SIX1

Gene Summary

Gene:SIX1; SIX homeobox 1
Aliases: BOS3, TIP39, DFNA23
Location:14q23.1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a homeobox protein that is similar to the Drosophila 'sine oculis' gene product. This gene is found in a cluster of related genes on chromosome 14 and is thought to be involved in limb development. Defects in this gene are a cause of autosomal dominant deafness type 23 (DFNA23) and branchiootic syndrome type 3 (BOS3). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein SIX1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 26 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (49)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 26 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Mice, Inbred NOD
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Epithelium
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Wound Healing
  • TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Apoptosis
  • Tumor Burden
  • Transcription Factors
  • Western Blotting
  • siRNA
  • Tumor Markers
  • Mesoderm
  • Messenger RNA
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Cell Movement
  • Mutation
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Retina
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Trans-Activators
  • RNA Interference
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta Receptors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Chromosome 14
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • MicroRNAs
  • Up-Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 26 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SIX1 (cancer-related)

Eisner A, Pazyra-Murphy MF, Durresi E, et al.
The Eya1 phosphatase promotes Shh signaling during hindbrain development and oncogenesis.
Dev Cell. 2015; 33(1):22-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is critical in development and oncogenesis, but the mechanisms regulating this pathway remain unclear. Although protein phosphorylation clearly affects Shh signaling, little is known about phosphatases governing the pathway. Here, we conducted a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen of the phosphatome and identified Eya1 as a positive regulator of Shh signaling. We find that the catalytically active phosphatase Eya1 cooperates with the DNA-binding protein Six1 to promote gene induction in response to Shh and that Eya1/Six1 together regulate Gli transcriptional activators. We show that Eya1, which is mutated in a human deafness disorder, branchio-oto-renal syndrome, is critical for Shh-dependent hindbrain growth and development. Moreover, Eya1 drives the growth of medulloblastoma, a Shh-dependent hindbrain tumor. Together, these results identify Eya1 and Six1 as key components of the Shh transcriptional network in normal development and in oncogenesis.

Wegert J, Ishaque N, Vardapour R, et al.
Mutations in the SIX1/2 pathway and the DROSHA/DGCR8 miRNA microprocessor complex underlie high-risk blastemal type Wilms tumors.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(2):298-311 [PubMed] Related Publications
Blastemal histology in chemotherapy-treated pediatric Wilms tumors (nephroblastoma) is associated with adverse prognosis. To uncover the underlying tumor biology and find therapeutic leads for this subgroup, we analyzed 58 blastemal type Wilms tumors by exome and transcriptome sequencing and validated our findings in a large replication cohort. Recurrent mutations included a hotspot mutation (Q177R) in the homeo-domain of SIX1 and SIX2 in tumors with high proliferative potential (18.1% of blastemal cases); mutations in the DROSHA/DGCR8 microprocessor genes (18.2% of blastemal cases); mutations in DICER1 and DIS3L2; and alterations in IGF2, MYCN, and TP53, the latter being strongly associated with dismal outcome. DROSHA and DGCR8 mutations strongly altered miRNA expression patterns in tumors, which was functionally validated in cell lines expressing mutant DROSHA.

Walz AL, Ooms A, Gadd S, et al.
Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX homeodomain mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(2):286-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that tumors with SIX1/2 and/or miRNAPG mutations show a pre-induction metanephric mesenchyme gene expression pattern and are significantly associated with both perilobar nephrogenic rests and 11p15 imprinting aberrations. Significantly decreased expression of mature Let-7a and the miR-200 family (responsible for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition) in miRNAPG mutant tumors is associated with an undifferentiated blastemal histology. The combination of SIX and miRNAPG mutations in the same tumor is associated with evidence of RAS activation and a higher rate of relapse and death.

Xia Y, Zhu Y, Ma T, et al.
miR-204 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating SIX1 in NSCLC.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(20):3703-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The involvement of miR-204 in lung cancer development is unclear. In our study, we analyzed the expression of miR-204 in tumor- and adjacent-tissue samples from 141 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MiR-204 expression was decreased in tumor samples compared with non-cancerous tissue-derived controls. Moreover, miR-204 expression negatively correlated with homeobox protein SIX1 expression, tumor size and metastasis. MiR-204 silencing in miR-204-positive NSCLC cell lines promoted cell invasion and proliferation. Concomitantly, MiR-204 overexpression resulted in reduced cell proliferation and invasion, upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. SIX1 was identified as a potential target of miR-204, and SIX1 silencing partially compromised the invasive and proliferative capacity of miR-204-deficient cells. Thus, miR-204 may be involved in the NSCLC development.

