Gene Summary

Gene:SERPINB5; serpin family B member 5
Aliases: PI5, maspin
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serpin B5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SERPINB5 (cancer-related)

Marioni G, Ottaviano G, de Filippis C, et al.
Nuclear expression of onco-suppressors nm23-H1 and maspin are associated with lower recurrence rate in laryngeal carcinoma.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 Mar - Apr; 40(2):224-229 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The main aim of the study was to preliminarily investigate the possibly related role of nuclear onco-suppressors maspin and nm23-H1, a metastasis suppressor, in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maspin expression pattern and nuclear nm23-H1 expression were ascertained in 62 consecutive LSCCs.
RESULTS: Recurrence rate was significantly lower in patients with a nuclear maspin pattern of expression; nuclear nm23-H1 expression was significantly lower in patients who experienced disease recurrence. Disease free survival (DFS) was significantly longer in patients with maspin nuclear pattern or with nuclear nm23-H1 expression ≥10%. A significant association was found between nuclear nm23-H1 expression and maspin pattern of expression in LSCC. KNN discriminant analysis considered N status, maspin sub-cellular localization and nuclear nm23-H1 expression. The selected variables' accuracy in terms of relapse was 82%. Positive predictive accuracy was 100%, and negative predictive accuracy 79%.
CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear nm23-H1 expression and maspin pattern, also in association, show promise as recurrence indicators in LSCC. Further studies are needed to shed more light on the nm23-H1 mechanism of action in LSCC and thus find ways to restore nm23-H1 loss. These preliminary findings suggest that re-activating maspin functions might represent an important goal in the treatment of advanced LSCC.

Cocchiola R, Lopreiato M, Guazzo R, et al.
The induction of Maspin expression by a glucosamine-derivative has an antiproliferative activity in prostate cancer cell lines.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 300:63-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammary serine protease inhibitor or Maspin has been characterized as a class II tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types, among them prostate cancer (CaP). Androgen ablation is an effective therapy for CaP, but with short-term effectiveness, thus new therapeutic strategies are actively sought. The present study is aimed to explore the effects of a glucosamine derivative, 2-(N-Carbobenzyloxy)l-phenylalanylamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucose (NCPA), on two CaP cell lines, PC3 and LNCaP. In particular we analyzed the impact of NCPA on Maspin production, cell viability and cell cycle progression and apoptosis/necrosis pathway activation in PC3 and LNCaP cell lines. NCPA is able to stimulate Maspin production in PC3 and not in LNCaP cell lines. NCPA blocks the PC3 cell cycle in G1 phase, by inhibiting Cyclin D1 production and induces the apoptosis, therefore interfering with aggressiveness of this androgen-insensitive cell line. Moreover, NCPA is able to induce the expression of Maspin in LNCaP cell line treated with androgen receptor inhibitor, Bicalutamide, and in turn to stimulate the apoptosis of these cells. These findings suggest that NCPA, stimulating the endogenous production of a tumor suppressor protein, could be useful in the design of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of CaP.

Cheng Y, Wang K, Geng L, et al.
Identification of candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for pancreatic carcinoma.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:382-393 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is one of the most aggressive cancers affecting human health. It is essential to identify candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of PC. The present study aimed to investigate the diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers of PC.
METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the mRNA expression profiles of GSE62452, GSE28735 and GSE16515. Functional analysis and the protein-protein interaction network analysis was performed to explore the biological function of the identified DEGs. Diagnosis markers for PC were identified using ROC curve analysis. Prognosis markers were identified via survival analysis of TCGA data. The protein expression pattern of the identified genes was verified in clinical tissue samples. A retrospective clinical study was performed to evaluate the correlation between the expression of candidate proteins and survival time of patients. Moreover, comprehensive analysis of the combination of multiple genes/proteins for the prognosis prediction of PC was performed using both TCGA data and clinical data. In vitro studies were undertaken to elaborate the potential roles of these biomarkers in clonability and invasion of PC cells.
FINDINGS: In total, 389 DEGs were identified. These genes were mainly associated with pancreatic secretion, protein digestion and absorption, cytochrome P450 drug metabolism, and energy metabolism pathway. The top 10 genes were filtered out following Fisher's exact test. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that TMPRSS4, SERPINB5, SLC6A14, SCEL, and TNS4 could be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of PC. Survival analysis of TCGA data and clinical data suggested that TMC7, TMPRSS4, SCEL, SLC2A1, CENPF, SERPINB5 and SLC6A14 can be potential biomarkers for the prognosis of PC. Comprehensive analysis show that a combination of identified genes/proteins can predict the prognosis of PC. Mechanistically, the identified genes attributes to clonability and invasiveness of PC cells.
INTERPRETATION: We synthesized several sets of public data and preliminarily clarified pathways and functions of PC. Candidate molecular markers were identified for diagnosis and prognosis prediction of PC including a novel gene, TMC7. Moreover, we found that the combination of TMC7, TMPRSS4, SCEL, SLC2A1, CENPF, SERPINB5 and SLC6A14 can serve as a promising indicator of the prognosis of PC patients. The candidate proteins may attribute to clonability and invasiveness of PC cells. This research provides a novel insight into molecular mechanisms as well as diagnostic and prognostic markers of PC. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China [No. 81602646 &81802339], Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province [No. 2016A030310254] and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation [No. 2016M600648].

