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(5):1259-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibition in cancer has been evaluated in both the ligand-independent and ligand-dependent settings, where Hh signaling occurs either directly within the cancer cells or within the nonmalignant cells of the tumor microenvironment. Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of cartilage in which there is ligand-dependent activation of Hh signaling. IPI-926 is a potent, orally delivered small molecule that inhibits Hh pathway signaling by binding to Smoothened (SMO). Here, the impact of Hh pathway inhibition on primary chondrosarcoma xenografts was assessed. Mice bearing primary human chondrosarcoma xenografts were treated with IPI-926. The expression levels of known Hh pathway genes, in both the tumor and stroma, and endpoint tumor volumes were measured. Gene expression profiling of tumors from IPI-926-treated mice was conducted to identify potential novel Hh target genes. Hh target genes were studied to determine their contribution to the chondrosarcoma neoplastic phenotype. IPI-926 administration results in downmodulation of the Hh pathway in primary chondrosarcoma xenografts, as demonstrated by evaluation of the Hh target genes GLI1 and PTCH1, as well as inhibition of tumor growth. Chondrosarcomas exhibited autocrine and paracrine Hh signaling, and both were affected by IPI-926. Decreased tumor growth is accompanied by histopathologic changes, including calcification and loss of tumor cells. Gene profiling studies identified genes differentially expressed in chondrosarcomas following IPI-926 treatment, one of which, ADAMTSL1, regulates chondrosarcoma cell proliferation. These studies provide further insight into the role of the Hh pathway in chondrosarcoma and provide a scientific rationale for targeting the Hh pathway in chondrosarcoma.

Ross JS, Wang K, Gay L, et al.
New routes to targeted therapy of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas revealed by next-generation sequencing.
Oncologist. 2014; 19(3):235-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a subtype of primary liver cancer that is rarely curable by surgery and is rapidly increasing in incidence. Relapsed ICC has a poor prognosis, and current systemic nontargeted therapies are commonly extrapolated from those used in other gastrointestinal malignancies. We hypothesized that genomic profiling of clinical ICC samples would identify genomic alterations that are linked to targeted therapies and that could facilitate a personalized approach to therapy.
METHODS: DNA sequencing of hybridization-captured libraries was performed for 3,320 exons of 182 cancer-related genes and 36 introns of 14 genes frequently rearranged in cancer. Sample DNA was isolated from 40 μm of 28 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ICC specimens and sequenced to high coverage.
RESULTS: The most commonly observed alterations were within ARID1A (36%), IDH1/2 (36%), and TP53 (36%) as well as amplification of MCL1 (21%). Twenty cases (71%) harbored at least one potentially actionable alteration, including FGFR2 (14%), KRAS (11%), PTEN (11%), CDKN2A (7%), CDK6 (7%), ERBB3 (7%), MET (7%), NRAS (7%), BRCA1 (4%), BRCA2 (4%), NF1 (4%), PIK3CA (4%), PTCH1 (4%), and TSC1 (4%). Four (14%) of the ICC cases featured novel gene fusions involving the tyrosine kinases FGFR2 and NTRK1 (FGFR2-KIAA1598, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-TACC3, and RABGAP1L-NTRK1).
CONCLUSION: Two thirds of patients in this study harbored genomic alterations that are associated with targeted therapies and that have the potential to personalize therapy selection for to individual patients.