Kong J, Zhou X, Liu S, et al.
Overexpression of sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 predicts poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(6):3018-27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
High expression levels of the human sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) gene have been correlated with numerous human malignancies. The SIX1 protein is involved in chromatin reconstruction and gene transcription, and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. This study explores the role of SIX1 in tumor progression and in the prognostic evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Real-time PCR, Western blotting analysis, immunofluorescence (IF) staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to examine SIX1 expression in HCC cell line/tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor and normal liver tissues. Statistical analysis was applied to evaluate the correlation between SIX1 overexpression and the clinicopathological features of HCC. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between prognostic factors and patient survival was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard models. The SIX1 protein was detected in 80.9% of HCCs, which was significantly higher than that in either adjacent non tumor liver or normal liver tissues (P < 0.01). SIX1 overexpression was positively correlated with tumor size, pTNM stage and venous infiltration. Moreover, the 5-year survival rate of patients with high expression of SIX1 was significantly lower than that of patients with low SIX1 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that pTNM stage and SIX1 protein expression were independent risk factors for survival in HCC. In conclusion, SIX1 plays an important role in the progression of HCC. High level expression of SIX1 is an independent poor prognostic factor of HCC.

Liu D, Zhang XX, Xi BX, et al.
Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 promotes DNA replication and cell proliferation in cervical cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1232-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant proliferation is the fundamental trait of tumor cells. The initiation of DNA replication represents a key process for cell proliferation, and has a marked impact on tumorigenesis and progression. Here we report that Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) functions as a master regulator in DNA replication of cervical cancer cells. The expression of SIX1 was induced by the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. The increase of SIX1 expression resulted in the upregulation of multiple genes related to the initiation of DNA replication, including the genes coding for the proteins in minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM2, MCM3, MCM6), DNA polymerase α-primase complex (POLA1, PRIM1, PRIM2), clamp loader (RFC3, RFC4, RFC5), DNA polymerase δ complex (POLD3) and DNA polymerase ε complex (POLE2). In line with this, the increase of SIX1 expression enhanced DNA synthesis, accelerated G1 to S phase progression, and promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and the growth of cervical cancer. Consistently, knockdown of SIX1 could hamper DNA synthesis, slow down G1 to S phase progression, and suppress tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth. Importantly, SIX1 could more efficiently promote anchorage-independent cell growth. These results suggest that the increase of SIX1 expression could promote tumorigenesis, progression and invasive growth of cervical cancer by promoting DNA replication, and that targeting SIX1 may have significant therapeutic value in cervical cancer treatment.

Lv H, Cui A, Sun F, et al.
Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 protein as an independent biomarker for gastric adenocarcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(1):74-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) protein is a member of the homeobox transcription factor family. Overexpression of SIX1 contributes to cancer progression and is associated with adverse outcomes in various cancer types including breast, ovarian, uterine cervical and liver. To investigate the clinicopathological significance of SIX1 protein expression in gastric adenocarcinomas (GAC), localization of the SIX1 protein was determined in MKN-1, a gastric cancer cell line, using immunofluorescence (IF) staining; SIX1 mRNA level was detected in fresh tissues of GAC and normal gastric mucosa using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); and SIX1 protein expression was assessed in 163 GAC, 35 gastric dysplasia and 26 normal gastric mucosa using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Correlations between SIX1 protein expression and pathological parameters of GAC were analyzed using Chi-square tests, differences in survival curves were analyzed using log-rank tests, and multivariate survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. SIX1 protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic staining pattern in GAC using IF and IHC staining. The positive SIX1 protein expression rate was 80.4% in GAC, which was significantly higher than in either gastric dysplasia (45.7%) or normal gastric mucosa (26.9%) (P<0.01). qRT-PCR data also confirmed increased levels of SIX1 mRNA expression in GAC compared with the normal gastric mucosa in fresh tissues. In addition, the strongly positive SIX1 protein expression rate was significantly correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and serosal invasion of GAC (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while there was no association with gender, age, tumor size, Lauren classification or histological types of GAC. Notably, strongly positive signals were frequently observed in tumor blood vessels and/or lymphatic vessels. GAC patients with high expression of the SIX1 had shorter overall and disease-free survival rates than those with low SIX1 protein expression (P<0.01). Furthermore, using multivariate analysis, SIX1 protein expression was found to be an independent risk factor for survival in patients with GAC along with clinical stage and serosal invasion (P<0.01). In conclusion, SIX1 protein expression status may be an independent biomarker for prognostic evaluation of GAC.

Sehic D, Ciornei CD, Gisselsson D
Evaluation of CITED1, SIX1, and CD56 protein expression for identification of blastemal elements in Wilms tumor.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2014; 141(6):828-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Successful further treatment of Wilms tumors (WTs) after preoperative chemotherapy and surgery depends on correct histopathologic risk stratification, including quantification of remaining blastemal elements. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of protein markers for the detection of WT blastema.
METHODS: Expression of the candidate blastemal protein markers CITED1, SIX1, and CD56 was evaluated by immunofluorescence regarding sensitivity and specificity for staining blastema in a tissue microarray containing cores from 30 WTs, a small number of rarer pediatric renal neoplasms, and normal postnatal kidney.
RESULTS: CITED1, SIX1, and CD56 were expressed in blastema in 100%, 89%, and 74%, respectively, of the WTs with this component present. However, they were also expressed in 64%, 25%, and 79%, respectively, of epithelial WT elements and 48%, 52%, and 62%, respectively, of stromal WT elements.
CONCLUSIONS: SIX1 showed the highest specificity, CITED1 the highest sensitivity, and CD56 low specificity and sensitivity for detection of postchemotherapy WT blastema. Cytokeratin staining proved to be a useful way to determine rudimentary tubular elements not readily recognized by routine staining.