Basu P, Maier C
Phytoestrogens and breast cancer: In vitro anticancer activities of isoflavones, lignans, coumestans, stilbenes and their analogs and derivatives.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:1648-1666 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Phytoestrogens, plant-derived polyphenols that structurally and functionally mimic 17β-estradiol, the mammalian estrogen hormone, are known to modulate multiple molecular targets in breast cancer cells. The structural and chemical similarities to estradiol enable phytoestrogens to exert estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities by binding to the estrogen receptors. Although phytoestrogens have low affinity for estrogen receptors, they are able to compete with 17β-estradiol for the ligand-binding domain of the receptors. Phytoestrogens trigger epigenomic effects that could be beneficial in breast cancer prevention and/or treatment. Few studies have focused on the cytotoxic and structure-activity relationships of phytoestrogen analogs and derivatives with more effective anticancer properties than their corresponding parent compounds. Phytoestrogens and their analogs and derivatives bind to estrogen receptors, with a preferential affinity for ERβ, and inhibit the growth promoting activity of ERα. These bioactive compounds also exert growth inhibitory effects through various cell signaling pathways. At the level of cell cycle, they inhibit the expression of oncogenic cyclin D1, increase the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21, p27, and p57) and tumor suppressor genes (APC, ATM, PTEN, SERPINB5). Phytoestrogens and their analogs and derivatives mediate their effects on breast cancer by inhibiting estrogen synthesis and metabolism, as well as exerting antiangiogenic, antimetastatic, and epigenetic effects. Furthermore, these bioactive compounds reverse multi-drug resistance. This review offers a comprehensive summary of current literature and future perspectives on the in vitro molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of phytoestrogens and their analogs and derivatives on breast cancer.

Umekita Y, Ohi Y, Iwaya O, et al.
Maspin mRNA expression in sentinel lymph nodes predicts non-SLN metastasis in breast cancer patients with SLN metastasis.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(6):916-922 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Maspin is known to be a tumour suppressor protein, but its prognostic significance in breast cancer patients is controversial. There is no report focusing on maspin expression in metastatic carcinoma of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs); we thus investigated maspin mRNA expression in SLNs using the remaining specimens after the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-three breast cancer patients with SLNs metastasis detected by the OSNA assay were enrolled. All patients experienced additional axillary lymph nodes (LNs) dissection and all dissected LNs were examined histopathologically. Maspin mRNA expression in SLNs was detected in 49.5% (46 of 93) and was correlated significantly with the presence of non-SLN metastasis (P < 0.0001) and ≥4 LN metastases (P = 0.029). In a multivariate logistic analysis, maspin mRNA expression in SLNs (P = 0.0015) had the most significant effect on predicting non-SLN metastasis, followed by pathological tumour size (P = 0.0039) and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.009). The status of maspin mRNA expression in SLNs was correlated significantly with that of maspin protein expression in the primary carcinoma (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study, to our knowledge, demonstrating that maspin mRNA expression in SLNs is an independent predictor of non-SLN metastasis and the presence of ≥4 LN metastases in breast cancer patients with SLN metastasis. The investigation of maspin mRNA expression in SLNs using the remaining specimens after the OSNA assay may be useful for predicting the further progression of metastatic carcinoma in breast cancer patients with SLNs metastasis.

Ohno T, Kubouchi Y, Wakahara M, et al.
Clinical Significance of Subcellular Localization of Maspin in Patients with Pathological Stage IA Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(5):3001-3007 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Maspin is a tumor-suppressor protein and its prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma has been reported. However, little is known about the clinical impact of subcellular localization of maspin in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of subcellular localization of maspin in patients with pathological stage (p-stage) IA lung adenocarcinoma categorized by the new eighth edition TNM classification.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We immunohistochemically analyzed 181 tissue samples from p-stage IA1 (n=37), IA2 (n=92) and IA3 (n=52) lung adenocarcinomas using antibody for maspin.
RESULTS: The 181 cases fell into five predominant subtypes: lepidic (n=32), acinar (n=97), papillary (n=30), solid (n=20) and micropapillary (n=2). The frequencies of maspin staining were: cytoplasmic-only in 24.9%; pancellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) in 8.8%; nuclear-only in 0.6%; no staining in 65.7%. Cytoplasmic-only staining significantly correlated with high pathological T-classification (p=0.039), lymphatic invasion (p=0.002) and poorer tumor differentiation (p=0.002). The patients were followed-up for 12-151 months (median=74 months), and the cytoplasmic-only staining significantly correlated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.034) and disease-specific survival (DSS) (p=0.036) by log-rank tests. In Cox's multivariate analysis, lymphatic invasion had the most significant effect on shorter DFS and DSS.
CONCLUSION: The expression of maspin in the cytoplasm alone could be useful for predicting unfavorable prognoses in patients with p-stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