Xin Y, Shen XD, Cheng L, et al.
Perifosine inhibits S6K1-Gli1 signaling and enhances gemcitabine-induced anti-pancreatic cancer efficiency.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 73(4):711-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The pancreatic cancer has extremely low overall 5-year survival, and gemcitabine is the only approved single agent for pancreatic cancer treatment.
METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the potential effect of perifosine, a novel Akt inhibitor on gemcitabine-induced anti-pancreatic cancer effect both in vivo and in vitro.
RESULTS: We showed that sub-cytotoxic low concentration of perifosine dramatically enhanced gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. Perifosine inhibited Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin and Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in pancreatic cancer cells. Meanwhile, perifosine suppressed the hedgehog signaling, as it inhibited glioma-associated oncogenes (Gli) 1 activation and decreased its target protein patched 1 (PTCH1) expression. Our data demonstrated that perifosine blocked p70S6K1 (S6K1) activation, thus disrupting S6K1-Gli1 association and subsequent Gli1 activation. The reduction of S6K1 or Gli1 expression by target siRNAs inhibited PTCH1 expression and enhanced gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells. Significantly, perifosine dramatically enhanced gemcitabine-mediated antitumor effect in a PANC-1 xenograft severe combined immunodeficiency mice model.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we conclude that perifosine sensitizes gemcitabine-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer efficiency through regulating multiple signaling pathways.

Lubitz CC, Economopoulos KP, Pawlak AC, et al.
Hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: an institutional case series and molecular profile.
Thyroid. 2014; 24(6):958-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is increasing in incidence while mortality is unchanged. Identifying patients with higher risk of recurrence and death is essential. Case series identify the hobnail variant of PTC (HVPTC), which is characterized by micropapillary architecture, apocrine features, and loss of cellular polarity. Herein, we describe the clinical course, pathologic features, and mutational profile of patients at our institution with HVPTC.
METHODS: A query into the surgical pathologic database (2009-2012) was performed, and clinicopathologic data were collected on all patients carrying the diagnosis of HVPTC. BRAF(V600E) testing was performed on paraffin-embedded blocks using SNaPshot mutational analysis.
RESULTS: Twelve patients with HVPTC were identified, with an average age of 54.1±18.8 years. Seven patients (63.6%) were AJCC Stage III or IV at presentation. Tumors were large (3.7±2.0 cm), some were multifocal (33.3%), and frequently with extrathyroidal extension (58.3%), lymphovascular invasion (41.7%), and lymph node metastasis (75%). Forty percent of the patients had concomitant tall cell features (TCF), and two had small foci of undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Eighty percent of tumors undergoing mutational analysis had the BRAF(V600E) mutation, and the remaining 20% harbored a RET/PTC1 gene rearrangement. No other known thyroid cancer mutations were identified on SNaPshot analysis. At median follow-up of 26 months, four patients had recurrent or persistent disease, one of whom died from the disease one year after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: The hobnail variant of PTC has an aggressive behavior, with a high incidence of infiltrative tumors and metastatic disease. Strikingly, all tumors in our series harbored a PTC-associated genetic abnormality, either a BRAF(V600E) mutation (80%) or a RET/PTC1 rearrangement (20%). This histologic variant warrants further study, and patients with this diagnosis should be observed closely for recurrence.

Ponti G, Bertazzoni G, Pastorino L, et al.
Proteomic analysis of PTCH1+/- fibroblast lysate and conditioned culture media isolated from the skin of healthy subjects and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:794028 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis underlying the increased predisposition to the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the context of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is linked to molecular mechanisms that differ from sporadic BCCs. Patients with Gorlin syndrome tend to develop multiple BCCs at an early age and present with tumors of non-sun-exposed skin. The aim of this study was to compare the proteomic profile of cultured fibroblast and fibroblast conditioned culture media of PTCH1+ and nonmutated fibroblasts.
RESULTS: Proteomic analysis was performed using Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry in PTCH1+ fibroblast conditioned media isolated from not affected sun-protected skin areas of Gorlin patients and from healthy subjects. 12 protein cluster peaks, >5 kDa, had significant differences in their peak intensities between PTCH1+ and PTCH1- subject groups. We detected a strongly MMP1 overexpression in PTCH1+ fibroblasts obtained from NBCCS patients with respect to healthy donors.
CONCLUSION: Protein profiles in the fibroblast conditioned media revealed statistically significant differences between two different types (missense versus nonsense) of PTCH1 mutations. These differences could be useful as signatures to identify PTCH1 gene carriers at high risk for the development of NBCCS-associated malignancies and to develop novel experimental molecular tailored therapies based on these druggable targets.