Feng GW, Dong LD, Shang WJ, et al.
HDAC5 promotes cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma by up-regulating Six1 expression.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 18(6):811-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays important roles in the regulation of genes expression and contribute to the growth of cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the function of HDAC5 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of HDAC5 in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cells was detected. MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of HCC cell lines. siRNA technology was employed to down-regulate the protein expression of HDAC5 and Six1.
RESULTS: Western blot showed that the HDAC5 expression was increased in human HCC tissues. The mRNA and protein levels of HDAC5 were up-regulated in human HCC cell lines. MTT assay showed that over-expression of HDAC5 promoted cell proliferation in human HCC cell lines. Down-regulation of HDAC5 caused a significantly inhibition of liver cancer cells proliferation. Furthermore, we found that HDAC5 promoted the Six1 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated for the first time that HDAC5 promoted HCC cell proliferation through up-regulation of Six1 expression and might provide novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of HCC.

Liu D, Zhang XX, Wan DY, et al.
Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 promotes α5β1-mediated invasive migration and metastasis of cervical cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 446(2):549-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) has been supposed to be correlated with the metastasis and poor prognosis of several malignancies. However, the effect of SIX1 on the metastatic phenotype of tumor cells and the underlying mechanisms were still unclear to date. Here we report that SIX1 can promote α5β1-mediated metastatic capability of cervical cancer cells. SIX1 promoted the expression of α5β1 integrin to enhance the adhesion capacity of tumor cells in vitro and tumor cell arrest in circulation in vivo. Moreover, higher expression of SIX1 in tumor cells resulted in the increased production of active MMP-2 and MMP-9, up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL-XL and BCL2) and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (BIM and BAX), thus promoting the invasive migration and anoikis-resistance of tumor cells. Importantly, blocking α5β1 abrogated the regulatory effect of SIX1 on the expression of these genes, and also abolished the promotional effect of SIX1 on invasive capability of tumor cells. Furthermore, knock-down of α5 could abolish the promoting effect of SIX1 on the development of metastatic lesions in both experimental and spontaneous metastasis model. Therefore, by up-regulating α5β1 expression, SIX1 not only promoted the adhesion capacity, but also augmented ECM-α5β1-mediated regulation of gene expression to enhance the metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells. These results suggest that SIX1/α5β1 might be considered as valuable marker for metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells, or a therapeutic target in cervical cancer treatment.

Zhao H, Xu Z, Qin H, et al.
miR-30b regulates migration and invasion of human colorectal cancer via SIX1.
Biochem J. 2014; 460(1):117-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
CRC (colorectal cancer) is one of the most malignant tumours in both developing and developed countries. It is estimated that 60% of CRC patients have liver metastasis. In the present study, we show that miR-30b is an important regulator in human CRC migration and invasion, which are vital steps in CRC liver metastasis. miR-30b was significantly down-regulated in primary CRC specimens compared with normal tissues. Furthermore, miR-30b was much lower in liver metastasis tissues than in CRCs. We validated SIX1 (SIX homeobox 1), a member of the SIX homeodomain family of transcription factors and an EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition)-promoting gene, as the direct target of miR-30b. Forced expression of miR-30b inhibited CRC cell migration and invasion in vitro via its target gene SIX1. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between expression of SIX1 and miR-30b has been observed both in primary CRC specimens and liver metastasis. Taken together, miR-30b plays an important role in mediating metastatic related behaviour in CRC. miR-30b may serve as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with CRC in the future.

Xu H, Zhang Y, Altomare D, et al.
Six1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and malignant conversion in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized human keratinocytes.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(6):1379-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
Six1, a member of the Six family of homeodomain transcription factors, is overexpressed in various human cancers, and SIX1 overexpression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Six1 messenger RNA levels increase during in vitro progression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) toward a differentiation-resistant (HKc/DR) phenotype. In this study, we show that HKc/DR-overexpressing Six1 exhibited a more mesenchymal phenotype, as characterized by a fibroblastic appearance and increased invasion. We utilized Whole Human Genome Microarrays to explore the gene expression changes associated with Six1 overexpression in HKc/DR. We found that overexpression of Six1 downregulated epithelial-related genes and upregulated mesenchymal-related genes, which suggests that Six1 overexpression induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Pathway analysis of the microarray data showed alterations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway, including enhanced expression of the TGF-β receptor type II (TβRII), and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in HKc/DR-overexpressing Six1, suggesting that Smad-independent pathways of TGF-β signaling may be involved in Six1-mediated EMT. p38 MAPK activation was required for sustained Six1-induced EMT and TβRII overexpression. Finally, we determined that Six1 overexpression in HKc/DR resulted in malignant conversion and increased the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like population. Thus, Six1 overexpression promotes EMT, CSCs properties and malignant conversion in HKc/DR through MAPK activation, which supports the possible use of p38-TβRII inhibitors for the treatment of cancers overexpressing Six1.