Chang IW, Liu KW, Ragunanan M, et al.
SERPINB5 Expression: Association with CCRT Response and Prognostic Value in Rectal Cancer.
Int J Med Sci. 2018; 15(4):376-384 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Cheng WL, Huang CY, Tai CJ, et al.
Maspin Enhances the Anticancer Activity of Curcumin in Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(2):863-870 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Androgen deprivation therapy remains the principal treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer, though, most patients will eventually develop hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Androgen ablation mediated maspin-induction has been identified in cancer patients. However, the role of maspin on the anticancer activity of curcumin derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) in HRPC cells has not been elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anticancer action of curcumin in hormone-independent prostate cancer cells (DU145, and PC-3) was determined by measures of cell survival rate. The cause of maspin silencing on the anti-tumor abilities of curcumin in PC-3 cells was evaluated by measures of cell survival rate, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis signaling analysis.
RESULTS: Our present study showed that PC-3 cells (with higher maspin expression) were more sensitive than DU145 cells to curcumin treatment (with lower maspin expression). RNA interference-mediated maspin silencing reduced curcumin sensitivity of PC-3 cells, as evidenced by reduced apoptotic cell death. After exposure to curcumin, maspin-knockdown cells showed lower expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bad and Bax, as compared with control cells.
CONCLUSION: Maspin can enhance the sensitivity of HRPC cells to curcumin treatment.

Helal DS, El-Guindy DM
Maspin expression and subcellular localization in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: Prognostic significance and relation to microvessel density.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2017; 29(4):177-183 [PubMed] Related Publications
Maspin (Mammary serine protease inhibitor) is a tumor suppressor serine. Its clinical significance and role in breast carcinoma are contradictory and inconclusive. Researches demonstrated that the function of maspin differs according to its subcellular localization. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of maspin in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast with special emphasis on its subcellular localization and to evaluate its prognostic role in relation to clinicopathological parameters and microvessel density (MVD) of the tumor. The expression of maspin was evaluated immunohistochemically in 45 IDC cases. The positive rate of maspin expression was 73.3%. Maspin positivity was significantly related to higher tumor grade (p value = 0.041), nodal metastasis (p value = 0.044), perineural invasion (p value = 0.047), and high CD34+MVD (p value = 0.002). Nuclear maspin was detected in 36.6% whereas cytoplasmic maspin was detected in 63.4% of maspin positive cases. A significant inverse relationship was observed between nuclear maspin and high tumor grade (p value = 0.016), and nodal metastasis (p value = 0.047). These results suggest that maspin expression has a prognostic role in breast cancer. Maspin expression is related to increased angiogenesis. Subcellular localization of maspin can strongly affect cancer prognosis. Cytoplasmic maspin relates to poor prognostic parameters whereas nuclear maspin relates to good prognostic ones.

Lai Z, Yang Y, Yan Y, et al.
Analysis of co-expression networks for circular RNAs and mRNAs reveals that circular RNAs hsa_circ_0047905, hsa_circ_0138960 and has-circRNA7690-15 are candidate oncogenes in gastric cancer.
Cell Cycle. 2017; 16(23):2301-2311 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has suggested that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in oncogenesis and tumor progression. However, our knowledge of circRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) remains limited. To investigate circRNAs involved in GC oncogenesis, we examined differentially-expressed circRNAs and mRNAs in GC tissues and paired noncancerous mucosa tissues using circRNA and mRNA microarrays. Next, we built gene co-expression networks according to the degree of correlation to predict the critical circRNAs in GC. Through bioinformatics analysis, we observed three newly identified circRNAs that are substantially upregulated in GC: hsa_circ_0047905, hsa_circ_0138960 and has-circRNA7690-15. Additionally, hsa_circ_0047905 and hsa_circ_0138960 positively correlated with their parental gene mRNA. Knockdown of hsa_circ_0047905, hsa_circ_0138960 and has-circRNA7690-15 in GC cells, resulted in downregulation of parental gene expression. Functional assays suggested that inhibition of these three circular RNAs suppresses GC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Those findings suggest that hsa_circ_0047905, hsa_circ_0138960 and has-circRNA7690-15 might act as tumor promoters in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