Chung JH, Bunz F
A loss-of-function mutation in PTCH1 suggests a role for autocrine hedgehog signaling in colorectal tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(12):2208-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is largely suppressed in the normal differentiated tissues of the adult but activated in many cancers. The Hh pathway can either be activated by the expression of Hh ligands, or by mutations that cause constitutive, ligand-independent signaling. Colorectal cancer cells frequently express Hh ligands that are believed to exert paracrine effects on the stromal component of the tumor. Evidence for a more direct role of Hh signaling on the growth and evolution of colorectal cancer cell clones has been lacking. Here, we report a loss-of-function mutation of PTCH1, a tumor suppressor in the Hh pathway, in a colorectal cancer that exhibits transcriptional upregulation of the downstream Hh gene GLI1. This finding demonstrates that autocrine Hh signaling can provide a selective advantage to evolving tumors that arise in the colorectal epithelia, and suggests a definable group of colorectal cancer patients that could derive enhanced benefit from Hh pathway inhibitors.

Kiuru M, McDermott G, Coit DC, et al.
Basal cell carcinosarcoma with PTCH1 mutations in both epithelial and sarcomatoid primary tumor components and in the sarcomatoid metastasis.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(1):138-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinosarcoma is a rare biphenotypic malignant skin tumor, in which one tumor component has light microscopic features of basal cell carcinoma, whereas the other has features of sarcoma. Clinical experience with this tumor is limited, and associated molecular genetic alterations are unknown. Herein, we report a unique case of metastatic basal cell carcinosarcoma, in which we analyzed the 2 components of the primary tumor as well as the metastasis by next-generation sequencing. The patient was a 72-year-old man who presented with a 7-year history of a large tumor of the left forearm. The tumor showed mixed features of basal cell carcinoma and undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient underwent a wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy, which revealed microscopic subcapsular deposits of metastatic sarcomatoid tumor. One year later, intra-abdominal metastatic tumor was detected and resected. It had sarcomatoid features by light microscopy and failed to stain for epithelial markers by immunohistochemistry. DNA was extracted separately from the epithelial and sarcomatoid component of the primary tumor, intra-abdominal metastasis, and normal tissue. All exons of 230 cancer-associated genes were sequenced to an average read depth of >500-fold. This revealed multiple identical mutations in epithelial and sarcomatoid tumor compartments. Both compartments harbored 2 identical mutations, a truncating and a missense mutation, in the patched gene (PTCH1). This finding is not only of interest for a shared heritage of different subpopulations in a biphenotypic tumor, but also relevant clinically. It provides a rationale for the clinical use of hedgehog pathway inhibitors for treatment of patients affected by this tumor. Unfortunately, the patient reported herein died of metastatic disease before targeted therapy could be initiated.

Sakamoto K, Morita K, Shimada Y, et al.
Peripheral odontogenic keratocyst associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014; 118(1):e19-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral odontogenic keratocyst (POKC) is a rare gingival cyst showing histologic features identical to those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. A rare case of POKC associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is presented.
STUDY DESIGN: A 24-year-old woman with NBCCS presented with a pigmented papule, 3 mm in size, involving the lingual gingiva of the right canine area of the mandible. Based on a clinical diagnosis of benign pigmentation, an excisional biopsy was performed, and a histopathologic diagnosis of POKC was rendered.
RESULTS: The lining cells were positive for the proteins GLI2, BCL2, keratin 8, keratin 17, and mTOR. TP53 and Ber-EP4 were also weakly positive. Gene mutational analysis on a buccal swab sample revealed 2 missense mutations in the PTCH1 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: This case is a distinctive example of a genuine soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor, in which an aberrant PTCH1-GLI pathway played a considerable role in the pathogenesis.

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