Li Z, Tian T, Hu X, et al.
Targeting Six1 by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth and invasion.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(2):631-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
The Six1 homeodomain protein is a developmental transcription factor that has been implicated in tumor onset and progression. Recently, it's reported that overexpression of Six1 is sufficient to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of colorectal cancer. Moreover, its expression is significantly associated with poorer overall survival probability in advanced-stage colorectal cancer. To address whether Six1 could serve as a therapeutic target for human colorectal cancer, we used a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene knockdown method to suppress the expression of Six1 in colorectal cancer cells. We showed that lentivirusmediated shRNA targeted to Six1 gene efficiently reduced its expression in colorectal cancer cells at both mRNA and protein levels. In vitro functional assays revealed that knockdown of Six1 significantly suppressed cell proliferation, and inhibited cell migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, tumor xenograft model demonstrated that downregulation of Six1 dramatically inhibited colorectal cancer growth in vivo. In conclusion, these findings suggest that lentivirus-mediated Six1 inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of colorectal cancer.

Wu W, Ren Z, Li P, et al.
Six1: a critical transcription factor in tumorigenesis.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(6):1245-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the past two decades, many studies have shown that sine oculis homeobox 1 (Six1) is a powerful regulator of organogenesis and disease, with important roles in tumorigenesis; therefore, it is important to review the biology of Six1 gene comprehensively. This review describes the function of Six1 in normal organ development, summarizes its role in several diseases, including cancer. The review will extend our understanding about the functional roles of Six1 and suggests opportunities to target Six1 for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes.

Jin A, Xu Y, Liu S, et al.
Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 protein overexpression as an independent biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 96(1):54-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) is a member of the SIX gene family. It is highly expressed in cancers derived from tissues that play a fundamental role during embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest that inappropriate expression of SIX1 can both initiate tumorigenesis and promote metastasis. To investigate the clinicopathological significance of SIX1 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to further identify its role as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PDAC, 103 PDAC tissue samples and 45 normal pancreatic tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained for SIX1 protein. The localization of SIX1 protein was detected in Panc-1 cancer cells using immunofluorescence staining. Correlations between SIX1 overexpression and the clinicopathological features of pancreatic cancer were evaluated using Chi-square (χ(2)) tests, differences in survival curves were analyzed using log-rank tests, and multivariate survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. In results, SIX1 protein showed mainly cytoplasmic/perinuclear staining pattern in PDAC with immunohistochemistry. The strongly positive rate of SIX1 protein was 60.2% (62/103) in PDAC, which was significantly higher than normal pancreatic tissue (6.7%, 3/45). SIX1 overexpression was positively correlated with tumor size, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and grade of PDAC (P < 0.001). SIX1 high expression levels influenced overall survival rates in G1, G2, stage I-II and stage III-IV groups of PDAC; and high expression levels had significantly lower overall survival rates than SIX1 low expression levels. In conclusion, SIX1 emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor in PDAC. SIX1 overexpression appears to be associated with PDAC, and may be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of PDAC.

Li Z, Tian T, Hu X, et al.
Six1 mediates resistance to paclitaxel in breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 441(3):538-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paclitaxel resistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of breast cancer. Six1 is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor invloved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of breast cancer. We herein investigate the relationship between Six1 and resistance of paclitaxel in this study. The results indicate that six1 is a mediator of the paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. The expression level of Six1 in breast cancer cells correlates with their resistance to paclitaxel. On the one hand, forced overexpression of Six1 in Six1-low/paclitaxel-sensitive MCF-7 or HS578T breast cancer cells induce their resistance to paclitaxel treatment directly; On the other hand, knockdown of endogenous Six1 in Six1-high/drug-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells sensitized these cells to paclitaxel treatment. Besides, Six1 overexpression confers resistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, clinical data and the publicly available breast cancer gene expression datasets display that the association of Six1 expression with paclitaxel sensitivity is clinically relevant. In conclusion, these data suggest that Six1 may function as an important modifier of the paclitaxel response in breast cancer cells, and serve as a potential target for overcoming paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer.

Hua L, Fan L, Aichun W, et al.
Inhibition of Six1 promotes apoptosis, suppresses proliferation, and migration of osteosarcoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(3):1925-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 (Six1) is one of the transcription factors that act as master regulators of development and is frequently dysregulated in cancers. However, the biological role of Six1 is not clear in osteosarcoma. To address the expression of Six1 in osteosarcoma cells, three osteosarcoma cell lines (U2OS, SaOS-2, and MG63) and a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19) were used to detect the expression of Six1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results showed that Six1 was upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines compared to human osteoblastic cell line hFOB1.19. To investigate the role of Six1 in osteosarcoma cells, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry analysis, and transwell chamber assays were used to determine the effects of Six1 on the cell viability, cycle, apoptosis, and migration properties in U2OS cells. The results showed that Six1 could promote U2OS cell proliferation and migration, and suppress U2OS cell apoptosis. In addition, we investigated the effects of Six1 on the expression of following proteins (cyclin D1, caspase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C)). Results showed that Six1 could increase the expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF-C, and decrease the expression of caspase-3. All these data suggested that Six1 might be involved in the promotion of growth, proliferation, and migration of U2OS cells, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis of U2OS cells. These data might provide information for the prediction of osteosarcoma prognosis and potential targets for therapy of osteosarcoma.