Wakahara M, Sakabe T, Kubouchi Y, et al.
Subcellular Localization of Maspin Correlates with Histone Deacetylase 1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(9):5071-5077 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Maspin is known to be a tumor suppressor protein. Its nuclear localization and endogenous inhibition of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) are considered crucial for its tumor suppressor activity. However, it remains unclear whether subcellular localization of maspin correlates with HDAC1 expression level in human breast cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 164 resected specimens of invasive breast carcinoma using antibodies for maspin and HDAC1. Subcellular localization of maspin protein and HDAC1 mRNA expression level in two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231) and mammary epithelial cell line (MCF10) were analyzed by immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively.
RESULTS: The frequency of cytoplasmic-only, pancellular (combined nuclear and cytoplasm) and no staining of maspin were 31%, 14.0% and 55%, respectively. The cytoplasmic-only subgroup showed significantly higher histological grade (p=0.004), negative progesterone receptor status (p=0.003) and shorter disease-free survival compared to the pancellular subgroup (p=0.043). High HDAC1 expression was observed in 60% of cases and was significantly correlated with cytoplasmic-only staining compared to pancellular (p<0.001) or no staining (p=0.004). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that maspin protein was localized mainly in the cytoplasm in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in MCF10A cells. HDAC1 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared to MCF10A cells (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: High HDAC1 expression may contribute to the aggressiveness of human breast cancer with cytoplasmic-only expression of maspin.

Banias L, Gurzu S, Kovacs Z, et al.
Nuclear maspin expression: A biomarker for budding assessment in colorectal cancer specimens.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(9):1227-1230 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the maspin expression in colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and its possible role in quantification of the tumor budding.
METHODS: The tumor budding was prospectively quantified in 49 consecutive cases of patients that underwent surgical resection for CRC. The cases were divided in two groups: group A (n=23) - low budding (<5 tumor buds per high microscopic field) and group B (n=26) - high budding CRCs (≥5 buds). Maspin expression was evaluated in the tumor core and the buds from the hot spot area in 44 of the microsatellite stable adenocarcinomas. Its expression was quantified as negative, cytoplasmic only, nuclear only or mixed expression (cytoplasm and nucleus).
RESULTS: Compared with group A, a higher pT (p <0.0001) and pN stage (p=0.0001) and infiltrating aspect at macroscopic evaluation (p=0.0081) was identified in group B. No correlation between the maspin expression in the tumore core and the budding grade was noted (p=0.14). Compared with the tumor core, the cytoplasm to nuclear translocation of maspin was more frequently observed in cases from group B than A (n=0.0063).
CONCLUSION: For the colorectal carcinomas, the infiltrative aspect at macroscopic evaluation and nuclear maspin in the buds might be used as indicators of risk for lymph node metastases. Maspin nuclear expression in the buds may be helpful for a proper budding assessment and may serve as a negative prognostic factor.

Barron GA, Goua M, Wahle KWJ, Bermano G
Circulating levels of angiogenesis-related growth factors in breast cancer: A study to profile proteins responsible for tubule formation.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(3):1886-1894 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study exploited a versatile in vitro endothelial cell/fibroblast co-culture cell system to investigate the association between angiogenesis and breast cancer by comparing the capacity of plasma from women with breast cancer and age-matched controls, to influence tubule formation and modulate angiogenesis in vitro, and to identify plasma circulating factors which might be responsible. Plasma from women with breast cancer (n=8) (added on day 7 after co-culture establishment) significantly increased tubule formation by 57% (P<0.01) when compared to cultures grown in culture medium lacking in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fetal bovine serum (FBS), whereas plasma from controls (n=8) did not. Higher levels of VEGF, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL)-6, but not leptin, were observed in plasma samples of the breast cancer group compared to the control group (n=20 in each group). In independent experiments, the effects of VEGF, TNFα, IL-6 and leptin were assessed and it was found that tubule formation was differentially affected whether these inflammatory cytokines or adipokines were added individually or in combination to the co-culture system. Using Proteome Profiler human angiogenesis array kits, 12 out of 55 angiogenesis-related proteins were differentially expressed in plasma from the breast cancer group compared to the control group. Pro-angiogenic proteins included: amphiregulin, artemin, coagulation factor III, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) acidic, GDNF, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, platelet derived growth factor-AB/platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-AB/PDGF-BB) and VEGF, whereas anti-angiogenic proteins were: angiopoietin-2, serpin F1 and serpin B5. In addition, FGF acidic was further identified as differentially expressed, with increased expression, when plasma samples from the normal and cancer groups, which induced an increase in tubule formation, were compared to one another. In conclusion, the present study identified angiogenesis-related proteins circulating in the serum of women with breast cancer that are likely to facilitate the growth and metastasis of breast cancer, in part through their influence on tubule formation, and, therefore, may be potential targets for new cancer therapies.