Auvergne RM, Sim FJ, Wang S, et al.
Transcriptional differences between normal and glioma-derived glial progenitor cells identify a core set of dysregulated genes.
Cell Rep. 2013; 3(6):2127-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glial progenitor cells (GPCs) are a potential source of malignant gliomas. We used A2B5-based sorting to extract tumorigenic GPCs from human gliomas spanning World Health Organization grades II-IV. Messenger RNA profiling identified a cohort of genes that distinguished A2B5+ glioma tumor progenitor cells (TPCs) from A2B5+ GPCs isolated from normal white matter. A core set of genes and pathways was substantially dysregulated in A2B5+ TPCs, which included the transcription factor SIX1 and its principal cofactors, EYA1 and DACH2. Small hairpin RNAi silencing of SIX1 inhibited the expansion of glioma TPCs in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a critical and unrecognized role of the SIX1-EYA1-DACH2 system in glioma genesis or progression. By comparing the expression patterns of glioma TPCs with those of normal GPCs, we have identified a discrete set of pathways by which glial tumorigenesis may be better understood and more specifically targeted.

Wu K, Li Z, Cai S, et al.
EYA1 phosphatase function is essential to drive breast cancer cell proliferation through cyclin D1.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(14):4488-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
The Drosophila Eyes Absent Homologue 1 (EYA1) is a component of the retinal determination gene network and serves as an H2AX phosphatase. The cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunits of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb protein. Herein, comparison with normal breast showed that EYA1 is overexpressed with cyclin D1 in luminal B breast cancer subtype. EYA1 enhanced breast tumor growth in mice in vivo, requiring the phosphatase domain. EYA1 enhanced cellular proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and induced contact-independent growth and cyclin D1 abundance. The induction of cellular proliferation and cyclin D1 abundance, but not apoptosis, was dependent upon the EYA1 phosphatase domain. The EYA1-mediated transcriptional induction of cyclin D1 occurred via the AP-1-binding site at -953 and required the EYA1 phosphatase function. The AP-1 mutation did not affect SIX1-dependent activation of cyclin D1. EYA1 was recruited in the context of local chromatin to the cyclin D1 AP-1 site. The EYA1 phosphatase function determined the recruitment of CBP, RNA polymerase II, and acetylation of H3K9 at the cyclin D1 gene AP-1 site regulatory region in the context of local chromatin. The EYA1 phosphatase regulates cell-cycle control via transcriptional complex formation at the cyclin D1 promoter.

Li Z, Tian T, Lv F, et al.
Six1 promotes proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells via upregulation of cyclin D1 expression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e59203 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
Six1 is one of the transcription factors that act as master regulators of development and are frequently dysregulated in cancers. However, the role of Six1 in pancreatic cancer is not clear. Here we show that the relative expression of Six1 mRNA is increased in pancreatic cancer and correlated with advanced tumor stage. In vitro functional assays demonstrate that forced overexpression of Six1 significantly enhances the growth rate and proliferation ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of endogenous Six1 decreases the proliferation of these cells dramatically. Furthermore, Six1 promotes the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in a xenograft assay. We also show that the gene encoding cyclin D1 is a direct transcriptional target of Six1 in pancreatic cancer cells. Overexpression of Six1 upregulates cyclin D1 mRNA and protein, and significantly enhances the activity of the cyclin D1 promoter in PANC-1 cells. We demonstrate that Six1 promotes cell cycle progression and proliferation by upregulation of cyclin D1. These data suggest that Six1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and may contribute to the increased cell proliferation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

Oerlecke I, Bauer E, Dittmer A, et al.
Cyclic AMP enhances TGFβ responses of breast cancer cells by upregulating TGFβ receptor I expression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54261 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
Cellular functions are regulated by complex networks of many different signaling pathways. The TGFβ and cAMP pathways are of particular importance in tumor progression. We analyzed the cross-talk between these pathways in breast cancer cells in 2D and 3D cultures. We found that cAMP potentiated TGFβ-dependent gene expression by enhancing Smad3 phosphorylation. Higher levels of total Smad3, as observed in 3D-cultured cells, blocked this effect. Two Smad3 regulating proteins, YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TβRI (TGFβ receptor 1), were responsive to cAMP. While YAP had little effect on TGFβ-dependent expression and Smad3 phosphorylation, a constitutively active form of TβRI mimicked the cAMP effect on TGFβ signaling. In 3D-cultured cells, which show much higher levels of TβRI and cAMP, TβRI was unresponsive to cAMP. Upregulation of TβRI expression by cAMP was dependent on transcription. A proximal TβRI promoter fragment was moderately, but significantly activated by cAMP suggesting that cAMP increases TβRI expression at least partially by activating TβRI transcription. Neither the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) nor the TβRI-regulating transcription factor Six1 was required for the cAMP effect. An inhibitor of histone deacetylases alone or together with cAMP increased TβRI expression by a similar extent as cAMP alone suggesting that cAMP may exert its effect by interfering with histone acetylation. Along with an additive stimulatory effect of cAMP and TGFβ on p21 expression an additive inhibitory effect of these agents on proliferation was observed. Finally, we show that mesenchymal stem cells that interact with breast cancer cells can simultaneously activate the cAMP and TGFβ pathways. In summary, these data suggest that combined effects of cAMP and TGFβ, as e.g. induced by mesenchymal stem cells, involve the upregulation of TβRI expression on the transcriptional level, likely due to changes in histone acetylation. As a consequence, cancer cell functions such as proliferation are affected.