Li H, Zhong A, Li S, et al.
The integrated pathway of TGFβ/Snail with TNFα/NFκB may facilitate the tumor-stroma interaction in the EMT process and colorectal cancer prognosis.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):4915 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Substantial evidence has shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays critical roles in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and prognosis. To uncover the pivotal regulators that function in the cooperative interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment and consequently affect the EMT process, we carried out a systematic analysis and evaluated prognosis in CRC specimens. Tumor buds and their surrounding stroma were captured using laser microdissection. We used gene expression profiling, bioinformatics analysis and regulatory network construction for molecular selection. The clinical significance of potential biomarkers was investigated. We identified potential EMT biomarkers, including BGN, MMP1, LGALS1, SERPINB5, and TM4SF4, all of which participated in the integrated pathway of TGFβ/Snail with TNFα/NFκB. We also found that BGN, MMP1, LGALS1, SERPINB5 and TM4SF4 were related to CRC patient prognosis. Patients with higher expression of these individual potential biomarkers had poorer prognosis. Among the identified biomarkers, BGN and TM4SF4 are reported, for the first time, to probably be involved in the EMT process and to predict CRC prognosis. Our results strongly suggest that the integrated pathway of TGFβ/Snail with TNFα/NFκB may be the principal axis that links cancer cells to their microenvironment during the EMT process and results in poor prognosis in CRC patients.

Chang JH, Lai SL, Chen WS, et al.
Quercetin suppresses the metastatic ability of lung cancer through inhibiting Snail-dependent Akt activation and Snail-independent ADAM9 expression pathways.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017; 1864(10):1746-1758 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the major cause of death from lung cancer. Quercetin, a widely distributed bioflavonoid, is well known to induce growth inhibition in a variety of human cancer cells, but how it affects lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis is unclear. Herein, we found that quercetin inhibited the migration/invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and bone metastasis in an orthotopic A549 xenograft model by suppressing the Snail-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, survival times of animals were also prolonged after quercetin treatment. Mechanistic investigations found that quercetin suppressed Snail-dependent Akt activation by upregulating maspin and Snail-independent a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 9 expression pathways to modulate the invasive ability of NSCLC cells. In clinical samples, we observed that patients with Snail

Stephen JK, Chen KM, Merritt J, et al.
Methylation markers differentiate thyroid cancer from benign nodules.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2018; 41(2):163-170 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing. Cytology by itself cannot distinguish TC from some benign nodules especially in certain subtypes of TC. Our immediate goal is to identify DNA methylation markers for early detection of TC and to molecularly differentiate TC subtypes from benign nodules.
METHODS: Promoter methylation status of 21 candidate genes was examined on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) utilizing quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSP) in a retrospective cohort of 329 patients (56% white, 29% African American, 61% female) comprising 71 normal thyroid, 83 benign nodules [follicular adenomas (FA)], 90 follicular TC (FTC) and 85 papillary TC (PTC). All genes were analyzed individually (Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests) and in combination (logistic regression models) to identify genes whose methylation levels might best separate groups.
RESULTS: Combination gene panels TPO and UCHL1 (ROC = 0.607, sensitivity 78%) discriminated FTC from FA, and RASSF1 and TPO (ROC = 0.881, sensitivity 78%) discriminated FTC from normal. Methylation of TSHR distinguished PTC from FTC (ROC = 0.701, sensitivity 84%) and PTC from FA (ROC = 0.685, sensitivity 70%). The six gene panel of TIMP3, RARB2, SERPINB5, RASSF1, TPO and TSHR, which differentiates PTC from normal thyroid, had the best combination sensitivity (91%) and specificity (81%) of the panels addressing discrimination of cancer tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant gene methylation used in combination panels may be useful clinically in differentiating FTC and PTC from benign nodules. If confirmed in additional studies, these findings could help reduce the over diagnosis of thyroid cancer and surgeries related to over diagnosis.

Mao Y, Shen J, Lu Y, et al.
RNA sequencing analyses reveal novel differentially expressed genes and pathways in pancreatic cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42537-42547 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene expression microarrays have identified many tumor markers and therapeutic targets for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, microarray profilings have limited sensitivity and are prone to cross-hybridization between homologous DNA fragments. Here, we perform a transcriptome analysis of paired tumor and adjacent benign pancreatic tissues from 10 patients who underwent resection for PDAC. We identify a total of 2736 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with false discovery rate less than 0.05, including 1554 upregulated, 1182 downregulated, and 6 microRNAs (miR-614, miR-217, miR-27b, miR-4451, miR-3609, and miR-612). Overexpression of five DEGs, i.e. KRT16, HOXA10, CDX1, SI, and SERPINB5 in tumors is confirmed by RT-PCR in 20 additional tissues. Overexpression of KRT16 in PDAC is also verified on protein level. In addition, top canonical pathways such as granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis pathway have been identified. Our study represents a comprehensive characterization of the PDAC transcriptome and provides insight to the mechanisms of pancreatic carcinogenesis and potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.

Zhu H, Mao Q, Liu W, et al.
Maspin suppresses growth, proliferation and invasion in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(5):2875-2882 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a common malignant tumor. Mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin), a member of serpin family, has been reported as a tumor suppressor in various carcinomas. In this study, we detected the expression level of Maspin in cSCC tissues by real-time PCR and western blotting, and found that Maspin was downregulated in the cSCC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, Maspin was stably overexpressed in A431 cells, and CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay, Hoechst staining and western blotting were carried out to detect the growth, proliferation, invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis of A431 cells. The results revealed that overexpression of Maspin inhibited growth, proliferation, invasion and cell cycle G1/S/G2 transition and enhanced apoptosis of A431 cells. The pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bax increased, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 decreased after Maspin overexpression. Therefore, we demonstrated that Maspin suppressed growth, proliferation and invasion by delaying cell cycle transition and promoting apoptosis in cSCC cells, which may provide new insights for the clinical diagnosis and therapy of cSCC.