Iwanaga R, Wang CA, Micalizzi DS, et al.
Expression of Six1 in luminal breast cancers predicts poor prognosis and promotes increases in tumor initiating cells by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(4):R100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mammary-specific overexpression of Six1 in mice induces tumors that resemble human breast cancer, some having undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and exhibiting stem/progenitor cell features. Six1 overexpression in human breast cancer cells promotes EMT and metastatic dissemination. We hypothesized that Six1 plays a role in the tumor initiating cell (TIC) population specifically in certain subtypes of breast cancer, and that by understanding its mechanism of action, we could potentially develop new means to target TICs.
METHODS: We examined gene expression datasets to determine the breast cancer subtypes with Six1 overexpression, and then examined its expression in the CD24low/CD44+ putative TIC population in human luminal breast cancers xenografted through mice and in luminal breast cancer cell lines. Six1 overexpression, or knockdown, was performed in different systems to examine how Six1 levels affect TIC characteristics, using gene expression and flow cytometric analysis, tumorsphere assays, and in vivo TIC assays in immunocompromised and immune-competent mice. We examined the molecular pathways by which Six1 influences TICs using genetic/inhibitor approaches in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we examined the expression of Six1 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in human breast cancers.
RESULTS: High levels of Six1 are associated with adverse outcomes in luminal breast cancers, particularly the luminal B subtype. Six1 levels are enriched in the CD24low/CD44+ TIC population in human luminal breast cancers xenografted through mice, and in tumorsphere cultures in MCF7 and T47D luminal breast cancer cells. When overexpressed in MCF7 cells, Six1expands the TIC population through activation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling. Inhibition of ERK signaling in MCF7-Six1 cells with MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and AZD6244, restores the TIC population of luminal breast cancer cells back to that observed in control cells. Administration of AZD6244 dramatically inhibits tumor formation efficiency and metastasis in cells that express high levels of Six1 ectopically or endogenously. Finally, we demonstrate that Six1 significantly correlates with phosphorylated ERK in human breast cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Six1 plays an important role in the TIC population in luminal breast cancers and induces a TIC phenotype by enhancing both TGF-β and ERK signaling. MEK1/2 kinase inhibitors are potential candidates for targeting TICs in breast tumors.

Wang CA, Jedlicka P, Patrick AN, et al.
SIX1 induces lymphangiogenesis and metastasis via upregulation of VEGF-C in mouse models of breast cancer.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(5):1895-906 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
An association between lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer was observed decades ago. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells infiltrate the lymphatic system are not completely understood. Recently, it has been proposed that the lymphatic system has an active role in metastatic dissemination and that tumor-secreted growth factors stimulate lymphangiogenesis. We therefore investigated whether SIX1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor previously associated in breast cancer with lymph node positivity, was involved in lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. In a model in which human breast cancer cells were injected into immune-compromised mice, we found that SIX1 expression promoted peritumoral and intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, lymphatic invasion, and distant metastasis of breast cancer cells. SIX1 induced transcription of the prolymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C, and this was required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Using a mouse mammary carcinoma model, we found that VEGF-C was not sufficient to mediate all the metastatic effects of SIX1, indicating that SIX1 acts through additional, VEGF-C-independent pathways. Finally, we verified the clinical significance of this prometastatic SIX1/VEGF-C axis by demonstrating coexpression of SIX1 and VEGF-C in human breast cancer. These data define a critical role for SIX1 in lymphatic dissemination of breast cancer cells, providing a direct mechanistic explanation for how VEGF-C expression is upregulated in breast cancer, resulting in lymphangiogenesis and metastasis.