Tsai HT, Hsieh MJ, Lin CW, et al.
Combinations of SERPINB5 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors are associated with oral cancer risks.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0163369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We identified rs17071138 T/C, rs3744941 C/T, and rs8089104 T/C gene polymorphisms of SERPINB5 (mammary serine protease inhibitor) that are specific to patients with oral cancer susceptibility and their clinicopathological status.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 1342 participants, including 601 healthy controls and 741 patients with oral cancer, were recruited for this study. Allelic discrimination of rs17071138 T/C, rs3744941 C/T, and rs8089104 T/C of the SERPINB5 gene was assessed by a real-time PCR with a TaqMan assay. We found that individuals carrying the polymorphic rs17071138 and rs8089104 are more susceptible to oral cancer (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07~2.31 and OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.04~2.39, respectively). Among oral cancer-related risk factor exposures, the individuals carrying the polymorphic rs17071138 had 4.26- (95% CI: 1.65~11.01; p = 0.002), 2.34- (95% CI: 1.19~4.61; p = 0.01), and 2.34-fold (95% CI: 1.38~3.96; p = 0.001) higher risks of developing oral cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygous TC of the SERPINB5 rs17071138 polymorphism may be a factor that increases susceptibility to oral cancer. Interactions of gene-to-gene and gene-to-oral cancer-related environmental risk factors have a synergetic effect that can further enhance oral cancer development.

Bernardo MM, Dzinic SH, Matta MJ, et al.
The Opportunity of Precision Medicine for Breast Cancer With Context-Sensitive Tumor Suppressor Maspin.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(7):1639-1647 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To improve the precision of molecular diagnosis and to develop and guide targeted therapies of breast cancer, it is essential to determine the mechanisms that underlie the specific tumor phenotypes. To this end, the application of a snapshot of gene expression profile for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis is fundamentally challenged since the tissue-based data are derived from heterogonous cell types and are not likely to reflect the dynamics of context-dependent tumor progression and drug sensitivity. The intricate network of epithelial differentiation program can be concertedly controlled by tumor suppressor maspin, a homologue of clade B serine protease inhibitors (serpin), through its multifaceted molecular interactions in multiple subcellular localizations. Unlike most other serpins that are expressed in multiple cell types, maspin is epithelial specific and has distinct roles in luminal and myoepithelial cells. Endogenously expressed maspin has been found in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and detected on the surface of cell membrane. It is also secreted free and as an exosomal cargo protein. Research in the field has led to the identification of the maspin targets and maspin-associated molecules, as well as the structural determinants of its suppressive functions. The current review discusses the possibility for maspin to serve as a cell type-specific and context-sensitive marker to improve the precision of breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. These advancements further suggest a new window of opportunity for designing novel maspin-based chemotherapeutic agents with improved anti-cancer potency. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1639-1647, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ribero S, Senetta R, Osella-Abate S, et al.
Prognostic role of maspin expression in melanoma: probably far from clinical use.
Histopathology. 2017; 71(1):158-162 [PubMed] Related Publications

Furuhata A, Minamiguchi S, Shirahase H, et al.
Immunohistochemical Antibody Panel for the Differential Diagnosis of Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma From Gastrointestinal Contamination and Benign Pancreatic Duct Epithelium in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration.
Pancreas. 2017; 46(4):531-538 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be challenging to distinguish tumor cells from benign epithelium (BE). The aim of the present study was to set a minimal antibody panel to differentiate PDAC from contaminated BE in EUS-FNA specimens.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using claudin 4, EZH2, Ki-67, maspin, p53, and S100P was performed on tissue microarray sections containing 53 PDACs and 33 BE as well as cell blocks of EUS-FNA including 53 PDACs and 22 BE. The positive rate was scored as 0 to 4+. The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine a cutoff point, and the Classification And Regression Trees method was used to obtain a classification tree of the best panel.
RESULTS: The cutoff point was 1+ for claudin 4, EZH2, Ki-67, p53, and S100P and 2+ for maspin. All BE scored 0 for p53. The classification tree revealed using p53, S100P, and claudin 4 was the most powerful. The sensitivity and specificity of the tree were 96.2% and 100% in tissue microarrays and 100% and 95.5% in EUS-FNA, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The classification tree using p53, S100P, and claudin 4 seems to successfully distinguish PDAC from the accompanying BE.