Qamar L, Deitsch E, Patrick AN, et al.
Specificity and prognostic validation of a polyclonal antibody to detect Six1 homeoprotein in ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2012; 125(2):451-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The presence of Six1 mRNA gene portends a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. We describe validation of a Six1 specific antibody and evaluate its association with tumorigenicity and prognosis in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: A Six1 antibody (Six1cTerm) was raised to residues downstream of the Six1 homeodomain, representing its unique C-terminus as compared to other Six family members. Cells were transfected with Six1-Six6 and Western blot was performed to demonstrate Six1 specificity. Ovarian cancer cell lines were analyzed for Six1 mRNA and Six1cTerm and tumorigenicity was evaluated. Ovarian cancer tissue microarrays (OTMA) were analyzed for Six1cTerm by immunohistochemistry and scored by two blinded observers. The metastatic tumors of 15 stage IIIC high grade serous ovarian cancers were analyzed with Six1 mRNA and Six1cTerm and expression was compared to clinical factors and survival.
RESULTS: The Six1cTerm antibody is specific for Six1. Cell line tumorigenicity in SCID mice correlates with Six1 levels both by mRNA(p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) and by protein (presence vs. absence, p=0.05 Fischer's Exact test). Six1 protein was present in up to 54% of OTMA specimens. Six1 protein expression in omental/peritoneal metastases correlated with worsened survival in a sample (n=15) of high grade serous stage IIIC ovarian cancers (p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The Six1cTerm antibody is specific and able to detect Six1 in cell lines and tumor tissue. Six1 protein detection is common in ovarian cancer and is associated with tumorigenicity and poor prognosis in this group of patient samples. Six1cTerm antibody should be further validated as prognostic tool.

Smith AL, Iwanaga R, Drasin DJ, et al.
The miR-106b-25 cluster targets Smad7, activates TGF-β signaling, and induces EMT and tumor initiating cell characteristics downstream of Six1 in human breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(50):5162-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
The role of TGF-β signaling in tumorigenesis is paradoxical: it can be tumor suppressive or tumor promotional, depending on context. The metastatic regulator, Six1, was recently shown to mediate this switch, providing a novel means to explain this elusive 'TGF-β paradox'. Herein, we identify a mechanism by which Six1 activates the tumor promotional arm of TGF-β signaling, via its ability to upregulate the miR-106b-25 microRNA cluster, and further identify a novel function for this cluster of microRNAs. Although expression of the miR-106b-25 cluster is known to overcome TGF-β-mediated growth suppression via targeting p21 and BIM, we demonstrate for the first time that this same cluster can additionally target the inhibitory Smad7 protein, resulting in increased levels of the TGF-β type I receptor and downstream activation of TGF-β signaling. We further show that the miR-106b-25 cluster is sufficient to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a tumor initiating cell phenotype, and that it is required downstream of Six1 to induce these phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate a significant correlation between miR-106b, Six1, and activated TGF-β signaling in human breast cancers, and further show that high levels of miR-106b and miR-93 in breast tumors significantly predicts shortened time to relapse. These findings expand the spectrum of oncogenic functions of miR-106b-25, and may provide a novel molecular explanation, through the Six1 regulated miR-106b-25 cluster, by which TGF-β signaling shifts from tumor suppressive to tumor promoting.

Ono H, Imoto I, Kozaki K, et al.
SIX1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer through ZEB1 activation.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(47):4923-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a major role in cancer progression, as well as normal organ development and human pathology such as organ fibrosis and wound healing. Here, we performed a gene expression array specialized in EMT of colorectal cancer (CRC). From a comprehensive gene expression analysis using epithelial- and mesenchymal-like CRC cell lines, and following the ontology (GO) analysis, SIX1 gene was identified to be an EMT-related gene in CRC. Using SW480 cells stably transfected with a SIX1 expression construct and their control counterparts, we demonstrated that SIX1 overexpression represses CDH1 expression and promotes EMT in CRC. SIX1-induced CDH1 repression and EMT in CRC cells were correlated at least in part with posttranscriptional ZEB1 activation and miR-200-family transcriptional repression. In primary tumors of CRC, in accord with the functional findings, aberrant expression of SIX1 in cancer cells was observed at the disruption of the basement membrane and at the tumor invasive front, where tumor cells underwent EMT in vivo. Taken together, SIX1 overexpression is suggested to occur in carcinogenesis, and contribute to repression of CDH1 expression and promotion of EMT partly through repression of miR-200-family expression and activation of ZEB1 in CRC.

Mimae T, Okada M, Hagiyama M, et al.
Upregulation of notch2 and six1 is associated with progression of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma and a more aggressive phenotype at advanced stages.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(4):945-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinoma often manifests as tumors with mainly lepidic growth. The size of invasive foci determines a diagnosis of in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, or invasive types and suggests that some adenocarcinomas undergo malignant progression in that order. This study investigates how transcriptional aberrations in adenocarcinoma cells at the early stage define the clinical phenotypes of adenocarcinoma tumors at the advanced stage.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We comprehensively searched for differentially expressed genes between preinvasive and invasive cancer cells in one minimally invasive adenocarcinoma using laser capture microdissection and DNA microarrays. We screened expression of candidate genes in 11 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas by reverse transcriptase PCR and examined their involvement in preinvasive-to-invasive progression by transfection studies. We then immunohistochemically investigated the presence of candidate molecules in 64 samples of advanced adenocarcinoma and statistically analyzed the findings, together with clinicopathologic variables.
RESULTS: The transcription factors Notch2 and Six1 were upregulated in invasive cancer cells in all 11 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas. Exogenous Notch2 transactivated Six1 followed by Smad3, Smad4, and vimentin, and enlarged the nuclei of NCI-H441 lung epithelial cells. Immunochemical staining for the transcription factors was double positive in the invasive, but not in the lepidic growth component of a third of advanced Ads, and the disease-free survival rates were lower in such tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Paired upregulation of Notch2 and Six1 is a transcriptional aberration that contributes to preinvasive-to-invasive adenocarcinoma progression by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and nuclear atypia. This aberration persisted in a considerable subset of advanced adenocarcinoma and conferred a more malignant phenotype on the subset.