Kanzawa M, Sanuki T, Onodera M, et al.
Double immunostaining for maspin and p53 on cell blocks increases the diagnostic value of biliary brushing cytology.
Pathol Int. 2017; 67(2):91-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our objective is to elucidate the usefulness of maspin/p53 double immunostaining on biliary brushing cytology specimens. We first examined the expression of maspin in the biliary epithelium with variable degrees of dysplasia using surgically resected specimens (n = 56). Maspin appeared to be overexpressed in a stepwise manner from benign to malignant cholangiocytes: the reactive epithelium (20%), biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (~50%), and invasive cholangiocarcinomas (>90%). Next, an automated sequential double immunostaining protocol for maspin and p53 was applied to paraffin-embedded cell blocks of the biliary brushing cytology specimens obtained from 58 consecutive patients. Cell block preparation was successful in 44 cases (76%), which were morphologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (n = 16), atypical cells not diagnostic for malignancy (n = 10), and benign (n  = 18). Double positive cells were observed in 14/16 (88%) morphologically malignant, 6/10 (60%) borderline, and 0/18 benign cases. All 20 positive cases were proven to have pancreatobiliary malignancies by subsequent imaging or pathological analyses. A similar staining protocol for S100P and p53 was also applied to the same cohort; however, the positive frequency was slightly lower than those of maspin and p53 (36% vs. 45%). In conclusion, Maspin/p53 double immunostaining on cell blocks contributes to the detection of malignant cells in biliary brushing cytology specimens.

Uzozie AC, Selevsek N, Wahlander A, et al.
Targeted Proteomics for Multiplexed Verification of Markers of Colorectal Tumorigenesis.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2017; 16(3):407-427 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted proteomic methods can accelerate the verification of multiple tumor marker candidates in large series of patient samples. We utilized the targeted approach known as selected/multiple reaction monitoring (S/MRM) to verify potential protein markers of colorectal adenoma identified by our group in previous transcriptomic and quantitative shotgun proteomic studies of a large cohort of precancerous colorectal lesions. We developed SRM assays to reproducibly detect and quantify 25 (62.5%) of the 40 selected proteins in an independent series of precancerous and cancerous tissue samples (19 adenoma/normal mucosa pairs; 17 adenocarcinoma/normal mucosa pairs). Twenty-three proteins were significantly up-regulated (

Strien L, Joensuu K, Heikkilä P, Leidenius MH
Different Expression Patterns of CXCR4, CCR7, Maspin and FOXP3 in Luminal Breast Cancers and Their Sentinel Node Metastases.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):175-182 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Luminal A breast cancers (BC) represent low-risk tumors conferring better outcome than luminal B and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive or triple-negative tumors. One reason for the heterogeneous outcome among patients with luminal BC is the variation in cell proliferation. As chemokine receptors and tumor suppressors show potential for estimation of infiltration to regional lymph nodes, we aimed to compare differently sized sentinel node metastases with their primary tumors (PT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared 29 BCs of luminal subtype A and 23 of subtype B (Ki-67 cut off at 14%) by immunohistochemistry for the chemokine receptors C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), the tumor suppressor Maspin and the regulatory T-cell immunosuppressor forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) between PTs and their metastases of different size.
RESULTS: Expression of CXCR4 was low in luminal A type tumors, and CCR7 and FOXP3 expression were high in luminal B type cancer. CXCR4 expression significantly positively correlated with CCR7 both in PTs and metastases. Most Maspin-positive PTs became negative in the metastases. The PTs for all Maspin-positive metastases were luminal B type.
CONCLUSION: High CXCR4 expression in PTs was found to be associated with luminal A type tumor, suggesting more favorable outcome. In contrast, CCR7 and FOXP3 expressions in PTs represented luminal B tumors, pointing to more aggressive tumor behavior. Maspin expression did not differ between luminal types.

Dean I, Dzinic SH, Bernardo MM, et al.
The secretion and biological function of tumor suppressor maspin as an exosome cargo protein.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(5):8043-8056 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Maspin is an epithelial-specific tumor suppressor shown to exert its biological effects as an intracellular, cell membrane-associated, and secreted free molecule. A recent study suggests that upon DNA-damaging g-irradiation, tumor cells can secrete maspin as an exosome-associated protein. To date, the biological significance of exosomal secretion of maspin is unknown. The current study aims at addressing whether maspin is spontaneously secreted as an exosomal protein to regulate tumor/stromal interactions. We prepared exosomes along with cell extracts and vesicle-depleted conditioned media (VDCM) from normal epithelial (CRL2221, MCF-10A and BEAS-2B) and cancer (LNCaP, PC3 and SUM149) cell lines. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis revealed similar size distribution patterns and surface zeta potentials between the normal cells-derived and tumor cells-derived exosomes. Electron microscopy revealed that maspin was encapsulated by the exosomal membrane as a cargo protein. While western blotting revealed that the level of exosomal maspin from tumor cell lines was disproportionally lower relative to the levels of corresponding intracellular and VDCM maspin, as compared to that from normal cell lines, maspin knockdown in MCF-10A cells led to maspin-devoid exosomes, which exhibited significantly reduced suppressive effects on the chemotaxis activity of recipient NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. These data are the first to demonstrate the potential of maspin delivered by exosomes to block tumor-induced stromal response, and support the clinical application of exosomal maspin in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Leopizzi M, Cocchiola R, Milanetti E, et al.
IKKα inibition by a glucosamine derivative enhances Maspin expression in osteosarcoma cell line.
Chem Biol Interact. 2017; 262:19-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation has been associated to cancer development by the alteration of several inflammatory pathways, such as Nuclear Factor-κB pathway. In particular, IκB kinase α (IKKα), one of two catalytic subunit of IKK complex, has been described to be associated to cancer progression and metastasis in a number of cancers. The molecular mechanism by which IKKα affects cancer progression is not yet completely clarified, anyway an association between IKKα and the expression of Maspin (Mammary Serine Protease Inhibitor or SerpinB5), a tumor suppressor protein, has been described. IKKα shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus, and when is localized into the nuclei, IKKα regulates the expression of several genes, among them Maspin gene, whose expression is repressed by high amount of nuclear IKKα. Considering that high levels of Maspin have been associated with reduced metastatic progression, it could be hypothesized that the repression of IKKα nuclear translocation could be associated with the repression of metastatic phenotype. The present study is aimed to explore the ability of a glucosamine derivative, 2-(N-Carbobenzyloxy)l-phenylalanylamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucose (NCPA), synthesized in our laboratory, to stimulate the production of Maspin in an osteosarcoma cell line, 143B. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting experiments showed that NCPA is able to inhibit IKKα nuclear translocation, and to stimulate Maspin production. Moreover, in association with stimulation of Maspin production we found the decrease of β1 Integrin expression, the down-regulation of metalloproteases MMP-9 and MMP-13 production and cell migration inhibition. Taking in account that β1 Integrin and MMP-9 and -13 have been correlated with the invasiveness of osteosarcoma, considering that NCPA affects the invasiveness of 143B cell line, we suggest that this molecule could affect the osteosarcoma metastatic ability.

Tin SS, Wiwanitkit V
Expression of maspin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumor.
Indian J Dent Res. 2016 Jul-Aug; 27(4):451 [PubMed] Related Publications

Lee JC, Chiang KC, Feng TH, et al.
The Iron Chelator, Dp44mT, Effectively Inhibits Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy with a growing worldwide incidence and prevalence. The N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG) family of NDRG1, 2, 3, and mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) gene are well-known modulators in the neoplasia process. Current research has considered iron chelators as new anti-cancer agents; however, the anticancer activities of iron chelators and their target genes in OSCC have not been well investigated. We showed that iron chelators (Dp44mT, desferrioxamine (DFO), and deferasirox) all significantly inhibit SAS cell growth. Flow cytometry further indicated that Dp44mT inhibition of SAS cells growth was partly due to induction of G1 cell cycle arrest. Iron chelators enhanced expressions of NDRG1 and NDRG3 while repressing cyclin D1 expression in OSCC cells. The in vivo antitumor effect on OSCC and safety of Dp44mT were further confirmed through a xenograft animal model. The Dp44mT treatment also increased Maspin protein levels in SAS and OECM-1 cells. NDRG3 knockdown enhanced the growth of OECM-1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that NDRG3 is a tumor suppressor gene in OSCC cells, and Dp44mT could be a promising therapeutic agent for OSCC treatment.

Garcia-Bloj B, Moses C, Sgro A, et al.
Waking up dormant tumor suppressor genes with zinc fingers, TALEs and the CRISPR/dCas9 system.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(37):60535-60554 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a major role during carcinogenesis and regaining these dormant functions by engineering of sequence-specific epigenome editing tools offers a unique opportunity for targeted therapies. However, effectively normalizing the expression and regaining tumor suppressive functions of silenced TSGs by artificial transcription factors (ATFs) still remains a major challenge. Herein we describe novel combinatorial strategies for the potent reactivation of two class II TSGs, MASPIN and REPRIMO, in cell lines with varying epigenetic states, using the CRISPR/dCas9 associated system linked to a panel of effector domains (VP64, p300, VPR and SAM complex), as well as with protein-based ATFs, Zinc Fingers and TALEs. We found that co-delivery of multiple effector domains using a combination of CRISPR/dCas9 and TALEs or SAM complex maximized activation in highly methylated promoters. In particular, CRISPR/dCas9 VPR with SAM upregulated MASPIN mRNA (22,145-fold change) in H157 lung cancer cells, with accompanying re-expression of MASPIN protein, which led to a concomitant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death. Consistently, CRISPR/dCas9 VP64 with SAM upregulated REPRIMO (680-fold change), which led to phenotypic reprogramming in AGS gastric cancer cells. Altogether, our results outlined novel sequence-specific, combinatorial epigenome editing approaches to reactivate highly methylated TSGs as a promising therapy for cancer and other diseases.

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