Sehic D, Karlsson J, Sandstedt B, Gisselsson D
SIX1 protein expression selectively identifies blastemal elements in Wilms tumor.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012; 59(1):62-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common renal neoplasm in children. Histologically, most WTs consist of three tissue elements: blastema, epithelium, and stroma. Some cases also show diffuse or focal anaplastic features. Previous studies have shown that a predominance of blastemal cells in post-chemotherapy WT specimens is associated with a poor clinical course. However, there is currently no molecular marker for blastemal cells, and risk stratification for post-nephrectomy treatment is therefore often based on clinico-histological parameters alone.
PROCEDURE: In the present study, three public gene expression microarray datasets, including 82 WTs and 8 normal fetal kidneys, were used to establish a consensus gene expression profile of WT. By bioinformatic analyses, 17 genes overexpressed in WT compared to fetal kidney were then selected for evaluation of their protein expression in WT cell lines and in the different histological components in paraffin-embedded WT tissue sections by immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: Most of the evaluated proteins were expressed in all three common histological components. A prominent exception was SIX1, being expressed predominantly in blastemal elements in 24/25 pediatric cases containing blastema. Anaplastic elements exhibited highly variable SIX1-positivity. The SIX2 protein, known to be co-expressed with SIX1 during nephrogenesis, only exhibited blastemal-predominant expression in half of the SIX2 evaluated cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Genes highly expressed in WT compared to fetal kidney are generally overexpressed in all of the three common WT tissue elements. An exception is the predominant expression of SIX1 in blastemal cells, hereby identifying this protein as a candidate marker for blastema.

Tan J, Zhang C, Qian J
Expression and significance of Six1 and Ezrin in cervical cancer tissue.
Tumour Biol. 2011; 32(6):1241-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the expression of Six1 gene and its downstream target gene Ezrin in cervical cancer, and to correlate their expression to the clinical pathology of cervical cancer. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of Six1 and Ezrin in cervical cancer tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue, and normal cervical tissue. The correlation of Six1 and Ezrin expression with the occurrence, development, and clinical pathology of cervical cancer was then analyzed. The expression of Six1 and Ezrin mRNA and protein in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was significantly higher than in normal cervical tissue (p < 0.05). Their expression was also significantly higher in the cancerous tissues of patients with advanced cervical cancer than in those of patients with early-stage cervical cancer (p < 0.05). Moreover, they were expressed at significantly higher levels in lymph node metastasis-positive patients than in lymph node metastasis-negative patients (p < 0.05). Finally, we observed that lesser differentiated tumors had elevated expression of Six1 and Ezrin mRNA and protein (p < 0.05). However, the mRNA and protein expression of Six1 and Ezrin were independent of patient age and tumor size (p > 0.05). Further investigation is warranted to describe the relation of whether Six1 and Ezrin protein contributes to the mechanism of occurrence, development, differentiation, and invasiveness of the tumor. These markers could be used as indicators of prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer as Six1 and Ezrin had a synergistic effect on the incidence of cervical cancer.

Farabaugh SM, Micalizzi DS, Jedlicka P, et al.
Eya2 is required to mediate the pro-metastatic functions of Six1 via the induction of TGF-β signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cell properties.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(5):552-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/04/2016 Related Publications
Six1 is a critical regulator of embryonic development that requires interaction with the Eya family of proteins (Eya1-4) to activate the transcription of genes involved in neurogenesis, myogenesis and nephrogenesis. Although expression of Six1 and Eya family members is predominantly observed in development, their overexpression is observed in numerous cancers. Importantly, both Six1 and Eya have independently been shown to mediate breast cancer metastasis, but whether they functionally interact during tumor progression has not been explored. Herein, we demonstrate that knockdown of Eya2 in MCF7 mammary carcinoma cells reverses the ability of Six1 to induce transforming growth factor-β signaling, as well as to induce characteristics associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, suggesting that Six1 is dependent on Eya2 to mediate numerous pro-metastatic characteristics. The importance of the Six1-Eya interaction in human breast cancer is underscored by the finding that high levels of Six1 correlate with shortened time to relapse and metastasis as well as decreased survival only when co-expressed with high levels of Eya2. Overall, these data implicate Eya2 as a necessary co-factor for many of the metastasis promoting functions of Six1, suggesting that targeting the Six1-Eya interaction may inhibit breast cancer progression. As Six1 and Eya2 are not highly expressed in most adult tissues, the Six1-Eya interaction may be a valuable future therapeutic target whose inhibition would be expected to impair breast cancer progression while conferring limited side effects.

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